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Sample records for life-cycle information system

  1. Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

  2. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  3. Digital Avionics Information System Preliminary Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis. Final Report (November 1974-May 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Gary K.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The results of a study to evaluate the potential life-cycle costs and cost savings that could be realized by applying the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept to future avionic systems were presented. The tasks evaluated included selection of program elements for costing, selection of DAIS installation potential, definition of a…

  4. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…

  5. Executive overview and introduction to the SMAP information system life-cycle and documentation standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the five volume set of Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards is provided with information on its use. The overview covers description, objectives, key definitions, structure and application of the standards, and document structure decisions. These standards were created to provide consistent NASA-wide structures for coordinating, controlling, and documenting the engineering of an information system (hardware, software, and operational procedures components) phase by phase.

  6. [A Medical Devices Management Information System Supporting Full Life-Cycle Process Management].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Medical equipments are essential supplies to carry out medical work. How to ensure the safety and reliability of the medical equipments in diagnosis, and reduce procurement and maintenance costs is a topic of concern to everyone. In this paper, product lifecycle management (PLM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are cited to establish a lifecycle management information system. Through integrative and analysis of the various stages of the relevant data in life-cycle, it can ensure safety and reliability of medical equipments in the operation and provide the convincing data for meticulous management. PMID:26665958

  7. [A Medical Devices Management Information System Supporting Full Life-Cycle Process Management].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Medical equipments are essential supplies to carry out medical work. How to ensure the safety and reliability of the medical equipments in diagnosis, and reduce procurement and maintenance costs is a topic of concern to everyone. In this paper, product lifecycle management (PLM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are cited to establish a lifecycle management information system. Through integrative and analysis of the various stages of the relevant data in life-cycle, it can ensure safety and reliability of medical equipments in the operation and provide the convincing data for meticulous management.

  8. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  9. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  10. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.J.; Shapiro, V.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  11. Life cycle optimization of building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Ayat; Norman, Bryan; Ries, Robert

    2008-02-01

    A life cycle optimization model intended to potentially reduce the environmental impacts of energy use in commercial buildings is presented. A combination of energy simulation, life cycle assessment, and operations research techniques are used to develop the model. In addition to conventional energy systems, such as the electric grid and a gas boiler, cogeneration systems which concurrently generate power and heat are investigated as an alternative source of energy. Cogeneration systems appeared to be an attractive alternative to conventional systems when considering life cycle environmental criteria. Internal combustion engine and microturbine (MT) cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 38% in global warming potential compared with conventional systems, while solid oxide fuel cell and MT cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 94% in tropospheric ozone precursor potential (TOPP). Results include a Pareto-optimal frontier between reducing costs and reducing the selected environmental indicators.

  12. Assurance specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the fourth of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well organized, easily used standard for assurance documentation for information systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes. The specifications are developed in conjunction with the corresponding management plans specifying the assurance activities to be performed.

  13. Management plan documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the second of five volumes of the Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well-organized, easily used standard for management plans used in acquiring, assuring, and developing information systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  14. Management control and status reports documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well organized, easily used standard for management control and status reports used in monitoring and controlling the management, development, and assurance of informations systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  15. Product specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the third of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards which present a well organized, easily used standard for providing technical information needed for developing information systems, components, and related processes. This volume states the Software Management and Assurance Program documentation standard for a product specification document and for data item descriptions. The framework can be applied to any NASA information system, software, hardware, operational procedures components, and related processes.

  16. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  18. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  19. Charting the Course: Life Cycle Management of Mars Mission Digital Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiz, Julie M.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the life cycle management of MER Project information. This process was an essential key to the successful launch of the MER Project rovers. Incorporating digital information archive requirements early in the project life cycle resulted in: Design of an information system that included archive metadata, Reduced the risk of information loss through in-process appraisal, Easier transfer of project information to institutional online archive and Project appreciation for preserving information for reuse by future projects

  20. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  1. Software and information life cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.; Eaton, S.; Joyce, S.; Kephart, E.; Thurston, I.; Schofield, J.; Knirk, D.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated Information Services (IIS) Center. Issue B describes all phases of the life cycle, with strong emphasis on the interweaving of the Analysis and Design phases. This Issue B supersedes Issue A, which concentrated on the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the deliverables, excerpted from the Network Database. Subsequent issues will further develop these life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The phases described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  2. Probabilistic Life Cycle Cost Model for Repairable System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, H. Y.; Osman, Sabtuni

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, Life cycle cost (LCC) has been predicted in a deterministic approach, however; this method is not capable to consider the uncertainties in the input variables. In this paper, a probabilistic approach using Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to estimate the LCC of repairable systems. The developed model could handle the uncertainties of input variables in the estimation of LCC. The numerical analysis shows that the acquisition and downtime cost could have a high effect towards the LCC compared to repair cost. The developed model could also provide more precise quantitative information for decision making process.

  3. Life-Cycle Costing for Training System Procurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Steve L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses annual cost and present worth methods as two basic ways of calculating life-cycle cost to make purchasing decisions when replacing training systems. A training cost analysis worksheet to aid in asking comprehensive questions about training costs as they currently exist is included. (MBR)

  4. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... comprehensive information collection will cover all aspects of an international organization's life-cycle with... International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously titled Export Assistance Center Internet Web... inclusive and flexible client life-cycle information collection. The proposed categories of questions...

  5. Life cycle assessment for sustainable metropolitan water systems planning.

    PubMed

    Lundie, Sven; Peters, Gregory M; Beavis, Paul C

    2004-07-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. Developing a life cycle assessment for a large water and wastewater system involves making methodological decisions about the level of detail which is retained through different stages of the process. In this article we discuss a methodology tailored to strategic planning needs which retains a high degree of model segmentation in order to enhance modeling of a large, complex system. This is illustrated by a case study of Sydney Water, which is Australia's largest water service provider. A prospective LCA was carried out to examine the potential environmental impacts of Sydney Water's total operations in the year 2021. To our knowledge this is the first study to create an LCA model of an integrated water and wastewater system with this degree of complexity. A "base case" system model was constructed to represent current operating assets as augmented and upgraded to 2021. The base case results provided a basis for the comparison of alternative future scenarios and for conclusions to be drawn regarding potential environmental improvements. The scenarios can be roughly classified in two categories: (1) options which improve the environmental performance across all impact categories and (2) options which improve one indicator and worsen others. Overall environmental improvements are achieved in all categories by the scenarios examining increased demand management, energy efficiency, energy generation, and additional energy recovery from biosolids. The scenarios which examined desalination of seawater and the upgrades of major coastal sewage treatment plants to secondary and tertiary treatment produced an improvement in one environmental indicator but deteriorations in all the other impact categories, indicating the environmental tradeoffs within the system. The desalination scenario produced a significant increase in greenhouse gas

  6. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  7. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  8. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

    Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

  9. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Loebl, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  10. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM)--Description. Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    The Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) described in this report is an interactive mathematical model with a built-in sensitivity analysis capability. It is a major component of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Model (LCCIM), which was developed as part of the DAIS advanced development program to be used to assess the potential impacts…

  11. A model for a knowledge-based system's life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has initiated a Committee on Standards for Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are the initial efforts of one of the working groups of that committee. The purpose here is to present a candidate model for the development life cycle of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The intent is for the model to be used by the Aerospace Community and eventually be evolved into a standard. The model is rooted in the evolutionary model, borrows from the spiral model, and is embedded in the standard Waterfall model for software development. Its intent is to satisfy the development of both stand-alone and embedded KBSs. The phases of the life cycle are detailed as are and the review points that constitute the key milestones throughout the development process. The applicability and strengths of the model are discussed along with areas needing further development and refinement by the aerospace community.

  12. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  13. Staffing of the Systems Development Life Cycle: An Empirical Study of Charitable Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) construct, which is used for development of management information systems, and analyzes the staffing composition of SDLC steps for nonprofit arts organizations including art museums and symphony orchestras. The use of outside help, in-house personnel, and volunteers is examined; and the influence…

  14. Life cycle assessment of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Hawkins, Troy R

    2014-04-01

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) systems. We also summarize the design aspects of DRWH and ARWH systems adapted to the Back Creek watershed, Virginia. The baseline design reveals that the pump and pumping electricity are the main components of DRWH and ARWH impacts. For nonpotable uses, the minimal design of DRWH (with shortened distribution distance and no pump) outperforms municipal drinking water in all environmental impact categories except ecotoxicity. The minimal design of ARWH outperforms well water in all impact categories. In terms of watershed sustainability, the two minimal designs reduced environmental impacts, from 58% to 78% energy use and 67% to 88% human health criteria pollutants, as well as avoiding up to 20% blue water (surface/groundwater) losses, compared to municipal drinking water and well water. We address potential environmental and human health impacts of urban and rural RWH systems in the region. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) model-based life cycle inventory data were used for this study.

  15. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process,'' issued 2006, with...

  16. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  17. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  18. Learning, Unlearning and Relearning--Knowledge Life Cycles in Library and Information Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Denise A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge life cycle is applied to two core capabilities of library and information science (LIS) education--teaching, and research and development. The knowledge claim validation, invalidation and integration steps of the knowledge life cycle are translated to learning, unlearning and relearning processes. Mixed methods are used to determine…

  19. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  20. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-08-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  2. Estimating the Life Cycle Cost of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A space system's Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes design and development, launch and emplacement, and operations and maintenance. Each of these cost factors is usually estimated separately. NASA uses three different parametric models for the design and development cost of crewed space systems; the commercial PRICE-H space hardware cost model, the NASA-Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), and the Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM). System mass is an important parameter in all three models. System mass also determines the launch and emplacement cost, which directly depends on the cost per kilogram to launch mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The launch and emplacement cost is the cost to launch to LEO the system itself and also the rockets, propellant, and lander needed to emplace it. The ratio of the total launch mass to payload mass depends on the mission scenario and destination. The operations and maintenance costs include any material and spares provided, the ground control crew, and sustaining engineering. The Mission Operations Cost Model (MOCM) estimates these costs as a percentage of the system development cost per year.

  3. [Integrated evaluation of circular agriculture system: a life cycle perspective].

    PubMed

    Liang, Long; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    For the point of view that recycling economy system is one of ways to achieve the low-carbon economy, we have made an evaluation on a typical circular agriculture duck industry in Hunan Province, China, through improving the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis indicated that the consumption of non-renewable resources, land and water were 48.629 MJ, 2.36 m2 and 1 321.41 kg, while the potential greenhouse gas (GHGs), acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity were 11 543.26 g (CO2 eq), 52.36g (SO2eq), 25.83g (PO4eq), 1.26, 60.74 and 24.65 g (1,4-DCBeq), respectively. The potential damage of aquatic eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity was more serious than that of GHGs. Main results were following: i. the circular agricultural chain promoted the principle of "moderate circulation", which based on the traditional production methods; ii. circular agriculture could not blindly pursue low carbon development. Instead, soil and biological carbon sequestration should be considered, in addition to reducing carbon emissions; iii. circular economy and circular agriculture should take other potential environmental impacts into account such as acidification, eutrophication and ecotoxicity,with the exception to carbon emissions,to developed integrated system assessment; iv. LCA could provide a comprehensive assessment of circular agriculture, and it was worth of further study.

  4. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  5. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  6. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  7. [Design of medical devices management system supporting full life-cycle process management].

    PubMed

    Su, Peng; Zhong, Jianping

    2014-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the present status of medical devices management, this paper optimized management process, developed a medical devices management system with Web technologies. With information technology to dynamic master the use of state of the entire life-cycle of medical devices. Through the closed-loop management with pre-event budget, mid-event control and after-event analysis, improved the delicacy management level of medical devices, optimized asset allocation, promoted positive operation of devices.

  8. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). PMID:25282088

  9. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts).

  10. Life Cycle Assessment modelling of stormwater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aisling D; Wicke, Daniel; Hengen, Tyler J; Sieverding, Heidi L; Stone, James J

    2015-02-01

    Stormwater treatment technologies to manage runoff during rain events are primarily designed to reduce flood risks, settle suspended solids and concurrently immobilise metals and nutrients. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is scarcely documented for stormwater systems despite their ubiquitous implementation. LCA modelling quantified the environmental impacts associated with the materials, construction, transport, operation and maintenance of different stormwater treatment systems. A pre-fabricated concrete vortex unit, a sub-surface sandfilter and a raingarden, all sized to treat a functional unit of 35 m(3) of stormwater runoff per event, were evaluated. Eighteen environmental mid-point metrics and three end-point 'damage assessment' metrics were quantified for each system's lifecycle. Climate change (kg CO2 eq.) dominated net environmental impacts, with smaller contributions from human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq.), particulate matter formation (kg PM10 eq.) and fossil depletion (kg oil eq.). The concrete unit had the highest environmental impact of which 45% was attributed to its maintenance while impacts from the sandfilters and raingardens were dominated by their bulky materials (57%) and transport (57%), respectively. On-site infiltrative raingardens, a component of green infrastructure (GI), had the lowest environmental impacts because they incurred lower maintenance and did not have any concrete which is high in embodied CO2. Smaller sized raingardens affording the same level of stormwater treatment had the lowest overall impacts reinforcing the principle that using fewer resources reduces environmental impacts. LCA modelling can serve as a guiding tool for practitioners making environmentally sustainable solutions for stormwater treatment. PMID:25463586

  11. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle... information collection will cover all aspects of a U.S. organization's life-cycle with CS. CS is mandated by... services and trade events to U.S. organizations. The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  13. System Life Cycle Evaluation(SM) (SLiCE): harmonizing water treatment systems with implementers' needs.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Joseph; Caravati, Kevin; Foote, Andrew; Nelson, Molly; Woods, Emily

    2013-06-01

    One of the methods proposed to improve access to clean drinking water is the mobile packaged water treatment system (MPWTS). The lack of published system performance comparisons combined with the diversity of technology available and intended operating conditions make it difficult for stakeholders to choose the system best suited for their application. MPWTS are often deployed in emergency situations, making selection of the appropriate system crucial to avoiding wasted resources and loss of life. Measurable critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) and a system selection tool for MPWTS were developed by utilizing relevant literature, including field studies, and implementing and comparing seven different MPWTS. The proposed System Life Cycle Evaluation (SLiCE) method uses these CTQs to evaluate the diversity in system performance and harmonize relevant performance with stakeholder preference via a selection tool. Agencies and field workers can use SLiCE results to inform and drive decision-making. The evaluation and selection tool also serves as a catalyst for communicating system performance, common design flaws, and stakeholder needs to system manufacturers. The SLiCE framework can be adopted into other emerging system technologies to communicate system performance over the life cycle of use.

  14. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways. PMID:21662987

  15. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  16. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and managing to reduce burdens in the sustainability of product systems. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods fail to integrate the multiple im...

  17. Advanced Information Technology in Simulation Based Life Cycle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.

    2003-01-01

    In this research a Collaborative Optimization (CO) approach for multidisciplinary systems design is used to develop a decision based design framework for non-deterministic optimization. To date CO strategies have been developed for use in application to deterministic systems design problems. In this research the decision based design (DBD) framework proposed by Hazelrigg is modified for use in a collaborative optimization framework. The Hazelrigg framework as originally proposed provides a single level optimization strategy that combines engineering decisions with business decisions in a single level optimization. By transforming this framework for use in collaborative optimization one can decompose the business and engineering decision making processes. In the new multilevel framework of Decision Based Collaborative Optimization (DBCO) the business decisions are made at the system level. These business decisions result in a set of engineering performance targets that disciplinary engineering design teams seek to satisfy as part of subspace optimizations. The Decision Based Collaborative Optimization framework more accurately models the existing relationship between business and engineering in multidisciplinary systems design.

  18. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits. PMID:20022351

  19. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of Waste Management Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes.

  20. Proceedings: 2003 Workshop on Life Cycle Management Planning for Systems, Structures, and Components

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-01

    These proceedings of the 2003 EPRI Life Cycle Management Workshop provide nuclear plant owners with an overview of the state of development of methods and tools for performing long-term planning for maintenance, aging management, and obsolescence management of systems, structures, and components important to a plant's long-term safety, power production, and value in a market-driven industry. The proceedings summarize the results of applying life cycle management at several plants.

  1. 77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of... comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1210, ``Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital... practices for developing software life-cycle processes for digital computers used in safety systems...

  2. Closing the data life cycle: using information management in macrosystems ecology research

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegg, Janine; Gries, Corinna; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bowen, Gabriel; Felzer, Benjamin; McIntyre, Nancy; Soranno, Patricia; Vanderbilt, Kristen; Weathers, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    An important goal of macrosystems ecology research is to advance understanding of ecological systems at both fine and broad temporal and spatial scales. Our premise in this paper is that such projects require information management that is integrated into projects from their inception. Such efforts will lead to improved communication and sharing of knowledge among diverse project participants, better science outcomes, and more open science. We promote "closing the data life cycle" by publishing well-documented data sets, which allows for re-use of data to answer new and different questions from the ones conceived by the original projects. The practice of documenting and submitting data sets to publicly accessible data repositories ensures that research results and data are accessible to and useable by other researchers, thus fostering open science. Ecologists are often not familiar with the information management tools and requirements to effectively preserve data, however, and receive little institutional or professional incentive to do so. This paper describes recommended steps to these ends, and gives examples from current macrosystem ecology projects of why information management is so critical to ensuring that scientific results can be both reproduced and data shared for future use.

  3. Life-cycle thinking and the LEED rating system: global perspective on building energy use and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2015-04-01

    This research investigates the relationship between energy use, geographic location, life cycle environmental impacts, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The researchers studied worldwide variations in building energy use and associated life cycle impacts in relation to the LEED rating systems. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a reference 43,000 ft(2) office building was developed and situated in 400 locations worldwide while making relevant changes to the energy model to meet reference codes, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Then life cycle environmental and human health impacts from the buildings' energy consumption were calculated. The results revealed considerable variations between sites in the U.S. and international locations (ranging from 394 ton CO2 equiv to 911 ton CO2 equiv, respectively). The variations indicate that location specific results, when paired with life cycle assessment, can be an effective means to achieve a better understanding of possible adverse environmental impacts as a result of building energy consumption in the context of green building rating systems. Looking at these factors in combination and using a systems approach may allow rating systems like LEED to continue to drive market transformation toward sustainable development, while taking into consideration both energy sources and building efficiency.

  4. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  5. Depression and the Family Life Cycle: Adjusting the System at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shean, Glenn

    This document uses family systems constructs to explain the onset and maintenance of clinical symptoms such as depression and their relation to life cycle issues among the elderly. The basic assumptions of family systems thinking about structure and function are summarized. Figures and tables are used to illustrate changing family circumstances…

  6. A macrophysical life cycle description for precipitating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evaristo, Raquel; Xie, Xinxin; Troemel, Silke; Diederich, Malte; Simon, Juergen; Simmer, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    The lack of understanding of cloud and precipitation processes is still the overarching problem of climate simulation, and prediction. The work presented is part of the HD(CP)2 project (High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Predictions) which aims at building a very high resolution model in order to evaluate and exploit regional hindcasts for the purpose of parameterization development. To this end, an observational object-based climatology for precipitation systems will be built, and shall later be compared with a twin model-based climatological data base for pseudo precipitation events within an event-based model validation approach. This is done by identifying internal structures, described by means of macrophysical descriptors used to characterize the temporal development of tracked rain events. 2 pre-requisites are necessary for this: 1) a tracking algorithm, and 2) 3D radar/satellite composite. Both prerequisites are ready to be used, and have already been applied to a few case studies. Some examples of these macrophysical descriptors are differential reflectivity columns, bright band fraction and trend, cloud top heights, the spatial extent of updrafts or downdrafts or the ice content. We will show one case study from August 5th 2012, when convective precipitation was observed simultaneously by the BOXPOL and JUXPOL X-band polarimetric radars. We will follow the main paths identified by the tracking algorithm during this event and identify in the 3D composite the descriptors that characterize precipitation development, their temporal evolution, and the different macrophysical processes that are ultimately related to the precipitation observed. In a later stage these observations will be compared to the results of hydrometeor classification algorithm, in order to link the macrophysical and microphysical aspects of the storm evolution. The detailed microphysical processes are the subject of a closely related work also presented in this

  7. Software and Information Life Cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization. Analysis and implementation phase adaptations of the Sandia software guidelines: Issue A, April 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.

    1995-07-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated information Services (IIS) Center. This issue A describes the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the analysis set deliverables. Subsequent issues will describe the other life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The analysis phase as described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  8. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document seeks to promote the reduction of environmental impacts and health risks through a systems approach to design. The approach is based on die product life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition and processing, manufacturing, use/service, resource recovery, an...

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  10. From Instructional Systems Design to Managing the Life Cycle of Knowledge in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a framework for managing the life cycle of knowledge in organizations. The framework emerges from years of work with the laboratories and facilities that are under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The article begins by describing the instructional systems design (ISD) process and how it is used to…

  11. Proceedings of 2001 Workshop on Life Cycle Management Planning for Systems, Structures, and Components

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    These proceedings provide nuclear plant owners with an overview of the state of development of methods and tools for performing long-term planning for maintenance, aging management, and obsolescence management of systems, structures, and components important to a plant's long-term safety, power production, and plant value. Results of applying life-cycle management (LCM) at four plants are summarized.

  12. Hazardous material life-cycle cost model. System user's guide. Version 1. 2. Final report, October 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, B.J.; Jaeger, J.A.; Hermansen, L.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Hazardous Material Life-Cycle Cost Model (HMLCCM) was developed to estimate the total life-cycle costs of using various hazardous materials in the construction, maintenance, and repair of U.S. naval systems and facilities. the model estimates those costs derived from the need to protect the health and safety of workplace personnel and the need to protect the environment. The purpose of this guide is to provide users with a detailed description of the system as well as the basic structure and features of the HMLCCM and instructions on how to use the system. This report is an updated version of the original user's guide. Changes include added functionality by including permissible exposure levels (portion of OSHA Z-Table) and on-line access to Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) based on the current Hazardous Information System (HMIS).

  13. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET

  14. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Cabral, M; da Cruz, N F; Simões, P; Marques, R C

    2014-09-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called "Baseline" scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called "Incineration" scenario) or to landfill ("Landfill" scenario). Overall, the results show that the "Baseline" scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  15. Systems Biology Approach to Model the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Carrea, Alejandra; Diambra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent advances in reprogramming cell phenotypes, many efforts have been dedicated to developing reverse engineering procedures for the identification of gene regulatory networks that emulate dynamical properties associated with the cell fates of a given biological system. In this work, we propose a systems biology approach for the reconstruction of the gene regulatory network underlying the dynamics of the Trypanosoma cruzi's life cycle. By means of an optimisation procedure, we embedded the steady state maintenance, and the known phenotypic transitions between these steady states in response to environmental cues, into the dynamics of a gene network model. In the resulting network architecture we identified a small subnetwork, formed by seven interconnected nodes, that controls the parasite's life cycle. The present approach could be useful for better understanding other single cell organisms with multiple developmental stages.

  16. Systems Biology Approach to Model the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Carrea, Alejandra; Diambra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent advances in reprogramming cell phenotypes, many efforts have been dedicated to developing reverse engineering procedures for the identification of gene regulatory networks that emulate dynamical properties associated with the cell fates of a given biological system. In this work, we propose a systems biology approach for the reconstruction of the gene regulatory network underlying the dynamics of the Trypanosoma cruzi's life cycle. By means of an optimisation procedure, we embedded the steady state maintenance, and the known phenotypic transitions between these steady states in response to environmental cues, into the dynamics of a gene network model. In the resulting network architecture we identified a small subnetwork, formed by seven interconnected nodes, that controls the parasite's life cycle. The present approach could be useful for better understanding other single cell organisms with multiple developmental stages. PMID:26752404

  17. Systems Biology Approach to Model the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Carrea, Alejandra; Diambra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent advances in reprogramming cell phenotypes, many efforts have been dedicated to developing reverse engineering procedures for the identification of gene regulatory networks that emulate dynamical properties associated with the cell fates of a given biological system. In this work, we propose a systems biology approach for the reconstruction of the gene regulatory network underlying the dynamics of the Trypanosoma cruzi’s life cycle. By means of an optimisation procedure, we embedded the steady state maintenance, and the known phenotypic transitions between these steady states in response to environmental cues, into the dynamics of a gene network model. In the resulting network architecture we identified a small subnetwork, formed by seven interconnected nodes, that controls the parasite’s life cycle. The present approach could be useful for better understanding other single cell organisms with multiple developmental stages. PMID:26752404

  18. Life Cycle Payback Estimates of Nanosilver Enabled Textiles under Different Silver Loading, Release, And Laundering Scenarios Informed by Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Andrea L; Gilbertson, Leanne M; Yamani, Jamila S; Theis, Thomas L; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2015-07-01

    Silver was utilized throughout history to prevent the growth of bacteria in food and wounds. Recently, nanoscale silver has been applied to consumer textiles (nAg-textiles) to eliminate the prevalence of odor-causing bacteria. In turn, it is proposed that consumers will launder these items less frequently thus, reducing the life cycle impacts. While previous studies report that laundering processes are associated with the greatest environmental impacts of these textiles, there is no data available to support the proposed shift in consumer laundering behavior. Here, the results from a comprehensive literature review of nAg-textile life cycle studies are used to inform a cradle-to-grave life cycle impact assessment. Rather than assuming shifts in consumer behavior, the impact assessment is conducted in such a way that considers all laundering scenarios to elucidate the potential for reduced laundering to enable realization of a net life cycle benefit. In addition to identifying the most impactful stages of the life cycle across nine-midpoint categories, a payback period and uncertainty analysis quantifies the reduction in lifetime launderings required to recover the impacts associated with nanoenabling the textile. Reduction of nAg-textile life cycle impacts is not straightforward and depends on the impact category considered.

  19. Expanding uses of building information modeling in life-cycle construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hannele, Kerosuo; Reijo, Miettinen; Tarja, Mäki; Sami, Paavola; Jenni, Korpela; Teija, Rantala

    2012-01-01

    BIM is targeted at providing information about the entire building and a complete set of design documents and data stored in an integrated database. In this paper, we study the use of BIM in two life-cycle construction projects in Kuopio, Finland during 2011. The analysis of uses of BIM and their main problems will constitute a foundation for an intervention. We will focus on the following questions: (1) How different partners use the composite BIM model? (2) What are the major contradictions or problems in the BIM use? The preliminary findings reported in this study show that BIM has been adopted quite generally to design use but the old ways of collaboration seem to prevail, especially between designers and between designers and building sites. BIM has provided new means and demands for collaboration but expansive uses of BIM for providing new interactive processes across professional fields have not much come true.

  20. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  2. An analytical framework for determining life cycle cost implications of the advanced launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, William K.

    1988-12-01

    The product of this research effort was a simplified cost analysis tool that can be used to determine life cycle costs for the Advanced Launch System. The major objective was to develop a tool that would allow quick analysis of proposals and provide data input in a timely fashion. This effort produced a core program that can be used to determine life cycle costs as a function of system components, production infrastructures, reliability assumptions and flexible mission models. The life cycle cost model can operate in either a deterministic or stochastic mode depending on user inputs. An additional effort modeled the production infrastructure using a network flow system. This system modeled the flow of the basic vehicle components from initial production through final launch. The analysis tool uses a commercially available spreadsheet package available for most personal computers. The analyst using this program operates in a user-friendly environment that simplifies data input and problem formulation. The user has a wide variety of output formats and graphics options that simplify report generation.

  3. Proceedings: 2002 Workshop on Life Cycle Management Planning for Systems, Structures, and Components

    SciTech Connect

    2002-10-01

    These proceedings provide nuclear plant owners with an overview of the state of development of methods and tools for performing long-term planning for maintenance, aging management, and obsolescence management of systems, structures, and components important to a plant's long-term safety, power production, and value in a market-driven industry. Results of applying life cycle management (LCM) at several plants are summarized.

  4. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis reveals specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.

  5. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS.

  7. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS. PMID:25839834

  8. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  9. LCACCESS: AN ON-LINE DIRECTORY FOR GLOBAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INFORMATION AND DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating environmental impacts holistically from raw material acquisition, through manufacture, use and disposal using a life cycle perspective is continually being viewed by environmental managers and decision-makers as an important element in achieving environmental sustainab...

  10. A comparative life cycle assessment of material handling systems for sustainable mining.

    PubMed

    Erkayaoğlu, M; Demirel, N

    2016-06-01

    In this comprehensive LCA comparison study, main objectives are to investigate life cycle environmental impacts of off-highway mining trucks and belt conveyors in surface mining. The research methodology essentially entails determination of the functional unit as 20,000 tons/day coal production transported for 5 km distance. After the system boundary was selected as the entire life cycle of material handling systems including pre-manufacturing of steel parts and plastic components, manufacturing, transportation, and utilization data was compiled from equipment manufacturers and the Eco-invent database. Life cycle impact categories for both material-handling systems were identified and the developed model was implemented using SIMAPRO 7.3. Climate change and acidification were selected as major impact categories as they were considered to be major concerns in mining industry. Although manufacturing stage had a significant impact on all of the environmental parameters, utilization stage was the hotspot for the selected impact categories. The results of this study revealed that belt conveyors have a greater environmental burden in climate change impact category when compared to the trucks. On the other hand, trucks have a greater environmental burden in acidification impact category when compared to the belt conveyors. This study implied that technological improvement in fuel combustion and electricity generation is crucial for the improvement of environmental profiles of off-highway trucks and belt conveyors in the mining industry. The main novelty of this study is that it is the first initiative in applying LCA in the Turkish mining industry. PMID:26986638

  11. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project

  12. Benchmarking the environmental performance of the Jatropha biodiesel system through a generic life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    J, Almeida; W M J, Achten; M P, Duarte; B, Mendes; B, Muys

    2011-06-15

    In addition to available country or site-specific life cycle studies on Jatropha biodiesel we present a generic, location-independent life cycle assessment and provide a general but in-depth analysis of the environmental performance of Jatropha biodiesel for transportation. Additionally, we assess the influence of changes in byproduct use and production chain. In our assessments, we went beyond the impact on energy requirement and global warming by including impacts on ozone layer and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication. The basic Jatropha biodiesel system consumes eight times less nonrenewable energy than conventional diesel and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 51%. This result coincides with the lower limit of the range of reduction percentages available in literature for this system and for other liquid biofuels. The impact on the ozone layer is also lower than that provoked by fossil diesel, although eutrophication and acidification increase eight times. This study investigates the general impact trends of the Jatropha system, although not considering land-use change. The results are useful as a benchmark against which other biodiesel systems can be evaluated, to calculate repayment times for land-use change induced carbon loss or as guideline with default values for assessing the environmental performance of specific variants of the system.

  13. Benchmarking the environmental performance of the Jatropha biodiesel system through a generic life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    J, Almeida; W M J, Achten; M P, Duarte; B, Mendes; B, Muys

    2011-06-15

    In addition to available country or site-specific life cycle studies on Jatropha biodiesel we present a generic, location-independent life cycle assessment and provide a general but in-depth analysis of the environmental performance of Jatropha biodiesel for transportation. Additionally, we assess the influence of changes in byproduct use and production chain. In our assessments, we went beyond the impact on energy requirement and global warming by including impacts on ozone layer and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication. The basic Jatropha biodiesel system consumes eight times less nonrenewable energy than conventional diesel and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 51%. This result coincides with the lower limit of the range of reduction percentages available in literature for this system and for other liquid biofuels. The impact on the ozone layer is also lower than that provoked by fossil diesel, although eutrophication and acidification increase eight times. This study investigates the general impact trends of the Jatropha system, although not considering land-use change. The results are useful as a benchmark against which other biodiesel systems can be evaluated, to calculate repayment times for land-use change induced carbon loss or as guideline with default values for assessing the environmental performance of specific variants of the system. PMID:21591673

  14. Life cycle assessment of water reuse systems in an industrial park.

    PubMed

    Tong, Le; Liu, Xin; Liu, Xuewei; Yuan, Zengwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-11-15

    The rapid development of industrial parks in China has resulted in large resource consumption and pollutant emissions, especially freshwater use and wastewater discharge. Water reuse has attracted much attention from governments because of its potential to conserve freshwater and reduce pollutant emissions. However, water reuse usually means adding advanced treatment which consumes chemicals, materials and energy. Is the water reuse beneficial for the environment from a life cycle perspective? To answer this question, we quantified the environmental impacts of reusing treated wastewater at industrial parks under different scenarios through a comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four scenarios are assessed: wastewater is treated and discharged, 20% and 99% of wastewater is treated and reused as industrial process water, and treated wastewater is used for horticulture. Inventory data were mainly obtained from a facility which manages the wastewater treatment and reuse system of an industrial park in Jiangsu Province. Environmental impacts were evaluated using the CML2001 method built into the GaBi version 4.3 database. The results show the water reuse is beneficial and the reuse rate significantly affects environmental performance of the system. It is also found that using the reclaimed water for higher value applications results in larger environmental credit. Decision makers in water management should consider both water quantity and quality and associated environmental impacts for different water reuse applications.

  15. Studying the effect on system preference by varying coproduct allocation in creating life-cycle inventory.

    PubMed

    Curran, Mary Ann

    2007-10-15

    How one models the input and output data for a life-cycle assessment (LCA) can greatly affect the results. Although much attention has been paid to allocation methodology by researchers in the field, specific guidance is still lacking: Earlier research focused on the effects of applying various allocation schemes to industrial processes when creating life-cycle inventories. To determine the impact of different allocation approaches upon product choice, this study evaluated the gas- and water-phase emissions during the production, distribution, and use of three hypothetical fuel systems (data that represent conventional gasoline and gasoline with 8.7 and 85% ethanol were used as the basis for modeling). This paper presents an explanation of the allocation issue and the results from testing various allocation schemes (weight, volume, market value, energy, and demand-based) when viewed across the entire system. Impact indicators for global warming, ozone depletion, and human health noncancer (water impact) were lower for the ethanol-containing fuels, while impact indicators for acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, human health criteria, and photochemical smog were lower for conventional gasoline (impacts for the water-related human health cancer category showed mixed results). The relative ranking of conventional gasoline in relation to the ethanol-containing fuels was consistent in all instances, suggesting that, in this case study, the choice of allocation methodology had no impact on indicating which fuel has lower environmental impacts.

  16. Studying the effect on system preference by varying coproduct allocation in creating life-cycle inventory.

    PubMed

    Curran, Mary Ann

    2007-10-15

    How one models the input and output data for a life-cycle assessment (LCA) can greatly affect the results. Although much attention has been paid to allocation methodology by researchers in the field, specific guidance is still lacking: Earlier research focused on the effects of applying various allocation schemes to industrial processes when creating life-cycle inventories. To determine the impact of different allocation approaches upon product choice, this study evaluated the gas- and water-phase emissions during the production, distribution, and use of three hypothetical fuel systems (data that represent conventional gasoline and gasoline with 8.7 and 85% ethanol were used as the basis for modeling). This paper presents an explanation of the allocation issue and the results from testing various allocation schemes (weight, volume, market value, energy, and demand-based) when viewed across the entire system. Impact indicators for global warming, ozone depletion, and human health noncancer (water impact) were lower for the ethanol-containing fuels, while impact indicators for acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, human health criteria, and photochemical smog were lower for conventional gasoline (impacts for the water-related human health cancer category showed mixed results). The relative ranking of conventional gasoline in relation to the ethanol-containing fuels was consistent in all instances, suggesting that, in this case study, the choice of allocation methodology had no impact on indicating which fuel has lower environmental impacts. PMID:17993161

  17. LCACCESS: A U.S. EPA-SPONSORED WEBSITE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development has initiated a project with the aim of encouraging and supporting the use of life cycle assessments (LCA's) in environmental management. While LCA is being recognized internationally as an appropriate tool for dealing with environmen...

  18. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  19. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  20. Life cycle assessment on microalgal biodiesel production using a hybrid cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Victoria O; Cadena, Erasmo; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G

    2014-07-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a putative biodiesel production plant in which the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris, was grown using an existing system similar to a published commercial-scale hybrid cultivation. The hybrid system couples airlift tubular photobioreactors with raceway ponds in a two-stage process for high biomass growth and lipid accumulation. The results show that microalgal biodiesel production would have a significantly lower environmental impact than fossil-derived diesel. Based on the functional unit of 1 ton of biodiesel produced, the hybrid cultivation system and hypothetical downstream process (base case) would have 42% and 38% savings in global warming potential (GWP) and fossil-energy requirements (FER) when compared to fossil-derived diesel, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential process parameters on the LCA results. The maximum reduction in GWP and FER was observed under mixotrophic growth conditions with savings of 76% and 75% when compared to conventional diesel, respectively.

  1. An Integrated Approach to Life Cycle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chytka, T. M.; Brown, R. W.; Shih, A. T.; Reeves, J. D.; Dempsey, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is the evaluation of the impacts that design decisions have on a system and provides a framework for identifying and evaluating design benefits and burdens associated with the life cycles of space transportation systems from a "cradle-to-grave" approach. Sometimes called life cycle assessment, life cycle approach, or "cradle to grave analysis", it represents a rapidly emerging family of tools and techniques designed to be a decision support methodology and aid in the development of sustainable systems. The implementation of a Life Cycle Analysis can vary and may take many forms; from global system-level uncertainty-centered analysis to the assessment of individualized discriminatory metrics. This paper will focus on a proven LCA methodology developed by the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify and assess key LCA discriminatory metrics, in particular affordability, reliability, maintainability, and operability. This paper will address issues inherent in Life Cycle Analysis including direct impacts, such as system development cost and crew safety, as well as indirect impacts, which often take the form of coupled metrics (i.e., the cost of system unreliability). Since LCA deals with the analysis of space vehicle system conceptual designs, it is imperative to stress that the goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but, rather, to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process, allowing the managers to make risk-informed decisions, and increase the likelihood of meeting mission success criteria.

  2. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. PMID:24138886

  3. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  4. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  6. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method. PMID:26935857

  7. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method.

  8. Comparative evaluation of biomass power generation systems in China using hybrid life cycle inventory analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  9. Comparative evaluation of biomass power generation systems in China using hybrid life cycle inventory analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  10. Life Cycle of Deep Convective Systems in a Lagrangian Framework: from Mid-latitude to Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.; McFarlane, S. A.; Hagos, S. M.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Kennedy, A. D.; Lin, B.; Minnis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) produce heavy rainfall and large cirrus anvil cloud shields, and they play an important role in the climate system through their impact on the general circulation and cloud radiative feedback. To improve understanding of the life cycle of DCSs, a Lagrangian framework is used to investigate DCSs in the mid-latitudes and the tropics. An automated cloud tracking method is used in conjunction with a multi-sensor hybrid classification to analyze the evolution of DCS structure over the central United States. Composite analysis from 4221 tracked DCSs during two warm seasons shows that stratiform anvil clouds lag behind peak convective intensity and the lag increases linearly from 1-hour for short-lived systems to more than 3-hours for long-lived ones. Longer-lasting systems are associated with up to 60% higher mid-tropospheric relative humidity and up to 40% stronger deep layer wind shear. Areal coverage of anvil clouds is strongly correlated with the size and intensity of convection. Ambient upper tropospheric wind speed and shear also contribute to convective anvil production; for systems with large anvil clouds they are 24% and 20% higher, respectively, than those with small anvil clouds. This Lagrangian framework is then applied to evaluate high-resolution simulations by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in the tropical western Pacific. Comparisons from over 50,000 tracked DCSs show that in general, WRF reproduces many satellite observed statistics, but simulated DCSs have shorter lifetimes, grow taller, and their cloud area is smaller due to lack of anvil clouds. Diurnal cycles of DCSs over land agree well with observations. Over the ocean, peak convective activity occurs later and the duration is shorter. For systems with the same lifetime, DCSs over land are initially stronger than over the ocean, although the differences in WRF are smaller than observed. Impacts of the cloud microphysics scheme on DCS life cycle are

  11. A comprehensive methodology for intelligent systems life-cycle cost modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David J.; Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    As NASA moves into the last part on the twentieth century, the desire to do 'business as usual' has been replaced with the mantra 'faster, cheaper, better'. Recently, new work has been done to show how the implementation of advanced technologies, such as intelligent systems, will impact the cost of a system design or in the operational cost for a spacecraft mission. The impact of the degree of autonomous or intelligent systems and human participation on a given program is manifested most significantly during the program operational phases, while the decision of who performs what tasks, and how much automation is incorporated into the system are all made during the design and development phases. Employing intelligent systems and automation is not an either/or question, but one of degree. The question is what level of automation and autonomy will provide the optimal trade-off between performance and cost. Conventional costing methodologies, however, are unable to show the significance of technologies like these in terms of traceable cost benefits and reductions in the various phases of the spacecraft's lifecycle. The proposed comprehensive life-cycle methodology can address intelligent system technologies as well as others that impact human-machine operational modes.

  12. WaLA, a versatile model for the life cycle assessment of urban water systems: Formalism and framework for a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on the sustainable urban water management has increased over the last decades. In this context decision makers need tools to measure and improve the environmental performance of urban water systems (UWS) and their related scenarios. In this paper, we propose a versatile model, named WaLA (Water system Life cycle Assessment), which reduces the complexity of the UWS while ensuring a good representation of water issues and fulfilling life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements. Indeed, LCAs require building UWS models, which can be tedious if several scenarios are to be compared. The WaLA model is based on a framework that uses a "generic component" representing alternately water technology units and water users, with their associated water flows, and the associated impacts due to water deprivation, emissions, operation and infrastructure. UWS scenarios can be built by inter-operating and connecting the technologies and users components in a modular and integrated way. The model calculates life cycle impacts at a monthly temporal resolution for a set of services provided to users, as defined by the scenario. It also provides the ratio of impacts to amount of services provided and useful information for UWS diagnosis or comparison of different scenarios. The model is implemented in a Matlab/Simulink interface thanks to object-oriented programming. The applicability of the model is demonstrated using a virtual case study based on available life cycle inventory data.

  13. WaLA, a versatile model for the life cycle assessment of urban water systems: Formalism and framework for a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on the sustainable urban water management has increased over the last decades. In this context decision makers need tools to measure and improve the environmental performance of urban water systems (UWS) and their related scenarios. In this paper, we propose a versatile model, named WaLA (Water system Life cycle Assessment), which reduces the complexity of the UWS while ensuring a good representation of water issues and fulfilling life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements. Indeed, LCAs require building UWS models, which can be tedious if several scenarios are to be compared. The WaLA model is based on a framework that uses a "generic component" representing alternately water technology units and water users, with their associated water flows, and the associated impacts due to water deprivation, emissions, operation and infrastructure. UWS scenarios can be built by inter-operating and connecting the technologies and users components in a modular and integrated way. The model calculates life cycle impacts at a monthly temporal resolution for a set of services provided to users, as defined by the scenario. It also provides the ratio of impacts to amount of services provided and useful information for UWS diagnosis or comparison of different scenarios. The model is implemented in a Matlab/Simulink interface thanks to object-oriented programming. The applicability of the model is demonstrated using a virtual case study based on available life cycle inventory data. PMID:26474151

  14. Body-in-white material systems: A life-cycle cost comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieffenbach, Jeff R.; Mascarin, Anthony E.

    1993-06-01

    To be competitive in the global automobile industry, it is no longer enough to understand manufacturing cost alone. The growing emphasis on environmental impact has forced life-cycle cost issues to the forefront. This article defines the life cycle of automotive structures and exterior panels—the body-in-white—to include manufacturing, operation, and post-use. These body-in-white life-cycle costs are assessed for a midsize, four-door sedan using an implementation of a technique called technical cost modeling. This article describes the life-cycle cost-assessment methodology and applies it for alternative body-in-white structure and exterior panel materials. These include steel stampings; aluminum stampings, extrusions, and castings; and resin/glass composite and thermoplastic moldings. The life-cycle costs are presented and analyzed for varying manufacturing scenarios. Although life-cycle costs currently do not drive the decision-making process in the automotive industries, legislative and consumer pressures could one day give them added weight.

  15. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  16. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection. PMID:19470539

  17. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  18. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  19. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  20. Developing nervous systems in molluscs: navigating the twists and turns of a complex life cycle.

    PubMed

    Croll, Roger P

    2009-01-01

    Molluscs constitute a richly diversified phylum, containing abundant species that have successfully invaded a variety of habitats. Despite the long-standing importance of its various members as model species for neurobiology, research on the development of the molluscan nervous system has lagged behind that on several other phyla. Recent studies, however, have begun to sketch an overview of neural development during the complex life cycles of these animals, involving multiple larval and postlarval stages and often including processes of torsion and occasionally detorsion affecting the entire body plan. The first neurons appear early in life and innervate a variety of larval organs. The central and peripheral neurons that comprise the adult nervous system generally appear later in larval life. Metamorphosis involves the loss of many neurons and the gain of others, and yet more neurons change to accommodate transitions in modes of locomotion, feeding and habitat. But such large-scale transitions do not stop at metamorphosis as massive changes in body size and behavior occur during juvenile and adult stages, and the nervous system must change accordingly to meet the demands of expanding target tissues and the need to generate new behaviors. Work over the years has gradually revealed some of the genes important in molluscan neural development, but recent whole-genome, EST and microarray projects are now allowing much more rapid progress and providing a valuable molluscan perspective for understanding broader issues concerning the evolution of the nervous system across the animal kingdom.

  1. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system. PMID:26218291

  2. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  3. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  4. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  5. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  6. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  7. Pyrolysis biochar systems for recovering biodegradable materials: A life cycle carbon assessment.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola, Rodrigo; Shackley, Simon; Hammond, James

    2012-05-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) focused on biochar and bioenergy generation was performed for three thermal treatment configurations (slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis and gasification). Ten UK biodegradable wastes or residues were considered as feedstocks in this study. Carbon (equivalent) abatement (CA) and electricity production indicators were calculated. Slow pyrolysis systems offer the best performance in terms of CA, with net results varying from 0.07 to 1.25tonnes of CO(2)eq.t(-1) of feedstock treated. On the other hand, gasification achieves the best electricity generation outputs, with results varying around 0.9MWhet(-1) of feedstock. Moreover, selection of a common waste treatment practice as the reference scenario in an LCA has to be undertaken carefully as this will have a key influence upon the CA performance of pyrolysis or gasification biochar systems (P/GBS). Results suggest that P/GBS could produce important environmental benefits in terms of CA, but several potential pollution issues arising from contaminants in the biochar have to be addressed before biochar and bioenergy production from biodegradable waste can become common practice.

  8. Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Pei; Williams, Eric D

    2010-10-15

    This paper advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic systems by expanding the boundary of the included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of embodied energy and carbon emissions. Hybrid LCA is an extended method that combines bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) methods. In 2007, the embodied energy was 4354 MJ/m(2) and the energy payback time (EPBT) was 2.2 years for a multicrystalline silicon PV system under 1700 kWh/m(2)/yr of solar radiation. These results are higher than those of process-sum LCA by approximately 60%, indicating that processes excluded in process-sum LCA, such as transportation, are significant. Even though PV is a low-carbon technology, the difference between hybrid and process-sum results for 10% penetration of PV in the U.S. electrical grid is 0.13% of total current grid emissions. Extending LCA from the process-sum to hybrid analysis makes a significant difference. Dynamics are characterized through a retrospective analysis and future outlook for PV manufacturing from 2001 to 2011. During this decade, the embodied carbon fell substantially, from 60 g CO(2)/kWh in 2001 to 21 g/kWh in 2011, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in embodied environmental impacts as well as lower module price.

  9. Model systems to study the life cycle of human papillomaviruses and HPV-associated cancers.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louise T

    2015-04-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect either cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Active Infections lead to epithelial hyperprolifeation and are usually cleared in healthy individuals within a year. Persistent infections in the anogenital tracts by certain high-risk genotypes such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and closely related types, can progress to high grade dysplasias and carcinomas in women and men, including cervical, vulva, penile and anal cancers. A significant fraction of the head and neck cancers are also caused by HPV-16. The viral oncogenes responsible for neoplastic conversion are E6 and E7 that disrupt the pathways controlled by the two major tumor suppressor genes, p53 and members of pRB family. Because HPV cannot be propagated in conventional submerged monolayer cell cultures, organotypic epithelial raft cultures that generate a stratified and differentiated epithelium have been used to study the viral life cycle. This article describes several systems to examine aspects of the viral productive phase, along with the advantages and limitations. Animal model systems of HPV carcinogenesis are also briefly described.

  10. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model.

  11. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model. PMID:24291626

  12. Life cycle sustainability of solid oxide fuel cells: From methodological aspects to system implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmeti, Andi; McPhail, Stephen J.; Pumiglia, Davide; Carlini, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    This study reviews the status of life cycle assessment (LCA) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and methodological aspects, communicates SOFC environmental performance, and compares the environmental performance with competing power production technologies using a life cycle perspective. Results indicate that power generation using SOFCs can make a significant contribution to the aspired-to greener energy future. Despite superior environmental performance, empirical studies indicate that economic performance is predominantly the highest-ranked criterion in the decision making process. Future LCA studies should attempt to employ comprehensive dynamic multi-criteria environmental impact analysis coupled with economic aspects, to allow a robust comparison of results. A methodology framework is proposed to achieve simultaneously ambitious socio-economic and environmental objectives considering all life cycle stages and their impacts.

  13. Life cycle assessment of biochar systems: estimating the energetic, economic, and climate change potential.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kelli G; Gloy, Brent A; Joseph, Stephen; Scott, Norman R; Lehmann, Johannes

    2010-01-15

    Biomass pyrolysis with biochar returned to soil is a possible strategy for climate change mitigation and reducing fossil fuel consumption. Pyrolysis with biochar applied to soils results in four coproducts: long-term carbon (C) sequestration from stable C in the biochar, renewable energy generation, biochar as a soil amendment, and biomass waste management. Life cycle assessment was used to estimate the energy and climate change impacts and the economics of biochar systems. The feedstocks analyzed represent agricultural residues (corn stover), yard waste, and switchgrass energy crops. The net energy of the system is greatest with switchgrass (4899 MJ t(-1) dry feedstock). The net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for both stover and yard waste are negative, at -864 and -885 kg CO(2) equivalent (CO(2)e) emissions reductions per tonne dry feedstock, respectively. Of these total reductions, 62-66% are realized from C sequestration in the biochar. The switchgrass biochar-pyrolysis system can be a net GHG emitter (+36 kg CO(2)e t(-1) dry feedstock), depending on the accounting method for indirect land-use change impacts. The economic viability of the pyrolysis-biochar system is largely dependent on the costs of feedstock production, pyrolysis, and the value of C offsets. Biomass sources that have a need for waste management such as yard waste have the highest potential for economic profitability (+$69 t(-1) dry feedstock when CO(2)e emission reductions are valued at $80 t(-1) CO(2)e). The transportation distance for feedstock creates a significant hurdle to the economic profitability of biochar-pyrolysis systems. Biochar may at present only deliver climate change mitigation benefits and be financially viable as a distributed system using waste biomass.

  14. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Su, Yujing; Li, Li; Hou, Jie; Wu, Ning; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, MC-LR reproductive toxicity drew great attention. Limited information was available on endocrine-disrupting effects of MC-LR on the reproduction system in fish. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Male zebrafish were selected, and changes in growth and developmental parameters, testicular histological structure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones were studied along with the related-gene transcriptional responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis). The results, for the first time, show a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes growth inhibition, testicular damage and delayed sperm maturation. A significant decrease in T/E2 ratio indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormones balance. The changes in transcriptional responses of HPG-axis related genes revealed that MC-LR promoted the conversion of T to E2 in circulating blood. It was also noted that vtg1 mRNA expression in the liver was up-regulated, which implied that MC-LR could induce estrogenic-like effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and long-term exposure. Our findings indicated that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes endocrine disruption with organic and functional damage of the testis, which might compromise the quality of life for the survivors and pose a potent threat on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environments. PMID:27060240

  15. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Su, Yujing; Li, Li; Hou, Jie; Wu, Ning; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, MC-LR reproductive toxicity drew great attention. Limited information was available on endocrine-disrupting effects of MC-LR on the reproduction system in fish. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Male zebrafish were selected, and changes in growth and developmental parameters, testicular histological structure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones were studied along with the related-gene transcriptional responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis). The results, for the first time, show a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes growth inhibition, testicular damage and delayed sperm maturation. A significant decrease in T/E2 ratio indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormones balance. The changes in transcriptional responses of HPG-axis related genes revealed that MC-LR promoted the conversion of T to E2 in circulating blood. It was also noted that vtg1 mRNA expression in the liver was up-regulated, which implied that MC-LR could induce estrogenic-like effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and long-term exposure. Our findings indicated that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes endocrine disruption with organic and functional damage of the testis, which might compromise the quality of life for the survivors and pose a potent threat on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environments.

  16. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems.

  17. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems. PMID:23856224

  18. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective of the study reported was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given: a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel/motel; remote residence; and single residence. (LEW)

  19. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given is a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel-motel; remote residence; and single residence.

  20. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul R; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2007-04-01

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset carbon dioxide emissions by converting atmospheric CO2 to organic C in crop biomass and soil, but they also emit nitrous oxide and vary in their effects on soil oxidation of methane. Growing the crops requires energy (e.g., to operate farm machinery, produce inputs such as fertilizer) and so does converting the harvested product to usable fuels (feedstock conversion efficiency). The objective of this study was to quantify all these factors to determine the net effect of several bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. We used the DAYCENT biogeochemistry model to assess soil GHG fluxes and biomass yields for corn, soybean, alfalfa, hybrid poplar, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass as bioenergy crops in Pennsylvania, USA. DAYCENT results were combined with estimates of fossil fuels used to provide farm inputs and operate agricultural machinery and fossil-fuel offsets from biomass yields to calculate net GHG fluxes for each cropping system considered. Displaced fossil fuel was the largest GHG sink, followed by soil carbon sequestration. N20 emissions were the largest GHG source. All cropping systems considered provided net GHG sinks, even when soil C was assumed to reach a new steady state and C sequestration in soil was not counted. Hybrid poplar and switchgrass provided the largest net GHG sinks, >200 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass conversion to ethanol, and >400 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass gasification for electricity generation. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethanol and biodiesel from corn rotations reduced GHG emissions by approximately 40%, reed canarygrass by approximately 85%, and switchgrass and hybrid poplar by approximately 115%.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Minifactory: a precision assembly system adaptable to the product life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Patrick F.; Rizzi, Alfred A.; Gowdy, Jay W.

    1997-12-01

    Automated product assembly systems are traditionally designed with the intent that they will be operated with few significant changes for as long as the product is being manufactured. This approach to factory design and programming has may undesirable qualities which have motivated the development of more 'flexible' systems. In an effort to improve agility, different types of flexibility have been integrated into factory designs. Specifically, automated assembly systems have been endowed with the ability to assemble differing products by means of computer-controlled robots, and to accommodate variations in parts locations and dimensions by means of sensing. The product life cycle (PLC) is a standard four-stage model of the performance of a product from the time that it is first introduced in the marketplace until the time that it is discontinued. Manufacturers can improve their return on investment by adapting the production process to the PLC. We are developing two concepts to enable manufacturers to more readily achieve this goal: the agile assembly architecture (AAA), an abstract framework for distributed modular automation; and minifactory, our physical instantation of this architecture for the assembly of precision electro-mechanical devices. By examining the requirements which each PLC stage places upon the production system, we identify characteristics of factory design and programming which are appropriate for that stage. As the product transitions from one stage to the next, the factory design and programing should also transition from one embodiment to the next in order to achieve the best return on investment. Modularity of the factory components, highly flexible product transport mechanisms, and a high level of distributed intelligence are key characteristics of minifactory that enable this adaptation.

  3. A screening life cycle metric to benchmark the environmental sustainability of waste management systems.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott M; Krishnan, Nikhil; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) can lead to significant environmental burdens. The implementation of effective waste management practices, however, requires the ability to benchmark alternative systems from an environmental sustainability perspective. Existing metrics--such as recycling and generation rates, or the emissions of individual pollutants--often are not goal-oriented, are not readily comparable, and may not provide insight into the most effective options for improvement. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective approach to quantify and compare systems, but full LCA comparisons typically involve significant expenditure of resources and time. In this work we develop a metric called the Resource Conservation Efficiency (RCE) that is based on a screening-LCA approach, and that can be used to rapidly and effectively benchmark (on a screening level) the ecological sustainability of waste management practices across multiple locations. We first demonstrate that this measure is an effective proxy by comparing RCE results with existing LCA inventory and impact assessment methods. We then demonstrate the use of the RCE metric by benchmarking the sustainability of waste management practices in two U.S. cities: San Francisco and Honolulu. The results show that while San Francisco does an excellent job recovering recyclable materials, adding a waste to energy (WTE) facility to their infrastructure would most beneficially impact the environmental performance of their waste management system. Honolulu would achieve the greatest gains by increasing the capture of easily recycled materials not currently being recovered. Overall results also highlight how the RCE metric may be used to provide insight into effective actions cities can take to boost the environmental performance of their waste management practices. PMID:20666561

  4. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  5. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  6. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  7. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-09-15

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  8. Life-cycle Energy Consumption of Urban Water System in Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within rapid urbanization and industrialization, Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in China, has been facing serious water shortage. More than 80% of water demand in Shenzhen, i.e., about 1.6 billion m3/yr, is satisfied by water diversion projects. A lot of energy has been used to extract, clean, store and transmit these water. In this paper, energy consumption of urban water system in Shenzhen, China was investigated from a life cycle perspective, and the water system can be divided into five subsystems, i.e., water diversion, water production & supply, household water use, sewage treatment and water reuse. Industrial water use was not considered here, because industrial production processes were so varied. The results showed that water diversion subsystem in Shenzhen consumed electricity of about 0.839 billion kWh/yr (0.53 kWh/m3), water production & supply subsystem about 1.241 billion kWh/yr (0.64 kWh/m3), household water use subsystem about 6.57 billion kWh/yr (9.65 kWh/m3) sewage treatment subsystem about 0.449 billion kWh/yr (0.29 kWh/m3) and water reuse treatment subsystem about 0.013 billion kWh/yr (0.33kWh/m3). So the human-related water system in Shenzhen consumes electricity of about 9.113 billion kWh/yr in total, accounting for about 11.0% of all the electricity use in Shenzhen. Among this, household water use subsystem consumed up to 72.1% of all electricity used in urban water system, followed by water production & supply subsystem (13.6%), water diversion subsystem (9.2%) and sewage treatment and reuse subsystem (5.1%). Unit energy consumption of sewage treatment and reuse subsystem was much less than that of water diversion subsystem, indicating local sewage resource development was advantageous on saving energy to water diversion from a long distance. Further, it implied that the best way to save energy in urban water system is to save portable water, since both water production and household use require to consume much energy.

  9. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-09-15

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  10. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  11. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  12. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  13. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  14. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  15. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  16. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for sustainable waste management planning. PMID:25837786

  17. Life cycle assessment of integrated municipal solid waste management systems, taking account of climate change and landfill shortage trade-off problems.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Hishinuma, Tatsuo; Ihara, Tomohiko; Genchi, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    Steps taken to counter the climate change problem have a significant impact on the municipal solid waste management (MSW) sector, which must tackle regional environmental problems such as the shortage of sanitary landfills, especially in Japan. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions and final disposal have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, alleviation of both these environmental problems is difficult, and Japanese local municipalities are anxious for action to solve these problems and reduce treatment costs. Although ambitious waste management measures have been enacted in many countries, they appear to lack a holistic view and do not adopt a life cycle approach. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct the MSW management system, taking into account environmental and economic aspects. In the present study, life cycle assessment and mathematical modelling were used to seek ways of redesigning the MSW management system in order to minimize environmental impacts and/or reduce treatment costs. One economic block was selected as the study area (Iwate Prefecture in Japan). The life cycle inventory and costs data for every MSW transportation and treatment process in this region were collected and processed. Then, taking account of geographic information, an optimal solution for the minimization of environmental impact or treatment costs was derived. To solve the trade-off problem, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to find optimal reduction targets for climate change and final disposal.

  18. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigamonti, L. Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  19. Analysis of orbital system logistics in the cis-lunar space with particular consideration of life cycle costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melissopoulos, Stephanos

    1992-02-01

    An attempt to define and analyze the concept of 'logistics of space operation centers' in an infrastructure scenario is presented. A logistics system was designed, which is strongly linked to the transportation system used. A narrow relation between operations in a space operation center and the transport model considered was established. Typical space transportation system designs were adapted and integrated in the logistics/life cycle cost model. A space operation center was conceived from general equations for calculation of module masses of rockets and from the NEPTUN booster project. A simulation model with a mass model, operation model and life cycle cost model was developed for evaluation of life cycle costs of a space operation center. Calculation results give reference costs for exploitation of orbital stations and requirements on space operation center service achievements. These results allow a relation between operations at space operation centers and transportation systems in an orbital infrastructure to be established from a logistic point of view. A sensitivity analysis shows that input parameters must be carefully chosen, because a minimal variation can very strongly modify the results.

  20. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Brian A; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  1. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, L; Falbo, A; Grosso, M

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of the 'GERLA' project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia - Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia - Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  2. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance.

  3. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park

    SciTech Connect

    Parkes, Olga Lettieri, Paola Bogle, I. David L.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of LCA in planning integrated waste management systems. • Environmental valuation of 3 legacy scenarios for the Olympic Park. • Hot-spot analysis highlights the importance of energy and materials recovery. • Most environmental savings are achieved through materials recycling. • Sensitivity analysis shows importance of waste composition and recycling rates. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for

  4. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China.

  5. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  6. The life cycles of intense cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation systems observed over oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1994-01-01

    The work over the past six months has focused on the October/November 1985 blocking case study noted in the last progress report. A summary of the results of this effort is contained in the attached preprint papers for the Symposium on the Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones. Using this case study as a model, Ph.D. student Anthony Lupo is now initiating the multiple-case diagnosis by first examining two more fall 1985 blocking episodes. In addition, two secondary efforts have been completed, as summarized in the attached M.S. thesis abstracts. Both studies, which were primarily funded by a fellowship and a teaching assistantship, complement the objectives of this study by providing diagnoses of additional cyclone cases to serve as a comparative base for the pre-blocking cyclones to be studied in the multiple-case blocking diagnosis.

  7. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offering an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.

  8. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information and Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 1997-1998. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evaluation of the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for grade 9 through grade 12 classrooms. Background information about star birth and life, black dwarfs, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and the electromagnetic spectrum is included. The seven activities focus on star mass,…

  9. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information & Activity Booklet Grades K-8, 1997-1998. Star-Child--A Learning Center for Young Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for kindergarten through grade 8 classrooms. Background information on massive stars and medium stars and activities with subjects such as star life, constellation shapes, nebula terminology, astronomical distances, and pulsars is included. The 12…

  10. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  11. Life cycle assessment of two emerging sewage sludge-to-energy systems: evaluating energy and greenhouse gas emissions implications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yucheng; Pawłowski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    A "cradle-to-grave" life cycle assessment was conducted to examine the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprints of two emerging sludge-to-energy systems. One system employs a combination of anaerobic digestion (AD) and fast pyrolysis for bioenergy conversion, while the other excludes AD. Each system was divided into five process phases: plant construction, sludge pretreatment, sludge-to-bioenergy conversion, bioenergy utilizations and biochar management. Both systems achieved energy and GHG emission benefits, and the AD-involving system performed better than the AD-excluding system (5.30 vs. 0.63 GJ/t sludge in net energy gain and 0.63 vs. 0.47 t CO(2)eq/t sludge in emission credit for base case). Detailed contribution and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify how and to what degree the different life-cycle phases are responsible for the energy and emission impacts. The energy and emission performances were significantly affected by variations in bioenergy production, energy requirement for sludge drying and end use of bioenergy. PMID:23131626

  12. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively.

  13. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. PMID:26856446

  14. Chapter 2: hypothalamic neural systems controlling the female reproductive life cycle gonadotropin-releasing hormone, glutamate, and GABA.

    PubMed

    Maffucci, Jacqueline A; Gore, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis undergoes a number of changes throughout the reproductive life cycle that are responsible for the development, puberty, adulthood, and senescence of reproductive systems. This natural progression is dictated by the neural network controlling the hypothalamus including the cells that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their regulatory neurotransmitters. Glutamate and GABA are the primary excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, and as such contribute a great deal to modulating this axis throughout the lifetime via their actions on receptors in the hypothalamus, both directly on GnRH neurons as well as indirectly through other hypothalamic neural networks. Interactions among GnRH neurons, glutamate, and GABA, including the regulation of GnRH gene and protein expression, hormone release, and modulation by estrogen, are critical to age-appropriate changes in reproductive function. Here, we present evidence for the modulation of GnRH neurosecretory cells by the balance of glutamate and GABA in the hypothalamus, and the functional consequences of these interactions on reproductive physiology across the life cycle.

  15. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  16. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  17. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Flame Deflector Protection System Life Cycle Cost Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Trejo, David; Reinschmidt, Ken; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2009-01-01

    A 20-year life cycle cost analysis was performed to compare the operational life cycle cost, processing/turnaround timelines, and operations manpower inspection/repair/refurbishment requirements for corrosion protection of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad flame deflector associated with the existing cast-in-place materials and a newer advanced refractory ceramic material. The analysis compared the estimated costs of(1) continuing to use of the current refractory material without any changes; (2) completely reconstructing the flame trench using the current refractory material; and (3) completely reconstructing the flame trench with a new high-performance refractory material. Cost estimates were based on an analysis of the amount of damage that occurs after each launch and an estimate of the average repair cost. Alternative 3 was found to save $32M compared to alternative 1 and $17M compared to alternative 2 over a 20-year life cycle.

  18. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  19. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  20. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid. PMID:18409654

  1. Life-Cycle Data Management at NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates over a hundred observing systems which span the environment from the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun. The resulting data are essential for immediate priorities such as weather forecasting, and the data also constitute an irreplaceable resource collected at great cost. It is therefore necessary to carefully preserve this information for ongoing scientific use, for new research and applications, and to ensure reproducibility of scientific conclusions. The NOAA data life-cycle includes activities in three major phases: planning and production, management of the resulting data, and usage activities. This paper will describe current work by the NOAA Environmental Data Management Committee (EDMC), Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), and the NOAA National Data Centers in areas including DM planning, documentation, cataloging, data access, and preservation and stewardship to improve and standardize policies and practices for life-cycle data management.

  2. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication

  3. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication

  4. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems. PMID:25259852

  5. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  6. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  7. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  8. Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose [and] On DigiPaper and the Dissemination of Electronic Documents [and] DFAS: The Distributed Finding Aid Search System [and] Best Practices for Digital Archiving: An Information Life Cycle Approach [and] Mapping and Converting Essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: Towards an Alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse [and] Evaluating Website Modifications at the National Library of Medicine through Search Log analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David M.; Huttenlocher, Dan; Moll, Angela; Smith, MacKenzie; Hodge, Gail M.; Chandler, Adam; Foley, Dan; Hafez, Alaaeldin M.; Redalen, Aaron; Miller, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Includes six articles focusing on the purpose of digital public libraries; encoding electronic documents through compression techniques; a distributed finding aid server; digital archiving practices in the framework of information life cycle management; converting metadata into MARC format and Dublin Core formats; and evaluating Web sites through…

  9. SYSTEM BOUNDARY SELECTION IN LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORIES USING HYBRID APPROACHES. (R829597)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  11. Evolutionary implications of the adaptation to different immune systems in a parasite with a complex life cycle.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Many diseases are caused by parasites with complex life cycles that involve several hosts. If parasites cope better with only one of the different types of immune systems of their host species, we might expect a trade-off in parasite performance in the different hosts, that likely influences the evolution of virulence. We tested this hypothesis in a naturally co-evolving host-parasite system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its intermediate hosts, a copepod, Macrocyclops albidus, and the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. We did not find a trade-off between infection success in the two hosts. Rather, tapeworms seem to trade-off adaptation towards different parts of their hosts' immune systems. Worm sibships that performed better in the invertebrate host also seem to be able to evade detection by the fish innate defence systems, i.e. induce lower levels of activation of innate immune components. These worm variants were less harmful for the fish host likely due to reduced costs of an activated innate immune system. These findings substantiate the impact of both hosts' immune systems on parasite performance and virulence.

  12. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and

  13. Life cycle cost analysis of a stand-alone PV system in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Emma

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a rural area in Kenya. The research conducted involved a comprehensive review of all the relevant literature associated with the study. Methodologies were extrapolated from this extensive literature to develop a model for the complete design and economic analysis of a stand-alone PV system. A women's center in rural Kenya was used as a worked example to demonstrate the workings of the model. The results suggest that electrifying the center using a stand-alone PV system is an economically viable option which is encouraging for the surrounding area. This model can be used as a business model to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system in alternative sites in Kenya.

  14. Life Cycle of Midlatitude Deep Convective Systems in a Lagrangian Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhe; Dong, Xiquan; Xie, Baike; McFarlane, Sally A.; Kennedy, Aaron; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) consist of intense convective cores (CC), large stratiform rain (SR) regions, and extensive non-precipitating anvil clouds (AC). This study focuses on the evolution of these three components and the factors that affect convective AC production. An automated satellite tracking method is used in conjunction with a recently developed multi-sensor hybrid classification to analyze the evolution of DCS structure in a Lagrangian framework over the central United States. Composite analysis from 4221 tracked DCSs during two warm seasons (May-August, 2010-2011) shows that maximum system size correlates with lifetime, and longer-lived DCSs have more extensive SR and AC. Maximum SR and AC area lag behind peak convective intensity and the lag increases linearly from approximately 1-hour for short-lived systems to more than 3-hours for long-lived ones. The increased lag, which depends on the convective environment, suggests that changes in the overall diabatic heating structure associated with the transition from CC to SR and AC could prolong the system lifetime by sustaining stratiform cloud development. Longer-lasting systems are associated with up to 60% higher mid-tropospheric relative humidity and up to 40% stronger middle to upper tropospheric wind shear. Regression analysis shows that the areal coverage of thick AC is strongly correlated with the size of CC, updraft strength, and SR area. Ambient upper tropospheric wind speed and wind shear also play an important role for convective AC production where for systems with large AC (radius greater than 120-km) they are 24% and 20% higher, respectively, than those with small AC (radius=20 km).

  15. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  16. Life Cycle of Midlatitude Deep Convective Systems in a Lagrangian Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhe; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; McFarlane, Sally A.; Kennedy, Aaron; Lin, B.; Minnis, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) consist of intense convective cores (CC), large stratiform rain (SR) regions, and extensive non-precipitating anvil clouds (AC). This study focuses on the evolution of these three components and the factors that affect convective AC production. An automated satellite tracking method is used in conjunction with a recently developed multi-sensor hybrid classification to analyze the evolution of DCS structure in a Lagrangian framework over the central United States. Composite analysis from 4221 tracked DCSs during two warm seasons (May-August, 2010-2011) shows that maximum system size correlates with lifetime, and longer-lived DCSs have more extensive SR and AC. Maximum SR and AC area lag behind peak convective intensity and the lag increases linearly from ~1-hour for short-lived systems to more than 3-hours for long-lived ones. The increased lag, which depends on the convective environment, suggests that changes in the overall diabatic heating structure associated with the transition from CC to SR and AC could prolong the system lifetime by sustaining stratiform cloud development. Longer-lasting systems are associated with up to 60% higher mid-tropospheric relative humidity and up to 40% stronger mid-to-upper tropospheric wind shear. Regression analysis shows that the areal coverage of thick AC is strongly correlated with the size of CC, updraft strength, and SR area. Ambient upper tropospheric wind speed and wind shear also play an important role for convective AC production where for systems with large AC (radius>120-km) they are 24% and 20% higher, respectively, than those with small AC (radius=20 km).

  17. Energy analysis of conventional and source-separation systems for urban wastewater management using Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Jekel, M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the cumulative energy demand (CED) of different systems for the management of urban wastewater, following the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment. In a hypothetical case study for an urban area (5,000 inhabitants), all relevant processes for wastewater collection and treatment and the construction of infrastructure are described in a substance flow model. The conventional system requires 1,250 MJ/(pe*a), with the operation contributing 45%, the infrastructure 7%, and the system expansion (production of mineral fertilizer and electricity) 48% to the total CED. The separation systems have a CED of 930-1,182 MJ/(pe*a) depending on their configuration. Results of the impact assessment show that recovering energy from the organic matter of toilet wastewater and household biowaste in a digestion process can decrease the cumulative energy demand by 13-26%. Energetic benefits of mineral fertilizer substitution are relatively small compared to the energy recovered from organic matter. Decisive parameters for the energy analysis are the amount of biowaste which is co-digested with toilet wastewater and the energy demand of the vacuum plant.

  18. Optimal control of a remanufacturing system with consideration for product life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper deals with the cost management problem of a remanufacturing system with stochastic variability in the demand rate, the remanufacturing rate and the discard rate. We consider two types of inventories. One is the actual product inventory in the factory while the other is the virtual inventory that is still in use by the consumers. The state of the remanufacturing system is defined by considering the levels of both inventories. The cost function is composed of various costs such as the holding cost, backlogging cost and other manufacturing costs. We obtain the optimal production policy that minimizes the expected average cost per period. Numerical results provide insights on the effects of the various costs on the optimal policy.

  19. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  20. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  1. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  2. The Life Cycles of Intense Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation Systems Observed over Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research accomplished over the past four years under the sponsorship of NASA grant #NAG8-915. Building on previously funded NASA grants, this part of the project focused on the following specific goals relative to cyclone/anticyclone systems: the jet streak link between block formation and upstream cyclone activity; the role of northward warm air advection in block formation; the importance of cooperative participation of several forcing mechanisms during explosive cyclone development; and the significance of the vertical distribution of forcing processes during cyclone/anticyclone development.

  3. GREEN-MAC-LCCP: a tool for assessing the life cycle climate performance of MAC systems.

    PubMed

    Papasavva, Stella; Hill, William R; Andersen, Stephen O

    2010-10-01

    In 2008, 95% of the vehicle fleet in the developed countries and 80% of fleet in the developing countries were equipped with mobile air conditioning systems (MACs). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted due to refrigerant leakage (direct emissions) and due to the energy consumed by MACs operation (indirect emissions). In response to reducing the global warming impact of MACs, policy makers and the industry are investigating alternative refrigerant systems that use low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. The GREEN-MAC-LCCP model assesses the direct and indirect CO(2) equivalent emissions related to MACs usage, as well as those associated with the production, use and disposal of alternative refrigerants and MACs components. This model provides a platform for simple data input and provides an output summary as well as details that can be analyzed in a custom fashion by the user. It provides engineers and policy makers a state-of-the-art tool, based on sound engineering data and methods, in order to facilitate the process of evaluating alternate refrigerants with low lifecycle global warming impact as well as providing the total impact of any MACs on the environment. It has been recognized as the standard of the MACs industry. PMID:20812721

  4. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories.

  5. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Building-Scale Wastewater Treatment and Nonpotable Reuse System.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Thomas P; Nguyen, Mi T; Sukardi, Marsha; Miot, Alexandre; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-09-01

    Treatment and water reuse in decentralized systems is envisioned to play a greater role in our future urban water infrastructure due to growing populations and uncertainty in quality and quantity of traditional water resources. In this study, we utilized life-cycle assessment (LCA) to analyze the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of an operating Living Machine (LM) wetland treatment system that recycles wastewater in an office building. The study also assessed the performance of the local utility's centralized wastewater treatment plant, which was found to be significantly more efficient than the LM (79% less energy, 98% less GHG emissions per volume treated). To create a functionally equivalent comparison, the study developed a hypothetical scenario in which the same LM design flow is recycled via centralized infrastructure. This comparison revealed that the current LM has energy consumption advantages (8% less), and a theoretically improved LM design could have GHG advantages (24% less) over the centralized reuse system. The methodology in this study can be applied to other case studies and scenarios to identify conditions under which decentralized water reuse can lower GHG emissions and energy use compared to centralized water reuse when selecting alternative approaches to meet growing water demands. PMID:26230383

  6. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Building-Scale Wastewater Treatment and Nonpotable Reuse System.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Thomas P; Nguyen, Mi T; Sukardi, Marsha; Miot, Alexandre; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-09-01

    Treatment and water reuse in decentralized systems is envisioned to play a greater role in our future urban water infrastructure due to growing populations and uncertainty in quality and quantity of traditional water resources. In this study, we utilized life-cycle assessment (LCA) to analyze the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of an operating Living Machine (LM) wetland treatment system that recycles wastewater in an office building. The study also assessed the performance of the local utility's centralized wastewater treatment plant, which was found to be significantly more efficient than the LM (79% less energy, 98% less GHG emissions per volume treated). To create a functionally equivalent comparison, the study developed a hypothetical scenario in which the same LM design flow is recycled via centralized infrastructure. This comparison revealed that the current LM has energy consumption advantages (8% less), and a theoretically improved LM design could have GHG advantages (24% less) over the centralized reuse system. The methodology in this study can be applied to other case studies and scenarios to identify conditions under which decentralized water reuse can lower GHG emissions and energy use compared to centralized water reuse when selecting alternative approaches to meet growing water demands.

  7. Life cycle assessment of a palm oil system with simultaneous production of biodiesel and cooking oil in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Achten, Wouter M J; Vandenbempt, Pieter; Almeida, Joana; Mathijs, Erik; Muys, Bart

    2010-06-15

    The use of palm oil as a biofuel has been heavily debated for its land-use conflict with nature and its competition with food production, being the number one cooking oil worldwide. In that context, we present a life cycle assessment of a palm oil production process yielding both biodiesel and cooking oil, incorporating the land-use impact and evaluating the effect of treating the palm oil mill effluent (POME) prior to disposal. The results show that the nonrenewable energy requirement, global warming potential (GWP; exclusive land-use change), and acidification potential are lower than those of the fossil alternative. However, the system triggers an increase in eutrophication potential (EP) compared to the fossil fuel reference. This system shows less energy requirement, global warming and acidification reduction, and less eutrophication increase compared to the reference than the same system converting all palm oil into biodiesel (no cooking oil production). The land occupation of palm oil triggers ecosystem quality (EQ) loss of 30-45% compared to the potential natural vegetation. Furthermore, such land-use change triggers a carbon debt neutralizing the GWP reduction for 45-53 years. The POME treatment scenarios reveal a trade-off between GWP and EP. PMID:20496929

  8. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories. PMID:26089188

  9. Review, Revise, and (re)Release: Updating an Information Literacy Tutorial to Embed a Science Information Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussmann, Jeffra Diane; Plovnick, Caitlin E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, University of California, Irvine (UCI) Libraries launched their first Find Science Information online tutorial. It was an innovative web-based tool, containing not only informative content but also interactive activities, embedded hyperlinked resources, and reflective quizzes, all designed primarily to educate undergraduate science…

  10. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by electron beam and pulsed laser deposition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-04-14

    The results of this study establish a framework for evaluation of the cost impact of many performance parameters in coated conductor manufacturing systems. Since the cost and concepts are based on early developmental results and engineering judgment, the study should be updated periodically based on latest data to enhance its usefulness. The study should be expanded to include other promising processes under consideration or development for manufacture of coated conductors. Review of this study by as wide a group of experts from industry, national laboratories and universities as possible is desirable to facilitate improving accuracy of the estimates and communication on the issues involved. The results for the case of achieving the $10/kA-m goal at a J{sub c} of 10{sup 5} a/cm{sup 2} applicable to applications requiring a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of current flow may be viewed as somewhat discouraging. However, there is ample margin for improvement due to continued development and engineering that could enable meeting the goal of $10/kA-m.

  11. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater.

  12. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  13. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  14. 5 CFR 930.301 - Information systems security awareness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training in system/application life cycle management, risk management, and contingency planning. (4) Chief... security management, system/application life cycle management, risk management, and contingency planning..., risk management, and contingency planning. (b) Provide the Federal information systems...

  15. 5 CFR 930.301 - Information systems security awareness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training in system/application life cycle management, risk management, and contingency planning. (4) Chief... security management, system/application life cycle management, risk management, and contingency planning..., risk management, and contingency planning. (b) Provide the Federal information systems...

  16. 5 CFR 930.301 - Information systems security awareness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training in system/application life cycle management, risk management, and contingency planning. (4) Chief... security management, system/application life cycle management, risk management, and contingency planning..., risk management, and contingency planning. (b) Provide the Federal information systems...

  17. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  18. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  19. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  20. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  1. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES. PMID:24195778

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for End-of-Life Materials Management Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal s...

  3. STUDYING THE EFFECT ON SYSTEM PREFERENCE BY VARYING CO-PRODUCT ALLOCATION IN CREATING LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    How one models the input and output data for a life cycle assessment can greatly affect the results. Although much attention has been paid to allocation methodology by researchers in the field, general guidance is still lacking. Current research investigated the effect of applyin...

  4. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  5. The TMIS life-cycle process document, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) Life-Cycle Process Document describes the processes that shall be followed in the definition, design, development, test, deployment, and operation of all TMIS products and data base applications. This document is a roll out of TMIS Standards Document (SSP 30546). The purpose of this document is to define the life cycle methodology that the developers of all products and data base applications and any subsequent modifications shall follow. Included in this methodology are descriptions of the tasks, deliverables, reviews, and approvals that are required before a product or data base application is accepted in the TMIS environment.

  6. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  7. Life cycle cost based program decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, James S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  9. The life cycle of rice: LCA of alternative agri-food chain management systems in Vercelli (Italy).

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko

    2009-03-01

    The Vercelli rice district in northern Italy plays a key role in the agri-food industry in a country which accounts for more than 50% of the EU rice production and exports roughly 70%. However, although wealth and jobs are created, the sector is said to be responsible for environmental impacts that are increasingly being perceived as topical. As a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation is necessary to understand and manage the environmental impact of the agri-food chain, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to the rice production system: from the paddy field to the supermarket. The LCA has pointed out the magnitude of impact per kg of delivered white milled rice: a CO2eq emission of 2.9 kg, a primary energy consumption of 17.8 MJ and the use of 4.9 m3 of water for irrigation purposes. Improvement scenarios have been analysed considering alternative rice farming and food processing methods, such as organic and upland farming, as well as parboiling. The research has shown that organic and upland farming have the potential to decrease the impact per unit of cultivated area. However, due to the lower grain yields, the environmental benefits per kg of the final products are greatly reduced in the case of upland rice production and almost cancelled for organic rice. LCA has proved to be an effective tool for understanding the eco-profile of Italian rice and should be used for transparent and credible communication between suppliers and their customers.

  10. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  12. LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidelines for the implementation of LCE concepts, information, and techniques in engineering products, systems, processes, and facilities. To make this document as practical and useable as possible, a unifying LCE framework is presented. Subsequent topics ...

  13. Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases

  14. Fruiting Body Formation in Volvariella volvacea Can Occur Independently of Its MAT-A-Controlled Bipolar Mating System, Enabling Homothallic and Heterothallic Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bingzhi; van Peer, Arend F.; Yan, Junjie; Li, Xiao; Xie, Bin; Miao, Juan; Huang, Qianhui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Wei; Fu, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Hu, Fengli; Kong, Qingfang; Sun, Xianyun; Zou, Feng; Zhang, Hanxing; Li, Shaojie; Xie, Baogui

    2016-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in Southeast Asia, but erratic fruiting presents a serious challenge for its production and breeding. Efforts to explain inconsistent fruiting have been complicated by the multinucleate nature, typical lack of clamp connections, and an incompletely identified sexual reproductive system. In this study, we addressed the life cycle of V. volvacea using whole genome sequencing, cloning of MAT loci, karyotyping of spores, and fruiting assays. Microscopy analysis of spores had previously indicated the possible coexistence of heterothallic and homothallic life cycles. Our analysis of the MAT loci showed that only MAT-A, and not MAT-B, controlled heterokaryotization. Thus, the heterothallic life cycle was bipolar. Karyotyping of single spore isolates (SSIs) using molecular markers supported the existence of heterokaryotic spores. However, most SSIs were clearly not heterokaryotic, yet contained structural variation (SV) markers relating to both alleles of both parents. Heterokaryons from crossed, self-sterile homokaryons could produce fruiting bodies, agreeing with bipolar heterothallism. Meanwhile, some SSIs with two different MAT-A loci also produced fruiting bodies, which supported secondary homothallism. Next, SSIs that clearly contained only one MAT-A locus (homothallism) were also able to fruit, demonstrating that self-fertile SSIs were not, per definition, secondary homothallic, and that a third life cycle or genetic mechanism must exist. Finally, recombination between SV markers was normal, yet 10 out of 24 SV markers showed 1:2 or 1:3 distributions in the spores, and large numbers of SSIs contained doubled SV markers. This indicated selfish genes, and possibly partial aneuploidy. PMID:27194800

  15. Fruiting Body Formation in Volvariella volvacea Can Occur Independently of Its MAT-A-Controlled Bipolar Mating System, Enabling Homothallic and Heterothallic Life Cycles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingzhi; van Peer, Arend F; Yan, Junjie; Li, Xiao; Xie, Bin; Miao, Juan; Huang, Qianhui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Wei; Fu, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Hu, Fengli; Kong, Qingfang; Sun, Xianyun; Zou, Feng; Zhang, Hanxing; Li, Shaojie; Xie, Baogui

    2016-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in Southeast Asia, but erratic fruiting presents a serious challenge for its production and breeding. Efforts to explain inconsistent fruiting have been complicated by the multinucleate nature, typical lack of clamp connections, and an incompletely identified sexual reproductive system. In this study, we addressed the life cycle of V. volvacea using whole genome sequencing, cloning of MAT loci, karyotyping of spores, and fruiting assays. Microscopy analysis of spores had previously indicated the possible coexistence of heterothallic and homothallic life cycles. Our analysis of the MAT loci showed that only MAT-A, and not MAT-B, controlled heterokaryotization. Thus, the heterothallic life cycle was bipolar. Karyotyping of single spore isolates (SSIs) using molecular markers supported the existence of heterokaryotic spores. However, most SSIs were clearly not heterokaryotic, yet contained structural variation (SV) markers relating to both alleles of both parents. Heterokaryons from crossed, self-sterile homokaryons could produce fruiting bodies, agreeing with bipolar heterothallism. Meanwhile, some SSIs with two different MAT-A loci also produced fruiting bodies, which supported secondary homothallism. Next, SSIs that clearly contained only one MAT-A locus (homothallism) were also able to fruit, demonstrating that self-fertile SSIs were not, per definition, secondary homothallic, and that a third life cycle or genetic mechanism must exist. Finally, recombination between SV markers was normal, yet 10 out of 24 SV markers showed 1:2 or 1:3 distributions in the spores, and large numbers of SSIs contained doubled SV markers. This indicated selfish genes, and possibly partial aneuploidy. PMID:27194800

  16. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  17. Farm systems assessment of bioenergy feedstock production: Integrating bio-economic models and life cycle analysis approaches

    PubMed Central

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and energy security concerns have driven the development of policies that encourage bioenergy production. Meeting EU targets for the consumption of transport fuels from bioenergy by 2020 will require a large increase in the production of bioenergy feedstock. Initially an increase in ‘first generation’ biofuels was observed, however ‘food competition’ concerns have generated interest in second generation biofuels (SGBs). These SGBs can be produced from co-products (e.g. cereal straw) or energy crops (e.g. miscanthus), with the former largely negating food competition concerns. In order to assess the sustainability of feedstock supply for SGBs, the financial, environmental and energy costs and benefits of the farm system must be quantified. Previous research has captured financial costs and benefits through linear programming (LP) approaches, whilst environmental and energy metrics have been largely been undertaken within life cycle analysis (LCA) frameworks. Assessing aspects of the financial, environmental and energy sustainability of supplying co-product second generation biofuel (CPSGB) feedstocks at the farm level requires a framework that permits the trade-offs between these objectives to be quantified and understood. The development of a modelling framework for Managing Energy and Emissions Trade-Offs in Agriculture (MEETA Model) that combines bio-economic process modelling and LCA is presented together with input data parameters obtained from literature and industry sources. The MEETA model quantifies arable farm inputs and outputs in terms of financial, energy and emissions results. The model explicitly captures fertiliser: crop-yield relationships, plus the incorporation of straw or removal for sale, with associated nutrient impacts of incorporation/removal on the following crop in the rotation. Key results of crop-mix, machinery use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of crop product and energy use per hectare are in line with

  18. The papillomavirus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, John

    2005-03-01

    Papillomaviruses infect epithelial cells, and depend on epithelial differentiation for completion of their life cycle. The expression of viral gene products is closely regulated as the infected basal cell migrates towards the epithelial surface. Expression of E6 and E7 in the lower epithelial layers drives cells into S-phase, which creates an environment that is conducive for viral genome replication and cell proliferation. Genome amplification, which is necessary for the production of infectious virions, is prevented until the levels of viral replication proteins rise, and depends on the co-expression of several viral proteins. Virus capsid proteins are expressed in cells that also express E4 as the infected cell enters the upper epithelial layers. The timing of these events varies depending on the infecting papillomavirus, and in the case of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), on the severity of neoplasia. Viruses that are evolutionarily related, such as HPV1 and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), generally organize their productive cycle in a similar way, despite infecting different hosts and epithelial sites. In some instances, such as following HPV16 infection of the cervix or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection of domestic rabbits, papillomaviruses can undergo abortive infections in which the productive cycle of the virus is not completed. As with other DNA tumour viruses, such abortive infections can predispose to cancer. PMID:15753007

  19. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  20. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  1. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  2. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  3. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  4. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  5. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials.

  6. Prospective life-cycle modeling of a carbon capture and storage system using metal-organic frameworks for CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, R; Masanet, E

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising new material media for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Their tunable adsorption patterns may allow relatively efficient separation of gases, e.g. from power plant exhaust. Here we conduct scenario-based prospective life-cycle system modeling to estimate the potentials and implications of large-scale MOF application for post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS), and estimate the source and magnitude of uncertainties. The methodological approach includes parametric system modeling to quantify relations between system components; scenario projections of plausible pathways for system scale-up; proxy data on analogous materials and processes; and uncertainty analysis of parameter significance. We estimate the system-wide material and energy flows and economic costs associated with projected large-scale CCS deployment. We compare the performance of a MOF-based system to currently more mature amine-based capture technology. We discuss balancing two critical factors that determine the success of CO2 capture media: thermodynamic efficiency of the capture/regeneration cycle, and life-cycle embodied energy and cost of the material and its ancillary systems.

  7. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  8. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  10. Bloom dynamics and life cycle strategies of two toxic dinoflagellates in a coastal upwelling system (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Isabel; Fraga, Santiago; Isabel Figueroa, Rosa; Pazos, Yolanda; Massanet, Ana; Ramilo, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    A study of Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium minutum blooms on the Galician coast was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in order to increase knowledge of the mechanisms governing recurrent blooms of these species. Considerable differences in their bloom dynamics were observed. G. catenatum blooms occurred in autumn and winter, following the pattern previously reported in the literature: they began off-shore and were advected to the Galician rias when a relaxation of the coastal upwelling occurred. On the other hand, A. minutum blooms developed inside embayments in spring and summer during the upwelling season and were associated with water stability and stratification. Both the vegetative population and the cyst distribution of A. minutum were related to less saline water from freshwater river outputs, which support a saline-gradient relationship postulated herein for this species. Dinoflagellates may produce both long-term double-walled cysts (resting) and short-term pellicle cysts. Resting cyst deposition and distribution in sediments showed that seeding occurred during the blooms of both species. However, the relationship between the cyst distribution in the sediments in Baiona Bay and the intensity and occurrence of G. catenatum blooms, suggests that the latter are not directly related to resting cyst germination. Moreover, the results presented in the present study point to other difference between the two species, such as the detection of pellicle cysts only for A. minutum. Finally, we discuss how the life cycle strategies of these two species may help to explain the different mechanisms of bloom formation reported herein.

  11. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  12. Environmental impacts of the Japanese beef-fattening system with different feeding lengths as evaluated by a life-cycle assessment method.

    PubMed

    Ogino, A; Kaku, K; Osada, T; Shimada, K

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the environmental impacts of a beef-fattening system using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method and to investigate the effects of feeding length on the LCA results. The functional unit was defined as one animal, and the stages associated with the beef-fattening life cycle, such as feed (concentrate and rough-age) production, feed transport, animal management, animal body (i.e., biological activity of cattle), and the treatment of cattle wastes, were included in the system boundary. Our results suggest that enteric or gut CH4 emissions of cattle were the major source in the impact category of global warming (2,851 kg of CO2 equivalents), whereas NH3 emissions from cattle waste were the major source in the impact categories of acidification (35.1 kg of SO2 equivalents) and eutrophication (6.16 kg of PO4 equivalents). Feed production also contributed a great deal to all categories. A shorter feeding length resulted in lower environmental impacts in all the environmental impact categories examined in the current study, such as global warming and acidification, although there was a difference in effect of reducing environmental impacts among the categories.

  13. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  14. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time. PMID:15575554

  15. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  16. SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

  17. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  18. Framework for life cycle sustainability assessment of municipal solid waste management systems with an application to a case study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Menikpura, S N M; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2012-07-01

    At present, there are many environmental, economic and social problems associated with poor municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Thailand. The development of sustainable solid waste management systems is a crucial aspect and should be based on an integrated approach. Therefore, an integrated system was designed for Nonthaburi Municipality incorporating recycling, anaerobic digestion, incineration and landfill technologies. In order to assess sustainability, a clear methodology was developed via life cycle thinking and a set of endpoint composite indicators has been proposed considering the most critical ultimate damages/effects of MSW management on the environment, the economy and society. The results showed that the appropriate integration of technologies offers important prospects with regards to socio-economic and environmental aspects, contributing, therefore, to improved sustainability for the overall MSW management system. The methodology and the proposed indicators would be useful in strategic planning, including decision- and policy-making with respect to the development of appropriate sustainable MSW management systems.

  19. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

  20. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  2. Concepts associated with a unified life cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Peffers, Melissa S.; Tolle, Duane A.; Brebbia, C. A.; Almorza Gomar, D.; Klapperich, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is a risk associated with most things in the world, and all things have a life cycle unto themselves, even brownfields. Many components can be described by a''cycle of life.'' For example, five such components are life-form, chemical, process, activity, and idea, although many more may exist. Brownfields may touch upon several of these life cycles. Each life cycle can be represented as independent software; therefore, a software technology structure is being formulated to allow for the seamless linkage of software products, representing various life-cycle aspects. Because classes of these life cycles tend to be independent of each other, the current research programs and efforts do not have to be revamped; therefore, this unified life-cycle paradigm builds upon current technology and is backward compatible while embracing future technology. Only when two of these life cycles coincide and one impacts the other is there connectivity and a transfer of information at the interface. The current framework approaches (e.g., FRAMES, 3MRA, etc.) have a design that is amenable to capturing (1) many of these underlying philosophical concepts to assure backward compatibility of diverse independent assessment frameworks and (2) linkage communication to help transfer the needed information at the points of intersection. The key effort will be to identify (1) linkage points (i.e., portals) between life cycles, (2) the type and form of data passing between life cycles, and (3) conditions when life cycles interact and communicate. This paper discusses design aspects associated with a unified life-cycle analysis, which can support not only brownfields but also other types of assessments.

  3. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  4. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  5. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  6. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  7. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  8. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). PMID:27170193

  9. Analysis of life cycle assessment of food/energy/waste systems and development and analysis of microalgae cultivation/wastewater treatment inclusive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Kristina Ochsner

    Across the world, crises in food, energy, land and water resources, as well as waste and greenhouse gas accumulation are inspiring research into the interactions among these environmental pressures. In the food/energy/waste problem set, most of the research is focused on describing the antagonistic relationships between food, energy and waste; these relationships are often analyzed with life cycle assessment (LCA). These analyses often include reporting of metrics of environmental performance with few functional units, often focusing on energy use, productivity and environmental impact while neglecting water use, food nutrition and safety. Additionally, they are often attributional studies with small scope which report location-specific parameters only. This thesis puts forth a series of recommendations to amend the current practice of LCA to combat these limitations and then utilizes these suggestions to analyze a synergistic food/waste/energy system. As an example analysis, this thesis describes the effect of combining wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation on the productivity and scalability of the synergistic system. To ameliorate the high nutrient and water demands of microalgae cultivation, many studies suggest that microalgae be cultivated in wastewater so as to achieve large scale and low environmental costs. While cultivation studies have found this to be true, none explore the viability of the substitution in terms of productivity and scale-up. The results of this study suggest that while the integrated system may be suitable for low-intensity microalgae cultivation, for freshwater microalgae species or wastewater treatment it is not suitable for high intensity salt water microalgae cultivation. This study shows that the integration could result in reduced lipid content, high wastewater requirements, no greenhouse gas emissions benefit and only a small energy benefit.

  10. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)).

  11. [Indicators, variables and obstacles to the life cycle of scientific and technical information in health. Experiences of the Centro Nacional de Información y Documentación en Salud in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Macías-Chapula, C A

    1987-01-01

    Indicators, variables and barriers to scientific and technical health information have been detected and described by CENIDS in Mexico within the life cycle of the information production model, covering the phases of: a) generation; b) institutionalization; c) maintenance/development; and d) distribution/dissemination. Emphasis is placed on the important role that play social, economic, demographic, and political factors of each developing country to conform their ideal information life cycle. After an analysis of the existing Mexican situation, and a short description of CENIDS' structure, organization, functions and services, CENIDS' short-term and mid-term projects, and suggestions for further research lines to improve the current situation in Mexico are also given.

  12. Life cycle assessment of metals: a scientific synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories. PMID:24999810

  14. Optimization and life-cycle cost of health clinic PV system for a rural area in southern Iraq using HOMER software

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Kazmerski, L.L.

    2010-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for electricity of rural areas in southern Iraq and proposes a photovoltaic (PV) solar system to power a health clinic in that region. The total daily health clinic load is 31.6 kW h and detailed loads are listed. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) optimization computer model for distributed power, ''HOMER,'' is used to estimate the system size and its life-cycle cost. The analysis shows that the optimal system's initial cost, net present cost, and electricity cost is US$ 50,700, US$ 60,375, and US$ 0.238/kW h, respectively. These values for the PV system are compared with those of a generator alone used to supply the load. We found that the initial cost, net present cost of the generator system, and electricity cost are US$ 4500, US$ 352,303, and US$ 1.332/kW h, respectively. We conclude that using the PV system is justified on humanitarian, technical, and economic grounds. (author)

  15. The synergistic roles of test and simulation in the life cycle of the Army Tactical Missile System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, David M.; Ricks, Gayle; Thomas, Tony L.

    2010-04-01

    The Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) has been fielded with the US Army for almost 20 years as a deep strike precision weapon, capable of engaging time critical targets at high precision under all weather conditions. This paper will describe the use of the HWIL simulation in the design of the missile, validation of the simulation, the role of the simulation in the production and test process, how the simulation is used to support system shelf life and obsolescence issues and how the simulation is used to answer critical user questions on the performance of the system.

  16. DREAMS and IMAGE: A Model and Computer Implementation for Concurrent, Life-Cycle Design of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Mark A.; Craig, James I.; Mistree, Farrokh; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    Computing architectures are being assembled that extend concurrent engineering practices by providing more efficient execution and collaboration on distributed, heterogeneous computing networks. Built on the successes of initial architectures, requirements for a next-generation design computing infrastructure can be developed. These requirements concentrate on those needed by a designer in decision-making processes from product conception to recycling and can be categorized in two areas: design process and design information management. A designer both designs and executes design processes throughout design time to achieve better product and process capabilities while expanding fewer resources. In order to accomplish this, information, or more appropriately design knowledge, needs to be adequately managed during product and process decomposition as well as recomposition. A foundation has been laid that captures these requirements in a design architecture called DREAMS (Developing Robust Engineering Analysis Models and Specifications). In addition, a computing infrastructure, called IMAGE (Intelligent Multidisciplinary Aircraft Generation Environment), is being developed that satisfies design requirements defined in DREAMS and incorporates enabling computational technologies.

  17. Static and dynamic systems in Rickettsia slovaca life cycle evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Spitalská, E; Sparagano, O; Boldis, V

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize the growth of Rickettsia slovaca, a tick-borne pathogen transmitted by Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus ticks, in static (L929 and Vero cells) and dynamic (D. marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks) cultivation systems. The highest points of bacterial multiplication and the time-spans between the inoculum and the maximum of rickettsial copies were increased in consecutive order from eukaryotic cells, I. ricinus to D. marginatus systems. In dynamic system, multiplication maximum of R. slovaca was achieved 9 days earlier in I. ricinus; however, the number of rickettsial DNA copies was approximately 3.6 x 10(6) more in D. marginatus. PMID:20537110

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  19. The Life Cycle Analysis Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Williams, K.A.; Yerace, P.; Yuracko, K.L.

    1999-02-28

    The life cycle analysis toolbox is a valuable integration of decision-making tools and supporting materials developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help Department of Energy managers improve environmental quality, reduce costs, and minimize risk. The toolbox provides decision-makers access to a wide variety of proven tools for pollution prevention (P2) and waste minimization (WMin), as well as ORNL expertise to select from this toolbox exactly the right tool to solve any given P2/WMin problem. The central element of the toolbox is a multiple criteria approach to life cycle analysis developed specifically to aid P2/WMin decision-making. ORNL has developed numerous tools that support this life cycle analysis approach. Tools are available to help model P2/WMin processes, estimate human health risks, estimate costs, and represent and manipulate uncertainties. Tools are available to help document P2/WMin decision-making and implement programs. Tools are also available to help track potential future environmental regulations that could impact P2/WMin programs and current regulations that must be followed. An Internet-site will provide broad access to the tools.

  20. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Wittmaier, M; Langer, S; Sawilla, B

    2009-05-01

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:19144506

  1. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmaier, M. Langer, S.; Sawilla, B.

    2009-05-15

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Systems-Based Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona Genome Identifies Pathways That Contribute to a Heteroxenous Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A.; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Hung, Stacy S.; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. PMID:25670772

  3. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  4. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  5. 7 CFR 2902.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 2902.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle costs...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 2902.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle costs...

  7. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study. PMID:19070352

  8. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  9. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  10. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  11. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories. PMID

  12. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories.

  13. Role of formats in the life cycle of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Don

    1993-01-01

    This paper's perspective is based on the author's experience generating, analyzing, archiving, and distributing data obtained from satellites, and on the experience gained in data modeling and the development of standards for data understanding under the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). Data formats are used to represent all information in digital form, and thus play a major role in all interchanges and access to this information. The need to more efficiently manage and process rapidly growing quantities of data, and to preserve the information contained therein, continue to drive a great interest in data formats. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of formats as they support the use of data within a space agency. The life-cycle identified is only one of many variations that would be recognized by those familiar with the 'space business', however it is expected that most of the issues raised will be pertinent to other 'space business' life cycles and to other 'non-space' disciplines as well.

  14. Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).

  15. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  16. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  17. CPL Materials Life Cycle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchko, Matthew T.

    1992-01-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) Materials Life Cycle Test Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will identify the operational parameters controlling the performance of a CPL over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of the facility is to investigate the long-term chemical compatibility between the anhydrous ammonia working fluid and the CPL materials of construction. Chemical reactions occurring within the system may produce non-condensable gases or particulate debris that can lead to a degradation in system performance. Small liquid samples will be drawn from the system at specific time intervals and analyzed to check for the presence of non-condensable gases. Periodic maximum and minimum heat load tests will be performed on the CPL to monitor trends in the overall system performance.

  18. Life cycle analysis and sewer solids.

    PubMed

    Gouda, H; Ashley, R M; Gilmour, D; Smith, H

    2003-01-01

    The search for sustainable ways of living has necessitated a new look at the way in which water services are provided. The new paradigm includes whole-system perspectives for each of the primary criteria groups: social, environmental and economic. Whilst Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) techniques have been used successfully for products, they are much less used to assess processes. Nonetheless there is much to learn from the use of LCA for a much wider range of applications. An application is described whereby LCA has been used to determine energy, mass flows and environmental impacts for a number of sewer-related options for handling sewer solids, using the SimaPro software. This work has been part of a wider study to provide enhanced decision support systems for water utilities. PMID:12666816

  19. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  20. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  1. From life cycle talking to taking action

    EPA Science Inventory

    The series of Life Cycle Management (LCM) conferences has aimed to create a platform for users and developers of life cycle assessment tools to share their experiences as they challenge traditional environmental management practices, which are narrowly confined (“gate-to-gate”) a...

  2. Life cycle of the marine alga Phaeocystis: A conceptual model to summarize literature and guide research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, Stuart J.; Patten, Bernard C.; Verity, Peter G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper reviews literature on the life cycle of the marine algal genus Phaeocystis, and organizes existing information in the form of a qualitative conceptual model of life-cycle stages, stage transitions, ecosystem inputs and outputs, and internal and external controlling factors. Conceptualization is the first phase of modeling, typically continued in later quantitative phases by mathematical formulation, calibration of parameters, dynamic simulation, and different forms of systems analysis. Qualitative conceptualization can also promote multidisciplinary interactions and structure early stages of scientific inquiry. To exploit the qualitative benefits of conceptual modeling, the goals of this paper are to: (1) review the literature of Phaeocystis life-cycle biology and ecology; (2) from the material of this review, construct, a conceptual life-cycle model covering all Phaeocystis species; and (3) show how this model, a platform for further quantitative development, is also used as a qualitative tool to guide empirical research. The conceptual model includes known and putative life-cycle stages, colony size classes, and genetic, physiological, semiotic, and ecological information expressed or potentially expressed across the genus. It consists of 15 compartments. Seven are single-celled: Solitary Diploid Flagellates ( x1), Solitary Diploid Non-flagellates ( x2), Benthic Solitary Diploid Non-Flagellates ( x3), Solitary Diploid Flagellated Macrozoospores ( x8), Solitary Haploid Flagellated Microzoospores ( x9), Solitary Haploid Microflagellates ( x10), and Solitary Haploid Mesoflagellates ( x11). The remaining eight compartments represent the New stage, and Small, Medium, and Large size classes of Healthy/Growing Colonies ( x4- x7), and Senescent/Declining Colonies ( x12- x15). Six flow types interconnect the compartments: (a) physical transport, (b) solitary cell transformations, (c) solitary cell↔colony transitions, (d) colony growth and differentiation, (e

  3. Life cycle economics of wood pole utility structures

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.H.; Goodman, J.R. )

    1990-04-01

    Due to the major expansions of the nation's electrification infrastructure, which closely followed World War II, many existing utility lines are now more than thirty years old and are approaching a critical stage in their useful life. This paper discusses the economics of life cycle management of wood pole utility structures. Recently developed technology which enables innovative management techniques for wood poles are discussed. Results of full-scale tests of in-service wood poles are reviewed which provide vital information on rates of pole degradation. These data enable realistic cost assessments for frequency of pole replacement and/or repair. Finally, methods for calculating life cycle costs are presented.

  4. The data life cycle applied to our own data

    PubMed Central

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for data-driven decision making is driving the need for librarians to be facile with the data life cycle. This case study follows the migration of reference desk statistics from handwritten to digital format. This shift presented two opportunities: first, the availability of a nonsensitive data set to improve the librarians' understanding of data-management and statistical analysis skills, and second, the use of analytics to directly inform staffing decisions and departmental strategic goals. By working through each step of the data life cycle, library faculty explored data gathering, storage, sharing, and analysis questions. PMID:25552944

  5. The data life cycle applied to our own data.

    PubMed

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for data-driven decision making is driving the need for librarians to be facile with the data life cycle. This case study follows the migration of reference desk statistics from handwritten to digital format. This shift presented two opportunities: first, the availability of a nonsensitive data set to improve the librarians' understanding of data-management and statistical analysis skills, and second, the use of analytics to directly inform staffing decisions and departmental strategic goals. By working through each step of the data life cycle, library faculty explored data gathering, storage, sharing, and analysis questions.

  6. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  7. The data life cycle applied to our own data.

    PubMed

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for data-driven decision making is driving the need for librarians to be facile with the data life cycle. This case study follows the migration of reference desk statistics from handwritten to digital format. This shift presented two opportunities: first, the availability of a nonsensitive data set to improve the librarians' understanding of data-management and statistical analysis skills, and second, the use of analytics to directly inform staffing decisions and departmental strategic goals. By working through each step of the data life cycle, library faculty explored data gathering, storage, sharing, and analysis questions. PMID:25552944

  8. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    A previously-developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system-level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass, and an age factor which varies during the life cycle, are examined. Results indicate that during the main phase of vegetative growth in the first half of the life cycle, the rate of transpiration per unit mass of inedible biomass is more than double the rate during the phase of grain development and maturation during latter half of the life cycle.

  9. Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Milà i Canals, Llorenç

    2014-06-01

    In the modern economy, international value chains--production, use, and disposal of goods--have global environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to track these impacts and assess them from a systems perspective, identifying strategies for improvement without burden shifting. We review recent developments in LCA, including existing and emerging applications aimed at supporting environmentally informed decisions in policy-making, product development and procurement, and consumer choices. LCA constitutes a viable screening tool that can pinpoint environmental hotspots in complex value chains, but we also caution that completeness in scope comes at the price of simplifications and uncertainties. Future advances of LCA in enhancing regional detail and accuracy as well as broadening the assessment to economic and social aspects will make it more relevant for producers and consumers alike. PMID:24904154

  10. Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Milà i Canals, Llorenç

    2014-06-01

    In the modern economy, international value chains--production, use, and disposal of goods--have global environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to track these impacts and assess them from a systems perspective, identifying strategies for improvement without burden shifting. We review recent developments in LCA, including existing and emerging applications aimed at supporting environmentally informed decisions in policy-making, product development and procurement, and consumer choices. LCA constitutes a viable screening tool that can pinpoint environmental hotspots in complex value chains, but we also caution that completeness in scope comes at the price of simplifications and uncertainties. Future advances of LCA in enhancing regional detail and accuracy as well as broadening the assessment to economic and social aspects will make it more relevant for producers and consumers alike.

  11. Research requirements to reduce civil helicopter life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of the high cost of helicopter development, production, operation, and maintenance is defined and the cost drivers are identified. Helicopter life cycle costs would decrease by about 17 percent if currently available technology were applied. With advanced technology, a reduction of about 30 percent in helicopter life cycle costs is projected. Technological and managerial deficiencies which contribute to high costs are examined, basic research and development projects which can reduce costs include methods for reduced fuel consumption; improved turbine engines; airframe and engine production methods; safety; rotor systems; and advanced transmission systems.

  12. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  13. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Hernani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs. As a result, these launch opportunities await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options.With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  14. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  15. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  16. Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.

  17. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  18. Life-cycle cost analysis task summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1980-01-01

    The DSN life cycle cost (LCC) analysis methodology was completed. The LCC analysis methodology goals and objectives are summarized, as well as the issues covered by the methodology, its expected use, and its long range implications.

  19. Life cycle assessment of fertilizers: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowrońska, Monika; Filipek, Tadeusz

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment has become an increasingly common approach for identifying, quantifying, and evaluating the total potential environmental impact of production processes or products, from the procurement of raw materials (the `cradle'), to production and utilization (the `gates') and their final storage (the `grave'), as well as for determining ways to repair damage to the environment. The paper describes life cycle assessment of mineral fertilizers. On the basis of results provided by life cycle assessment, it can be concluded that an effective strategy for protecting the environment against the harmful effects of fertilizers is to attempt to `seal' the nutrient cycle on a global, regional, and local scale. Pro-environ- mental measures aim on the one hand to reduce resource utilization, and on the other hand to limit losses of nutrients, during both production and use of fertilizers. An undoubted challenge for life cycle assessment when used in agricultural production is the need for relevance at each scale.

  20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  1. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy`s Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program`s life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Life cycle evolution: was the eumetazoan ancestor a holopelagic, planktotrophic gastraea?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two theories for the origin of animal life cycles with planktotrophic larvae are now discussed seriously: The terminal addition theory proposes a holopelagic, planktotrophic gastraea as the ancestor of the eumetazoans with addition of benthic adult stages and retention of the planktotrophic stages as larvae, i.e. the ancestral life cycles were indirect. The intercalation theory now proposes a benthic, deposit-feeding gastraea as the bilaterian ancestor with a direct development, and with planktotrophic larvae evolving independently in numerous lineages through specializations of juveniles. Results Information from the fossil record, from mapping of developmental types onto known phylogenies, from occurrence of apical organs, and from genetics gives no direct information about the ancestral eumetazoan life cycle; however, there are plenty of examples of evolution from an indirect development to direct development, and no unequivocal example of evolution in the opposite direction. Analyses of scenarios for the two types of evolution are highly informative. The evolution of the indirect spiralian life cycle with a trochophora larva from a planktotrophic gastraea is explained by the trochophora theory as a continuous series of ancestors, where each evolutionary step had an adaptational advantage. The loss of ciliated larvae in the ecdysozoans is associated with the loss of outer ciliated epithelia. A scenario for the intercalation theory shows the origin of the planktotrophic larvae of the spiralians through a series of specializations of the general ciliation of the juvenile. The early steps associated with the enhancement of swimming seem probable, but the following steps which should lead to the complicated downstream-collecting ciliary system are without any advantage, or even seem disadvantageous, until the whole structure is functional. None of the theories account for the origin of the ancestral deuterostome (ambulacrarian) life cycle. Conclusions All

  3. Use of S-PolKa Particles IDentification and TMI and MADRAS brightness temperatures to characterize the ice microphysics in rain systems as a function of their life cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Audrey; Viltard, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques Mission, a specific campaign was dedicated to ice microphysics studies during the CYNDIE-DYNAMO experiment. This contribution consisted in deploying the French Falcon 20 from mid-November to mid-December in Gan and perform about 40 hours of microphysics flights. The Falcon was equipped with a up- and downward looking W-Band Doppler Radar (RASTA) and a series of microphysics probes in order to characterize the ice particles in terms of density. This information is of dramatic importance to the microwave-based rain retrieval algorithms and more specifically the operational algorithm used in Megha-Tropiques known as BRAIN (Viltard et al 2006, Viltard et al 2012). This algorithm uses a retrieval database to reduce the number of possible solutions to those actually physical. This requires the computation of microwave brightness temperatures through a radiative transfer model in which the ice microphysics properties are parameterized. This parametrization is key for all brightness temperature simulation above roughly 30 GHz and strongly affects the quality of the rain retrieval. For the limited number of cases when the Falcon flew, we have a rather detailed description of the ice microphysics properties but this happens to be insufficient to build a robust statistics of the ice as a function of rain system life cycle. Hence the use of particles identification (PID) obtained from the ground-based polarimetric data from NCAR SPol-Ka. This dataset covers almost 5 month within a 200 km radius centered on Gan. We will briefly present our contribution in the CYNDIE-DYNAMO campaign and interpret in terms of microphysical properties the comparisons between these PIDs and the brightness temperatures measured by two passive microwave radiometers: TMI on TRMM and MADRAS on Megha-Tropiques.

  4. Title IV Cash Management Life Cycle Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD access, and features and…

  5. Life cycle investigation of CO2 recovery and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H; Tan, Reginald B H

    2006-06-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment of four CO2 recoverytechnologies, combined with nine CO2 sequestration systems, serves to expand the debate of CO2 mitigation methods beyond a single issue-prevention of global warming-to a wider range of environmental concerns: resource depletion, acidic and toxic gases, wastes, etc, so that the overall, and unexpected, environmental impacts may be revealed.

  6. Life cycle investigation of CO2 recovery and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H; Tan, Reginald B H

    2006-06-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment of four CO2 recoverytechnologies, combined with nine CO2 sequestration systems, serves to expand the debate of CO2 mitigation methods beyond a single issue-prevention of global warming-to a wider range of environmental concerns: resource depletion, acidic and toxic gases, wastes, etc, so that the overall, and unexpected, environmental impacts may be revealed. PMID:16830576

  7. Penetration of hydrogen-based energy system and its potential for causing global environmental change: Scoping risk analysis based on life cycle thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke . E-mail: kikuchi@mail.esac.pt

    2006-03-15

    A hydrogen-based economy seems superficially to be environmentally friendly, and many people have worked toward its realization. Today hydrogen is mainly produced by decarbonizing fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas), and in the future decarbonization of both fossil fuels and biomass will play a leading role in the production of hydrogen. The main purpose of this paper is to suggest the identification of potential environmental risks in terms of 'life cycle thinking' (which considers all aspects from production to utilization) with regard to the hydrogen-based economy to come. Hydrogen production by decarbonization results in CO{sub 2} emissions. The final destination of the recovered CO{sub 2} is uncertain. Furthermore, there is a possibility that hydrogen molecules will escape to the atmosphere, posing risks that could occasion global environmental changes such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, temperature change in the stratosphere and change of the hydrides cycle through global vaporization. Based on the results of simulation, requirements regarding the following items are proposed to minimize potential risks: hydrogen source, production and storage loss.

  8. A method of definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Koteleva, N.

    2016-04-01

    The problems of developing a diagnostic system of electromechanical equipment of mining industry are described in this article. This system is a platform for changing the strategy from periodic maintenance in the direction of predictive maintenance. The researches of different methods of malfunctions detection have been carried out and described. These researches have helped to make a conclusion that implementation of a safety diagnostic system without determination of many interdependent diagnostic parameters is not possible. The results of these researches will help to develop the system of monitoring, diagnostic and definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment. This system will able to take into account the differences of technological processes and will base on the subsystems of simulation and prediction of malfunctions. In addition, development of a subsystem of monitoring, diagnostic and definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment has been described. This subsystem will evaluate the life-cycle resources in different periods of timeand make the machine control possible, using the information about the fault values and availability of spare parts, tools and equipment in addition.

  9. Life cycle assessment of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Taufiq, Fierly Muhammad; Padmi, Tri; Rahardyan, Dan Benno

    2016-03-01

    In 2013 the population of dairy cattle in Indonesia had reached 636,000 head with a 4.61% growth rate per year. The inputs were energy, water, and feed. These inputs produced outputs, such as emissions, solid waste and liquid waste. This research compared the maintenance systems in modern farms and local farms. The data were collected from 30 local farmers and one modern farm. This research used the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. LCA is based on ISO 14040. LCA consists of several stages: the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation. This research used the cradle to gate concept and fat corrected milk (FCM) as the function unit. The impacts of these activities could generate global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), and eutrophication potential (EP). The calculations showed that the systems in local farms had the greatest emissions result over all impacts. In the case of local farms, the GWP was 2.34 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP was 0.12 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP was 18.28 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L milk FCM. While the impact from the modern farm was GWP of 1.52 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP of 0.02 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP of 0.353 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L of milk FCM. Based on the total-weighted result, the GWP had the greatest impact from the overall life cycle phase of milk production. The total-weighted result obtained was of 0.298 EUR/L of FCM from a local farm and 0.189 EUR/L of FCM from the modern farm. This amount could be used to remediate the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication impacts of milk production. PMID:26953699

  10. Life cycle assessment of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Taufiq, Fierly Muhammad; Padmi, Tri; Rahardyan, Dan Benno

    2016-03-01

    In 2013 the population of dairy cattle in Indonesia had reached 636,000 head with a 4.61% growth rate per year. The inputs were energy, water, and feed. These inputs produced outputs, such as emissions, solid waste and liquid waste. This research compared the maintenance systems in modern farms and local farms. The data were collected from 30 local farmers and one modern farm. This research used the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. LCA is based on ISO 14040. LCA consists of several stages: the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation. This research used the cradle to gate concept and fat corrected milk (FCM) as the function unit. The impacts of these activities could generate global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), and eutrophication potential (EP). The calculations showed that the systems in local farms had the greatest emissions result over all impacts. In the case of local farms, the GWP was 2.34 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP was 0.12 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP was 18.28 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L milk FCM. While the impact from the modern farm was GWP of 1.52 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP of 0.02 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP of 0.353 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L of milk FCM. Based on the total-weighted result, the GWP had the greatest impact from the overall life cycle phase of milk production. The total-weighted result obtained was of 0.298 EUR/L of FCM from a local farm and 0.189 EUR/L of FCM from the modern farm. This amount could be used to remediate the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication impacts of milk production.

  11. Life Cycle of a Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the the six phases of a space mission is shown. The contents include: 1) What Does Planning Involve?; 2) Designing the Flight System; 3) Building the Flight System; 4) Testing the Flight System; 5) Flying the Mission; and 6) Analyzing the Data.

  12. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  13. Comparison of energy-based indicators used in life cycle assessment tools for buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, building rating systems focused on, among others, energy used during operational stage. Recently, there is a strong push by these rating systems to include the life cycle energy use of buildings, particularly using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), by offering credits t...

  14. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  15. Life Cycle Nitrogen Trifluoride Emissions from Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-25

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF{sub 3}, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF{sub 3} in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF{sub 3} and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF{sub 3} at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF{sub 3} in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO{sub 2eq}/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

  16. Automation life-cycle cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gathmann, Thomas P.; Reeves, Arlinda J.; Cline, Rick; Henrion, Max; Ruokangas, Corinne

    1992-01-01

    The problem domain being addressed by this contractual effort can be summarized by the following list: Automation and Robotics (A&R) technologies appear to be viable alternatives to current, manual operations; Life-cycle cost models are typically judged with suspicion due to implicit assumptions and little associated documentation; and Uncertainty is a reality for increasingly complex problems and few models explicitly account for its affect on the solution space. The objectives for this effort range from the near-term (1-2 years) to far-term (3-5 years). In the near-term, the envisioned capabilities of the modeling tool are annotated. In addition, a framework is defined and developed in the Decision Modelling System (DEMOS) environment. Our approach is summarized as follows: Assess desirable capabilities (structure into near- and far-term); Identify useful existing models/data; Identify parameters for utility analysis; Define tool framework; Encode scenario thread for model validation; and Provide transition path for tool development. This report contains all relevant, technical progress made on this contractual effort.

  17. Wetland loss and the subdelta life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, John T.; Coleman, James M.

    1987-07-01

    The rapid deterioration of marsh habitat observed during recent years in the modern Mississippi River Delta is a consequence, at least in part, of the natural life cycle of subdeltas. With life spans typically less than 200 years, subdeltas or bay-fill deposits are scaled-down versions of major delta lobes, yet provide, through pulses of sediment, nearly all the subaerial land in an active delta. Using maps, charts, and aerial photographs, curves were constructed for rates of change in land area, sediment volume, and linear progradation in the four subdeltas that have formed on the modern Mississippi River Delta since the first accurate survey in 1838. Results indicate that each subdelta (1) lasted for approximately 115-175 years, (2) included both periods of growth and deterioration, (3) was initiated by a crevasse or break in the natural levee system, (4) showed linear advancement and volumetric growth during subaerial deterioration, and (5) displayed a new pulse of subaerial growth during the high discharge decade of the 1970s. Contrary to popular accounts, demise of the Mississippi River Delta through deterioration of its subdeltas is not a result of the construction of artificial levees upstream or discharge of sediment off the continental shelf edge. Rather, it is attributable to a substantial decrease and fining of sediments being transported downstream to depositional sites within a delta that has developed, through natural processes, a complex and inefficient channel network for delivering these sediments.

  18. The changing nature of life cycle assessment

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Marcelle C.; Taylor, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    LCA has evolved from its origins in energy analysis in the 1960s and 70s into a wide ranging tool used to determine impacts of products or systems over several environmental and resource issues. The approach has become more prevalent in research, industry and policy. Its use continues to expand as it seeks to encompass impacts as diverse as resource accounting and social well being. Carbon policy for bioenergy has driven many of these changes. Enabling assessment of complex issues over a life cycle basis is beneficial, but the process is sometimes difficult. LCA's use in framing is increasingly complex and more uncertain, and in some cases, irreconcilable. The charged environment surrounding biofuels and bioenergy exacerbates all of these. Reaching its full potential to help guide difficult policy discussions and emerging research involves successfully managing LCA's transition from attributional to consequential and from retrospective to prospective. This paper examines LCA's on-going evolution and its use within bioenergy deployment. The management of methodological growth in the context of the unique challenges associated with bioenergy and biofuels is explored. Changes seen in bioenergy LCA will bleed into other LCA arenas, especially where it is important that a sustainable solution is chosen. PMID:26664146

  19. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains. PMID:22881452

  20. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  1. Connections: Life Cycle Kinesthetic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Office, Grand Junction, CO.

    An understanding of the environment and peoples' role in its preservation and destruction must be acquired in order to circumvent the current threat of environmental deterioration. This document provides lessons developed to help students and others reconnect with the natural systems which sustain life. The following activities are provided for…

  2. [Life cycle assessment on oxygen biofuels].

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong-hong; Zhu, Yong-qing; Wang, Jian-xin; Hao, Ji-ming

    2005-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to compare energy consumption and pollutant emissions of two oxygen biofuels, ethanol and methyl ester, which were mixed with gasoline and diesel oil at levels of 10% and 30% of the biofuel. The future of oxygen-containing biofuels was analyzed and forecasted. The results show that the mixture of biofuels and petroleum products can reduce crude oil consumption, but only methyl ester alternative fuel can reduce fossil fuel consumption. Use of methyl ester mixtures would reduce NOx by 50% compared to gasoline or diesel on a life cycle basis; however, NOx would increase using ethanol. Each alternative fuel mixture reduced PM10 emissions from the vehicle and methyl ester decreased VOCs. The SO2 emissions from the fuel production processes, which account for about 80% of SO2 life cycle emissions, must be strictly controlled.

  3. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    periods. Much more challenging is the geographic mapping of impacts that these emissions will cause, given the many point and mobile sources of air pollutants over the entire transportation life cycle. Integration of LCA with high-resolution data sets is an active area of model development (Mutel and Hellweg 2009) and will provide site- and population-specific information for impacts ranging from water quality to biodiversity to human respiratory health. Another complex challenge in modeling environmental impacts of transportation (and cities in general) is the long run, interdependent relationship between transportation technologies and urban form. LCA modeling has tended to assume a fixed pattern of settlements and demand for mobility and then examined changes to a particular technology or practice within the transportation system, such as electric or hybrid vehicles or improved pavement materials. New transit options or other travel demand management strategies might induce mode switching or reduced trips, but the overall pattern of where people live and work is generally assumed in these models to be constant in the short run. In contrast, the automobile has been influencing land-use patterns for a century, and it is the resulting geographic structure that determines the baseline need for transportation, and thus drives the use of material and energy resources used in transportation systems (Kunstler 1994). We have seen that cities with high population densities tend to have lower tailpipe emissions from transportation (Kennedy et al 2009). Recent studies have modeled how changes in urban land-use or zoning changes the geographic structure of transportation demand and then used LCA to determine the environmental benefits of such policies. For example, Mashayekh et al (2012) summarized travel demand reductions projected from several studies of compact, smart growth, and brownfield in-fill development strategies to find benefits ranging up to 75% reductions in life

  4. LIFE CYCLE BASED STUDIES ON BIOETHANOL FUEL FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature search was conducted and revealed 45 publications (1996-2005) that compare bio-ethanol systems to conventional fuel on a life-cycle basis, or using life cycle assessment. Feedstocks, such as sugar beets, wheat, potato, sugar cane, and corn, have been investigated in...

  5. Achieving Our Environmental Sustainability Goals: The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Applying Life Cycle Thinking

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of people around the world are beginning to realize that a systems approach, such as life cycle thinking, is necessary to truly achieve environmental sustainability. Without the holistic perspective that life cycle thinking provides, our actions risk leading ...

  6. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  7. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  8. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  9. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  10. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  11. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  12. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  13. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  14. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  15. Estimating soil carbon change and biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions with economic, ecosystem and life-cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Z.; Dunn, J.; Kwon, H. Y.; Mueller, S.; Wander, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) resulting from biofuel feedstock production can alter soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of lands producing those crops and the crops they displace, possibly resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. LUC GHG emissions included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) have at times been estimated to be so great that biofuels did not offer a greenhouse gas reduction compared to conventional fossil fuels. To improve the accuracy of emissions estimates, SOC changes must be considered at a finer spatial resolution and take into account climate, soil, land use and management factors. This study reports on the incorporation of global LUC as predicted by a computable general equilibrium model (i.e., GTAP) and spatially-explicit modeled SOC estimates (using surrogate CENTURY) for various biofuel feedstock scenarios into a widely-used LCA model (i.e., GREET). Resulting estimates suggest: SOC changes associated with domestic corn production might contribute 2-6% or offset as much as 5% of total corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions. On the other hand, domestic LUC GHG emissions for switchgrass ethanol have the potential offset up to 60% of GHG emissions in the fuel's life cycle. Further, large SOC sequestration is predicted for Miscanthus feedstock production, enabling Miscanthus-based ethanol systems to offset all life-cycle GHG emissions and create a net carbon sink. LUC GHG emissions for ethanol derived from corn stover are small compared to other sources. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm soil) were estimated to be 59-66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -7 - -0.6 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  16. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A previously developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass and an age factor that varies during the life cycle are discussed.

  17. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; Decision and Information Sciences; SRL; DOE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing upon current US Department of Energy (DOE) storage standards and examples from interim storage of Pu bearing materials in model 9975 transportation packagings. Key issues highlighted during long term storage of Pu bearing materials included gas generation and stability of PuO{sub 2+x}; other operation safety issues highlighted for interim storage of model 9975 transportation packagings included the need to consider a facility design basis fire event and the long term behaviour of packaging components such as Celotex and elastomeric O-ring seals. The principles of aging management are described, and the key attributes and examples of effective aging management programmes are provided based on the guidance documents for license renewal of nuclear power plants. The Packaging Certification Program of DOE Environmental Management, Office of Safety Management and Operations, plans to expand its mission into packaging certification for storage and aging management, as well as application of advanced technology, such as radiofrequency identification, for life cycle management of radioactive materials packagings.

  18. Life Cycle of the Career Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E., Ed.; Wolfe, Michael P, Ed.; Pasch, Suzanne H., Ed.; Enz, Billie J., Ed.

    This book demonstrates how teachers and administrators can work collaboratively on maintaining continual growth, focusing on the Life Cycle of the Career Teacher Model, which crosses the continuum of practice from preservice preparation through professional development. Case studies illustrate the Reflection-Renewal-Growth Cycle Model in action.…

  19. Moonlighting Husbands: A Life-Cycle Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster-McClain, Donna; Moen, Phylis

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the extent and correlates of moonlighting at various stages in the life course for 2,118 employed husbands during 1976 and 1977. They found that 21 percent of husbands held two jobs. Findings also revealed variations in the incidence of moonlighting over the life cycle. (Author/CH)

  20. MAKING LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATA AVAILABLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making Life Cycle Inventory Data Available

    Mary Ann Curran
    US EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    Address: 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive (MS-466)
    Cincinnati, OH 45268 USA
    Phone: 513-569-7782
    Fax: 513-569-7111
    E-Mail: curran.maryann@...

  1. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  2. Women's Place in Man's Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Carol

    1979-01-01

    Drawing on literary and psychological sources, the author documents how theories of the life cycle, by taking men as models, have failed to account for the experience of women. She argues that this bias has promoted a concern with autonomy and achievement at the expense of attachment and intimacy. (CT)

  3. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  4. Life Cycle Cost Analysis Handbook. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education and Early Development, Juneau.

    This handbook presents guidelines on the Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) of building operations over the life of a building to assist school districts and consultants with evaluating proposed educational facility construction projects. It defines the terminology found in an LCCA, such as initial and future expenses, residual value, real discount…

  5. Life-Cycle Cost/Benefit Assessment of Expedite Departure Path (EDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Chang, Paul; Datta, Koushik

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment (LCCBA) of Expedite Departure Path (EDP), an air traffic control Decision Support Tool (DST) currently under development at NASA. This assessment is an update of a previous study performed by bd Systems, Inc. (bd) during FY01, with the following revisions: The life-cycle cost assessment methodology developed by bd for the previous study was refined and calibrated using Free Flight Phase 1 (FFP1) cost information for Traffic Management Advisor (TMA, or TMA-SC in the FAA's terminology). Adjustments were also made to the site selection and deployment scheduling methodology to include airspace complexity as a factor. This technique was also applied to the benefit extrapolation methodology to better estimate potential benefits for other years, and at other sites. This study employed a new benefit estimating methodology because bd s previous single year potential benefit assessment of EDP used unrealistic assumptions that resulted in optimistic estimates. This methodology uses an air traffic simulation approach to reasonably predict the impacts from the implementation of EDP. The results of the costs and benefits analyses were then integrated into a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment.

  6. Data Stewardship throughout the Ocean Research Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Allison, Molly; Wiebe, Peter; Glover, David

    2013-04-01

    identifiers to unambiguously identify resources of interest curated by and available from BCO-DMO have significantly enabled progress toward interoperability with partner systems. Several important components have emerged from early collaborative relationships: (1) identifying a trusted authoritative source of complementary content and the appropriate contact; (2) determining the globally unique, persistent identifier for resources of interest and (3) negotiating the requisite syntactic and semantic exchange systems. An added benefit is the ability to use globally unique, persistent resource identifiers to identify and compare related content in other repositories, thus enabling us to improve the accuracy of content in the BCO-DMO data collection. Results from a recent community discussion at the January 2013 Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) meeting will be presented. Mindful of the NSF EarthCube initiative in the United States, the ESIP discussion was an effort to identify commonalities and differences in the way different communities meet the challenges of data stewardship throughout the full data life cycle and to determine any gaps that currently exist. BCO-DMO: http://bco-dmo.org ESIP: http://esipfed.org/

  7. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting.

  8. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier.

  9. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  10. The research and realization of digital management platform for ultra-precision optical elements within life-cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Jian; Li, Lijuan; Zhou, Kun

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the information fusion, process integration, collaborative design and manufacturing for ultra-precision optical elements within life-cycle management, this paper presents a digital management platform which is based on product data and business processes by adopting the modern manufacturing technique, information technique and modern management technique. The architecture and system integration of the digital management platform are discussed in this paper. The digital management platform can realize information sharing and interaction for information-flow, control-flow and value-stream from user's needs to offline in life-cycle, and it can also enhance process control, collaborative research and service ability of ultra-precision optical elements.

  11. Life cycle optimisation for highway best management practices.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Heaney, J P; Rapp, D N; Pack, C A

    2006-01-01

    Highway runoff can cause a number of water quantity and quality problems. Stormwater management systems for highways have been developed based on a fast drainage for large storm situations. Non-point source pollution from highway runoff is a growing water quality concern. Stormwater quality control needs to be integrated into highway drainage design and operation to reduce the stormwater impacts on the receiving water. A continuous simulation/optimisation model for analysing integrated highway best management practices (BMPs) is presented. This model can evaluate the life cycle performance of infiltration and/or storage oriented highway BMPs. It can be directly integrated with spreadsheet optimisation tools to find the least cost options for implementing BMPs throughout a specified life cycle.

  12. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The training requirements analysis model (TRAMOD) described in this report represents an important portion of the larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. TRAMOD is the second of three models that comprise an LCC impact modeling system for use in the early stages of system development. As…

  13. Life cycle of Gnathostoma nipponicum Yamaguti, 1941.

    PubMed

    Ando, K; Tokura, H; Matsuoka, H; Taylor, D; Chinzei, Y

    1992-03-01

    The life cycle of Gnathostoma nipponicum was examined by field survey and by experimental infection of animals with the larvae. Naturally infected larval G. nipponicum were found in loaches, catfish, and snakes. Experimentally, loaches, killifishes, frogs, salamanders, mice, and rats were successfully infected with the early third-stage larvae of G. nipponicum obtained from copepods (the first intermediate host), whereas snakes, quails, and weasels were not. Frogs, snakes, quails, and rats were experimentally infected with the advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) from loaches. These results reveal that some species of fishes, amphibians and mammals can act as the second intermediate host and that some species of reptiles, birds and mammals can act as a paratenic host. The life cycle was completed in weasels, the definitive host, which were infected with AdL3 from loaches and started to evacuate eggs of G. nipponicun in faeces on days 65-90 postinfection.

  14. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-12-31

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia.

  15. Life cycle cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents progress to date by the University of Dayton on the development of a life cycle cost model for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of a life cycle cost model. Cost categories are initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. The focus will be on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the life cycle costing model include continual support and upgrade of the R&M model. The primary result of the completed research will be a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely cost analysis in support of the conceptual design activities. The major objectives of this research are: to obtain and to develop improved methods for estimating manpower, spares, software and hardware costs, facilities costs, and other cost categories as identified by NASA personnel; to construct a life cycle cost model of a space transportation system for budget exercises and performance-cost trade-off analysis during the conceptual and development stages; to continue to support modifications and enhancements to the R&M model; and to continue to assist in the development of a simulation model to provide an integrated view of the operations and support of the proposed system.

  16. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, T. P.; Linkov, I.

    Despite concerns regarding environmental fate and toxicology, engineered nanostructured material manufacturing is expanding at an increasingly rapid pace. In particular, the unique properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have made them attractive in many areas, including high-tech power applications such as experimental batteries, fuel cells or electrical wiring. The intensity of research interest in SWCNT has raised questions regarding the life cycle environmental impact of nanotechnologies, including assessment of: worker and consumer safety, greenhouse gas emissions, toxicological risks associated with production or product emissions and the disposition of nanoproducts at end of life. However, development of appropriate nanotechnology assessment tools has lagged progress in the nanotechnologies themselves. In particular, current approaches to life cycle assessment (LCA) — originally developed for application in mature manufacturing industries such as automobiles and chemicals — suffer from several shortcomings that make applicability to nanotechnologies problematic. Among these are uncertainties related to the variability of material properties, toxicity and risk, technology performance in the use phase, nanomaterial degradation and change during the product life cycle and the impact assessment stage of LCA. This chapter expounds upon the unique challenges presented by nanomaterials in general, specifies sources of uncertainty and variability in LCA of SWCNT for use in electric and hybrid vehicle batteries and makes recommendations for modeling and decision-making using LCA in a multi-criteria decision analysis framework under conditions of high uncertainty.1

  17. Multicellular life cycle of magnetotactic prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Keim, Carolina N; Martins, Juliana L; Abreu, Fernanda; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; de Barros, Henrique Lins; Borojevic, Radovan; Lins, Ulysses; Farina, Marcos

    2004-11-15

    Most multicellular organisms, prokaryotes as well as animals, plants, and algae have a unicellular stage in their life cycle. Here, we describe an uncultured prokaryotic magnetotactic multicellular organism that reproduces by binary fission. It is multicellular in all the stages of its life cycle, and during most of the life cycle the cells organize into a hollow sphere formed by a functionally coordinated and polarized single-cell layer that grows by increasing the cell size. Subsequently, all the cells divide synchronously; the organism becomes elliptical, and separates into two equal spheres with a torsional movement in the equatorial plane. Unicellular bacteria similar to the cells that compose these organisms have not been found. Molecular biology analysis showed that all the organisms studied belong to a single genetic population phylogenetically related to many-celled magnetotactic prokaryotes in the delta sub-group of the proteobacteria. This appears to be the first report of a multicellular prokaryotic organism that proliferates by dividing into two equal multicellular organisms each similar to the parent one. PMID:15522508

  18. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  19. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  20. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  1. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  2. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 3: Life cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE j227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system included a 108 volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited dc propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses.

  3. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  4. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  5. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  6. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  7. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Highlights Hydrogen's Potential for Electrical Energy Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in analyzing life-cycle costs for hydrogen storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  8. EVALUATION OF PUBLIC DATABASES AS SOURCES OF DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to determine the environmental effects of production systems must encourage a comprehensive evaluation of all "upstream" and "downstream" effects and their interrelationships. This cradle-to-grave approach, called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), has led to the development...

  9. Comparative myoanatomy of cycliophoran life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ricardo C; Cunha, Marina R; Funch, Peter; Kristensen, Reinhardt M; Wanninger, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The metazoan phylum Cycliophora includes small cryptic epibionts that live attached to the mouthparts of clawed lobsters. The life cycle is complex, with alternating sexual and asexual generations, and involves several sessile and free-living stages. So far, the morphological and genetic characterization of cycliophorans has been unable to clarify the phylogenetic position of the phylum. In this study, we add new details on the muscular anatomy of the feeding stage, the attached Prometheus larva, the dwarf male, and the female of one of the two hitherto described species, Symbion pandora. The musculature of the feeding stage is composed of myofibers that run longitudinally in the buccal funnel (two fibers) and in the trunk (variable number of fibers). The mouth opening is lined by a myoepithelial ring musculature. A complex myoepithelial sphincter is situated proximal to the anus. In the attached Prometheus larva, three longitudinal sets of myofilaments run dorsally, laterally, and ventrally along the entire anterior-posterior body axis. The muscular architecture of the dwarf male is complex, especially close to the penis, in the posterior part of the body. An X-shaped muscle structure is found on the dorsal side, whereas on the ventral side, longitudinal muscles and a V-shaped muscle structure are present. These muscles are complemented by additional dorsoventral muscles. The mesodermal muscle fibers attach to the cuticle via the epidermis in all life cycle stages studied herein. The musculature of the female is similar to that of the Pandora larva of Symbion americanus and includes dorsoventral muscles and longitudinal muscles that run in the dorsal and ventral body region. Overall, our results reveal striking similarities in the muscular arrangement of the life cycle stages of both Symbion species. PMID:20024946

  10. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  11. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  12. Quasi-Steady-State Analysis based on Structural Modules and Timed Petri Net Predict System's Dynamics: The Life Cycle of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Scheidel, Jennifer; Lindauer, Klaus; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina

    2015-12-17

    The insulin-dependent activation and recycling of the insulin receptor play an essential role in the regulation of the energy metabolism, leading to a special interest for pharmaceutical applications. Thus, the recycling of the insulin receptor has been intensively investigated, experimentally as well as theoretically. We developed a time-resolved, discrete model to describe stochastic dynamics and study the approximation of non-linear dynamics in the context of timed Petri nets. Additionally, using a graph-theoretical approach, we analyzed the structure of the regulatory system and demonstrated the close interrelation of structural network properties with the kinetic behavior. The transition invariants decomposed the model into overlapping subnetworks of various sizes, which represent basic functional modules. Moreover, we computed the quasi-steady states of these subnetworks and demonstrated that they are fundamental to understand the dynamic behavior of the system. The Petri net approach confirms the experimental results of insulin-stimulated degradation of the insulin receptor, which represents a common feature of insulin-resistant, hyperinsulinaemic states.

  13. Quasi-Steady-State Analysis based on Structural Modules and Timed Petri Net Predict System's Dynamics: The Life Cycle of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Scheidel, Jennifer; Lindauer, Klaus; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-dependent activation and recycling of the insulin receptor play an essential role in the regulation of the energy metabolism, leading to a special interest for pharmaceutical applications. Thus, the recycling of the insulin receptor has been intensively investigated, experimentally as well as theoretically. We developed a time-resolved, discrete model to describe stochastic dynamics and study the approximation of non-linear dynamics in the context of timed Petri nets. Additionally, using a graph-theoretical approach, we analyzed the structure of the regulatory system and demonstrated the close interrelation of structural network properties with the kinetic behavior. The transition invariants decomposed the model into overlapping subnetworks of various sizes, which represent basic functional modules. Moreover, we computed the quasi-steady states of these subnetworks and demonstrated that they are fundamental to understand the dynamic behavior of the system. The Petri net approach confirms the experimental results of insulin-stimulated degradation of the insulin receptor, which represents a common feature of insulin-resistant, hyperinsulinaemic states. PMID:26694479

  14. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  15. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  16. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  17. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... practices of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 shall not be included in the life cycle cost calculation....

  1. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  2. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... practices of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 shall not be included in the life cycle cost calculation....

  3. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT... FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life-cycle cost-effectiveness by using the procedures set out in subpart...

  4. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT... FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life-cycle cost-effectiveness by using the procedures set out in subpart...

  5. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT...-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life-cycle cost-effectiveness by using the procedures..., including lower life-cycle costs, positive net savings, savings-to-investment ratio that is estimated to...

  6. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  7. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT...-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life-cycle cost-effectiveness by using the procedures..., including lower life-cycle costs, positive net savings, savings-to-investment ratio that is estimated to...

  8. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  9. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  10. Sensor-embedded computers for better life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Zeid, Ibrahim

    2004-12-01

    This research investigates the advantages offered by embedded sensors for cost-effective and environmentally benign product life cycle management for desktop computers. During their use by customers as well as at the end of their lives, Sensor Embedded Computers (SECs) by virtue of sensors embedded in them generate data and information pertaining to the conditions and remaining lives of important components such as hard-drive, motherboard, and power supply unit. A computer monitoring framework is proposed to provide more customer comfort, reduce repair costs and increase the effectiveness of current disassembly practices. The framework consists of SECs, remote monitoring center (RMC), repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers. The RMC collects dynamic data/information generated by sensors during computer usage as well as static data/information from the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The RMC forwards this data/information to the repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers on need-basis. The knowledge about the condition and remaining life of computer components can be advantageously used for planning repair/service and disassembly operations as well as for building refurbished computers with known expected lives. Simulation model of the framework is built and is evaluated in terms of the following performance measures: average downtime of a computer, average repair/service cost of a computer, average disassembly cost of a computer, and average life cycle cost of a computer. Test results show that embedding sensors in computers provides a definite advantage over conventional computers in terms of the performance measures.

  11. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAA(mDII)-GR). Repression of auxin responses in (pro)MpIAA:MpIAA(mDII)-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate

  12. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L.; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAAmDII-GR). Repression of auxin responses in proMpIAA:MpIAAmDII-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate the

  13. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAA(mDII)-GR). Repression of auxin responses in (pro)MpIAA:MpIAA(mDII)-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate

  14. Developing a data life cycle for carbon and greenhouse gas measurements: challenges, experiences and visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental research infrastructures and big data integration networks require common data policies, standardized workflows and sophisticated e-infrastructure to optimise the data life cycle. This presentation summarizes the experiences in developing the data life cycle for the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), a European Research Infrastructure. It will also outline challenges that still exist and visions for future development. As many other environmental research infrastructures ICOS RI built on a large number of distributed observational or experimental sites. Data from these sites are transferred to Thematic Centres and quality checked, processed and integrated there. Dissemination will be managed by the ICOS Carbon Portal. This complex data life cycle has been defined in detail by developing protocols and assigning responsibilities. Since data will be shared under an open access policy there is a strong need for common data citation tracking systems that allow data providers to identify downstream usage of their data so as to prove their importance and show the impact to stakeholders and the public. More challenges arise from interoperating with other infrastructures or providing data for global integration projects as done e.g. in the framework of GEOSS or in global integration approaches such as fluxnet or SOCAt. Here, common metadata systems are the key solutions for data detection and harvesting. The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). Risks may arise when data of high and low quality are mixed during this process or unexperienced data scientists without detailed knowledge on the data aquisition derive scientific theories through statistical analyses. The vision of fully open data availability is expressed in a recent GEO flagship initiative that will address important issues needed to build a connected and interoperable global network for carbon cycle and greenhouse gas

  15. Thermoregulation in the life cycle of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Eileen

    2006-05-31

    An unanswered question in the biology of many parasites is the mechanism by which environmental (or external) and intrinsic signals are integrated to determine the switch from one developmental stage to the next. This is particularly pertinent for nematode parasites, many of which have a free-living stage in the environment prior to infection of the mammalian host, or for parasites such as filarial nematodes, which utilise an insect vector for transmission. The environmental changes experienced by a parasite upon infection of a mammalian host are extremely complex and poorly understood. However, the ability of a parasite to sense its new environment must be intrinsically linked to its developmental programme, as progression of the life cycle is dependent upon the infection event. In this review, the relationship between temperature and development in filarial nematodes and in the free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans is summarised, with a focus on the role of heat shock factor and heat shock protein 90 in the nematode life cycle. PMID:16620827

  16. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  17. Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

  18. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  19. Life cycle analysis sets new priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Fouhy, K.

    1993-07-01

    Industries pressured by government regulations and negative public opinion are increasingly turning to life cycle assessment (LCA) as a life-giving elixir. Once dismissed as a public relations ploy by environmentalists, LCA has become scientifically rigorous, providing a way to defuse environmental debates by answering emotionalism with data. Also called ecobalances or cradle-to-grave analyses, LCAs quantify the environmental impact of a product, from raw material procurement, through manufacturing, distribution and consumption, to disposal. Impacts are presented in terms of emissions or consumption per functional unit--for example, per m.t. of product produced or liter of milk delivered. The paper discusses the analysis method and how it is being used in the chemical process industries.

  20. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint. PMID:21330022

  1. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  2. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint.

  3. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  4. Life cycle responses to health insurance status.

    PubMed

    Pelgrin, Florian; St-Amour, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the lifetime effects of exogenous changes in health insurance coverage (e.g. Medicare, PPACA, termination of employer-provided plans) on the dynamic optimal allocation (consumption, leisure, health expenditures), status (health and wealth), and welfare. We solve, simulate, and structurally estimate a parsimonious life cycle model with endogenous exposure to morbidity and mortality risks, and exogenous health insurance. By varying coverage, we identify the marginal effects of insurance when young and/or when old on allocations, statuses, and welfare. Our results highlight positive effects of insurance on health, wealth and welfare, as well as mid-life substitution away from healthy leisure in favor of more health expenses, caused by peaking wages, and accelerating health issues.

  5. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers).

  6. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized

  7. Life cycle impact assessment of greywater recycling technologies for new developments.

    PubMed

    Memon, F A; Zheng, Z; Butler, D; Shirley-Smith, C; Lui, S; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of four treatment technologies currently under investigation for recycling the greywater generated from households and describes the development of a new LCIA tool set produced in this study. The technologies investigated include reed beds, membrane bioreactors (MBR); membrane chemical reactors (MCR) and an innovative green roof water recycling system (GROW). The materials and energy required for the construction and operation phases of these technologies have been quantified for 20 development scales. All of the information gathered is used to prepare life cycle inventories for each technology. The inventories have been used as an input to Simapro Software for performing LCIA. Two assessment methods (CML-2 and Eco-indc-99) have been employed. For the CML method, the results were processed to express the environmental performance in ten impact categories including climate change/global warming, depletion of abiotic resources, acidification, eutrophication, and human toxicity. For the Eco-indc-99 method, results are shown in three generic environmental indicators: human health, eco system and natural resources. LCIA results obtained for 20 development scales have been used to develop a tool set using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique. The study results indicate that the technologies based on natural treatment processes (GROW and reed beds) have low environmental impact. PMID:17242974

  8. Life cycle impact assessment of greywater recycling technologies for new developments.

    PubMed

    Memon, F A; Zheng, Z; Butler, D; Shirley-Smith, C; Lui, S; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of four treatment technologies currently under investigation for recycling the greywater generated from households and describes the development of a new LCIA tool set produced in this study. The technologies investigated include reed beds, membrane bioreactors (MBR); membrane chemical reactors (MCR) and an innovative green roof water recycling system (GROW). The materials and energy required for the construction and operation phases of these technologies have been quantified for 20 development scales. All of the information gathered is used to prepare life cycle inventories for each technology. The inventories have been used as an input to Simapro Software for performing LCIA. Two assessment methods (CML-2 and Eco-indc-99) have been employed. For the CML method, the results were processed to express the environmental performance in ten impact categories including climate change/global warming, depletion of abiotic resources, acidification, eutrophication, and human toxicity. For the Eco-indc-99 method, results are shown in three generic environmental indicators: human health, eco system and natural resources. LCIA results obtained for 20 development scales have been used to develop a tool set using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique. The study results indicate that the technologies based on natural treatment processes (GROW and reed beds) have low environmental impact.

  9. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  10. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  11. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  12. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of −46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae’s life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae’s direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Conclusions Given the high variability in microalgae’s energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative

  13. Prospective life cycle assessment of graphene production by ultrasonication and chemical reduction.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Kushnir, Duncan; Sandén, Björn A; Molander, Sverker

    2014-04-15

    One promising future bulk application of graphene is as composite additive. Therefore, we compare two production routes for in-solution graphene using a cradle-to-gate lifecycle assessment focusing on potential differences in energy use, blue water footprint, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The data used for the assessment is based on information in scientific papers and patents. Considering the prospective nature of this study, environmental impacts from background systems such as energy production were not included. The production routes are either based on ultrasonication or chemical reduction. The results show that the ultrasonication route has lower energy and water use, but higher human and ecotoxicity impacts, compared to the chemical reduction route. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that solvent recovery in the ultrasonication process gives lower impacts for all included impact categories. The sensitivity analysis also showed that solvent recovery is important to lower the blue water footprint of the chemical reduction route as well. The results demonstrate the possibility to conduct a life cycle assessment study based mainly on information from patents and scientific articles, enabling prospective life cycle assessment studies of products at early stages of technological development.

  14. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  15. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  16. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  17. Life cycle considerations for improving sustainability assessments in seafood awareness campaigns.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  18. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres.

  19. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  1. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  2. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  3. Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units

  4. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  5. A life cycle comparison of electricity from biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1999-07-01

    It has become widely accepted that biomass power offers opportunities for reduced environmental impacts compared to fossil fuel-based systems. Intuitively obvious are the facts that per kilowatt-hour of energy produced, biomass systems will emit less CO{sub 2} and consume less nonrenewable energy. To quantify the magnitude of these and other environmental benefits and drawbacks, life cycle assessments (LCA) on the production of electricity from biomass and coal systems have been performed. Each assessment was conducted in a cradle-to-grave manner to cover all processes necessary for the operation of the power plant, including raw material extraction, feed preparation, transportation, and waste disposal and recycling. Results demonstrate significant differences between the biomass and coal systems. Per kWh of electricity produced, the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by the biomass system is only 4.5% of that emitted by the average coal power plant operating in the US today. This is due to the absorption of CO{sub 2} from the power plant by the growing biomass. The life cycle energy balance of the coal systems is significantly lower than the biomass system because of the consumption of a non-renewable resource. For each unit of energy consumed by the biomass system, almost 16 units of electricity are produced; the average coal system produces only 0.3 units of electricity per unit of energy consumed. Not counting the coal consumed, the net energy produced is still lower than that of the biomass system because of energy used in processes related to flue gas clean-up.

  6. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  7. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  8. Background qualitative analysis of the European reference life cycle database (ELCD) energy datasets - part II: electricity datasets.

    PubMed

    Garraín, Daniel; Fazio, Simone; de la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda; Mathieux, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify areas of potential improvement of the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD) electricity datasets. The revision is based on the data quality indicators described by the International Life Cycle Data system (ILCD) Handbook, applied on sectorial basis. These indicators evaluate the technological, geographical and time-related representativeness of the dataset and the appropriateness in terms of completeness, precision and methodology. Results show that ELCD electricity datasets have a very good quality in general terms, nevertheless some findings and recommendations in order to improve the quality of Life-Cycle Inventories have been derived. Moreover, these results ensure the quality of the electricity-related datasets to any LCA practitioner, and provide insights related to the limitations and assumptions underlying in the datasets modelling. Giving this information, the LCA practitioner will be able to decide whether the use of the ELCD electricity datasets is appropriate based on the goal and scope of the analysis to be conducted. The methodological approach would be also useful for dataset developers and reviewers, in order to improve the overall Data Quality Requirements of databases.

  9. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  10. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  11. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  12. Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.

  13. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  14. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications.

  15. Break free from the product life cycle.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling.

  16. Break free from the product life cycle.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling. PMID:15929406

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  18. The simulation of virus life cycle with quantum gates.

    PubMed

    Shojaie, F; Dehestani, M

    2010-03-01

    Quantum physics and molecular biology are two disciplines that have evolved relatively independently. However, recently a wealth of evidence has demonstrated the importance of quantum mechanics for biological systems and thus a new field of quantum biology is emerging. There are many claims that quantum mechanics plays a key role in the origin and/or operation of biological organisms. We consider the nucleonic acid of virus as a quantum system in this paper and discuss virus life cycle from the view-point of quantum and simulate it using quantum gates for the first time. The maximally entangled states show infected cell can change to entire cell, the virus can switch from the lysogenic to the lytic and the prophages can remain latent in the bacterial chromosome for many generations. PMID:20149356

  19. Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

  20. Life Cycle Heterogeneity in Animal Models of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peh, Woei Ling; Middleton, Kate; Christensen, Neil; Nicholls, Philip; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Sotlar, Karl; Brandsma, Janet; Percival, Alan; Lewis, Jon; Liu, Wen Jun; Doorbar, John

    2002-01-01

    Animal papillomaviruses are widely used as models to study papillomavirus infection in humans despite differences in genome organization and tissue tropism. Here, we have investigated the extent to which animal models of papillomavirus infection resemble human disease by comparing the life cycles of 10 different papillomavirus types. Three phases in the life cycles of all viruses were apparent using antibodies that distinguish between early events, the onset of viral genome amplification, and the expression of capsid proteins. The initiation of these phases follows a highly ordered pattern that appears important for the production of virus particles. The viruses examined included canine oral papillomavirus, rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV), cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV), bovine papillomavirus type 1, and human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 11, and 16. Each papillomavirus type showed a distinctive gene expression pattern that could be explained in part by differences in tissue tropism, transmission route, and persistence. As the timing of life cycle events affects the accessibility of viral antigens to the immune system, the ideal model system should resemble human mucosal infection if vaccine design is to be effective. Of the model systems examined here, only ROPV had a tissue tropism and a life cycle organization that resembled those of the human mucosal types. ROPV appears most appropriate for studies of the life cycles of mucosal papillomavirus types and for the development of prophylactic vaccines. The persistence of abortive infections caused by CRPV offers advantages for the development of therapeutic vaccines. PMID:12239317

  1. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  2. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  3. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  4. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  5. A Game to Teach the Life Cycles of Fungi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a biological game utilized to teach fungi life cycles to secondary biology students. The game is designed to overcome difficulties of correlating schematic drawings with images seen through the microscope, correlating life cycles of fungi and host, and understanding cyclic development of fungi. (SL)

  6. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  7. THE EPA'S EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been actively engaged in LCA research since 1990 to help advance the methodology and application of life cycle thinking in decision making. Across the Agency consideration of the life cycle concept is increasing in the development of policies and programs. A major force i...

  8. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  9. EDITORIAL: THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a special issue of Journal of Life Cycle Assessment that includes selected papers from the Internatonal Conference and Exhibition on Life Cycle Assessment (InLCA). In April 2000, the EPA, with co-organizer IERE, held the InLCA conferencethat attracted over 265 attendees (...

  10. Test of US Federal Life Cycle Inventory Data Interoperability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment practitioners must gather data from a variety of sources. For modeling activities in the US, practitioners may wish to use life cycle inventory data from public databases and libraries provided by US government entities. An exercise was conducted to test if ...

  11. LCACCESS: A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCAccess is an EPA-sponsored website intended to promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in business decision-making by faciliatating access to data sources that are useful in developing a life cycle inventory (LCI). While LCAccess does not itself contain data, it is a sea...

  12. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  13. Software security checklist for the software life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, D. P.; Wolfe, T. L.; Sherif, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    A formal approach to security in the software life cycle is essential to protect corporate resources. However, little thought has been given to this aspect of software development. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle.

  14. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  15. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  16. Life-Cycle Costing. Educational Facilities Digest 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Wright, Darrell

    Life-cycle costing is a management tool that may assist school administrators in making cost-effective decisions about building and improving school facilities. Life-cycle costing is defined as determining the total cost of building construction, operation, and maintenance over the assumed life of the building. An overview of the recent literature…

  17. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European Union's new Integrated Product Policy directs governments and companies to consider the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, in their environmental decision-making process. A life-cycle based approach is intended to lead toward true environmental improvem...

  18. Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01

    This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

  19. Energy life-cycle assessment of soybean biodiesel revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the energy flows associated with biodiesel production. A similar study conducted previously (Sheehan et al., Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, Publication NREL/SR-580-24089, National Renewable Ener...

  20. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  1. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  2. Overall life cycle comprehensive assessment of pneumatic and electric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yeming; Cai, Maolin

    2014-05-01

    Pneumatic actuators and electric actuators have almost been applied to all manufacturing industries. The two kinds of actuators can replace each other in most fields, such as the point to point transmission occasion and some rotating occasions. However, there are very few research results about the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of actuators under the same working conditions so far. In this paper, a novel comprehensive assessment method, named as overall life cycle comprehensive assessment (OLCCA), is proposed for comparison and assessment of pneumatic and electric actuators. OLCCA contains mechanical properties evaluation (MPE), life cycle cost analysis based on users (LCCABOU) and life cycle environmental impact analysis (LCEIA) algorithm in order to solve three difficult problems: mechanical properties assessment, cost analysis and environmental impact assessment about actuators. The mechanical properties evaluation of actuators is a multi-objective optimization problem. The fuzzy data quantification and information entropy methods are combined to establish MPE algorithm of actuators. Two kinds of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators with similar bearing capacity and similar work stroke were taken for example to verify the correctness of MPE algorithm. The case study of MPE algorithm for actuators verified its correctness. LCCABOU for actuators is also set up. Considering cost complex structure of pneumatic actuators, public device cost even method (PDCEM) is firstly presented to solve cost division of public devices such as compressors, aftercooler, receivers, etc. LCCABOU method is also effective and verified by the three groups of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators. Finally, LCEIA model of actuators is established for the environmental impact assessment of actuators. LCEIA data collection method and model establishment procedure for actuators are also put forward. With Simapro 7, LCEIA comparison results of six actuators can be

  3. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  4. Policy implications of uncertainty in modeled life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have received legislative support recently in California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard and the Federal Energy Independence and Security Act. Both present new fuel types, but neither provides methodological guidelines for dealing with the inherent uncertainty in evaluating their potential life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions reductions are based on point estimates only. This work demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo simulation to estimate life-cycle emissions distributions from ethanol and butanol from corn or switchgrass. Life-cycle emissions distributions for each feedstock and fuel pairing modeled span an order of magnitude or more. Using a streamlined life-cycle assessment, corn ethanol emissions range from 50 to 250 g CO(2)e/MJ, for example, and each feedstock-fuel pathway studied shows some probability of greater emissions than a distribution for gasoline. Potential GHG emissions reductions from displacing fossil fuels with biofuels are difficult to forecast given this high degree of uncertainty in life-cycle emissions. This uncertainty is driven by the importance and uncertainty of indirect land use change emissions. Incorporating uncertainty in the decision making process can illuminate the risks of policy failure (e.g., increased emissions), and a calculated risk of failure due to uncertainty can be used to inform more appropriate reduction targets in future biofuel policies.

  5. Policy implications of uncertainty in modeled life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have received legislative support recently in California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard and the Federal Energy Independence and Security Act. Both present new fuel types, but neither provides methodological guidelines for dealing with the inherent uncertainty in evaluating their potential life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions reductions are based on point estimates only. This work demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo simulation to estimate life-cycle emissions distributions from ethanol and butanol from corn or switchgrass. Life-cycle emissions distributions for each feedstock and fuel pairing modeled span an order of magnitude or more. Using a streamlined life-cycle assessment, corn ethanol emissions range from 50 to 250 g CO(2)e/MJ, for example, and each feedstock-fuel pathway studied shows some probability of greater emissions than a distribution for gasoline. Potential GHG emissions reductions from displacing fossil fuels with biofuels are difficult to forecast given this high degree of uncertainty in life-cycle emissions. This uncertainty is driven by the importance and uncertainty of indirect land use change emissions. Incorporating uncertainty in the decision making process can illuminate the risks of policy failure (e.g., increased emissions), and a calculated risk of failure due to uncertainty can be used to inform more appropriate reduction targets in future biofuel policies. PMID:21121672

  6. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    simulations are performed using molecular dynamics methodology to study several structural and morphological features such as effect of polymer molecular weight, polydispersity, rheology, nanoparticle volume fraction, size, shape and chemical nature on the bulk mechanical and self-cleaning properties of the coating film. At macro-scale, a paint spray system which is used for automotive coating application is studied by using CFD-based simulation methodology to generate crucial information about the effects of nanocoating technology on environmental emissions and coating film quality. The cradle-to-grave life-cycle based sustainability assessment study address all the critical issues related to economic benefits, environmental implications and societal effects of nanocoating technology through case studies of automotive coating systems. It is accomplished by identifying crucial correlations among measurable parameters at different stages and developing sustainability indicator matrices for analysis of each stage of life-cycle. The findings from the research can have great potential to draft useful conclusions in favor of future development of coating systems with novel functionalities and improved sustainability.

  7. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TO EVALUATE PREFERABILITY OF PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-Making (FRED) demonstrates how the life-cycle concept can be used to quantify competing products' environmental performance so that this information may be integrated with considerations of total ownership cost and technical perfor...

  8. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The reliability and maintainability (R&M) model described in this report represents an important portion of a larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. The R&M model is the first of three models that comprise a modeling system for use in LCC analysis of avionics systems. The total system will…

  9. Beef production in balance: considerations for life cycle analyses.

    PubMed

    Place, Sara E; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2012-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) are useful tools to analyze a product's "carbon footprint" (e.g., the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions expressed as standardized carbon dioxide equivalents per unit of product) considering all phases of the production chain. For beef, an LCA would include the GHG emissions from feed production, from the enteric fermentation of the cattle, from the cattle's waste, and from processing and transportation. Identifying the scope and scale of the LCA is critical and key to preventing inappropriate applications of the analysis (e.g., applying a global LCA for beef to the regional or national scale). Ideally, a LCA can integrate the complex biogeochemical processes responsible for GHG emissions and the disparate animal and agricultural management techniques used be different phases of the beef production chain (e.g., feedlot vs. cow-calf) and different production systems (e.g., conventional vs. organic). PMID:22551868

  10. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  11. Evolution of complex life cycles in helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A; Chubb, Jimmy C; Ball, Michael A; Roberts, Guy N

    2003-10-01

    The fundamental question of how complex life cycles--where there is typically more than one host-evolve in host--parasite systems remains largely unexplored. We suggest that complex cycles in helminths without penetrative infective stages evolve by two essentially different processes, depending on where in the cycle a new host is inserted. In 'upward incorporation', a new definitive host, typically higher up a food web and which preys on the original definitive host, is added. Advantages to the parasite are avoidance of mortality due to the predator, greater body size at maturity and higher fecundity. The original host typically becomes an intermediate host, in which reproduction is suppressed. In 'downward incorporation', a new intermediate host is added at a lower trophic level; this reduces mortality and facilitates transmission to the original definitive host. These two processes should also apply in helminths with penetrative infective stages, although the mathematical conditions differ.

  12. Life cycle assessment of fuel cell vehicles: Dealing with uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadini, Jose Fernando

    Life cycle assessment (LCA), or "well to wheels" in transportation terms, involves some subjectivity and uncertainty, especially with new technologies and future scenarios. To analyze lifecycle impacts of future fuel cell vehicles and fuels, I developed the Fuel Upstream Energy and Emission Model (FUEEM). The FUEEM project pioneered two specific new ways to incorporate and propagate uncertainty within an LCA analysis. First, the model uses probabilistic curves generated by experts as inputs and then employs Monte Carlo simulation techniques to propagate these uncertainties throughout the full chain of fuel production and use. Second, the FUEEM process explicitly involves the interested parties in the entire analysis process, not only in the critical final review phase. To demonstrate the FUEEM process, an analysis has been made for the use of three different fuel cell vehicle technologies (direct hydrogen, indirect methanol, and indirect hydrocarbon) in 2010 within the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) of California (Los Angeles). The analysis covered topics such as the requirement of non-renewable energy sources, emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and emissions of several criteria pollutants generated within SCAB and within other regions. The results obtained from this example show that the hydrogen option has the potential to have the most efficient energy life cycle for the SCAB, followed by the methanol and finally by the Fisher-Tropsch naphtha option. A similar pattern is observed for the greenhouse gas emissions. The results showing criteria pollutants emitted within SCAB highlight the importance of having a flexible model that is responsive to local considerations. This dissertation demonstrates that explicit recognition and quantitative analysis of the inherent uncertainty in the LCA process generates richer information, explains many of the discrepancies between results of previous studies, and enhances the robustness and credibility of LCA analyses.

  13. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  14. The life-cycle squeeze: The interaction of men's occupational and family life cycles.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, V K

    1974-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing one structural source of pressure for wives to contribute to family income. This is the "life-cycle squeeze"-the situation where a man's resources are inadequate to meet the needs engendered by the number and ages of his children. Studies of how economic needs vary by family life-cycle stage indicate that one high point of need occurs when men are in their forties and early fifties. However, 1960 Census data on earnings patterns by age indicate that in only relatively high-level professional, managerial and sales occupations do average earnings peak at the same time family income needs are peaking. For most blue-collar and many medium- and low-level white collar occupations, median earnings are highest for younger men, and men at an age when family costs are at their maximum are earning somewhat less, on the average. As a consequence, the families of such men run the risk of a deterioration in their level of living unless an additional income is brought into the household.

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Recycling of Magnesium Vehicle Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberger, Simone; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2013-10-01

    Life-cycle assessment is basically the assessment of a product from the cradle to the grave. Ideally, a product is recycled after its useful life is complete and the end-of-life of the first life cycle leads to the beginning of a new product system. For the end-of-life of magnesium vehicle parts, there are various possible paths to a second life cycle. When magnesium parts are dismantled or magnesium is separated after shredding, the resulting magnesium alloys can be used for secondary, noncritical applications. However, the typical case for magnesium components is that the magnesium postconsumer scrap ends up in the nonferrous metals fraction that consists primarily of aluminum, magnesium, and heavy metals. Today, aluminum is typically fed into a second life cycle as a secondary alloy, and magnesium becomes part of the aluminum cycle as an alloy addition. In this article, we evaluate the environmental effects of using magnesium in the aluminum cycle. We also assess the influence of end-of-life scenarios on the overall environmental impact of a component's life cycle. The primary focus of our analysis is the evaluation of the effects of magnesium vehicle components on greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  18. Information System Requirements Determination: Factors Impeding Stakeholders from Reaching Common Understandings and Agreements on Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gissel, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Information system implementations require developers to first know what they must create and then determine how best to create it. The requirements determination phase of the system development life cycle typically determines what functions a system must perform and how well it must accomplish required functions. Implementation success depends on…

  19. Understanding Life Cycle Assessment: Applications for OSWER's Land and Materials Managment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is hosting an informative webcast presentation by Jane Bare, expert on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) in EPA's Office of Research and Development. Ms. Bare's presentation will provide an overview of LCIA, ...

  20. Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI is a comprehensive quantification of all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.