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Sample records for lifelong premature ejaculation

  1. Premature Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other common causes include the following: Anxiety about performance Guilty feelings Depression Stress Relationship problems Men who have a low amount of a special chemical called serotonin in their brain may have problems with premature ejaculation. Is premature ...

  2. The relationship between the second-to-fourth digit ratios and lifelong premature ejaculation: a prospective, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bolat, D; Kocabas, G U; Kose, T; Degirmenci, T; Aydin, M E; Dincel, C

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the fetal androgen exposure and lifelong premature ejaculation by using the ratio of the second (index)-to-fourth (ring) digits (2D : 4D) which is the marker for higher prenatal androgen exposure. Totally 65 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation and 65 control cases without any ejaculatory complaints were enrolled in the study. A detailed medical history was obtained and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times were recorded. Ejaculation function was evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The lengths of the second and fourth digits of both hands were measured and 2D : 4Ds were calculated. The mean 2D : 4D values were 0.964 ± 0.024 vs. 0.978 ± 0.032 (p = 0.004) for the right hand and 0.966 ± 0.023 vs. 0.979 ± 0.032 (p = 0.006) for the left hand in lifelong premature ejaculation and control groups, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the digit ratios and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (r = 0.258, p = 0.003 for right hand; r = 0.240, p = 0.06 for left hand), and between the digit ratios and total Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool scores (r = -0.263, p = 0.003 for right hand; r = -0.238, p = 0.06 for left hand). Individuals with lower digit ratios have higher risks of shorter intravaginal ejaculatory latency times. These results suggest that increased fetal androgen exposure may be a new risk factor for the development of lifelong premature ejaculation. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond; Rowland, David; Segraves, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation (PE). There are several definitions of PE; the most commonly quoted, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Edition - Text Revision, and other definitions of PE, are all authority-based rather than evidence-based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. Thus in August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of PE. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critically assess the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The Committee unanimously agreed that the constructs which are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy, and control and negative personal consequences from PE. The Committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs before or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and patient-reported outcome measures for diagnosing and assessing the efficacy of treatment

  4. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley E; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira D; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Segraves, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The medical literature contains several definitions of premature ejaculation (PE). The most commonly quoted definition, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision, and other definitions of PE are all authority based rather than evidence based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. The aim of this article is to develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of PE. In August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critique the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy and control, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as ". . . a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy." This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and Patient Reported

  5. Ejaculatio praecox, erectio praecox, and detumescentia praecox as symptoms of a hypertonic state in lifelong premature ejaculation: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-06-01

    In the last two decades, in vivo animal research and human neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research of lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) have much contributed to a better understanding of the role of the central and peripheral nervous systems in mediating ejaculation. Research of genetic polymorphisms in men with lifelong PE and clinical research of the validity of the classification into four PE subtypes have provided a better insight into lifelong PE and its distinction from the three other PE subtypes. Nevertheless, a number of symptoms of lifelong PE and its treatment by SSRIs are still not well understood. In the current article, it will be argued that lifelong PE is characterized not only by early ejaculations (ejaculatio praecox), a diminished control over ejaculation, and negative personal consequences, but also by early erections (erectio praecox) and an immediately occurring detumescence of the penis after ejaculation (detumescentia praecox) as symptoms of an (sub)acute hypertonic or hypererotic physical state when making love. Based on animal research it is postulated that the facilitated erection, facilitated ejaculation and facilitated penile detumescence are associated with centrally and peripherally increased oxytocin release. In addition, it is postulated that mechano- and thermosensory activity of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, located in skin receptors of the glans penis, are associated with lifelong PE. Research into the three characteristics of the (sub)acute hypererotic state will presumably contribute to a better phenomenological description of and better neurobiological understanding of lifelong PE and its delineation to the three other PE subtypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of three phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on ejaculation latency time in lifelong premature ejaculators: a double-blind laboratory setting study.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ahmet; Halis, Fikret; Demirtas, Abdullah; Ekmekcioglu, Oguz

    2011-04-01

    Study Type--Therapy (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Several authors have reported their experience with PDE5 inhibitors alone or in combination with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors for treating premature ejaculation. However, to our knowledge, this is the first laboratory design study to evaluate the effects of three PDE5 inhibitors throughout the ejaculation process in men with lifelong premature ejaculation. In this laboratory setting study PDE5 inhibitors seem to prolong ELT but the difference from placebo is significant only in vardenafil. The quality of penile rigidity is better with PDE5 inhibitors in the post-ejaculatory period but the difference is significant only in sildenafil and vardenafil. • To evaluate the effects of three phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors on the ejaculation process in men with lifelong premature ejaculation using a double-blind laboratory setting. • Eighty men with lifelong premature ejaculation, 20 in each group, received placebo, vardenafil (10 mg), sildenafil (50 mg) or tadalafil (20 mg) in a double-blind study design. Placebo or PDE5 inhibitor was ingested after at least 2 h fasting and non-smoking. The subjects were placed in a silent room immediately and real-time penile rigidity and tumescence was monitored. • Subjects read some magazines or newspapers without any sexually stimulating material for 1.5 h. At the end of this period audiovisual sexual stimulation began with a video film and after the 8th minute the subject began vibratory stimulation to the frenular area. • At the beginning of ejaculation the patient stopped stimulation. When the patient began and stopped stimulation, the light near the observer turned on and off and the observer calculated the ejaculation period with a chronometer. The elapsed time was the ejaculation latency time (ELT) in seconds. • There was no interaction between subjects and observer during the test. The ELT

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Peng, Dangwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Zhang, Yao; Mao, Jun; Dou, Xianming; Liang, Chaozhao

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, new evidence-based definitions of lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) were proposed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Based on the new PE definitions, the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE have not been investigated in China. To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE in China. From December 2011 to December 2015, a cross-sectional field survey was conducted in five cities in the Anhui province of China. Questionnaire data of 3,579 men were collected in our database. The questionnaire included subjects' demographic information and medical and sexual histories. Men who were not satisfied with their time to ejaculate were accepted as having the complaint of PE. Men with the complaint of PE who met the new definition of PE were diagnosed as having LPE or APE. New definition of LPE and APE. Of 3,579 men who completed the questionnaire, 34.62% complained of PE. Mean age, body mass index, and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for all subjects were 34.97 ± 9.02 years, 23.33 ± 3.56 kg/m 2 , and 3.09 ± 1.36 minutes, respectively. The prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. LPE and APE were associated with age, body mass index, and smoking and exercise rates (P < .001 for all comparisons). Men with APE reported more comorbidities than men with LPE, especially in the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease (P < .001 for all comparisons). In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation: Report of the Second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. Aim The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. Methods In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. Results The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the

  9. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second international society for sexual medicine ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  10. On-demand d-modafinil may be an effective treatment option for lifelong premature ejaculation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C

    2016-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is considered to be the most common form of male sexual dysfunction. Given that acute oral administration of d-isomer of modafinil (d-modafinil) can extend the latency to ejaculation in rats without suppressing sexual behaviour, the effects of on-demand d-modafinil treatment were examined on a 30-year-old male patient with lifelong PE. The patient was instructed to take d-modafinil 100 mg 3 h prior to the sexual relation for four times and was invited for a control visit. The patient was re-evaluated 2 weeks later. He reported that his IELT increased to 15 min. He reported heartburn and insomnia when he used d-modafinil for the first time; however, these symptoms were transient and did not recur after the initial dose. Overall, he reported considerable improvement and noted that he feels much better with the treatment. Based on this limited data, on-demand d-modafinil seems to be an effective treatment for men with lifelong PE. The side effects were transient and mild in the reported case. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to elucidate the therapeutic concept of this drug in patients with lifelong PE. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  12. In vitro measurement of ejaculation latency time (ELT) and the effects of vardenafil on ELT on lifelong premature ejaculators: placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ahmet; Demirtas, Abdullah; Halis, Fikret; Ekmekcioglu, Oguz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the ejaculation latency time (ELT) and to evaluate the effects of vardenafil on ELT and rigidity parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in a laboratory setting. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over laboratory study was performed with 40 males with lifelong PE. As the subject ingested the placebo or vardenafil, real-time penile tumescence and rigidity monitoring began. Audiovisual sexual stimulation (AVSS) was performed 45 min later. The patient began vibratory stimulation to the frenular area at 8th minute of AVSS till ejaculation. A button has been placed under the cover where the patient presses to operate the vibrator. ELT was calculated in seconds with a chronometer. Following ejaculation, AVSS was stopped. The test was repeated with second medication in 7-15 days. Among 40 patients, the results of 17 could be evaluated. When the patient took placebo and vardenafil, mean ELTs were 62.7 and 189.5 s, respectively. When compared with placebo, vardenafil improved ELT significantly (P = 0.04). After the beginning of AVSS, time to first recorded base or tip rigidities was shorter and time to last recorded tip or base rigidities following ejaculation was longer than placebo; however, these differences were not significant (P > 0.05 for each). This laboratory design might be used to evaluate the effects of drugs on patients with ejaculation disorders. In this laboratory setting study, vardenafil exerted a threefold increase in ejaculation delay outside the vagina in patients with lifelong PE.

  13. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    PubMed

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  14. Awareness and timing of pelvic floor muscle contraction, pelvic exercises and rehabilitation of pelvic floor in lifelong premature ejaculation: 5 years experience.

    PubMed

    La Pera, Giuseppe

    2014-06-30

    To assess the cure rate of patients with premature ejaculation who underwent a treatment involving: 1) awareness of the pelvic floor muscles 2) learning the timing of execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase 3) pelvic floor rehabilitation (bio feed back, pelvic exercises and electrostimulation). We recruited 78 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation who completed the training. The patients were informed of the role of the pelvic floor. They were taught to carry out the execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase to control the ejaculatory reflex. In order to improve the awareness, the tone and the endurance of the pelvic floor muscles, patients were treated with the rehabilitation of pelvic floor (RPF) consisting mainly in biofeedback, pelvic exercises and in some cases also in electro-stimulation (ES). The training was carried out for a period of about 2-6 months with an average of 2-5 visits per cycle. 54% of patients who completed the training were cured of premature ejaculation and learned over time to be able to postpone the ejaculation reflex. In a subgroup of 26 patients was also measured the IELT which on the average increased from < 2 minutes to >10 minutes. The best results occurred mainly in patients aged less than 35 where the cure rate was 65%. There were no side effects. In this study, approximately half of patients with premature ejaculation were cured after applying the above treatment.This therapy, necessitates a fairly long period of time (2-6 months) and a great commitment on the part of the patient, nevertheless it can be a valid and effective treatment for patients with premature ejaculation. This treatment makes the patient independent in that he is not bound to specific times for taking medication. Furthermore there are no side effects and this therapy is particularly effective in young

  15. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction. PMID:27652220

  16. Oral agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation: review of efficacy and safety in the context of the recent International Society for Sexual Medicine criteria for lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    New diagnostic criteria for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) have been proposed by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM), including an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than about 1 minute, lack of control over ejaculation, and PE-related distress or bother. The aim of this study was to review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of oral agents for the treatment of PE in the context of the new ISSM criteria. The PubMed database was searched for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of oral agents in PE that included stopwatch measurements of IELT. The main outcome measure used for this study was a review of the efficacy and safety data of oral agents for PE aligned with ISSM criteria. Since the latest meta-analyses using similar criteria (conducted in 2004 and 2005 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and phosphodiesterase type 5 [PDE-5] inhibitors, respectively), eight studies evaluated SSRIs vs. placebo, one compared SSRIs, two evaluated PDE-5 inhibitors, and one evaluated an SSRI/PDE-5 inhibitor combination. New agents included dapoxetine (five studies) and tramadol (one study). Six studies enrolled men who met an approximation of the ISSM criteria. Although evidence suggests that most SSRIs, tramadol, and dapoxetine increase IELT to varying degrees, few studies included control over ejaculation and PE-related distress or bother as enrollment criteria or used validated patient-reported outcome instruments to evaluate these parameters. Among studies that provided comprehensive adverse event data, safety and tolerability observations in men with PE were generally similar to those observed in other populations; however, with the exception of dapoxetine, known SSRI-class effects (e.g., withdrawal syndrome) were not evaluated in men with PE. This systematic review of well-controlled clinical trials in PE has demonstrated that while many oral agents, particularly SSRIs, tramadol, and dapoxetine

  17. Association of STin2 VNTR Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-10-07

    BACKGROUND The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. RESULTS The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31-0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers.

  18. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  19. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  20. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20−30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium. PMID:27652222

  1. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  2. [A confrontation between premature ejaculation and difficult ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Del Noce, Giorgio; Abraham, Georges

    2010-03-24

    In all current classification of ejaculatory incompetence, premature ejaculation and male anorgasmia are always considered as two opposite clinical disturbances. Nevertheless, any attempt to investigate some possible similarities in their respective pathogenesis could considerably improve not only our understanding of these disorders, but also our therapeutic effectiveness.

  3. Is premature ejaculation an impulse control disorder?

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Özdemir

    2012-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation that occurs before the participant wishes to ejaculate and is associated with marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are grouped as a heterogeneous cluster of disorders linked by a "failure to resist" impulses to engage in harmful, disturbing or distressing behaviours. I hypothesise that premature ejaculation is an impulse control disorder. ICDs share features with PE aspects of impaired control, rapid responses to stimuli and hypersensitivity. These disorders often occur with subjective and social distress for patients. In addition to these features, the neurotransmitter systems have been similarly implicated in ICDs and PE. The same treatment options further support a relationship between ICDs and PE. The behaviours likely exist on a spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lidocaine/prilocaine spray for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Although premature ejaculation is the most common ejaculation problem, it is poorly understood and currently has no standard definition. 1 Typically, it involves reduced time to ejaculation, inability to control or delay ejaculation and associated distress. 1-5 Treatments that have been assessed include psychosexual counselling, antidepressants (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, tramadol and topical anaesthetic agents (e.g. lidocaine/prilocaine cream). A new formulation (cutaneous spray) of lidocaine/prilocaine (Fortacin-Plethora Solutions Ltd.) was launched in the UK in November 2016 for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation. 6,7 Here, we consider the evidence for lidocaine/prilocaine spray and whether it has a role in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  6. Magnesium in human semen: possible role in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Omu, A E; Al-Bader, A A; Dashti, H; Oriowo, M A

    2001-01-01

    Although magnesium is involved in many biological process and it is found higher levels in semen than serum, its role in human semen has not been elucidated. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between premature ejaculation and the levels of seminal magnesium. The levels of magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium were evaluated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in serum and seminal plasma in 3 groups of men: (a) normal sperm parameters (15) (b) oligoasthenozoospermia (15), and genuine premature ejaculation (9). There were normal serum and semen levels of all the elements in the three groups, but significantly lower seminal plasma magnesium levels in men with premature ejaculation. The hormonal profile, body mass index (BMI) had no association with premature ejaculation. Decreased levels of magnesium gives rise to vasoconstriction from increased thromboxane level, increased endothelial intracellular Ca2+, and decreased nitric oxide. This may lead to premature emission and ejaculation processes. Magnesium is probably involved in semen transport. More research into the role of magnesium in the male physiology of reproductive tract, especially its association with premature ejaculation, is advocated.

  7. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yue; Li, Juanjuan; Shan, Guang; Qian, Huijun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Luhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction. Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for depression associated with PE. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between between depression and risk of PE. Data sources: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from these databases’ inception through June 2014 for observational epidemiological studies examining the association between depression on risk of PE. Study eligibility criteria: Studies were selected if they reported the risk estimates for PE associated with depression. Participants: patients>18 years of age suffering from PE. Interventions: a history of depressive disorder. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: These odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random or fixed effects model and were tested for heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was employed to explore heterogeneity. Results: Eight trials involving 18,035 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Depression were statistically significantly associated with the risk of PE (OR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.42–1.87). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity (P = 0.623, I2 = 0.0%). The association was similar when stratified by mean age, geographical area, study design, sample size, publication year, and controlling key confounders. Limitations: The severity of depression and PE could not be identified due to unavailable data of trials. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of PE. In addition, more prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the association and identify the ideal treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42016041272 PMID:27583879

  8. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  9. Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Human semen contains spermatozoa secreted by the testes and a mixture of components produced by the bulbo-urethral and Littre (paraurethral) glands, prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and epididymis. Ejaculation is used as a synonym for the external ejection of semen, but it comprises two phases: emission and expulsion. As semen collects in the prostatic urethra, the rapid preorgasmic distension of the urethral bulb is pathognomonic of impeding orgasm, and the man experiences a sensation that ejaculation is inevitable (in women, emission is the only phase of orgasm). The semen is propelled along the penile urethra mainly by the bulbocavernosus muscle. With Kegel exercises, it is possible to train the perineal muscles. Immediately after the expulsion phase the male enters a refractory period, a recovery time during which further orgasm or ejaculation is physiologically impossible. Age affects the recovery time: as a man grows older, the refractory period increases. Sexual medicine experts consider premature ejaculation only in the case of vaginal intercourse, but vaginal orgasm has no scientific basis, so the duration of intercourse is not important for a woman's orgasm. The key to female orgasm are the female erectile organs; vaginal orgasm, G-spot, G-spot amplification, clitoral bulbs, clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal clitoris and female ejaculation are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist, i.e. the vaginal orgasm. The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Teenagers and men can understand their sexual responses by masturbation and learn ejaculatory control with the stop-start method and the squeeze technique. Premature ejaculation must not be classified as a male sexual dysfunction. It has become the center of a

  10. [An update on ejaculation physiology and premature ejaculation definition, prevalence data, and etiology].

    PubMed

    Mas, M

    2014-07-01

    Ejaculation consists of two synchronized phases: a) emission, the contraction of the vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicles and bladder neck expelling the seminal fluid to the urethra; it is mediated by sympathetic nerves, and b) expulsion, seminal fluid outward propulsion by the rhythmic contraction of perineal muscles. Ejaculation results from a complex spinal reflex having its essential components within the lumbosacral cord. The main afferent signals derive from mechanical stimulation of the glans penis and are conveyed by sacral sensory roots. The ejaculatory reflex is under strong modulatory influence from the brain through both facilitatory and inhibitory descending signals. Several central neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine modulate the ejaculatory reflex. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), measured or estimated, provides clinically useful assessment of the ejaculatory reflex. The new DSM-5 definition of premature ejaculation (PE) includes a specified time to ejaculation criterion (IELT of about one minute or shorter). Four subtypes of PE, showing different prevalence rates, have been proposed. PE etiology is multifactorial with interacting psychological and biological factors contributing to the disorder. A number of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission may predispose the bearers to developing PE. High prevalence rates of PE have been found in patients with chronic prostatitis, hyperthyroidism, and premature ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  11. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of <1 minute was associated with poorer perceived mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. [Dapoxetine in treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-bo; Mao, Yu; Wei, Qiang; Wu, Tai-xiang; Dong, Qiang

    2010-08-18

    To assess the effectiveness of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Both English and Chinese studies involving men with prematrue ejaculation who were treated with dapoxetine from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CNKI, CBM, VIP between 1979 and 2009.were included in the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the data processed by RevMan. Five RCTs involving 4433 patients were included in the Meta analysis, of which 3 were of grade A and 2 were of grade B according to the quality evaluation of methodology. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported global impression of change (PGI), satisfaction with sexual intercourse (SWSI), perceived control over ejaculation (PCOE), personal distress related to ejaculation (PDRE) were used for assessment. Meta analysis based on included studies of patients having been treated with dapoxetine for 9-24 weeks showed that: (1) the difference of the patients' IELT between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [P<0.001, WMD (95%CI) was 1.38 (1.21,1.55)]; (2) the difference of the PGI of development in premature ejaculation between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [P<0.001, OR (95%CI) was 3.56 (2.60,4.88)]; (3) the difference of the patients' SWSI between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [P<0.001, OR (95%CI) was 3.85 (2.08,7.10)]; the difference of the patients' score of SWSI between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [P<0.001, WMD (95%CI) was 0.55 (0.48,0.62)]; (4) the difference of the patients' change of PCOE between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [P<0.001, OR (95%CI) was 2.87(2.30,3.58)]; the difference of the patients' score of PCOE between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [P<0.001, WMD (95%CI) was 0.63(0.49,0.78)]; (5) after being treated with dapoxetine for 9-24 weeks, the difference of the patients

  13. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Moreland, Amanda J; Makela, Eugene H

    2005-01-01

    To review the use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Articles were retrieved through a MEDLINE search (1966-January 2004). Search terms used to identify articles included serotonin uptake inhibitors, premature ejaculation, rapid ejaculation, and sexual behavior, as well as the generic names of currently available SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and escitalopram. The literature search was limited to articles published in the English language containing human subjects. Articles obtained through the literature search were evaluated, and randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Information from noncontrolled trials or case reports was considered for inclusion if it contributed to the completeness of this review and if it was the highest level of evidence available. Premature ejaculation is a commonly reported sexual difficulty. Delayed ejaculation is a widely reported sexual adverse effect of SSRIs. In some men exhibiting premature ejaculation, the ability of the SSRIs to delay ejaculation has been therapeutic. Trials evaluating the ejaculation-delaying ability of SSRIs demonstrated that paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram produce a statistically significant increase in the ejaculation latency time compared with placebo. Taking advantage of the ejaculation-delaying effects of SSRIs increases the treatment options available to prescribers and patients. Convenience and minimal adverse effect profile make these agents an alternative to previously used behavior modalities and older pharmacologic agents. Although some questions still surround the details of their use, SSRIs have the potential to improve the quality of life for men with premature ejaculation and their partners.

  14. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jun-Young; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-07-01

    The psychological impacts of premature ejaculation (PE), which include guilt, anxiety, and distress, have been well established in Western countries. However, in Asia, although a substantial number of epidemiological studies have surveyed the prevalence of PE, researchers have not thoroughly investigated the relationship between PE and depression, or have defined PE properly. We studied the association between PE and depression and other psychological disturbances, in a Korean cohort by applying an appropriate definition for PE and validated outcome measures of depression. METHODS.  A total of 956 males (≥20 years) were initially approached via an Internet survey company. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting detailed medical and sexual histories, which included questions from the Erectile Function Domain score in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of PE was evaluated using two different definitions-self-assessed PE and presumed PE. Presumed PE was defined as a short ejaculation time (an estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time ≤5 minutes), an inability to control ejaculation, and the presence of distress resulting from PE. Ejaculation-related questionnaire, the IIEF-EF, and BDI. A total of 334 men were evaluated. The prevalence of PE was 10.5% according to the Presumed PE definition, whereas by self-assessment, it was 25.4%. Self-assessed PE patients suffered from various psychological problems, such as depression, low self-esteem, bother, and low sexual satisfaction. Even after excluding erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects, a significant relationship was found between self-assessed PE and depression. Moreover, after further classification of the Self-assessed PE group, we found that subjects included in this group, but not in the Presumed PE group, suffered more from psychological burden than any other members of the cohort. Korean men with subjective

  15. Current therapeutic strategies for premature ejaculation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Zhu, Yi-Chen; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Cui, Wan-Shou; Jin, Zhe; Li, Wei-Ren; Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder in men that is mediated by disturbances in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Although all pharmaceutical treatments for PE are currently used ‘off-label', some novel oral agents and some newer methods of drug administration now provide important relief to PE patients. However, the aetiology of this condition has still not been unified, primarily because of the lack of a standard animal model for basic research and the absence of a widely accepted definition and assessment tool for evidence-based clinical studies in patients with PE. In this review, we focus on the current therapeutic strategies and future treatment perspectives for PE. PMID:21532601

  16. The role of local anaesthetics in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, Michael G; Powell, Julia A

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is now accepted that both biological and psychological factors are important in the aetiology of premature ejaculation (PE). Of particular interest is the correlation between ejaculatory latency and penile sensory thresholds. Men with PE appear to have a heightened sensory response to penile stimulation and also generally exhibit other abnormal reflex pathways within the ejaculatory process, suggesting a link between penile hypersensitivity and PE. Considering these sensory differences, drugs that selectively produce some degree of penile desensitization or act within the afferent-efferent reflex could delay ejaculatory latency without adversely affecting the sensation of ejaculation. This review evaluates published clinical trial data for local anaesthetics used off-label in PE as well as novel topical agents in development. New analyses of the phase III data are presented for topical eutectic mixture for PE (TEMPE, also known as PSD502, Plethora Solutions Plc., London), a proprietary formulation of lidocaine and prilocaine in a metered-dose aerosol delivery system. • To review the published clinical trial data for local anaesthetics used off-label in premature ejaculation (PE), as well as novel topical agents in development. • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical eutectic mixture for PE (TEMPE) in subjects with PE and their sexual partners using all available phase III data. • Topical treatments can be applied as needed and systemic side-effects are unlikely. However, existing off-label topical treatments for PE have several disadvantages: they can be messy, interfere with spontaneity, and could cause numbness in the man or his partner. • Several novel topical agents are in development for the treatment of PE. TEMPE appears to be closest to approval. • TEMPE, applied 5 min before sexual intercourse (539 subjects) resulted in an increase in the geometric mean intra-vaginal ejaculatory

  17. Premature ejaculation in infertile couples: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Shindel, Alan W; Nelson, Christian J; Naughton, Cathy K; Mulhall, John P

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of premature ejaculation (PE) and other sexual problems in infertile couples is unknown. We attempted to determine the prevalence of PE in infertile couples. Infertile couples presenting for evaluation at our institutions were invited to participate in our study. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess for associations between partner responses. Respondents completed a demographic survey, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Both partners also completed a gender-specific survey instrument to detect PE and distress related to the condition. Male partners completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality (SEAR) scale. Female partners completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and a modified version of the SEAR. Fifty percent of men reported that they ejaculated more rapidly than they wished. When men reported PE, their partners agreed with the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Female partners of men who did not report PE reported PE in 11% of cases. Partner frustration related to PE was reported by 30% of men. Partners agreed that they were frustrated in 43% of these cases. Among the 70% of men who did not report partner frustration from PE, 93% of the partners agreed that they were not frustrated. There was a statistically significant negative association between male and female report of PE and SEAR scores. There were no other statistically significant associations between PE responses and demographic variables, IIEF, FSFI, CES-D, and SF-36 scores. PE is prevalent among infertile couples although the perceived incidence of the condition among men is higher than partner perceived incidence. Additionally, many men may overestimate the level of partner frustration related to PE. PE is associated with lower relationship satisfaction in both men and women. Further research is required.

  18. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, W F; Minhas, S; Ralph, D J

    2006-10-01

    To date, there is no FDA-approved therapy for premature ejaculation (PE). Recently, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been demonstrated to have encouraging results in the treatment of PE by a few studies. The aim of this review was to assess the updated manuscripts and thereafter present the practical recommendations and possible mechanisms concerning PDE5-Is for treating PE. Using MEDLINE, we searched and assessed the peer manuscripts published from 1 January 1996 to 1 September 2005 about PDE5-Is for treating PE. The results show that the number of patients in all the reports is very few and most of the studies do not employ double-blinded and placebo-controlled tests, though they are prospective and randomized. Therefore, the results and conclusions might be biased. PDE5-Is are suggested to be used in PE with old age or associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), or to be employed alone or in combination with selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) when SSRIs fail to treat PE; behavioural therapy is proposed to be used for preventing the recurrence of PE following withdrawal of PDE5-Is. In addition, for the PE patient with a definite aetiological cause, the aetiology should be cured first, if PE still exists, followed by PDE-Is prescription. Possible mechanisms that are involved include relaxing the smooth muscles of vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate and urethra; decreasing the central sympathetic output; inducing peripheral analgesia; prolonging the duration of erection; and increasing confidence, the perception of ejaculatory control, overall sexual satisfaction, and decreasing the post-orgasmic refractory time to achieve a second erection after ejaculation. Well-designed multicentre studies are urgently warranted to further elucidate the efficacies and safety as well as mechanisms of PDE5-Is in the treatment of PE.

  19. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  20. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon

    2016-08-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  1. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  2. New insights on premature ejaculation: a review of definition, classification, prevalence and treatment

    PubMed Central

    C Serefoglu, Ege; Saitz, Theodore R

    2012-01-01

    There are ongoing debates about the definition, classification and prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE). The first evidence-based definition of PE was limited to heterosexual men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. Unfortunately, many patients with the complaint of PE do not meet these criteria. However, these men can be diagnosed as one of the PE subtypes, namely acquired PE, natural variable PE or premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction. Nevertheless, the validity of these subtypes has not yet been supported by evidence. The absence of a universally accepted PE definition and lack of standards for data acquisition have resulted in prevalence studies that have reported conflicting rates. The very high prevalence of 20%–30% is probably due to the vague terminology used in the definitions at the time when such surveys were conducted. Although many men may complain of PE when questioned for a population-based prevalence study, only a few of them will actively seek treatment for their complaint, even though most of these patients would define symptoms congruent with PE. The complaints of acquired PE patients may be more severe, whereas complaints of patients experiencing premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction seem to be least severe among men with various forms of PE. Although numerous treatment modalities have been proposed for management of PE, only antidepressants and topical anaesthetic creams have currently been proven to be effective. However, as none of the treatment modalities have been approved by the regulatory agencies, further studies must be carried to develop a beneficial treatment strategy for PE. PMID:23064688

  3. New insights on premature ejaculation: a review of definition, classification, prevalence and treatment.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege C; Saitz, Theodore R

    2012-11-01

    There are ongoing debates about the definition, classification and prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE). The first evidence-based definition of PE was limited to heterosexual men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. Unfortunately, many patients with the complaint of PE do not meet these criteria. However, these men can be diagnosed as one of the PE subtypes, namely acquired PE, natural variable PE or premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction. Nevertheless, the validity of these subtypes has not yet been supported by evidence. The absence of a universally accepted PE definition and lack of standards for data acquisition have resulted in prevalence studies that have reported conflicting rates. The very high prevalence of 20%-30% is probably due to the vague terminology used in the definitions at the time when such surveys were conducted. Although many men may complain of PE when questioned for a population-based prevalence study, only a few of them will actively seek treatment for their complaint, even though most of these patients would define symptoms congruent with PE. The complaints of acquired PE patients may be more severe, whereas complaints of patients experiencing premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction seem to be least severe among men with various forms of PE. Although numerous treatment modalities have been proposed for management of PE, only antidepressants and topical anaesthetic creams have currently been proven to be effective. However, as none of the treatment modalities have been approved by the regulatory agencies, further studies must be carried to develop a beneficial treatment strategy for PE.

  4. Safety and efficacy of tramadol hydrochloride on treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Eassa, Bayoumy I; El-Shazly, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder. It affects 20%–30% of adult men; the aetiology of this condition has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability, undesirable effects and improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse with tramadol hydrochloride at different dosages for the treatment of PE. A total of 300 patients who presented with lifelong (primary) PE were included in this study. The study was performed for 28 weeks, in which placebo (starch tablet) was given for 4 weeks, and active ingredient (tramadol hydrochloride) was administered at different therapeutic dosages for 24 weeks. Patients were divided into three equal groups, each consisting of 100 patients. The first group (A) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 25 mg. The second group (B) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 50 mg. The third group (C) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 100 mg. All of the 300 participants included completed the study voluntarily. The age of the patients varied from 25 to 50 years. After the treatment period, the recorded data were collected for each group and analysed. The results showed a highly significant increase in the mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in all groups compared to baseline data (P<0.0001). We concluded that using tramadol hydrochloride at different doses on demand for the treatment of PE is effective, safe and tolerable, with minimal undesirable effects, and approval for this indication should be sought. PMID:23103596

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Ren, Shijie; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation within 1 minute (lifelong PE) or 3 minutes (acquired PE), inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Management includes behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. To systematically review effectiveness, safety, and robustness of evidence for complementary and alternative medicine in managing PE. Nine databases including Medline were searched through September 2015. Randomized controlled trials evaluating complementary and alternative medicine for PE were included. Studies were included if they reported on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and/or another validated PE measurement. Adverse effects were summarized. Ten randomized controlled trials were included. Two assessed acupuncture, five assessed Chinese herbal medicine, one assessed Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and two assessed topical "severance secret" cream. Risk of bias was unclear in all studies because of unclear allocation concealment or blinding, and only five studies reported stopwatch-measured IELT. Acupuncture slightly increased IELT over placebo in one study (mean difference [MD] = 0.55 minute, P = .001). In another study, Ayurvedic herbal medicine slightly increased IELT over placebo (MD = 0.80 minute, P = .001). Topical severance secret cream increased IELT over placebo in two studies (MD = 8.60 minutes, P < .001), although inclusion criteria were broad (IELT < 3 minutes). Three studies comparing Chinese herbal medicine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) favored SSRIs (MD = 1.01 minutes, P = .02). However, combination treatment with Chinese medicine plus SSRIs improved IELT over SSRIs alone (two studies; MD = 1.92 minutes, P < .00001) and over Chinese medicine alone (two studies; MD = 2.52 minutes, P < .00001). Adverse effects were not consistently assessed but where reported were generally mild. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine

  6. Evaluating the content and quality of information about premature ejaculation on the Internet: what are men being exposed to ?

    PubMed

    Gul, M; Kaynar, M

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions; however, only a few patients with premature ejaculation are seeking professional help or advice. Internet has become an important source of knowledge, and thus, more patients are looking online for health information. According to our best knowledge, no study has evaluated the content and quality of websites on premature ejaculation. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the content and quality of currently available Internet-based information on premature ejaculation. A sample was obtained comprising the 50 top sites retrieved from Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines using the terms 'premature ejaculation'. Each site then was reviewed based on some predefined evaluation criteria to determine the general quality, condition-specific content quality, popularity index and ownership. The websites reviewed were differed highly in terms of quality and ownership. Only a few sites provided comprehensive medical and complete information on premature ejaculation. The online information available is often of uncertain calibre; therefore, men are being exposed to information about premature ejaculation with a highly variable degree quality. This fact should be considered both by health professionals and website owners, and better online resources should be provided for these patients. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Pelvic-floor muscle rehabilitation in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Lavoisier, Pierre; Roy, Pascal; Dantony, Emmanuelle; Watrelot, Antoine; Ruggeri, Jean; Dumoulin, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    In men, involuntary or voluntary ischiocavernosus muscle contractions after erection lead to intracavernous blood pressures far higher than the systolic pressure, which builds and maintains penile rigidity. Thus, erectile dysfunction may be partly due to ischiocavernosus muscle atrophy and may be treated by rehabilitation interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pelvic-floor muscle strengthening interventions could be associated with increases in intracavernous pressure that would increase penile rigidity. An observational study was conducted. One hundred twenty-two men with isolated erectile dysfunction and 108 men with isolated premature ejaculation participated (no neuromuscular diseases or previous perineal rehabilitation). Thirty-minute sessions of voluntary contractions coupled with electrical stimulation were designed to increase ischiocavernosus muscle strength (monitored through intracavernous pressure increase). A linear mixed-effects model per group analyzed separately, then jointly, the maximum change in pressure (ΔP) and the maximum baseline (ie, respectively, the average contraction-generated difference in intracavernous pressure and the intracavernous pressure plateau at full erection, both measured during the highest moving average of the best 2 minutes of each session). Over 20 sessions, the maximum ΔP increased in erectile dysfunction as well as in premature ejaculation (87% and 88%, respectively, in men with positive trends). The maximum baseline also increased (99% and 72%, respectively, in men with positive trends). The joint modeling indicated that the mean expected progressions of the intracavernous pressure after 5 sessions in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation were 62.85 and 64.15 cm H2O, respectively. Indirect measurements were obtained of intracavernous pressure and ischiocavernosus muscle force. Pelvic-floor muscle rehabilitation was found to be beneficial in erectile dysfunction. However, its

  8. The effects of fluoxetine on several neurophysiological variables in patients with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, U; Tatlişen, A; Turan, H; Arman, F; Ekmekçioğlu, O

    1999-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, has been shown to increase the intravaginal latency of patients with premature ejaculation. We demonstrated the effects of fluoxetine on intravaginal latency, penile sensory threshold, and variables of sacral evoked response and cortical somatosensorial evoked potential in patients with premature ejaculation. Of 48 patients 40 who presented to our clinic with premature ejaculation met the study criteria, gave written or oral consent, and were divided randomly in a double-blind fashion into 2 groups of 20 patients. The study group received 20 mg. fluoxetine daily and the control group received placebo for 1 month. The patients were evaluated during visits before and after treatment for intravaginal latency, penile sensory threshold values, and the variables of sacral evoked response and cortical somatosensory evoked potential tests. Patient ages, intravaginal latencies, penile sensory threshold values, and amplitudes and latencies of sacral evoked response and cortical somatosensory evoked potential tests in both groups were not significantly different at the beginning of treatment (p >0.05). At the end of treatment intravaginal latencies and penile sensory threshold values were increased in the study group compared to before treatment and the control group (p <0.05). No change was observed in either group for the amplitudes and latencies of sacral evoked response and cortical somatosensory evoked potential tests (p >0.05). These findings suggest that fluoxetine is effective treatment for premature ejaculation probably due to its effect of increasing the penile sensory threshold, without changing the amplitudes and latencies of sacral evoked response and cortical somatosensory evoked potential.

  9. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Tae Nam; Baek, Seung Ryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a reactive process caused by the regeneration of an injured nerve that usually forms a nodular proliferation of small nerve bundles. Penile traumatic neuroma is rare; only a few cases related to circumcision have been reported. To report on a case of traumatic neuroma in the penis after selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN) to treat premature ejaculation. The penile traumatic neuroma was successfully removed by excision and confirmed by histopathology. A 55-year-old man who had had several painless, slow-growing nodules on his penis for 2 years presented to our hospital. He had no history of genital trauma, urinary tract infection, or penile surgery, except SDN to treat premature ejaculation. The nodules were excised and the final diagnosis was traumatic neuroma. No recurrence has been detected during 1 year of follow-up. The main complications of SDN are recurrence of premature ejaculation, pain or paresthesia on the glans penis, and erectile dysfunction. However, no traumatic neuroma has been reported as a complication. We report that a traumatic neuroma can occur after SDN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Premature ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... may leave the couple feeling unsatisfied. Exams and Tests Your health care provider may do a physical ... Your provider also may do blood or urine tests to rule out any physical problems. Treatment Practice ...

  11. A new potential risk factor in patients with erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Jie; Yu, Nan; Yin, Tai-Lang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We investigated serum folic acid (FA) levels in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Fasting serum samples were obtained from 42 patients with ED, 36 with PE, 25 ED patients with PE, and 30 healthy men; the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured during a 4 weeks baseline period. Levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone), homocysteine (Hcys), and FA were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. The sexual functions of PE patients and normal control men were evaluated using the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The abridged International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used to gauge erectile quality for ED patients and for normal controls. Serum FA concentrations were lower in ED (7.61 ± 3.97 ng ml⁻¹), PE (9.37 ± 3.40 ng ml⁻¹), and ED/PE (8.84 ± 4.28 ng ml⁻¹) patients than in healthy men (12.23 ± 5.76 ng ml -1 , P < 0.05). No significant differences in sex hormone levels were found between patients with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls (P > 0.05). There were positive correlations between serum FA concentrations and CIPE scores (r = 0.530, P < 0.01), IIEF-5 scores (r = 0.589, P < 0.01), and IELT (r = 0.445, P < 0.01); negative correlations with Hcys concentrations (r = -0.487, P < 0.01) were found in all participants. These findings showed a strong relationship between serum FA levels and sexual dysfunction, possibly due to an effect of FA on the metabolism of nitric oxide, Hcys, and 5-hydroxytryptamine.

  12. A new potential risk factor in patients with erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: folate deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen-Jie; Yu, Nan; Yin, Tai-Lang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We investigated serum folic acid (FA) levels in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Fasting serum samples were obtained from 42 patients with ED, 36 with PE, 25 ED patients with PE, and 30 healthy men; the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured during a 4 weeks baseline period. Levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone), homocysteine (Hcys), and FA were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. The sexual functions of PE patients and normal control men were evaluated using the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The abridged International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used to gauge erectile quality for ED patients and for normal controls. Serum FA concentrations were lower in ED (7.61 ± 3.97 ng ml−1), PE (9.37 ± 3.40 ng ml−1), and ED/PE (8.84 ± 4.28 ng ml−1) patients than in healthy men (12.23 ± 5.76 ng ml−1, P < 0.05). No significant differences in sex hormone levels were found between patients with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls (P > 0.05). There were positive correlations between serum FA concentrations and CIPE scores (r = 0.530, P < 0.01), IIEF-5 scores (r = 0.589, P < 0.01), and IELT (r = 0.445, P < 0.01); negative correlations with Hcys concentrations (r = −0.487, P < 0.01) were found in all participants. These findings showed a strong relationship between serum FA levels and sexual dysfunction, possibly due to an effect of FA on the metabolism of nitric oxide, Hcys, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. PMID:25080932

  13. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Visceral adiposity index is associated with premature ejaculation inversely: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Suleyman Sami; Ozcan, Levent; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Dursun, Murat; Polat, Emre Can; Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin

    2018-01-16

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel indicator for the assessment of visceral obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between VAI and premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 300 men were included in the study. Hundred and fifty men with PE and 150 men without PE (control). All men were evaluated for PE by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). VAI levels were calculated using body mass index (BMI), high density lipoprotein and triglyceride (TG) levels. Mean age of the study groups was 34.3 ± 5.2 (30-60) years and the mean age of the controls were 35.9 ± 5.3 (30-60) years. The men with PE had lower BMI, TG levels, waist circumference (WC) and higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Mean VAI level was 4.13 ± 0.7 in study group and 5.72 ± 1.6 in control group, respectively. VAI levels were statistically higher in men without PE (p < .001). Our cross-sectional study demonstrated a negative correlation between VAI and PE. VAI is superior index for the evaluation and calculation the relationship between obesity and PE.

  15. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE)

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and partner, assessment, and pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments. It concluded by recognizing the continually evolving nature of clinical research and recommended a subsequent guideline review and revision every fourth year. Consistent with that recommendation, the ISSM organized a second multidisciplinary panel of experts in April 2013, which met for 2 days in Bangalore, India. This manuscript updates the previous guidelines and reports on the recommendations of the panel of experts. Aim The aim of this study was to develop clearly worded, practical, evidenced-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. Method A comprehensive literature review was performed. Results This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous treatment recommendations. Brief assessment procedures are delineated, and validated diagnostic and treatment questionnaires are reviewed. Finally, the best practices treatment recommendations are presented to guide clinicians, both familiar and unfamiliar with PE, in facilitating treatment of their patients. Conclusion Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG

  16. Interplay Between Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Limoncin, Erika; Sforza, Alessandra; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Maggi, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The specific determinants and underlying factors linking erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze all available data regarding the link between ED and PE. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: "premature ejaculation" and "erectile dysfunction". All observational trials comparing the risk of ED in relation to PE were included. Data extraction was performed independently by two of the authors (G.R, G.C.), and conflicts resolved by the third investigator (M.M.). Out of 474 retrieved articles, 18 were included in the study for a total of 57,229 patients, of which 12,144 (21.2%) had PE. The presence of PE, however defined, was associated with a significant increase in ED risk (odds ratio: 3.68[2.61;5.18]; P < 0.0001). Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of ED in PE subjects was higher in older individuals as well as in those with a lower level of education and in those who reported a stable relationship less frequently. In addition, subjects with PE and ED more often reported anxiety and depressive symptoms and a lower prevalence of organic associated morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All the latter associations were confirmed even after adjustment for age. Finally the risk of PE-related ED increased with the increased proportion of acquired ejaculatory problems (adj r = 0.414; P < 0.0001 after the adjustment for age). In conclusion, the present data showed that ED and PE are not distinctly separate entities, but should be considered from a dimensional point of view. Understanding this dimensional perspective might help sexual health care professionals in providing the most appropriate therapeutic approach to realistically increase patient related outcomes in sexual medicine. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods) Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Chen, Qiang; Gu, Yuexing; Yue, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple's relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods), which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE. PMID:28053946

  18. Validation of the hospital anxiety and depression scale and the psychological disorder among premature ejaculation subjects.

    PubMed

    Fatt, Q K; Atiya, A S; Heng, N C; Heng, N G C; Beng, C C

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among the general population. PE has often been associated with a psychological state of mind. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) can be used as an instrument to assess the emotional and psychological state. The present study was designed to assess the reliability and validity of the HADS in a Malaysian population. The validity and reliability were studied in subjects with and without PE. Test-retest methodology was used to assess the reliability whereas Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency. In the control and the PE groups, the internal consistency was good and a high degree of internal consistency was observed for all 14 items. In the control group, the Cronbach's alpha values at baseline were from 0.811 to 0.834, whereas for retest, the Cronbach's alpha values were from 0.821-0.838 items. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was high for the control (0.797-0.868: baseline and 0.805-0.872: retest) and PE group (0.822-0.906: baseline and 0.785-0.887: retest). The high value of ICC and the internal consistency was due to high reliability and consistency of the items at 2-week interval. A degree of significance between the baseline and week-2 scores was observed across all items in the PE group but not in the control group. The HADS is a suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to measure the clinical change for anxiety and depression in the Malaysian population.

  19. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yue; Li, Juanjuan; Shan, Guang; Qian, Huijun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Luhao

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction. Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for depression associated with PE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between between depression and risk of PE. We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from these databases' inception through June 2014 for observational epidemiological studies examining the association between depression on risk of PE. Studies were selected if they reported the risk estimates for PE associated with depression. patients>18 years of age suffering from PE. a history of depressive disorder. These odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random or fixed effects model and were tested for heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was employed to explore heterogeneity. Eight trials involving 18,035 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Depression were statistically significantly associated with the risk of PE (OR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.42-1.87). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity (P = 0.623, I = 0.0%). The association was similar when stratified by mean age, geographical area, study design, sample size, publication year, and controlling key confounders. The severity of depression and PE could not be identified due to unavailable data of trials. No evidence of publication bias was observed. These findings provide evidence that depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of PE. In addition, more prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the association and identify the ideal treatment. CRD42016041272.

  20. Regional differences in men attending a sexual health clinic in Sydney for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Frewen, Amie; Rapee, Ronald M; Bowden, Pip; Lagios, Katerina

    2007-11-01

    Previous investigation from UK sexual health clinics has suggested that men from Central Asian and Middle Eastern backgrounds are more likely to present with premature ejaculation (PE) than men from Western backgrounds. This interesting finding requires replication, especially in populations from other countries. The current study aimed to determine whether men who had sought treatment for PE from a community sexual health clinic were more likely to come from Central Asian and Middle Eastern backgrounds than from Western backgrounds. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively from patient files over a 3-year period. Patient-defined ethnicity for outpatients seeking psychological interventions for PE was compared to the ethnicity of those attending for other sexual dysfunctions and also to local population census data. Clinical files for 215 men seeking psychological interventions for sexual dysfunctions at an urban sexual health clinic in Sydney were examined. Men were included in the study if they reported being born in one of two regional groups: Western countries or Middle Eastern/Central Asian countries. The rates of men seeking help for PE vs. other sexual dysfunctions were compared between these two regional groups and were compared with the representation of each region in the broader sexual health service as well as the local population. Relative to men born in Western regions, men from Central Asian/Middle Eastern countries were more likely to present with PE than with other sexual dysfunctions. The proportion of men from Central Asian/Middle Eastern countries presenting with PE was considerably higher than expected for the population attending the sexual health clinic or the broader local community. Consistent with previous research, Asian and Middle Eastern men living in a Western society appear to be more likely than Western men to report difficulties with PE.

  1. A case report of over-the-counter codeine dependence as consequence of self-medication for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Anil, Sethulakshmi Sreevalsam; Ratnakaran, Badr; Suresh, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) opioid abuse, including codeine, has been a growing problem around the world. Although the majority of the abusers use it for recreational purposes, many become dependent on it after having used it a medication for pain or cough. We present a case of codeine dependence where the initial prescribed use had been as a cough medication, but the subsequent abuse of it occurred the following self-medication for premature ejaculation. There is growing need for awareness among doctors and pharmacists of OTC abuse of opioids and for preventive interventions such as restricting supply, audit of pharmacies, training pharmacists, and counter staff and dispensing knowledge about proper use of opioid-containing medications to patients.

  2. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  3. A reassessment of penile sensory pathways and effects of prilocaine-lidocaine cream in primary premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Zhou, L-H; Han, Y-F; Chen, Y; Wang, R; Dai, Y-T

    2014-01-01

    To assess the penile sensory pathway abnormalities of the patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) and effects of prilocaine-lidocaine (PLA) cream, we enrolled 82 PPE patients and 34 normal potent male volunteers. Somatosensory evoked potentials of dorsal nerve (DNSEP) and glans penis (GPSEP) were performed in each subject. In addition, among the 82 patients, 60 were selected and randomly divided into PLA and placebo subgroups, each with 30 patients. Cream was applied evenly on the glans penis for 10 min and washed off just before DNSEP and GPSEP were repeatedly measured. Mean latencies of DNSEP and GPSPE were both remarkably shorter in the patients than those in the normal potent men (P<0.001, both). Compared with the control group, the mean amplitudes of GPSEP were significantly greater in the patient group (P<0.001), but not considerably on the amplitudes of DNSEP (P=0.229). After cream application, the latencies and amplitudes of both DNSEP and GPSEP were significantly prolonged and reduced, respectively, in the PLA cream subgroup (P<0.001, all). These results showed that hyperexcitable ejaculatory reflex neurological factor was linked to PPE, because of hypersensitivity of the penile, accelerated conduction and cortical amplification of the genital stimuli. The PLA cream could delay sensory latency and decrease glans penile hyperexcitability, which may be the mechanism for PPE treatment.

  4. Female partner's perception of premature ejaculation and its impact on relationship breakups, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Giuliano, François; McMahon, Chris; Porst, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Women's perceptions of the men's ejaculatory behavior, as well as the impact premature ejaculation (PE) has on the couple's functioning, are important factors that need to be considered. This survey investigated women's perception and importance of ejaculatory function, as well as the specific aspects of PE that cause distress. In addition, the survey further identified the factors with a greater impact on intimacy, relationship, and sexual behavior. The 1,463 females belonging to a web panel from three different countries (Mexico, Italy, and South Korea), aged 20-50 years, participated in the survey. A combination of validated and self-constructed questionnaires to assess women's perception of PE, relationship satisfaction and quality, and sexual functioning and satisfaction were used. Descriptive statistics in form of proportions and percentages, correlation, and regression analyses. A significant correlation between the importance of ejaculatory control and felt distress could be observed (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001). Women reporting less sexual problems considered ejaculatory control more important and reported more PE-related distress (rho = 0.23 and 0.11, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). The male's lack of attention and focus on performance was the most frequently reported reasons for sexual distress (47.6%) followed by "the short time between penetration and ejaculation" (39.9%), and "the lack of ejaculatory control" (24.1%). Almost a quarter of women reported that the man's ejaculatory problem had previously led to relationship breakups (22.8%). Women considering duration to be important were more likely to report breakups. The study highlights the detrimental effects of PE on relationship and sexual satisfaction in the female partner and how it can lead to the termination of the relationship. Most notably, this is the first study to report that an important source of female distress are not only parameters related to performance such as

  5. Impact of erectile function and age in men with lower urinary tract symptoms on ejaculatory dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hwa, J S; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Seo, D H; Hyun, J S

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and ED are clearly correlated, but to date no correlation with ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) has been identified. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of erectile function in men with LUTS on EjD and premature ejaculation (PE). Erectile function, PE and EjD of 239 men (mean age, 53.0 ± 10.65 years), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erection Function (IIEF), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the seven-item Male Sexual Health questionnaire (MSHQ)-EjD were used to compare with the degree of LUTS. Ages were divided into five groups (<40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >70 years). The IPSS categorized patients into three symptom groups: mild, 1-7; moderate, 8-19; and severe, >19. ED was classified into five categories based on IIEF-EF scores: severe (0-6), moderate (7-12), mild-to-moderate (13-18), mild (19-24) and normal (25-30). The correlations among age, IIEF-EF, IELT and the MSHQ-EjD domain were studied through regression and cross-tabulation analyses. The results revealed that aging significantly affected each item of the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). The IIEF-EF domain was also correlated with each question on the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). PE (IELT <1 min) increased in incidence as patients got older but was not linked to IIEF-EF (P>0.05). These results indicate that EjD is closely related to age and erectile function, and that PE is closely related to age, although PE is not related to erectile function.

  6. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of the tramadol orally disintegrating tablet for the treatment of premature ejaculation within less than 2 minutes.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, David; Salottolo, Kristin M; Orlando, Alessandro; Winkler, James V

    2012-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a widely observed male sexual dysfunction with a major impact on quality of life for many men and their sexual partners. To assess the safety of tramadol orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) (Zertane) and its efficacy in prolonging intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and improving Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) scores. We conducted an integrated analysis of two identical 12-wk randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials across 62 sites in Europe. Healthy men 18-65 yr of age with a history of lifelong PE according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and an IELT ≤ 120 s were included. There were 604 intent-to-treat subjects included in the analysis. Subjects were randomized to receive 1:1:1 placebo (n=200), 62 mg tramadol ODT (n=206), or 89 mg tramadol ODT (n=198). We measured overall change and fold increase in median IELT and the mean change in all four measures of the PEP. Differences across treatment groups were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, analysis of variance, and chi-square analyses. Tramadol ODT resulted in significant increases in median IELT compared with placebo; increases were 0.6 min (1.6 fold), 1.2 min (2.4 fold), and 1.5 min (2.5 fold) for placebo, 62 mg tramadol ODT, and 89 mg tramadol ODT, respectively (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Men saw significantly greater improvement in all four measures of the PEP in both doses compared with placebo (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Tramadol ODT was well tolerated; study discontinuation occurred in 0%, 1.0%, and 1.6% of subjects in placebo, 62 mg, and 89 mg tramadol ODT groups, respectively. Limitations include study inclusion for men with IELT up to 120 s. On-demand 62mg tramadol ODT is an effective treatment for PE in a low and safe therapeutic dose and provides a new option for managing mild to severe PE. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Results from a prospective observational study of men with premature ejaculation treated with dapoxetine or alternative care: the PAUSE study.

    PubMed

    Mirone, Vincenzo; Arcaniolo, Davide; Rivas, David; Bull, Scott; Aquilina, Joseph W; Verze, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Dapoxetine hydrochloride is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and the first drug approved for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Its safety was established in a thorough clinical development program. To characterize the safety profile of dapoxetine in PE treatment and to report the incidence, severity, and type of adverse events. We conducted a 12-wk, open-label, observational study with a 4-wk, postobservational contact. A total of 10,028 patients were enrolled, with 6712 patients (67.6%) treated with dapoxetine 30-60 mg (group A) and 3316 (32.4%) treated with alternative care/nondapoxetine (group B). Treatment with dapoxetine or alternative care/nondapoxetine. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and concomitant therapy use during the 12-wk observational and the postobservational period were reported. The mean age for all patients was 40.5 yr. In group A, 93.0% of the patients were initially prescribed dapoxetine 30 mg. Treatment options for group B patients included clomipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline, topical drugs, condoms, and behavioral counseling. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. TEAEs were reported by 12.0% and 8.9% of group A and group B, respectively, with the highest incidence observed in patients aged >65 yr for group A (21.4%) and 30-39 yr (9.8%) for group B. The most commonly reported TEAEs were nausea, headache, and vertigo, with a higher incidence in group A (3.1%, 2.6%, and 1.0%, respectively) than in group B (oral drugs: 2.3%, 1.3%, and 0.9%, respectively). There were no cases of syncope in group A and one case in group B. A major limitation is that this was a nonrandomized, open-label, short-term study lacking efficacy data. The results of this postmarketing observational study demonstrated that dapoxetine for treatment of PE has a good safety profile and low prevalence of TEAEs. Syncope and major cardiovascular adverse events were not reported. The high level of adherence by healthcare

  8. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Mondaini, Nicola; Cantiello, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Cai, Tommaso

    2016-10-05

    The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE) is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD), PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient) and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A). After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B). All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05) at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05) were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05), PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05) and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica

  9. Delayed Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or a mental health concern, such as depression, anxiety or stress. In many cases, delayed ejaculation is ... the penis Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due ...

  10. On-demand use of tramadol, sildenafil, paroxetine and local anaesthetics for the management of premature ejaculation: A randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gameel, Tarek A; Tawfik, Ahmad M; Abou-Farha, Mohamed O; Bastawisy, Mohamed G; El-Bendary, Mohamed A; El-Gamasy, Abd El-Naser

    2013-12-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy of the on-demand use of four drugs in the management of patients with premature ejaculation (PE), as the off-label use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and topical penile anaesthetics is frequently indicated for the management of patients with PE, and tramadol HCl and sildenafil citrate were also tried for managing this disorder, but with recommendations based on weak evidence. This was a single-centre, single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 150 patients who had PE for >1 year. Patients were randomised equally into five groups. On-demand tramadol, sildenafil, paroxetine, local lidocaine gel or placebo was given for patients in groups 1-5, respectively. During the month before treatment, the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and sexual satisfaction scores (on a 0-5-point scale) were measured and compared to the mean IELT and sexual satisfaction scores recorded during 4 weeks of on-demand drug administration, with monitoring of any possible side-effects. Tramadol-treated patients had a significantly longer mean (SD) IELT, of 351 (119) s, than the other groups. Local anaesthetic was significantly better than paroxetine in prolonging the IELT, at 278 (111) vs. 186 (65) s, respectively. The improvement in sexual satisfaction was significantly better in the sildenafil group, with a mean (SD) improvement of 2.9 (1) points, than in the paroxetine and local anaesthetic groups, at 2.2 (0.9) and 1.9 (0.9) points, respectively. The four drugs significantly improved IELT values over placebo. Tramadol was associated with significantly longer IELT values, whilst sildenafil induced significantly better sexual satisfaction than the other drugs. The four drugs had tolerable side-effects.

  11. Safety and efficacy of epelsiban in the treatment of men with premature ejaculation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study.

    PubMed

    Shinghal, Rajesh; Barnes, Allison; Mahar, Kelly M; Stier, Brendt; Giancaterino, Lisa; Condreay, Lynn D; Black, Libby; McCallum, Stewart W

    2013-10-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist epelsiban in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, stopwatch-monitored, phase 2, multicenter study (GSK557296; NCT01021553) conducted in men (N=77) 18-55 years of age, with PE defined as per International Society for Sexual Medicine consensus definition. Patients provided informed consent prior to a 4-week un-medicated run-in to determine baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELT) recorded in an electronic diary. Patients needed to make a minimum of four intercourse attempts and have a mean IELT<65 seconds to be considered for randomization. Men with moderate-to-severe erectile dysfunction were excluded from the study. Eligible patients were randomized to placebo, epelsiban 50 mg, or 150 mg, taken 1 hour before sexual activity. Active treatment IELT times were recorded in an electronic diary, along with subjective measures of intercourse satisfaction, over an 8-week treatment period. The Modified Index of Premature Ejaculation and International Index of Erectile Function were completed at study visits. Stopwatch timed IELT recordings and a modified version of the patient-reported outcome questionnaire the IPE were used in this study to determine the effect of epelsiban when taken orally prior to intercourse in subjects diagnosed with PE. The baseline (mean) IELT for patients pretreatment was (0.52, 0.63, and 0.59 minutes) for placebo, epelsiban 50 mg and 150 mg, respectively. On-treatment, average geometric least squares means of the median IELT values (mean) were slightly higher in the 50 mg and 150 mg groups (0.72 and 0.69 minutes), respectively, vs. the placebo group (0.62 minutes). Headache was the most common adverse event, and rates were similar across all groups. Epelsiban 50 mg and 150 mg were well tolerated, but did not result in a clinically or statistically significant change in

  12. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-05-01

    The DSM-III definition of premature ejaculation (PE) contains the criterion "control" but not that of "ejaculation time." In contrast, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) contains the criterion "short ejaculation time," while it lacks "control." To review the adequacy and consequent use of all criteria of the DSM-IV-TR definition in previously published PE Internet surveys. Reviewing all published cohort studies on PE from 2004 to 2007. MEDLINE and EMBASE computer bibliographies were used. Definitions of DSM-III, DSM-IV-TR, and International Classification of Diseases. Five papers, of which three are original studies, reported inclusion of men with PE according to DSM-IV-TR definition but omitted to apply the required "short ejaculation time" criterion. These studies, which have defined PE according to subjective criteria such as control, actually referred to the DSM-III definition. Using DSM-III-like definitions in three different studies revealed a highly variable prevalence of PE (32.5%, 27.6%, and 13.0%). In contrast, based on studies using a 1-minute cutoff point, being the time that is required to call ejaculation time "short" or using the criterion "persistent occurrence," PE revealed to be far less prevalent (5-6%). Unacceptable discrepancies of PE definitions according to DSM-III (abandoned but still used) and DSM-IV-TR argue strongly in favor of a multidimensional new classification of PE for the DSM-V.

  13. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part I--validity of DSM-IV-TR.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2006-07-01

    In former days, information obtained from randomized well-controlled clinical trials and epidemiological studies on premature ejaculation (PE) was not available, thereby hampering the efforts of the consecutive DSM Work Groups on Sexual Disorders to formulate an evidence-based definition of PE. The current DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is still nonevidence based. In addition, the requirement that persistent self-perceived PE, distress, and interpersonal difficulties, in absence of a quantified ejaculation time, are necessary to establish the diagnosis remains disputable. To investigate the validity and reliability of DSM and ICD diagnosis of premature ejaculation. The historical development of DSM and ICD classification of mental disorders is critically reviewed, and two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is critically reanalyzed. Reanalysis of two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE has shown that DSM-diagnosed PE can be accompanied by long intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) values. The reanalysis revealed a low positive predictive value for the DSM-IV-TR definition when used as a diagnostic test. A similar situation pertains to the American Urological Association (AUA) definition of PE, which is practically a copy of the DSM-IV-TR definition. It should be emphasized that any evidence-based definition of PE needs objectively collected patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from epidemiological studies, as well as reproducible quantifications of the IELT.

  14. Contemporary Management of Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center, and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and postorgasmic illness syndrome can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. ... Male infertility. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. ...

  16. Central neurophysiology and dopaminergic control of ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Magali; Giuliano, François

    2008-01-01

    Although premature ejaculation (PE) represents the most common male sexual dysfunction, brain mechanisms controlling ejaculatory process remain poorly understood. Recently a group of neurons, identified in the lumbar spinal cord, has been proposed to constitute a spinal ejaculation generator. This key site in ejaculation control, relaying sensory inputs to the brain, is under supraspinal excitatory (medial preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) and inhibitory (nucleus paragigantocellularis) controls. Activation of brain excitatory areas by dopamine (DA) or DA agonists being demonstrated to facilitate ejaculation, it seems particularly interesting to further understand the implication of central DA in the complex process leading to ejaculation. Moreover, the fact that dopaminergic pathways are involved in sexual behavior and that DA release in some brain regions is an important facilitator of male sexual behavior reinforces the crucial implication of DA. Clearly, a better understanding of DA incerto-hypothalamic pathways and targeting brain DA receptor subtypes mediating ejaculation (especially D(3) receptors) will benefit the development of new pharmacological strategies to treat ejaculatory dysfunction including PE.

  17. Retrograde ejaculation: simpler treatment.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Rene

    2007-07-01

    To report a case of successful treatment of complete retrograde ejaculation by use of a novel, simple, and noninvasive home-based protocol. Case report. Private family medicine clinic. A couple with primary infertility due to the male's complete retrograde ejaculation due to childhood's bladder surgery. The woman was healthy with normal menstrual cycles. After intercourse, the male patient voided a urine-semen mixture from a previously alkalinized urine and proceeded to inseminate it intravaginally into his wife. Determination of best time for intercourse was done by use of the ovulation (Billings) method. This protocol has been used successfully by this couple to conceive two healthy children. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of successful management of infertility through this protocol. It might be appropriate to try this method first on select patients with retrograde ejaculation.

  18. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Estimated median MELTs were 15.0 minutes for DE vs 8.0 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Ejaculation time was not associated with serum testosterone levels. Younger men and those with less severe erectile dysfunction had longer IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not

  19. Neurophysiology of erection and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François

    2011-10-01

    Penile erection and ejaculation are closely associated during sexual intercourse. Erection is a central psychoneuroendocrine and peripheral neuro-vasculo-tissular event, resulting in blood filling the sinusoidal spaces of the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. Ejaculation represents the climax of the sexual cycle and comprises emission (secretion of semen) and expulsion (propulsion of semen) phases. This article provides an overview of the proposed neurophysiology of erection and ejaculation. Review of the literature. Current data on the neurophysiology of erection and ejaculation. In terms of peripheral innervation, the pelvic plexus represents a junction for efferent nerves to the structures involved in erection and ejaculation. At the spinal level, the spinal cord contains three sets of neurons (thoracolumbar sympathetic, sacral parasympathetic, and somatic) innervating the sexual organs involved in erection and ejaculation. The presence of cerebral descending pathways to spinal erection and ejaculation centers indicates that the brain has an excitatory or inhibitory effect on these processes. Brain structures that modulate spinal command of erection and ejaculation are part of a larger network that is dedicated to regulating sexual responses. Neurophysiological and pharmacological research has elucidated that dopamine and serotonin have central roles in modulating erection and ejaculation. Interestingly, erection is not a prerequisite for ejaculation, and each of these sexual responses can exist without the other. Despite the association between erection and ejaculation during intercourse, these two processes can be considered distinct events from an anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological perspective. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Effect of dapoxetine on ejaculatory performance and related brain neuronal activity in rapid ejaculator rats.

    PubMed

    Clément, Pierre; Laurin, Miguel; Compagnie, Sandrine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Bernabé, Jacques; Alexandre, Laurent; Giuliano, François

    2012-10-01

    A brain network specifically activated when ejaculation occurs has been described in rats. Increasing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) tone impairs ejaculation and chronic 5-HT selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to inhibit ejaculation. However, efficacy of acute treatment with SSRI varies from one compound to another. The SSRI dapoxetine has been reported to delay ejaculation when given on demand to men with premature ejaculation (PE), although the mechanism of action is unclear. Effects of acute SSRIs on activity of the brain ejaculation circuit in relation with ejaculation have never been examined. To test the effects of acute administration of the short half-life SSRI dapoxetine on ejaculatory performance and activity in brain ejaculation circuit in rapid ejaculator rats taken as PE model. Standard copulatory test was used to attribute one sexual category (sluggish, middle, or rapid) to male rats on the basis of their ejaculatory performance. Parameters of sexual, including ejaculatory, behavior, and Fos level of expression in discrete brain areas were assessed in the three sexual categories and in rapid category following acute oral treatment with dapoxetine. Ejaculation frequency (EF) and latency (EL) were measured as primary end points of ejaculatory behavior. Density of Fos-immunopositive cells in specific brain areas of brain stem, hypothalamus, and thalamus was determined as marker of neuronal activity. EL and Fos level of expression in hypothalamic and thalamic structures were found related. Dapoxetine acute oral administration (300 mg/kg) to rapid ejaculator rats resulted in (i) diminution of ejaculatory performance (lengthened EL and decreased EF); and (ii) modulation of Fos level of expression in hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei of the brain ejaculatory circuit. Acute treatment with dapoxetine, which reduced ejaculatory performance in rapid ejaculator rats, was also accompanied with changes in neuronal activity in

  1. Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Quarterly, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The theme of this issue is lifelong learning. Contents include a message introducing the publisher's Chief Executive Officer, Devron Gaber, and letters to the editor. A guest editorial, "Lifelong Learning For All: A National, Social, Corporate, and Personal Imperative for the Knowledge-Based 21st Century" (Ron Faris), considers how…

  2. Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Selected college and university programs established to assist adults in continuing their education, earning their degrees, and learning about whatever interests them are described, and an essay on lifelong learning is presented. In "Curriculum Development for Lifelong Learning," Charles S. Claxton describes how life cycle research,…

  3. Inhibition of ejaculation by the non-peptide oxytocin receptor antagonist GSK557296: a multi-level site of action

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Pierre; Bernabé, Jacques; Compagnie, Sandrine; Alexandre, Laurent; McCallum, Stewart; Giuliano, François

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oxytocin (OT) plays a major role in the control of male sexual responses. Notably, blockade of OT receptors has been reported to inhibit ejaculation in animals. The study aimed to investigate the action of a highly selective, non-peptide OT antagonist GSK557296 in a model of pharmacologically induced ejaculation in anaesthetized rats. The site of action was assessed by investigating different delivery routes for this compound. Experimental Approach Urethane-anaesthetized Wistar rats were implanted with a cerebral ventricle cannula for i.c.v. injections or with a subdural catheter for intrathecal (i.t.) GSK557296 injections. Occurrence of ejaculation was assessed following i.v. 7-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (7-OH-DPAT), a dopamine D3 receptor agonist. In addition, seminal vesicle pressures (SVP) and bulbospongiosus muscle (BS) EMG were recorded as physiological markers of emission and expulsion phases of ejaculation respectively. Key Results Highest i.v. GSK557296 dose reduced occurrence of ejaculation and increases in SVP but had no effect on BS-EMG. I.c.v. GSK557296 dose dependently inhibited ejaculation, increases in SVP and BS contractions. At spinal thoracic level, GSK557296 dose dependently inhibited ejaculation and increases in SVP but BS-EMG was impaired only with the highest dose. When delivered at lumbar level, GSK557296 dose dependently inhibited ejaculation, increases in SVP and BS contractions. Conclusions and Implications In the 7-OH-DPAT-induced ejaculation model, GSK557296 acts peripherally and centrally to inhibit ejaculation with different modalities. Blockade of brain OT receptors seems to be the most effective mechanism of action. Targeting central OT receptors with highly selective antagonist seems a promising approach for the treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:23530818

  4. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1–4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject. PMID:27652227

  5. Lifelong Learning: Citizens' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    A questionnaire asked citizens their views on lifelong learning, including participation in, experiences of, and motivations for learning. Findings indicated 9 in 10 European citizens think lifelong learning is important to some extent; lifelong learning is important for social and economic reasons; the majority think lifelong learning is for…

  6. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  7. Managing Early Ejaculation: What Does the Future Hold?

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Recent attention in the field of male sexual dysfunction has focused on erectile dysfunction. However, premature ejaculation (PE) is an extremely common condition that warrants clinical study and exploration of pharmacologic treatments. Until recently, PE was thought to be a behavioral problem for which the best remedy was a learned control technique. However, some drugs currently on the market, including sildenafil and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, appear to have efficacy in the treatment of PE. More research is needed before FDA approval of such agents for this indication, but more and better options for men with PE are anticipated as attention to ejaculatory disorders grows and, hopefully, the associated stigma decreases. PMID:16985565

  8. Is There Any Association Between Regular Physical Activity and Ejaculation Time?.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan

    2018-04-19

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a prevalent disorder in males leading to sequelae such as lack of self-confidence,anxiety, depression and unsatisfactory intercourse for these men and their partners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ejaculation and physical activity. Group 1 comprised 112 participants who took regular physical activity and Group 2 comprised 126 participants with a sedentary lifestyle. The participants were 18-45 years old, same ethnic origin, insame location and had regular sexual activity for at least 6 months. A comparison was made by metabolic equivalents (MET), premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). The mean age of Groups 1 and 2 was 25.34 years (range, 18-41 years) and 28.49 years (range, 19-45 years), respectively (P = .21). The mean PEDT score was 6.18 in Group 1, and 10.02 in Group 2. Significant differences were found between Groups 1 and 2 (P = .001). The mean MET score of Group 1 was 3448.23 METmin/week (3012-4496 MET- min/week) while the MET score of Group 2 was 201.87 MET- min/week (66-744 MET- min/week) (P = .001). The mean IELT of Groups 1 and 2 were 316.42 s (120-1530 s) and 189.32 s (20-450 s), respectively. The mean IELT was significantly higher in Group 1 (P = .001). The study results demonstrated that PE was less frequent in men that perform regular physical activitycompared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. It can be assumed that regular physical activity may be effectual in gaining a sexual life of higher quality. Prospective studies with longitudinal data are needed to further understand the potential relationship between regular physical activity and premature ejaculation.

  9. Integrating Lifelong Learning Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This publication is comprised of 43 papers on the topic of promoting lifelong learning. The papers in Part 1, Overcoming False Dichotomies, are "Lifelong Learning in the North, Education for All in the South" (Torres); "Practice of Lifelong Learning in Indigenous Africa" (Omolewa); "Gender and Information Societies"…

  10. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  11. Premature Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk. PMID:23634337

  12. [Premature orgasm in the male].

    PubMed

    Köhn, F M

    2003-11-13

    To date, we have no uniform definition of ejaculatio praecox. In a qualitative approach, premature ejaculation is ascribed to a failure to control excitement. As causes, organic disorders and erectile dysfunction must be excluded. The majority of cases, however, are due to psychological or partnership problems. The history-taking should aim, in particular, to uncover possible anxiety in conjunction with premature orgasm, and also to establish the reactions of the partner. As therapy, medication (local anesthetics, antidepressive agents, PDE-5 inhibitors) and sexual-therapeutic measures are available. Since few sufferers take the initiative in seeking treatment, particular importance attaches to providing the public with information about the therapeutic options for treating this common disorder.

  13. The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually-reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water and macromolecules) play vital roles in post-copulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole – and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components – has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. PMID:23582755

  14. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

    Kary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  15. Lifelong Learning: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Janet R.

    Lifelong learning encompasses those experiences in any setting, nurtured by any motivation, which improve capabilities for developing one's personality and for integrating one's lifestyle with the human, natural, and social environments in which one chooses to live. Some predicted changes will challenge those interested in lifelong learning. The…

  16. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  17. Nurturing Lifelong Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, Gerri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author relates how the thing he enjoys most about his job as a school librarian is nurturing lifelong readers, in particular readers of children's literature. In talking about nurturing lifelong readers and, referring to students, staff and school librarians, the author discusses: (1) The Southwell Library Programme; (2) The Lit…

  18. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lue, Tom F.

    2016-01-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. PMID:26385403

  19. The drug treatment of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Moustafa A.; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology. To achieve the maximum sensitivity of the search strategy and to identify all studies, we combined “delayed ejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with each of “testosterone” or “cabergoline” or “bupropion” or “amantadine” or “cyproheptadine” or “midodrine” or “imipramine” or “ephedrine” or “pseudoephedrine” or “yohimbine” or “buspirone” or “oxytocin” or “bethanechol” as MeSH terms or keywords. There are a number of drugs to treat patients with DE including: testosterone, cabergoline, bupropion, amantadine, cyproheptadine, midodrine, imipramine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, yohimbine, buspirone, oxytocin, and bethanechol. Although there are many pharmacological treatment options, the evidence is still limited to small trials, case series or case reports. Review of literature showed that evidence level 1 (Double blind randomized clinical trial) studies were performed with testosterone, oxytocin, buspirone or bethanechol treatment. It is concluded that successful drug treatment of DE is still in its infancy. The clinicians need to be aware of the pathogenesis of DE and the pharmacological basis underlying the use of different drugs to extend better care for these patients. Various drugs are available to address such problem, however their evidence of efficacy is still limited and their

  20. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... full-term infants Problems feeding due to trouble sucking or coordinating swallowing and breathing Small scrotum that ... take weeks to months. Infants usually cannot coordinate sucking and swallowing before 34 weeks gestation. A premature ...

  1. Lifelong learning: The dialectics of ?lifelong educations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Paul

    1994-05-01

    This article examines the emergence of different patterns of lifelong education and at the same time gives an overall view of how the various contributions to this special issue add to our understanding of the process of change that is taking place in the educational arena. The article is structured around three main themes. First, it addresses the changing relationship between initial education, adult education and the general learning environments. As the author shows, these three elements form a complex and interacting web of influences, which can be fully understood only as a totality. Secondly, under the heading of "The Dialectics at work behind and in education," the article discusses such factors as the changing patterns of employment and non-working time and the disparity between social demand for education and the institutional response. Thirdly, the author deals with the economy of lifelong learning and the changing role of the state in education. Overall, the author presents a picture of profound and widespread transition, in which many different types of learning society are emerging.

  2. Lifelong Learning: Thematic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This annotated bibliography lists 177 books, articles, and other reference items collected since 1994 by the Eurydice European Unit on the topic of lifelong learning. All titles and Internet Web sites indicated for reference purposes are classified into the following categories: European Union; Council of Europe; OECD (Organization for Economic…

  3. Lifelong Learning and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Penelope L.

    1979-01-01

    States that community colleges are in a good position to be centers of lifelong education and that adult educators must engage in politics in order to promote learning opportunities for adults. Suggests legislative, administrative, judicial, and electoral strategies for adult educators to use in influencing policymakers to support lifelong…

  4. Lifelong Learning and Prosperity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Pauline

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for lifelong learning to maintain a presence in a world economy. Looks at the widening gap between rich and poor and its relation to educational level and suggests that more emphasis must be placed on upgrading the skills of blue collar workers. (JOW)

  5. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  6. Vocational Lifelong Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara M.; Aynsley, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The notion of lifelong learning has become a mantra within educational policies. However these have been strongly critiqued for reflecting an understanding of learning that privileges the economic benefits of participation in formal education. In UK contexts, the importance attached to widening participation in higher education is one…

  7. Lifelong Learning: Capabilities and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    The present paper discusses the potential of the capability approach in conceptualizing and understanding lifelong learning as an agency process, and explores its capacity to guide empirical studies on lifelong learning. It uses data for 20 countries from the Adult Education Survey (2007; 2011) and focuses on aspirations for lifelong learning. The…

  8. New Technology and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Mary

    Key issues related to the relationship between new technology and lifelong learning in the United Kingdom and elsewhere were identified through reviews of the literature on information and communications technology (ICT) and the literature on lifelong learning. Two overarching issues related to the interplay of new technology and lifelong learning…

  9. Leading Through Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Dawn

    2016-07-01

    School nurses, as leaders, are able to exhibit leadership skills through embracing, advocating for, and demonstrating a commitment to lifelong learning. With the continual changes in healthcare and technology, ongoing education is essential to maintain a high standard of expertise and practice. School nurses have many opportunities for continuing education. This article will briefly explore various levels of continuing education, as well as relating ongoing learning to leadership principles. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Conception following insemination with a freeze-preserved retrograde ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakis, E; Rao, R; Dmowski, W P; Scommegna, A

    1978-03-01

    Retrograde ejaculation, an infrequent cause of male infertility, may be the sequela of prostate or bladder neck surgery or the result of interruption in the sympathetic innervation to the bladder neck. The diagnosis is established by history and examination of the urine. In infertile couples artificial insemination homologous (AIH) using retrograde ejaculate recovered from the bladder has been successfully accomplished, but conception has occurred only in isolated cases. A literature review of the subject is presented. The technique of semen recovery from the bladder is time-consuming and uncomfortable to the patient, while the quality of the semen recovered is variable and the risk of iatrogenic urinary tract infection is increased. To avoid the above problems, and to have sperm available for AIH at the time of induced ovulation in an anovulatory wife, we were able to freeze-preserve ejaculate recovered from the bladder for future use. A case of conception following AIH with freeze-preserved retrograde ejaculate is presented.

  11. Prostatic urethra malformation associated with retrograde ejaculation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Aiming; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-12-21

    Retrograde ejaculation can have anatomical, neurogenic, or pharmacological causes. Among these factors, malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause. We describe a 29-year-old Han Chinese man with absence of his verumontanum combined with ejaculatory duct cysts, and no other cause for ejaculatory dysfunction. His verumontanum was replaced by a deep groove adjacent to his bladder neck, which could significantly influence bladder neck contraction. In addition, the large cysts in the ejaculatory duct could obstruct the anterior outlet of his prostatic urethra and prevent seminal fluid flow in an anterograde direction. There are few reports of retrograde ejaculation associated with congenital malformations of the posterior urethra. Malformations associated with bladder neck laxity and increased tone of the prostatic urethral outlet can contribute to retrograde ejaculation. Malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause of retrograde ejaculation, and can be difficult to treat.

  12. Electromyographic study of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Ahmed; Shafik, Ismail A; El Sibai, Olfat; Shafik, Ali A

    2007-07-01

    The anterolateral abdominal wall muscles (AAWMs) are composed of the external and internal oblique, transversus abdominis, and the rectus abdominis muscles. We investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs contract reflexly during ejaculation. Effect of coitus on AAWMs was tested in 16 healthy men (mean age 37.2 +/- 9.7 years). The intra-abdominal pressure was measured by a manometric catheter introduced into the rectum. The response of the AAWMs to erection and ejaculation was recorded before and after penile and AAWMs' anesthetization by a needle electrode inserted into each of the muscles. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of AAWMs and rectal pressure increased at ejaculation. A few seconds before and during ejaculation, the rectal pressure and motor unit action potentials (EMG activity) of each of the AAWMs increased; this effect was abolished by anesthetization of the penis and AAWMs. Increased AAWMs' EMG denotes contraction of the said muscles. AAWMs' contraction at ejaculation, the resulting increase of the intra-abdominal pressure, and the presumably increased pelvic venous congestion seem to augment the penile venous congestion and rigidity. This effect is suggested to be mediated through a reflex which we call "ejaculation-abdominal wall reflex."

  13. Testosterone, social and sexual behavior of perinatally and lifelong calorie restricted offspring.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Kent, Stephen; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-09

    Calorie restriction (CR) during sensitive perinatal periods has consistently been demonstrated to alter the development of a variety of physiological systems, which consequently affect behavior. This study compared the social behavior and sexual behavior of the adult male offspring of mothers administered a 25% CR at one of four times in the perinatal period: a brief period preconception, during gestation, during lactation, or a lifelong restriction (beginning at conception and continuing throughout life). Levels of serum testosterone were also determined in these animals. Social interaction increased in the gestation and lifelong CR groups. The lifelong group also exhibited more dominant type behaviors. CR during preconception and lactation resulted in offspring that displayed an enhanced and more efficient copulatory pattern compared to all other conditions. This was demonstrated by a reduced frequency of intromissions, shorter latency to ejaculation, and a greater frequency of ejaculations by the preconception and lactation group compared to some, if not all of the other CR groups and controls. Serum testosterone was significantly higher in the preconception group compared to controls. These findings indicate that CR during specific periods of development can differentially alter the social behavioral phenotype and hormone levels in adulthood.

  14. Who Is the Lifelong Learner? Globalization, Lifelong Learning and Hermeneutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggla, Bengt Kristensson

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to elaborate on the inner connection between three such diverse entities as lifelong learning, globalization and hermeneutics. After placing lifelong learning in a societal context framed by globalization, my intention is to reflect on the prerequisites for introducing a hermeneutical contribution to the understanding of…

  15. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  16. Evolutionary Trade-Off between Secondary Sexual Traits and Ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lüpold, Stefan; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2017-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that the evolutionary diversification of the weapons and ornaments of pre-mating sexual selection should be influenced by trade-offs with male expenditure on ejaculates. However, the patterns of association between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate expenditure are frequently inconsistent in their support of this prediction. We show why consideration of additional life-history, ecological, and mating-system variables is crucial for the interpretation of associations between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate production. Incorporation of these 'missing variables' provides evidence that interactions between pre- and post-mating sexual selection can underlie broad patterns of diversification in male weapons and ornaments. We call for more experimental and genetic approaches to uncover trade-offs, as well as for studies that consider the costs of mate-searching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salvaging urospermic ejaculates from brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C A; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2014-11-30

    The objective of this study was to reverse the osmotic stress of sperm in urine contaminated bear ejaculates that were obtained by electroejaculation using pre-freezing washing or density gradient centrifugation isolation. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were divided into six aliquots, five were diluted in each washing extender: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 700 mOsm/kg (prepared from a Tes-Tris-Fructose base, adding water or fructose as corresponds), at a 1:2 ratio (raw semen: washing solution, v/v); and the other aliquot was handled without washing (Control group). Samples were centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min prior to freezing. In Experiment 2, ejaculates were divided into two aliquots: one was diluted 1:1 with TCG (Tris-Citric acid-Glucose) and centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min (Centrifugation Control; C-Control); the other was treated with PureSperm density gradient column. After treatments, samples were cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)) and acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (PNA-FITC)/PI) were analyzed before and after freezing. Ejaculates with an initial osmolality of less than 120 mOsm/kg treated with pre-freezing washing, and the Control sample had greater pre-freezing sperm motility than the raw ejaculate, but sperm viability was not different among these groups. The samples washed with 700 mOsm/kg solutions had the least pre-freezing viability. In the post-thawing evaluation, pre-freezing washing treatments did not provide any improvement in comparison with the Control sample, and treatment with 700 mOsm/kg extender had deleterious effects in all urospermic samples. PureSperm density gradient centrifugation applied to urospermic raw semen was suitable for improving sperm motility and viability of pre-freezing samples and the selected spermatozoa had greater freezing capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Your Premature Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the establishment of ... The impact of premature birth on society Featured articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant ...

  19. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  20. Social media for lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Kind, Terry; Evans, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Learning is ongoing, and can be considered a social activity. In this paper we aim to provide a review of the use of social media for lifelong learning. We start by defining lifelong learning, drawing upon principles of continuous professional development and adult learning theory. We searched Embase and MEDLINE from 2004-2014 for search terms relevant to social media and learning. We describe examples of lifelong learners using social media in medical education and healthcare that have been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Medical or other health professions students may have qualities consistent with being a lifelong learner, yet once individuals move beyond structured learning environments they will need to recognize their own gaps in knowledge and skills over time and be motivated to fill them, thereby incorporating lifelong learning principles into their day-to-day practice. Engagement with social media can parallel engagement in the learning process over time, to the extent that online social networking fosters feedback and collaboration. The use of social media and online networking platforms are a key way to continuously learn in today's information sharing society. Additional research is needed, particularly rigorous studies that extend beyond learner satisfaction to knowledge, behaviour change, and outcomes.

  1. Lifelong Learning: Riding the Tiger. Cassell Studies in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jim; Spurling, Andrea

    This book has the following aims: to establish what a new culture of lifelong learning is; to see why it must be introduced; to explore what the new learning culture will entail; and to present the resourcing systems needed to carry it through. The discussion includes ethical as well as economic viewpoints. Starting from a cradle-to-grave…

  2. Does human ejaculate quality relate to phenotypic traits?

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Austin John; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Fink, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    A given man's phenotype embodies cues of his ancestral ability to effectively defend himself and his kin from harm, to survive adverse conditions, and to acquire status and mating opportunities. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that a man's phenotype also embodies cues to fertility or the probability that an ejaculate will fertilize ova. Female mate choice depends on the ability to discern the quality of a male reproductive partner through his phenotype, and male fertility may be among the traits that females have evolved to detect. A female who selects as mates males that deliver higher quality ejaculates will, on average, be more fecund than her competitors. Data on several non-human species demonstrate correlations between ejaculate quality and secondary sexual characteristics that inform female mate choice, suggesting that females may select mates in part on the basis of fertility. While the non-human literature on this topic has advanced, the human literature remains limited in scope and there is no clear consensus on appropriate methodologies or theoretical positions. We provide a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of this literature, and conclude by proposing solutions to the many issues that impede progress in the field. In the process, we hope to encourage interest and insight from investigators in other areas of human mating and reproductive biology. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:318-329, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, D; Mariethoz, E; Manicardi, G; Bizzaro, D; Bianchi, P G; Bianchi, U

    1999-01-01

    The molecular basis of many forms of male infertility is poorly defined. One area of research that has been studied intensely is the integrity of the DNA in the nucleus of mature ejaculated spermatozoa. It has been shown that, in men with abnormal sperm parameters, the DNA is more likely to possess strand breaks. However, how and why this DNA damage originates in certain males and how it may influence the genetic project of a mature spermatozoon is unknown. Two theories have been proposed to describe the origin of this DNA damage in mature spermatozoa. The first arises from studies performed in animal models and is linked to the unique manner in which mammalian sperm chromatin is packaged, while the second attributes the nuclear DNA damage in mature spermatozoa to apoptosis. One of the factors implicated in sperm apoptosis is the cell surface protein, Fas. In this review, we discuss the possible origins of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa, how these spermatozoa arrive in the ejaculate of some men, and what consequences they may have if they succeed in their genetic project.

  4. Midodrine improves ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Soler, J M; Previnaire, J G; Plante, P; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2007-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist midodrine given orally for anejaculation in spinal cord injured men. A total of 185 spinal cord injured patients who reported absent ejaculation during sexual intercourse and who failed to respond to penile vibratory stimulation were treated with midodrine 30 to 120 minutes before a new stimulation. The procedure was repeated weekly, increasing doses by 7.5 mg to a maximum of 30 mg. Cardiovascular effects were monitored throughout the procedure. Antegrade or retrograde ejaculation was achieved in 102 spinal cord injured men (64.6%). A positive response was more frequent in patients with complete lesions (American Spinal Injury Association A) and upper motor neuron lesions above T10. Midodrine induced a significant but moderate increase (maximum 10 mm Hg) in mean arterial pressure in all patients. The highest systolic blood pressure (more than 200 mm Hg) was seen in patients with quadriplegia. No other significant side effect was recorded. The average dose of midodrine required for ejaculation was 18.7 mg. Midodrine is a safe and efficient adjunct to penile vibratory stimulation for anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients.

  5. What's Become of Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    The author's father left school aged 13 at the start of the Great Depression. When he finally found work the wealth of educational opportunity he encountered inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. He signed up for evening classes and loved anything and everything to do with what he proudly called self-improvement. As a novice to retirement…

  6. The Promise of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Peter Jarvis's work offers a comprehensive grounding in many of the key principles and insights offered through the field of adult education. His work directs us to the different factors--psychological, social, economic and political required for understanding lifelong learning contexts. As scholars and educators, he…

  7. The Future for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2007-01-01

    The independent Commission of Inquiry into the future of lifelong learning, established and supported by National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE), has set itself the ambitious task of understanding both the motivation for engaging (and especially re-engaging) with learning through the life-course, and the infrastructure that is…

  8. Sustainable Assessment for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tham T. H.; Walker, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the alignment of assessment practices in universities and lifelong learning as a key process and outcome for expansive student development. It outlines Boud's approach to assessment, operationalises this to analyse practices in two contrasting national contexts: the sociology departments of the Midlands University in the UK and…

  9. Lifelong Learning from Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najder-Stefaniak, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The author reflects upon the specific character of ethics as a domain of knowledge that came into being in order to gather truths, which would help human beings to wisely take care of themselves. She argues that the ethical perspective should be taken into account while planning the lifelong learning activities. Further, she notes that if the goal…

  10. Re-Thinking Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    The current dominant concept of lifelong learning has arisen from the pressures of globalisation, economic change and the needs of the "knowledge economy". Its importance is not disputed in this paper. However, its proponents often advocate it in a form which places unrealistic demands on the individual without at the same time addressing their…

  11. Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of…

  12. Electronic Education and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Russo, Marianne Robin; Dennett, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Due to de-institutionalization and open system, it is inappropriate to equate education with youth education. In the new century, education has been delivered electronically to accommodate lifelong learning. It has become a reality that the four walled classrooms have been used to complement and supplement E-learning. No need to argue that…

  13. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  14. Lifelong Learning and the New Educational Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    This document explores the sudden increase in interest in lifelong learning among policymakers in Great Britain and elsewhere; existing patterns of participation in lifelong learning; the measures being developed to promote lifelong learning; and the prospects of achieving a viable learning society. The following are among the topics discussed in…

  15. The Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As lifelong learning grows in popularity, few comprehensive pictures of the phenomenon have emerged. The "Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning" provides a disciplined and complete overview of lifelong learning internationally. The theoretical structure puts the learner at the centre and the book emanates from there,…

  16. Lifelong Learning in Singapore: Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Johnny; Freebody, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning policy came and went in many countries in the last few decades. Much of the lifelong learning policy experience has been either ineffective or drifting in and out of policy discussions unnoticed. Yet, in 2015, Singapore launched a new policy initiative known as SkillsFuture, which brought lifelong learning back into mainstream…

  17. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…

  18. Lifelong Learning Policies, Paradoxes and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that there are many ways of conceptualising lifelong learning and examines EU and Scottish lifelong learning policies in order to identify their underlying assumptions. Through an analysis of these policies, it is demonstrated that they draw on a number of inter-related fallacies that prioritise lifelong learning mainly in…

  19. Towards a Conceptual Understanding of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCannon, Roger S.

    Despite the lengthy existence of the concept of lifelong learning, there is still no one generally accepted theory of education as a lifelong process. More than an extension of adult education, lifelong learning rests on the belief that learning occurs throughout life, in different ways and through different processes. The key notion in lifelong…

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  1. Do Men Produce Higher Quality Ejaculates When Primed With Thoughts of Partner Infidelity?

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Barbaro, Nicole; Holub, Andrew M; Holden, Christopher J; Mogilski, Justin K; Lopes, Guilherme S; Nicolas, Sylis C A; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Welling, Lisa L M

    2018-01-01

    Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity) relative to a control prime. Men ( n = 45) submitted two masturbatory ejaculates-one ejaculate sample for each condition (i.e., sperm competition and control conditions). Ejaculates were assessed on 17 clinical parameters. The results did not support the hypothesis: Men did not produce higher quality ejaculates in the sperm competition condition relative to the control condition. Despite the null results of the current research, there is evidence for psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans. We discuss methodological limitations that may have produced the null results and present methodological suggestions for research on human sperm competition.

  2. Spontaneous Ejaculation in a Wild Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus)

    PubMed Central

    Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Kogi, Kazunobu; Nakasuji, Akane; Sakakibara, Kasumi; Kasanuki, Yuria; Yoshioka, Motoi

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ejaculation, which is defined as the release of seminal fluids without apparent sexual stimulation, has been documented in boreoeutherian mammals. Here we report spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus), and present a video of this rare behavior. This is the first report of spontaneous ejaculation by an aquatic mammal, and the first video of this behavior in animals to be published in a scientific journal. PMID:24015280

  3. Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has increased due to a high incidence of premature, low birthweight infants. Stages of severity range from no visual damage to total blindness, and educational problems of ROP children parallel those of other visually impaired children, early intervention being crucial. Treatments are either pharmacological or…

  4. Female ejaculation orgasm vs. coital incontinence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Zlatko

    2013-07-01

    Women may expel various kinds of fluids during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Their origins, quantity, compositions, and expulsion mechanisms depend on anatomical and pathophysiological dispositions and the degree of sexual arousal. These are natural sexual responses but may also represent symptoms of urinary incontinence. The study aims to clarify the etiology of fluid leakage at orgasm, distinguish between associated physiological sexual responses, and differentiate these phenomena from symptoms of illness. A systematic literature review was performed. EMBASE (OvidSP) and Web of Science databases were searched for the articles on various phenomena of fluid expulsions in women during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Articles included focused on female ejaculation and its variations, coital incontinence (CI), and vaginal lubrication. Female ejaculation orgasm manifests as either a female ejaculation (FE) of a smaller quantity of whitish secretions from the female prostate or a squirting of a larger amount of diluted and changed urine. Both phenomena may occur simultaneously. The prevalence of FE is 10-54%. CI is divided into penetration and orgasmic forms. The prevalence of CI is 0.2-66%. Penetration incontinence occurs more frequently and is usually caused by stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urodynamic diagnoses of detrusor overactivity (DOA) and SUI are observed in orgasmic incontinence. Fluid expulsions are not typically a part of female orgasm. FE and squirting are two different physiological components of female sexuality. FE was objectively evidenced only in tens of cases but its reported high prevalence is based mostly on subjective questionnaire research. Pathophysiology of squirting is rarely documented. CI is a pathological sign caused by urethral disorder, DOA, or a combination of both, and requires treatment. An in-depth appreciation of these similar but pathophysiologically distinct phenomena is essential for distinguishing normal, physiological sexual

  5. Constraints on evolution and postcopulatory sexual selection: trade-offs among ejaculate characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moore, Patricia J; Harris, W Edwin; Montrose, V Tamara; Levin, Daniel; Moore, Allen J

    2004-08-01

    Ejaculates function as an integrated unit to ensure male fertility and paternity, can have a complex structure, and can experience multiple episodes of selection. Current studies on the evolution of ejaculates typically focus on phenotypic variation in sperm number, size, or related traits such as testes size as adaptations to postcopulatory male-male competition. However, the evolution of the integrated nature of ejaculate structure and function depends on genetic variation in and covariation between the component parts. Here we report a quantitative genetic study of the components of the ejaculate of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, including those we know to experience postcopulatory sexual selection, in the context of functional integration of ejaculate characters. We use the patterns of genetic variation and covariation to infer how the integration of the functions of the ejaculate constrain and shape its evolution. Ejaculate components were highly variable, showed significant additive genetic variance, and moderate to high evolvability. The level of genetic variation in these characters, despite strong directional or truncating selection, may reflect the integration of multiple episodes of selection that occur in N. cinerea. There were few significant phenotypic correlations, but all the genetic correlations among ejaculate characters were significantly different from zero. The patterns of genetic variation and covariation suggest that there are important trade-offs among individual traits of the ejaculate and that evolution of ejaculate characteristics will not proceed unconstrained. Fully describing the genetic relationships among traits that perform as an integrated unit helps us understand how functional relationships constrain or facilitate the evolution of the complex structure that is the ejaculate.

  6. Premature hair graying.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-04-01

    Hair pigmentation and graying are important topics for the understanding of the physiology of aging; the differentiation of stem cells; and the mechanisms underlying disease processes such as progeroid syndromes, vitiligo, and hypothyroidism. Although hair graying, or canities, is a common process occurring in people as they age, an unknown percentage of individuals experience premature graying from familial inheritance or pathologic conditions. We review the physiology of hair pigmentation and the mechanism underlying physiologic graying, and we explore the etiology of pathologic causes of premature graying, pathologies associated with premature graying, and the limited available treatment options for hair graying.

  7. Lifelong learning in nursing: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Taylor, Heidi; Reyes, Helen

    2014-03-01

    In order to foster a culture of lifelong learning in nursing, it is important to identify what the concept means in the nursing profession as well as the characteristics of a lifelong learner. The purpose of this Delphi study was to conceptualize lifelong learning from the perspective of nursing, and to identify characteristics and essential elements of lifelong learning. A Delphi Study technique in three phases was completed using an online survey tool. Data were analyzed for conceptual description, ratings of characteristics and attributes, and expert consensus in these three phases. An online survey tool was used in this study. Recognized experts in nursing education, administration and public policy participated in this study. Lifelong learning in nursing is defined as a dynamic process, which encompasses both personal and professional life. This learning process is also both formal and informal. Lifelong learning involves seeking and appreciating new worlds or ideas in order to gain a new perspective as well as questioning one's environment, knowledge, skills and interactions. The most essential characteristics of a lifelong learner are reflection, questioning, enjoying learning, understanding the dynamic nature of knowledge, and engaging in learning by actively seeking learning opportunities. Keeping the mind active is essential to both lifelong learning and being able to translate knowledge into the capacity to deliver high quality nursing care. It is hoped that a clearer understanding of lifelong learning in nursing will foster more discussion and research about intentional, active inclusion of lifelong learning behaviors in nursing curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Premature rupture of membranes

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  9. Apnea of prematurity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. Miller MJ, Martin MJ. Pathophysiology of apnea of prematurity. In: Polin ... apnea and the foundation of respiratory control. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and ...

  10. Apnea of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Eichenwald, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common diagnoses in the NICU. Despite the frequency of apnea of prematurity, it is unknown whether recurrent apnea, bradycardia, and hypoxemia in preterm infants are harmful. Research into the development of respiratory control in immature animals and preterm infants has facilitated our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of apnea of prematurity. However, the lack of consistent definitions, monitoring practices, and consensus about clinical significance leads to significant variation in practice. The purpose of this clinical report is to review the evidence basis for the definition, epidemiology, and treatment of apnea of prematurity as well as discharge recommendations for preterm infants diagnosed with recurrent apneic events. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Apnea of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard J; Wilson, Christopher G

    2012-10-01

    Apnea of prematurity is a significant problem due to immaturity of the central neural control circuitry responsible for integrating afferent input and central rhythm. In this review, we provide an overview of the pathogenesis of apnea of prematurity--including our current understanding of the role that afferent input to the brain stem plays in synergy with the central pattern generation circuitry in the emergence of apnea of prematurity. We then discuss the interplay of apnea, bradycardia, desaturation, as well as the genesis of central, mixed, and obstructive apnea. Finally, we provide a summary of the physiological basis for current therapeutic approaches to treating apnea of prematurity, and conclude with an overview of proposed long-term consequences of the resultant intermittent hypoxic episodes. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  12. [Prematurity, progress and challenges].

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivier

    Prematurity is one of the main causes of neonatal mortality and comorbidities, and longer term sequalae. The survival rate and quality of life of premature babies has however progressed significantly and infants benefit from improved monitoring and long-term follow-up. Notable advances have been made in the area of developmental care, although their implementation in units needs to be improved. Innovations in perinatology should emerge in the years ahead. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between Salivary Testosterone Levels, Androgen-Related Genetic Polymorphisms, and Self-Estimated Ejaculation Latency Time.

    PubMed

    Jern, Patrick; Westberg, Lars; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Johansson, Ada; Gunst, Annika; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-08-01

    Recently, testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms in the literature. Furthermore, studies suggest that the etiology of PE is partly under genetic control. The aim of this study was to reassess findings suggesting an association between testosterone (T) and a key symptom of PE, ejaculation latency time (ELT), as well as exploratively investigating associations between six androgen-related genetic polymorphisms and ELT. Statistical analyses were performed on a population-based sample of 1,429 Finnish men aged 18-45 years (M = 26.9, SD = 4.7). Genotype information was available for 1,345-1,429 of these (depending on the polymorphism), and salivary T samples were available from 384 men. Two androgen receptor gene-linked, two 5-alpha-reductase type 2-gene-linked, and two sex hormone-binding globuline gene-linked polymorphisms were genotyped. Ejaculatory function was assessed using self-reported ELT. We found no association between salivary T levels and ELT. We found a nominally significant association between a 5-alpha-reductase type 2-gene-linked polymorphism (rs2208532) and ELT, but this association did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. One single nucleotide polymorphism in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene (rs1799941) moderated (significantly after correction for multiple testing) the association between salivary T and ELT, so that A:A genotype carriers had significantly lower salivary T levels as a function of increasing ELT compared with other genotype groups. We were unable to find support for the hypothesis suggesting an association between T levels and ELT, possibly because of the low number of phenotypically extreme cases (the sample used in the present study was population based). Our results concerning genetic associations should be interpreted with caution until replication studies have been conducted. Jern P, Westberg L, Ankarberg-Lindgren C, Johansson A, Gunst A, Sandnabba NK

  14. The Lifelong University: A Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

    Results of a one-year investigation on lifelong learning by the Michigan State University Task Force on Lifelong Education are presented. Topics concern the following: current trends, a definition of lifelong education, lifelong education at Michigan State, the university's present objectives and lifelong educational arrangements, major academic…

  15. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  16. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  17. [Pharmacologic stimulation of ejaculation with midodrine hydrochloride (Gutron) for medically assisted reproduction in spinal injury].

    PubMed

    Staerman, F; Bryckaert, P E; Youinou, Y; Colin, J; Brandt, B; Lardennois, B

    2001-12-01

    Midodrine hydrochloride (Gutron) is proposed to induce ejaculation in spinal injury patients desiring paternity as an alternative to vibromassage, electrostimulated ejaculation and surgical collection of spermatozoa. The authors report their experience in 10 spinal injury patients. 14 trials of pharmacologically-induced ejaculation were performed in a context of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) in 10 spinal injury patients (7 with paraplegia > T11; 1 with paraplegia < or = T11; 2 with quadriplegia) an average of 4.5 years after the injury. Patients had a mean age of 28.5 years (range: 18 to 36 years). Nine had persistent reflex erections. After IC injection of prostglandin E, 10 to 30 mg of Gutron was administered by slow i.v. infusion. Spermatozoa were collected during antegrade ejaculation and/or in previously alkalinised urine. Ejaculation was obtained in 10 cases (71.4%), either antegrade (7 cases), or retrograde (3 cases). The 4 failures corresponded to ejaculation failure in 3 cases and adverse effects of Gutron (hypertension) in 1 case. However, storage of spermatozoa could be performed in only 4 cases (40%), as pyospermia or severe necrospermia were observed in 6 cases. Midodrine hydrochloride gives good results in terms of ejaculation in spinal injury patients. However, the quality of semen collected is often poor due to the long interval since the initial trauma. Midodrine hydrochloride, ideally used after antibiotic treatment, can nevertheless constitute an alternative to other techniques.

  18. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  19. Where's the Learning in Lifelong Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a retrospective review and analysis of New Labour's policies in relation to lifelong learning. New Labour's plans to promote social inclusion through lifelong learning resulted in a focus upon participation in terms of increasing the numbers of students involved in formal learning and increasing their participation in…

  20. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  1. Candlestick and Faces: Aspects of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Government policies view lifelong learning in terms of economic development. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the environment of British community education councils revealed other views of lifelong learning: it takes time and political expediency and national policy can adversely affect what and how people learn.…

  2. WTO and Lifelong Education Strategies for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhi-guo; Zheng, Yu

    2006-01-01

    After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), teachers have been confronted with many opportunities and challenges. Lifelong education strategies are problems we should take into account carefully. This article expounds the objective demands, ideas, content, measures and functions of lifelong education.

  3. In Search of a Lifelong Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A decade after the National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (NAGCELL) report, "The Learning Age", born in the first flush of the New Labour Government, the task of providing and securing an overall strategic framework for lifelong learning remains as large as ever. NIACE is the Inquiry into the Future for…

  4. Lifelong Learning: A Pacification of "Know How"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Katherine; Fejes, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A tendency of previous studies of lifelong learning to focus on learning and learning subjectivities may have led to an underestimation of potential effects in terms of a system of knowledge constitutive processes that operates powerfully to shape our societies. In this paper we explore lifelong learning and practices in the construction of…

  5. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  6. Social Software for Life-Long Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klamma, Ralf; Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Duval, Erik; Hummel, Hans; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Kravcik, Milos; Law, Effie; Naeve, Ambjorn; Scott, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Life-long learning is a key issue for our knowledge society. With social software systems new heterogeneous kinds of technology enhanced informal learning are now available to the life-long learner. Learners outside of learning institutions now have access to powerful social communities of experts and peers who are together forging a new web 2.0.…

  7. Supporting Lifelong Learning in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…

  8. A Critical Look at Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, H. Eylem

    2014-01-01

    Education, which is a fundamental right of human being, has been transformed into a kind of lifelong prisoning by marketing step by step under the name of lifelong learning. Adult education as one of the most crucial parts of the educational system has also been affected by the global trend of an international actor, the European Union through its…

  9. Premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the term usually used to describe women aged younger than 40 years, who present with amenorrhoea, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. POF is a devastating diagnosis for reproductive-aged women. The clinical presentation is diverse, and several different disorders can lead to premature ovarian failure. POF has serious health consequences, including psychological distress, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, ischaemic heart disease, and increased risk of mortality. Hashimoto’s disease is the most frequent autoimmune disorder associated with premature ovarian failure. Management should be initiated immediately to prevent long-term consequences. Oestrogen therapy is the mainstay of management. Hormone therapy should be provided to eliminate symptoms of oestrogen deficiency. PMID:28721130

  10. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A…

  11. Time-to-ejaculation and the quality of semen produced by masturbation at a clinic.

    PubMed

    Elzanaty, Saad

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the association between the length of time-to-ejaculation and semen parameters. Ejaculates from 142 men under infertility assessment were analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), zinc, and fructose were also measured. Three groups according to the length of the time-to-ejaculation were defined: G(<10) (<10 minutes), G(10-15) (10 to 15 minutes), and G(>15) (greater than 15 minutes). Time to ejaculation showed negative significant correlation with sperm concentration (rho = -0.20, P = 0.02), total sperm count (rho = -0.20, P = 0.04), NAG (rho = -0.20, P = 0.01), and fructose (rho = -0.30, P = 0.02), respectively. No significant correlations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and age, sexual abstinence, semen volume, sperm motility, PSA, and zinc. There were negative significant associations among time-to-ejaculation and sperm concentration (beta = -3.0; P = 0.004), total sperm count (beta = -10; P = 0.02), total count of progressive motility (beta = -7.0; P = 0.02), and fructose (beta = -0.30; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant associations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and semen volume, motility grades, NAG, PSA, and zinc. G(<10) was characterized by higher sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total count of progressive motility compared with G(10-15) (mean difference = 33 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 96 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.50), (mean difference = 77 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), respectively, and G(>15) (mean difference = 50 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 176 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), (mean difference = 110 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.03), respectively. Fructose was significantly higher in G(<10) compared with G(>15) (mean difference = 5.0 mmol/L; P = 0.03). The time-to-ejaculation length was associated with semen parameters. These results might reflect the negative effect of acute stress during semen

  12. Apnea of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Martin, R J

    1992-12-01

    Apnea is a common, treatable disorder of respiration in premature infants, which usually resolves over time. The definition and classification of apnea are discussed, as well as its epidemiology and natural history. The pathophysiology of apnea is considered in detail, including the chemosensory and reflex input that modulates respiration and the involvement of upper airway control in the etiology of obstructive apnea. Finally, diagnosis and therapy are reviewed, and the relationship of apnea of prematurity to the underlying disorder in sudden infant death syndrome is considered.

  13. ["Valentin was born prematurely"].

    PubMed

    B, Anne-Charlotte

    Anne-Charlotte B. is the proud mother of Valentin, born prematurely seven years ago. Despite the complications of the birth, the initial separation and the difficult start to breastfeeding, Valentin gradually gained weight and has never suffered any sequelae. The family has since grown. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one induces penile erection and delays ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-04-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) has the reputation as a male aphrodisiac because it is claimed to increase virility and sexual prowess. Nevertheless, whether or not E. longifolia regulates directly the muscle tone of corpus cavernosa and/or seminal vesicle (SV) remains unclear. Even until now, the compositions that could account for its aphrodisiac property are still unknown We examined the effect of 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one (9-HC-6-one), a β-carboline alkaloid isolated from E. longifolia, on penile erection and ejaculation, and further elucidated the mechanism of action. 9-HC-6-one induces penile erection and delays ejaculation. Drug's effect was studied on rat corpus cavernosum (CC) and SV in vitro, and on the changes in intracavernosal pressure (ICP) after IC injection and intraluminal pressure (ILP) of the SV after hypogastric nerve stimulation (HNS), respectively. 9-HC-6-one relaxed significantly phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted CC. Such response was not attenuated by endothelium disruption, N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one treatment, suggesting that a nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent pathway was precluded. 9-HC-6-one attenuated PE-induced contraction by blocking cell surface and internal calcium channels with a higher potency for internal calcium release. This compound also antagonized calcium-evoked contraction in Ca2+ -free, high K+ -depolarizing condition, suggesting that interfering with the entry of calcium through voltage-dependent channels also contributed to 9-HC-6-one-induced corporal relaxation. After IC application of 9-HC-6-one, a significant rise in ICP was observed as compared with the application of normal saline. 9-HC-6-one relaxed significantly norepinephrine (NE)- and KCl-precontracted SV, and antagonized NE-induced oscillatory contraction as potent as clomipramine. Finally, the HNS-evoked increase in ILP was dose-dependently repressed after challenge by 9-HC-6

  15. Blood pressure changes during sexual stimulation, ejaculation and midodrine treatment in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique J; Charvier, Kathleen F; Leriche, Albert; Vézina, Jean-Guy; Côté, Magalie; Bélanger, Marc

    2008-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of various sources of self-stimulation, including oral midodrine, in triggering ejaculation in men with spinal cord injury (SCI), and to document the systematic variations in blood pressure at ejaculation and consider a revised definition of autonomic dysreflexia. The study included 62 men with SCI lesions from C2 to L2. Ejaculation potential was assessed with various sources of stimulation, beginning with natural stimulation, followed, if the test was negative, by penile vibrator stimulation (PVS) followed, if the test was again negative, by PVS combined with oral midodrine, started at 5 mg and increased in 5 mg steps up to 25 mg. The success rate of ejaculation was recorded, as were blood pressure (BP) changes measured at baseline and at ejaculation (or on the last trial if the test was negative). Reported sensations were also recorded and compared during positive and negative tests. Overall, 89% of the patients reached ejaculation with one mode or another of stimulation. When patients had a negative result with natural stimulation, 56% were salvaged by PVS, and when PVS was negative, another 22% were salvaged by midodrine combined with PVS. The mean systolic BP increased by 35 mmHg at ejaculation during PVS and by 11 mmHg after midodrine, and a subsequent 29 mmHg at ejaculation during PVS combined with midodrine. By contrast, negative tests showed a relatively stable BP; the difference in changes in BP during positive and negative tests was significant (P < 0.01). Increases in BP during positive tests declined significantly more often within the limits of autonomic dysreflexia than negative tests (P < 0.01). These results support the view that most men with SCI can obtain an ejaculation when a wide spectrum of stimulation is used, including natural stimulation, PVS, and PVS combined with oral midodrine. Positive tests were associated with significant increases in BP, in contrast to negative tests, where BP was relatively stable. This

  16. Ejaculate components delay reproductive senescence while elevating female reproductive rate in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A.; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Increased female reproductive rates usually result in accelerated senescence. This correlation provides a link between the evolutionary conflict of the sexes and aging when ejaculate components elevate female reproductive rates at the cost of future reproduction. It is not clear whether this female cost is manifest as shorter lifespan or an earlier onset or a steeper rate of reproductive senescence. It also is unclear whether beneficial ejaculates release females from reproductive trade-offs and, if so, which senescence parameters are affected. We examined these issues in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, a long-lived insect that shows reduced female lifespan as well as female reproductive senescence at the male-determined mating frequency. We demonstrate experimentally that, independently of the mating frequency, females receiving more ejaculate show increased reproductive rates and enter reproductive senescence later than females receiving less ejaculate. The rate of reproductive senescence did not differ between treatments, and reproductive rates did not predict mortality. The ejaculate effects were consistent in inter- and intra-population crosses, suggesting they have not evolved recently and are not caused by inbreeding. Our results suggest that ejaculate components compensate for the costs of elevated female reproductive rates in bedbugs by delaying the onset of reproductive senescence. Ejaculate components that are beneficial to polyandrous females could have arisen because male traits that protect the ejaculate have positive pleiotropic effects and/or because female counteradaptations to antagonistic male traits exceed the neutralization of those traits. That males influence female reproductive senescence has important consequences for trade-offs between reproduction and longevity and for studies of somatic senescence. PMID:19996174

  17. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loadedmore » with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.« less

  18. Within-population variation in ejaculate characteristics in a prolonged breeder, Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Craig D. H.; Uller, Tobias; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2008-11-01

    Sperm number is often a good predictor of success in sperm competition; however, it has become increasingly clear that, for some species, variation in probability of paternity cannot be explained by sperm number alone. Intraspecific variation in ejaculate characteristics, such as the number of viable sperm and sperm longevity, may play an equally important role in determining fertilization success. Here, we assess variation among ejaculates in three factors that may contribute to fertilization success (number of sperm per ejaculate, viability, and longevity), in a population of Peron’s tree frog ( Litoria peronii). We detected large variation among males in the number of sperm per ejaculate and the proportion of viable sperm within ejaculates, which could not be explained by variation in either male size or body condition. However, the proportion of viable sperm released by males increased over the season. Finally, we assessed sperm longevity (proportion viable sperm determined using a dual-fluorochrome vital dye) at two different temperatures. At 23°C, on average, 75% of sperm remained viable after 2 h, but there were significant differences amongst males with the percentage of viable sperm ranging from 43% to 95%. For sperm incubated at 4°C, ejaculates varied fivefold in sperm longevity with some males having 50% viable sperm after 5 days. Our data suggest that ejaculate characteristics (sperm number, viability, and longevity) vary widely in Peron’s tree frog and may therefore play an important role in determining siring success both in the presence and absence of sperm competition. We discuss the results in relation to selection on ejaculate traits via natural and sexual selection in this and other amphibians.

  19. Fertility outcomes after extended searches for ejaculated spermatozoa in men with virtual azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Netanella; Biron-Shental, Tal; Pasternak, Yael; Belenky, Michael; Shefi, Shai; Itsykson, Pavel; Berkovitz, Arie

    2017-06-01

    To assess the fertility outcomes of extended searches for ejaculated spermatozoa in men with virtual azoospermia. A retrospective cohort of 242 couples whose male partner suffered from nonobstructive azoospermia and who were treated with the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Not applicable. One hundred forty patients were referred to an extended search in the ejaculate and 102 patients were referred to microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). None. Rates of sperm retrieval, fertilization, and pregnancy, take-home baby rate, and missed abortion rate were analyzed and compared. In the ejaculated spermatozoa group, motile spermatozoa were retrieved in 91 cases (65%) and on oocyte pick-up day in 71 cases (78%), compared with 70 cases (68%) in the microTESE group, with a similar incidence of sperm retrieval between groups. No significant difference was found between groups regarding mean number of embryo transfer and fertilization and pregnancy rates. There was no significant difference between groups regarding take-home baby rate. A significantly higher first-trimester missed abortion rate was found in the ejaculated sperm group (n = 14; 52%) compared with the microTESE group (n = 3; 8.6%). Conducting an extended spermatozoa search in the ejaculate of men with virtual azoospermia can provide pregnancy rates similar to those obtained with the use of microTESE, with a higher rate of spontaneous abortions in the ejaculate group. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenylate kinase activity in ejaculated bovine sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Schoff, P K; Cheetham, J; Lardy, H A

    1989-04-15

    Adenylate kinase (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activity was detected in the flagella of ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. This activity provided sufficient ATP to produce normal motility in cells permeabilized with digitonin and treated with 0.5 mM MgADP. In the presence of ADP, adenylate kinase activity was inhibited by P1,P5-di(adenosine 5')-pentaphosphate (Ap5A), an adenylate kinase-specific inhibitor, and motility was stopped. ATP-supported motility was not affected by Ap5A. Mitochondrial adenylate kinase activity allowed AMP to stimulate respiration in permeabilized sperm. Adenylate kinase activity in tail fragments was most active in a pH range from 7.6 to 8.4, and a similar pH sensitivity was observed for this enzyme activity in a hypotonic extract of whole sperm. The apparent km of adenylate kinase activity in permeabilized tail fragments was about 1.0 mM ADP in the direction of ATP synthesis. The fluctuation of nucleotide concentrations in normal and metabolically stimulated sperm suggested that adenylate kinase was most active when the cell was highly motile, although adenylate kinase activity did not appear to be coupled strictly with motility.

  1. Methods for a Rapid Systematic Review and Metaanalysis in Evaluating Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Premature Ejaculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn-St. James, Marrissa; Cooper, Katy; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a rapid systematic review method in which randomised controlled trial (RCT) data was extracted from existing reviews and subsequent RCTs. The method enabled: identification of RCTs not included by existing reviews; cross-checking RCT data for consistency where there was more than one review; double data…

  2. Premature graying of hair.

    PubMed

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  3. Lifelong Learning in Policy and Practice: The Case of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Ann-Kristin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the changes in lifelong learning policy that have taken place since the 1990s in Sweden. Policy documents regarding lifelong learning in Sweden have appeared since 1994. The first of these documents contains general recommendations with regard to lifelong learning, in both a lifelong and a lifewide perspective, concerning…

  4. Neural mechanisms of sexual behavior in the male rat: emphasis on ejaculation-related circuits.

    PubMed

    Veening, J G; Coolen, L M

    2014-06-01

    Sexual behavior of the male rat can be described as a 'sequence': a series of behavioral transitions eventually leading to a consummatory act: ejaculation. A 'funnel-model' is presented to describe the behavioral progression during the sexual sequence. The ejaculation itself is extensively controlled by the 'spinal ejaculation generator', consisting of several elements with afferent sources of genitosensory information, with ascending projection fibers to inform the brainstem and forebrain as well as with descending afferent fibers providing the supraspinal control mechanisms with the opportunity to restrict ejaculations to the optimal moments and circumstances. The messages ascending from the spinal cord reach several interconnected thalamic, hypothalamic and limbic brain areas and are integrated with olfactory information. These brain areas play a role in mechanisms like 'sexual satiety' or a temporary interruption of sexual activities (post-ejaculatory interval), but the exact facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms involved have not been elucidated yet. In the 'downward' mechanisms controlling the spinal 'release' of an ejaculation, the medial preoptic nucleus plays an important role in cooperation with a number of brainstem areas. This nucleus is also explicitly involved in the rewarding experiences coming with an ejaculation. Finally, the role of several neurotransmitters and-peptides on male sexual behavior are discussed shortly, because sometimes they show remarkable effects on specific aspects of the behavioral sequence. We conclude that, despite our increased knowledge about the brain mechanisms involved in the control of ejaculation, we are still far away from a complete understanding and quite a few questions remain to be resolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting post-ejaculation sperm for value-added contraception.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gopal; Jangir, Santosh; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2014-01-01

    The spermatogenesis is a precisely-timed cellular proliferation that takes place in the seminiferous tubules of testes and is meticulously regulated by gonadotrophins, androgens and temperature. Hormonal, nonhormonal and thermal methods of male contraception have been researched with success; though a clinically viable method is yet to evolve. Testicular sperm lack motility and fertilizing ability, which they gain during their transit through the long epididymal conduit whose distal end serves as a store house of mature sperm in a quiescent state, ready for ejaculation during coitus. Epididymal maturation has been a target for male contraceptive research to avert interruptions of fundamental testicular functions like spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. However, several experimental successes have not yet yielded a practicable method of fertility regulation. Coitus culminates in the propulsion of epididymal sperm within seconds through the vas deferens into the female vagina and marks the initiation of sperm motility, a vigorous physical activity that is crucial for fertilization. Highly motile spermatozoa have a brief stay in the vagina before starting their ascent in the female reproductive tract. Vaginal spermatozoa have been targeted for contraception since ages. Spermicides and sperm immobilizers inactivate sperm immediately on deposition in the vagina, while they are placed in a rather 'ex-vivo' condition outside the body. Their need based usage, minimal systemic involvement; easy application, self-controlled reversibility and potential capability to obliterate sexually transmitted infections add significant value to contraception. We have reviewed here our recent endeavors in this important area of chemical contraception by using designed chemical synthesis approach to inhibit spermatozoa and infection.

  6. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  7. Lifelong Education and Lifelong Learning with Chinese Characteristics: A Critical Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in China have keenly explored how lifelong education and lifelong learning, as imports from "the West," may become localized in China, although a small chorus has also tried to revitalize Confucianism to bear on the field. This paper adds to this domain of discussion with a critical discourse analysis of Chinese lifelong…

  8. [Music therapy for prematures].

    PubMed

    Haus, R; Hennecke, K-H

    2003-01-01

    More than ever before the neonatal care besides the medical and nursing work has to been balanced between protecting the child against over extension due to the concept of "minimal handling" and on the other hand the necessary fostering of the young patients psychic and sensomotor development during the long stationary treatment. In addition to known approaches of auditive stimulation as receptive music therapy a concept of active music therapy methods based on the Nordoff/Robbins creative music-therapy (University Witten/Herdecke) is presented in a case-report. The report describes in a single case-report the music-therapeutic work with a premature of the 23 + 3 (th) week of pregnancy at the neonatological unit of the Vestische Kinder- und Jugendklinik Datteln, Universität Witten/Herdecke. The main focus was the observation of the prematures reactions on specific synchronisation of motoric, sensor and acoustical stimulation. Positive reactions allow to presume the effectiveness of music therapy with early born children as they are already shown in clinical studies about receptive music therapy. On the level of involuntary motional actions in the area of head-, face- and hand movements increased directly reactions of awareness on the coordination of sensomotor and acoustical stimulation have been observed. Temporary increase of oxygen partial pressure and reduction of heart/pulse rate seem to cause positive physiological effects. Active music therapeutic treatment does not seem to be an other risk of over-tension for prematures, but offers through the coordination of different levels of perception an adequate development fostering stimulation.

  9. Diversity of extracellular vesicles in human ejaculates revealed by cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Höög, Johanna L.; Lötvall, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Human ejaculates contain extracellular vesicles (EVs), that to a large extent are considered to originate from the prostate gland, and are often denominated “prostasomes.” These EVs are important for human fertility, for example by promoting sperm motility and by inducing immune tolerance of the female immune system to the spermatozoa. So far, the EVs present in human ejaculate have not been studied in their native state, inside the seminal fluid without prior purification and isolation procedures. Using cryo-electron microscopy and tomography, we performed a comprehensive inventory of human ejaculate EVs. The sample was neither centrifuged, fixed, filtered or sectioned, nor were heavy metals added. Approximately 1,500 extracellular structures were imaged and categorized. The extracellular environment of human ejaculate was found to be diverse, with 5 major subcategories of EVs and 6 subcategories of extracellular membrane compartments, including lamellar bodies. Furthermore, 3 morphological features, including electron density, double membrane bilayers and coated surface, are described in all subcategories. This study reveals that the extracellular environment in human ejaculate is multifaceted. Several novel morphological EV subcategories are identified and clues to their cellular origin may be found in their morphology. This inventory is therefore important for developing future experimental approaches, and to interpret previously published data to understand the role of EVs for human male fertility. PMID:26563734

  10. Morphometric and kinematic sperm subpopulations in split ejaculates of normozoospermic men

    PubMed Central

    Santolaria, Pilar; Soler, Carles; Recreo, Pilar; Carretero, Teresa; Bono, Araceli; Berné, José M; Yániz, Jesús L

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the sperm kinematic and morphometric subpopulations in the different fractions of the ejaculate in normozoospermic men. Ejaculates from eight normozoospermic men were collected by masturbation in three fractions after 3–5 days of sexual abstinence. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-Mot), and of sperm morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) using fluorescence were performed. Clustering and discriminant procedures were performed to identify sperm subpopulations in the kinematic and morphometric data obtained. Clustering procedures resulted in the classification of spermatozoa into three kinematic subpopulations (slow with low ALH [35.6% of all motile spermatozoa], with circular trajectories [32.0%], and rapid with high ALH [32.4%]), and three morphometric subpopulations (large-round [33.9% of all spermatozoa], elongated [32.0%], and small [34.10%]). The distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations was different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with higher percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting slow movements with low ALH in the second and third portions, and with a more homogeneous distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations in the first portion. The distribution of morphometric sperm subpopulations was also different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with more elongated spermatozoa in the first, and of small spermatozoa in the third, portion. It is concluded that important variations in the distribution of kinematic and morphometric sperm subpopulations exist between ejaculate fractions, with possible functional implications. PMID:27624985

  11. [Treatment of ejaculation disorders by midodrine (Gutron) per os. Retrospective study of about 16 subjects].

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Dauphin, A; Rigot, J M; Thevenon, A

    2005-02-01

    We evaluate the efficiency and side effects of midodrine in the treatment of sperm transport disturbances. This retrospective study concerned patients addressed in Andrologia Department between 1995 and 2002 for treatment of sperm transport disturbances by administration of Midodrine per os (from 2.5 to 20 mg). Anterograde and retrogrades ejaculates (in urine sample) were examined. Sixteen patients (middle age of 36 years) were included: 12 neurologic lesions (central or peripheral, with 3 diabetes), four post-surgical (urologic and digestive) ejaculatory incompetence. One patient obtained anterior and retrograde ejaculation, two patients obtained anterior ejaculation and six retrograde ejaculations by midodrine per os. This treatment was inefficient in eight subjects. Side effects were exceptional. We obtained anterior or retrograde ejaculation in half of our population. The success was more important in patients with central neurologic injuries, diabetes or post-surgical troubles. In peripheral neurologic injuries, midodrine per os (maximal dose of 20 mg) was ineffective. Our study demonstrates the efficiency and good tolerance of midodrine per os for treatment of sperm transport disturbances.

  12. Strategic ejaculation in simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails: more sperm into virgin mates.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-12-05

    It has been theorised that sperm competition promotes the strategic usage of costly sperm. Although sperm competition is thought to be an important driving force of reproductive traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites as well as in species with separate sexes, empirical studies on strategic ejaculation in simultaneous hermaphrodites are scarce. In the present study, we tested whether the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Euhadra quaesita adjusts the number of sperm donated according to the condition of the mate and whether the pattern of strategic ejaculation is in line with previously suggested theories. We found that individuals donated much more sperm when they copulated with a virgin mate than when they copulated with a non-virgin. The virgin-biased pattern of ejaculation matches the theoretical prediction and suggests that sperm competition significantly influence the reproductive traits of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails.

  13. Strategic ejaculation in simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails: more sperm into virgin mates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been theorised that sperm competition promotes the strategic usage of costly sperm. Although sperm competition is thought to be an important driving force of reproductive traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites as well as in species with separate sexes, empirical studies on strategic ejaculation in simultaneous hermaphrodites are scarce. Results In the present study, we tested whether the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Euhadra quaesita adjusts the number of sperm donated according to the condition of the mate and whether the pattern of strategic ejaculation is in line with previously suggested theories. We found that individuals donated much more sperm when they copulated with a virgin mate than when they copulated with a non-virgin. Conclusion The virgin-biased pattern of ejaculation matches the theoretical prediction and suggests that sperm competition significantly influence the reproductive traits of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. PMID:24304518

  14. International Trends in Lifelong Learning for Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Koen; Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Lifelong learning for community pharmacists is shifting from continuing education (CE) towards continuing professional development (CPD) in some countries. The objectives of this report were to compare lifelong learning frameworks for community pharmacists in different countries, and determine to what extent the concept of CPD has been implemented. A literature search was conducted as well as an Internet search on the web sites of professional pharmacy associations and authorities in 8 countries. The results of this review show that the concept of CPD has been implemented primarily in countries that have a long tradition in lifelong learning, such as Great Britain. However, most countries have opted for the CE approach, eg, France, or for a combination of CE and CPD, eg, New Zealand. This approach combines the controllability by regulatory organizations that CE requires with the advantage of sustained behavior change seen in successful CPD programs. PMID:17619652

  15. Identification, RNAi Knockdown and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezgotic Phenotype in a cricket

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male ejaculate proteins, including both sperm and seminal fluid proteins, play an important role in mediating reproductive biology. The function of ejaculate proteins can include enabling sperm-egg interactions, enhancing sperm storage, mediating female attractiveness, and even regulating female lif...

  16. Lifelong pathways to longevity: personality, relationships, flourishing, and health.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Della Porta, Serenity S; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Building upon decades of research with the lifelong (nine-decade) Terman Life Cycle Study, we present a life pathway model for understanding human thriving that accounts for long-term individual difference in health and longevity, with a particular focus on child personality and adult social relationships. Developing data derived and supplemented from the Terman study (N = 570 males, 451 females), we employed regression and survival analyses to test models of childhood personality predicting adult psychosocial factors (subjective well-being, family relationships, community involvement, subjective achievement, hardships) and subsequent longevity. Child personality differentially related to midlife social relationships, well-being, and hardships. Conscientiousness and good social relationships predicted longer life, whereas subjective well-being was unrelated to mortality risk. Examining multiple life factors across long time periods uncovers important pathways through which personality relates to premature mortality or longevity. Typical stress-and-illness models are untenable and should be replaced with life span trajectory approaches. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists.

  18. Flexible Querying of Lifelong Learner Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulovassilis, A.; Selmer, P.; Wood, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of flexible querying facilities over heterogeneous data arising from lifelong learners' educational and work experiences. A key aim of such querying facilities is to allow learners to identify possible choices for their future learning and professional development by seeing what others have done. We motivate and…

  19. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  20. Quality of Life--Lifelong Education Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovanovic, Ivica; Bogavac, Dragana; Cvetanovic, Zorica; Kovacevic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the quality of adolescents' lives in order to assess how much it serves the purpose of effective lifelong education. The sample consisted of 220 pupils from the first to the fourth grade of secondary school on the territory of Serbia. The quality of life of the respondents was assessed by means of a…

  1. The Double-Dialectic and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper was provoked by Ted Bailey's article, 'Analogy, dialectics and lifelong learning' which appeared in the March-April 2003 edition of this journal. Dr. Bailey argued that students can be enabled to learn the key concepts of the subjects they are studying through the dialectical operation of analogy which makes new knowledge accessible by…

  2. Peer Teaching in Lifelong Learning Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, E. Michael; Holt, Steven R.; Welt, Betty

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups with 48 peer teachers in Lifelong Learning Institutes revealed five predominant teaching methods: lecture, discussion, hands-on experience, hybrids of these three, and course coordination. Challenges include the range of educational backgrounds, students' subject expertise, physical changes of aging, and ambivalence about the…

  3. Lifelong Learning as Being: The Heideggerian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2011-01-01

    This article contends that the development of lifelong learning needs to be grounded within the framework of "being," a concept inspired by Heidegger, rather than within the framework of "having." This article also describes the problems of the adult education literature, which favors the pragmatic sense of being and, thus, may undertheorize the…

  4. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  5. Virtual Reality for Training and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellet-d'Huart, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the application of virtual reality (VR) to training and lifelong learning. A number of considerations concerning the design of VR applications are included. The introduction is dedicated to the more general aspects of applying VR to training. From multiple perspectives, we will provide an overview of existing applications with…

  6. Designing Instruction to Improve Lifelong Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rafferty, Anna; Vitale, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Citizens need the capability to conduct their own inquiry projects so that they can make sense of claims about new energy policies, health remedies, or financial opportunities. To develop the lifelong capability to grapple with these dilemmas, we report on ways to design precollege units that engage students in realistic, personally relevant…

  7. Life-Long Education: Problems, Tasks, Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchodolski, Bogdan

    Lifelong education and its implications must be defined in order to embark on a rational and effective educational policy. Experiments in adult education in the nineteenth century gave rise to the idea of adult education as remedial, intended to correct the unfair treatment the lower classes received at the hands of an elitist educational system.…

  8. The Federal Role in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Ellen

    Results of an analysis of the federal role in lifelong or continuous learning indicate that the single most important existing component is educational equity. The major policy question is how to reshape existing policy, programs, and expenditures to meet the needs of particular, diverse groups of Americans who lack access to promised benefits. It…

  9. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative…

  10. Life-Long Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaron, Kalman, Ed.

    The essays in this collection describe some of the main aspects--theories, programs and practices--of adult education in Israel. The 22 essays are: "Problems and Objectives of Adult Education," by Elad Peled; "The Principle of Dialogue in Education," by Martin Buber; "The Jewish Tradition of Life-long Learning," by…

  11. Lifelong Learning and the Limits of Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong education or learning theory is presented by its apologists as a universal normative ethic. That ethic may be understood as an aretaic ethic, embracing a number of ethical values or informed commitments and a teleology of optimising universal human flourishing through learning. In an effort to examine possible barriers to the universality…

  12. Motivational and Emotional Correlates of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Wolf, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of a representative sample consisting of 45 4th-year forms (1,236 pupils) from primary schools in Hamburg, the relationships between teacher or parent behavior and motivation for lifelong learning, achievement motivation and emotional stability were investigated. (Editor)

  13. Flexible Studies as Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugge, Liv Susanne; Wikan, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Many countries face a challenge in recruiting teachers. At the same time, the labour market is changing and the demand for re-education is increasing. In this situation, lifelong learning is seen as relevant and higher education institutions are asked to offer flexible and decentralised study programmes in order to accommodate the need for formal…

  14. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  15. Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawachi, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

  16. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  17. European Year of Lifelong Learning 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This publication provides glimpses of how different individuals and organizations have responded to the spirit of lifelong learning during the European Year. Each case study consists of the project's location, name, and objective and brief description. They include the following: Chapito Project, Lisbon, Portugal; Ligerius Project, a…

  18. Changing Lives through Lifelong Learning Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    As conceived by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL), Lifelong Learning Accounts (LiLAs[SM]) are employer-matched, portable individual accounts used to finance employee education and training. They provide employees with an affordable means of upgrading their skills and knowledge, while helping to meet the needs of employers and…

  19. Museums: Using Keyworkers To Deliver Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David; Chadwick, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that looked at keyworkers' (mediators between museums and public) contributions to lifelong learning and to helping members of public overcome cultural exclusion. Reports that field studies were undertaken in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Ireland. States that the study was used to develop museum policy, to attract public to…

  20. Developing "Masterity": The "Habitus" of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wonsup; Koo, Yoojeong

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers "masters" as the ideal archetype of workers. Here, the term "master" includes not only those who are in traditional handcrafting or manufacturing industry, but also who work in various fields such as information technology, medicine, arts, and so on. To explore the lifelong learning of masters, we conducted…

  1. Lifelong Learning in England and Japan: Three Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okumoto, Kaori

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of the development of lifelong learning in England and Japan, while addressing the multi-dimensional nature of "lifelong learning". The article argues that "lifelong learning" is a concept which has unusual adaptability and legitimacy, and for these reasons has been subject to…

  2. Articulation and Transfer: Critical Contributions to Lifelong Learning -- Discussion Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    This document is a discussion supplement to Frederick Kintzer's paper in the book: "Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices and Programs." It is designed as a contribution to the third discussion session: Participation Issues and Lifelong Learning. The introduction provides definitions and a description of the rise of lifelong learning…

  3. Lifelong Learning Strategies and Practice in Latvia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Ineta; Sungsri, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning has been recognized for many years and consequently many countries, disregarding their geographical location, differences in education systems and traditions, have adopted their lifelong learning policies to develop the lifelong learning system. The goal of the present comparative research is to study the…

  4. Towards an Integrated Approach for Research on Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred; Sloep, Peter B.; J. Caniels, Marjolein C.

    2009-01-01

    There is little dispute that lifelong learning is essential to the further development of the knowledge society. Nonetheless, lifelong learning is not reaching its full potential because the currently used approaches to lifelong learning are too fragmented and, often, formal approaches to education and learning are simply "translated" from initial…

  5. Sperm Competition in Humans: Mate Guarding Behavior Negatively Correlates with Ejaculate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans. PMID:25250582

  6. Pregnancies from imipramine and xylazine-induced ex copula ejaculation in a disabled stallion.

    PubMed Central

    Card, C E; Manning, S T; Bowman, P; Leibel, T

    1997-01-01

    Breeding or semen collection was attempted using: natural cover, manual stimulation, artificial vagina, pharmacologic induction of ejaculation, and electroejaculation. Sperm cells were recovered from the ductus deferens and epididymides post mortem. Only semen collected ex copula by imipramine and xylazine treatment resulted in conceptions (4/5). This is the first report of pregnancies in horses from ex copula semen collection. PMID:9056069

  7. Pregnancy by insemination of cryopreserved spermatozoa from a man with retrograde ejaculation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Goda, Kazumasa; Koshida, Mitsunobu; Kamidono, Sadao

    2004-05-01

    Owing to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, spinal injuries and aggressive surgical treatment of cancer, the number of younger patients with retrograde ejaculation is increasing. Since medical treatment to restore antegrade ejaculation often fails, several options for accomplishing insemination by these patients, including the use of sperm-rich urine obtained after masturbation and in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieved from the seminal tract, have been reported. We used the least invasive and most inexpensive procedure in a patient/couple with this condition. A 23-year-old man suffered from retrograde ejaculation after a spinal injury. He could achieve erection and engage in sexual intercourse but seldom had an orgasm or the sensation of ejaculation. We obtained spermatozoa from urine produced after masturbation at home and froze them. We used these frozen-thawed spermatozoa for intrauterine insemination, leading to the term birth of a healthy infant. In selected patient/couples, frozen spermatozoa obtained from postmasturbation urine can be used successfully for intrauterine insemination. This minimally invasive and most inexpensive procedure should be tried before planning in vitro fertilization.

  8. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome of ejaculated versus extracted testicular spermatozoa in cryptozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, Ido; Raziel, Arieh; Strassburger, Deborah; Komarovsky, Daphna; Ron-El, Raphael; Friedler, Shevach

    2013-06-01

    To compare intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome of patients with cryptozoospermia after use of ejaculated versus testicular sperm in different cycles of the same patients. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated infertility center. A total of 17 patients with cryptozoospermia who underwent a total of 116 ICSI cycles. The patients initially underwent several ICSI cycles using ejaculated sperm (n = 68, 58.6%) that were followed by ICSI cycles using testicular sperm (n = 48, 41.4%). Fertilization rate, pregnancy rate (PR). There were no significant differences in fertilization rates between the two subgroups. A comparison between testicular sperm extraction (TESE) versus ejaculated sperm cycles revealed significantly higher implantation rate (20.7% vs. 5.7%), higher PR (42.5% vs. 15.1%), and higher take home baby rate (27.5% vs. 9.4%). A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed three significant predictors for pregnancy, namely the use of testicular sperm (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.8-14.8), use of motile sperm (OR 12.9, 95% CI 2.1-79.1), and female age (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.7-0.9). Testicular sperm extraction is justified in patients with cryptozoospermia who fail to conceive by ICSI using ejaculated spermatozoa, as it offers higher PR. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Male urogenital infections: impact of infection and inflammation on ejaculate parameters.

    PubMed

    Weidner, W; Pilatz, A; Diemer, Th; Schuppe, H C; Rusz, A; Wagenlehner, F

    2013-08-01

    Urogenital infections and inflammation may contribute significantly to ejaculate parameters essential for male infertility. For this review, data were acquired by a systematic search of the medical literature of the last 5 years. We address the andrological relevance of male urogenital infections and inflammation on ejaculate parameters. The different classification systems of the WHO and NIH are illustrated. In most cases, a separation of the different areas of the urogenital tract, for example, of the prostate, epididymis and testicles, is not possible. The significance of bacteriospermia with common bacteria is discussed. Furthermore, HIV, ascending chlamydial, mycoplasmal and gonococcal infections are relevant. Especially, the relevance of sexually transmitted microorganisms seems to be underestimated. Leukocytospermia is not well defined in its biological significance. Seminal plasma elastase and the cytokine expression reveal better insights into the inflammatory response of the seminal pathways. Sperm antibodies and reactive oxygen species are not usable as indicators for infection and inflammation. Different aspects for an impairment of ejaculate quality have been demonstrated although a direct ascension of microorganisms to the prostate has not been confirmed. Probably, lesions of the epididymis may sustain an ongoing disturbance of sperm parameters. A potential negative influence of urogenital infections and inflammation on sperm function is under discussion. However, the severity of impairment differs according to the underlying infections and the involved compartments. Signs of infections and inflammation in the ejaculate of infertile men are common, and the relevance is often doubtful in spite of microbiological, spermatological and immunological facilities.

  10. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  11. Brainless but not clueless: earthworms boost their ejaculates when they detect fecund non-virgin partners

    PubMed Central

    Velando, Alberto; Eiroa, Julio; Domínguez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    In many animals in which females store sperm, males may detect female mating status and, in order to outcompete rival sperm, increase ejaculate size when copulating with non-virgin females. Although most studies have been restricted to organisms with separate sexes, theoretical models suggest that sperm competition should also be an important selective agent shaping life-history traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, the empirical support for ejaculate adjustment in a mating opportunity is scarce in hermaphrodites. In the present study, we performed a double-mating experiment to determine whether earthworms (Eisenia andrei) detect the mating status of their partners and whether they respond by adjusting their ejaculate. We found that earthworms triplicated the donated sperm when mating with a non-virgin mate. Moreover, such increases were greater when the worms were mated with larger (more fecund) partners, indicating that earthworms perform a fine-tune control of ejaculate volume. The results of the present study suggest that, under high intensity of sperm competition, partner evaluation is subject to intense selection in hermaphrodite animals, and donors are selective about to whom they donate how much sperm. PMID:18252668

  12. Quality of seminal fluids varies with type of stimulus at ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jeannerat, E.; Janett, F.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.; Burger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of ejaculate economics was mainly built around different sperm competition scenarios but also predicts that investments into ejaculates depend on female fecundity. Previous tests of this prediction focused on invertebrates and lower vertebrate, and on species with high female reproductive potential. It remains unclear whether the prediction also holds for polygynous mammals with low female reproductive potential (due to low litter size and long inter-birth intervals). We used horses (Equus caballus) to experimentally test whether semen characteristics are adjusted to the oestrous cycle of the mare a stallion is exposed to during few moments before ejaculation. We analysed 122 weekly semen samples collected from 16 stallions during exposure to either an oestrous or a dioestrous mare. Semen volume and the rate of motile sperm were higher when stallions were exposed to an oestrous than to a diestrous mare, while total sperm counts and sperm velocity remained unchanged. Sperm collected after exposure to an oestrous mare also showed reduced oxidative degeneration of cell membranes over a period of 48 hours. We conclude that stallions invest more into their seminal fluids when the chance of fertilization is elevated, and that this adjustment of ejaculate quality can happen very quickly. PMID:28287188

  13. Quality of semen after repeated ejaculation treatment in spinal cord injury men.

    PubMed

    Siösteen, A; Forssman, L; Steen, Y; Sullivan, L; Wickström, I

    1990-02-01

    The study was designed to document the effects of regular drainage after penile vibrator stimulation on the quality of semen in SCI men. Twenty three tetraplegics and 9 paraplegics, 18 to 40 years of age and with neurological levels ranging from C4 to L1, were examined between 1 and 23 years after injury (median 2 years). None had ejaculated after the injury. Penile vibrator stimulation was tried in patients with cervical or thoracic lesions who showed reflex hip flexion on scratching the soles of the feet, 29 out of 32, and rectal electrostimulation in the remaining 3 low lesions with no reflex function in lumbar and sacral segments. The stimulation yielded semen in 29 (91%) of the men; 22 had antegrade and 7 retrograde ejaculation. Sixteen of the 22 patients with antegrade ejaculation entered a home programme of vibrator stimulation prescribed once weekly. Four to 6 months of stimulation resulted in a rise of semen volume and of fructose and acid phosphatase levels in the seminal plasma, suggesting improved function of the seminal vesicles and the prostate. The percentage of motile sperms was low both before and after the treatment period. Despite this, the total count of motile sperms per ejaculate was already high in the patient's first ejaculates compared to the laboratory normal standard, and further clearly increased after the stimulation period. A standardised functional test measuring sperm penetration capacity showed strong evidence of long term stimulation effect. It is suggested that the test is used in the assessment of fertility potential in SCI men.

  14. Huperzia saururus Lam. Trevis. (Lycopodiaceae) facilitates ejaculation in spinal cord transected male rats.

    PubMed

    Birri, M A; Franco, M A; Vallejo, M G; Carro-Juárez, M; Agnese, A M

    2014-11-18

    Huperzia saururus (Lam.) Trevis. has an extensive ethnopharmacological use, mainly because of its aphrodisiac properties. The species is consumed as decoctions or infusions in traditional medicine. The purpose of the present research was to determine if Huperzia saururus is able to increase sexual potency by evaluating the ejaculatory response, in the presence of a decoction in spinal cord transected male rats. The fictive ejaculation model to record the rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles that accompany ejaculation as an indicator of ejaculation occurrence was used. Sexually experienced male Wistar rats were used. The activation of the fictive ejaculation by the i.v. administration of a decoction was tested, as well as the effects of the oxytocinergic, cholinergic, adrenergic and nitrergic antagonism upon the pro-ejaculatory activity of Huperzia saururus. Decoction (3µg/animal) was able to activate the fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, producing a statistically significant diminution on the latency of discharge parameter and a statistically significant augment for the number of discharges. Moreover, when sequential treatments using antagonists plus decoction were administered, the effects produced showed that prazosin prevent the pro-ejaculatory effect of the decoction and that the four antagonists assayed blocked the facilitatory effect of Huperzia saururus since the facilitation in the latency of response was prevented, and the number of discharges was reduced. Together these findings support the notion that the decoction exerts an aphrodisiac effect influencing the ejaculatory potency which is partially mediated by oxytocinergic, cholinergic, adrenergic and nitrergic spinal mechanisms. In agreement to the ethnopharmacological uses, Huperzia saururus decoction has aphrodisiac properties by influence on the ejaculatory potency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation in the endangered Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Togna, Gina Della; Padilla, Luis; Smith, Diorene; Sanchez, Carlos; Pelican, Katey; Sanjur, Oris I

    2011-01-01

    There is little information on the reproductive biology of the male Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). In this study, we characterized the ejaculate traits and evaluated the efficacy of 2 cryodiluents on sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates were assessed for volume, pH, sperm motility, forward progression, osmolality, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, and acrosomal integrity. For cryopreservation, ejaculates with >50% total sperm motility were washed, and sperm pellets were resuspended in either Botu-Crio (CryoVital, Grandau, Germany) or INRA 96 containing 2% egg yolk and 2.5% each of methyl- and dimethylformamide (INRA 96), and they were cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen vapor. Thawed samples were incubated in vitro (25 °C) and evaluated for percent total sperm motility, forward progression, and acrosomal integrity at hourly intervals for 4 hours. Spermic ejaculates were obtained from all males, and the mean seminal volume, sperm concentration per milliliter, percent sperm motility, progressive status, and percent morphologically normal cells were 20.4 ± 4.3 mL, 101.2 ± 24.0 × 10(6)/mL, 46.1% ± 5.0%, 2.9 ± 0.1, and 6.9% ± 1.4%, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between percent normal sperm and animal age (r = 0.66; P < .004). Cryopreservation in either Botu-Crio or INRA 96 resulted in a decline (P < .05) in percent sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Sperm forward progression remained unaffected immediately after thawing in INRA 96 but continued to decline over time. These results characterize, for the first time, the ejaculate traits of the tapir; demonstrate that tapir spermatozoa can be cryopreserved in diluents containing amides alone or in combination with glycerol; and provide fundamental information critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies for the Baird's tapir.

  16. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for apnea of prematurity in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . Right after they're ... and caregivers also will be trained in infant CPR , even though it's unlikely they'll ever have ...

  17. [Premature ovarian failures].

    PubMed

    Bricaire, Léopoldine; Laroche, Emmanuelle; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Donadille, Bruno; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is clinically suspected by amenorrhea and confirmed by an elevated FSH serum level above 40 mUI/L (even 20 mUI/L) twice, in a woman before the age of 40. Prevalence of POF is between 1 to 2% in women. In 90% of cases, no aetiology is identified. Obvious causes are chemotherapy, pelvic radiotherapy, ovarian surgery and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero. A karyotype should be performed as Turner Syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of POF. Some X abnormalities such as X deletion or X autosome translocation can be found. FMR1 pre-mutation (fragile X syndrome) should be searched for, even though no cases of mental retardation are known, in the family. Other genetic abnormalities can be suggested by associated symptoms (i.e.: FOXL2, SF1 mutations). Auto-immune aetiology can be suspected if other auto-immune features are present, however, there are no reliable auto-antibodies to confirm auto-immunity in POF. Treatment of POF is based on hormonal replacement therapy in order to avoid estrogen deficiency, suppress vasomotor symptoms and avoid bone loss as well as cardiovascular risk. Estrogens should be associated with progesterone or a progestin, at least up to the age of 51. Patients with POF should be informed that spontaneous pregnancies may occur (in 5% of cases). In case of desire of pregnancy, the patient should be oriented to a specialized unit for in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation. Psychological support is essential and should be part of the treatment. POF is associated with an increased risk of emotional distress and depression. No preventive treatment of POF is available so far. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifelong literacy: Some trends and issues in conceptualising and operationalising literacy from a lifelong learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire basic competencies through formal schooling. Within a lifelong learning framework, literacy and numeracy are viewed as foundation skills which are the core of basic education and indispensable to full participation in society. This article discusses recent developments in conceptualising literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. Starting from the evolving notions of adult literacy, the author identifies some current trends, the most important being that literacy is now perceived as a learning continuum of different proficiency levels. Dichotomous states of being either "literate" or "illiterate" no longer apply. She analyses (1) findings extracted from UNESCO Member States' national reports submitted to the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) for the 2nd Global Report on Adult Learning and Education; (2) a desk study of national literacy campaigns and programmes as well as (3) some recent developments in formal education. Her suggested three-dimensional analytical framework considers literacy as a lifelong and life-wide learning process and as part of lifelong learning systems. She draws a number of conclusions for policy and practice of literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. These conclusions are a timely contribution to the ongoing post-2015 education debate, in particular to the challenge of how to mainstream youth and adult literacy into the implementation of the sustainable development agenda for 2015-2030.

  19. Premature Brain Aging in Baboons Resulting from Moderate Fetal Undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Clarke, Geoffrey D.; Dahnke, Robert; Gaser, Christian; Kuo, Anderson H.; Li, Cun; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the known benefits from a moderate dietary reduction during adulthood on life span and health, maternal nutrient reduction during pregnancy is supposed to affect the developing brain, probably resulting in impaired brain structure and function throughout life. Decreased fetal nutrition delivery is widespread in both developing and developed countries, caused by poverty and natural disasters, but also due to maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, pregnancy in women over 35 years of age, placental insufficiency, or multiples. Compromised development of fetal cerebral structures was already shown in our baboon model of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. The present study was designed to follow-up and evaluate the effects of moderate maternal nutrient reduction on individual brain aging in the baboon during young adulthood (4–7 years; human equivalent 14–24 years), applying a novel, non-invasive neuroimaging aging biomarker. The study reveals premature brain aging of +2.7 years (p < 0.01) in the female baboon exposed to fetal undernutrition. The effects of moderate maternal nutrient reduction on individual brain aging occurred in the absence of fetal growth restriction or marked maternal weight reduction at birth, which stresses the significance of early nutritional conditions in life-long developmental programming. This non-invasive MRI biomarker allows further longitudinal in vivo tracking of individual brain aging trajectories to assess the life-long effects of developmental and environmental influences in programming paradigms, aiding preventive and curative treatments on cerebral atrophy in experimental animal models and humans. PMID:28443017

  20. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  1. [Action mechanisms of prolactin and its receptors on penile erection and ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-zhong; Xu, Ai-ming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zeng-jun

    2015-12-01

    Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone which mainly acts on the reproductive system and plays an important role in penile erection and ejaculation. Prolactin receptors have a variety of short forms apart from the classic long form, which are widely expressed in male reproductive glands. High levels of prolactin can induce erectile dysfunction and results in secondary male infertility, which are mainly associated with the inhibition of dopaminergic activity, reduction of the testosterone level, and contraction of the cavernous smooth muscle. Moreover, low levels of prolactin can result in ejaculatory dysfunction. This article updates the views on the expressions of prolactin receptors in the male reproductive system, the effects of prolactin on penile erection and ejaculation, and its action mechanisms.

  2. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-01-01

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment. PMID:29084621

  3. Consanguinity and apnea of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Tamim, Hala; Khogali, Mustafa; Beydoun, Hind; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid

    2003-11-15

    Consanguinity, marriage between relatives, has been associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. Apnea of prematurity is defined as the cessation of breathing for longer than 20 seconds or that of any duration if accompanied by cyanosis and sinus bradycardia, for infants born before 37 weeks of gestation. The objective of the study was to examine the association between consanguinity and apnea of prematurity in Greater Beirut, an area having a relatively high prevalence rate of consanguineous marriages. The study was cross-sectional. Between September 1, 1998, and March 31, 2001, 21723 newborn infants were admitted to the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. The inclusion criteria were infants less than 37 weeks of gestation who were admitted to the intensive care unit, with no congenital malformations, sepsis, or neurologic disorders. Analysis was based on 597 infants of whom 66 had apnea of prematurity. With adjustment for weeks and type of gestation, pregnancy complications, and Apgar score, the odds ratio of apnea of prematurity for first-degree consanguineous parents as compared with other marriages was 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 6.4). In addition to the recognized etiologic factors for apnea of prematurity, this study suggests a role played by genetic factors.

  4. Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-03-04

    Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.

  5. Do male secondary sexual characters signal ejaculate quality? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mautz, Brian S; Møller, Anders P; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons ('the phenotype-linked fertility' hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, the extent of variation among males in condition (resources available to allocate to reproductive traits), and variation among males in the cost or rate of mating. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the average relationship between the expression of behavioural and morphological male secondary sexual characters and four assays of ejaculate quality (sperm number, viability, swimming speed and size). Regardless of how the data were partitioned the mean relationship was consistently positive, but always statistically non-significant. The only exception was that secondary sexual character expression was weakly but significantly positively correlated with sperm viability (r = 0.07, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the strength or direction of the relationship between behavioural and morphological SSCs, nor among relationships using the four ejaculate quality assays. The implications of our findings are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews

  6. Vibratory ejaculation in 140 spinal cord injured men and home insemination of their partners.

    PubMed

    Sønksen, J; Fode, M; Löchner-Ernst, D; Ohl, D A

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective cohort study. Anejaculation is commonly found in spinal cord injured (SCI) men. Clinical treatments and assisted reproductive techniques allow SCI men to father children but few home pregnancies have been reported. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the results from the last 20 years' of treatment with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and vaginal self-insemination at home in SCI men and their partners. The data originate from two European centers and one American center. A total of 140 SCI men with anejaculation and their healthy partners were available for this analysis. Men who obtained antegrade ejaculation by PVS and had motile sperm in the ejaculate were offered the possibility of PVS combined with vaginal self-insemination at home. Couples were instructed to perform PVS and to instill the ejaculate intravaginally. Outcome measures were pregnancy rate per couple, number of live births, total motile sperm count and time to pregnancies. Median total motile sperm count was 29 million (range, 1-92 million). In all, 60 of the 140 couples (43% pregnancy rate) achieved 82 pregnancies. Seventy-two of the pregnancies resulted in live births with the delivery of 73 healthy babies. Median time to first pregnancy was 22.8 months (6.0-98.4). No complications were reported. PVS combined with vaginal self-insemination may be performed as a viable, inexpensive option for assisted conception in couples in whom the SCI male partner has an adequate total motile sperm count and the female partner is healthy.

  7. Pregnancy after assisted ejaculation procedures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Sønksen, J; Sommer, P; Biering-Sørensen, F; Ziebe, S; Lindhard, A; Loft, A; Andersen, A N; Kristensen, J K

    1997-10-01

    To present the results of fertility treatment in 28 men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners. Retrospective analysis. University hospital outpatient clinic and home. Twenty-eight anejaculatory men with SCI and their partners seeking treatment for infertility. Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation as semen retrieval methods. Assisted reproductive techniques used: vaginal self-insemination at home, intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Ejaculation rate; sperm count and motility; pregnancy rates. All of the men were able to ejaculate either by penile vibratory stimulation (79%) or electroejaculation (21%). Median total sperm count was 65 million (range, 0.1 to 480) with a median motility of 13% (range, 1% to 60%). Overall, 9 of 28 couples (32%) achieved 10 pregnancies (4 self-insemination, 3 intrauterine insemination, 1 in vitro fertilization, and 2 intracytoplasmic sperm injection). An ejaculation rate of 100% was achieved using penile vibratory stimulation as a first treatment option with electroejaculation as a second option. Motivated couples with adequate semen quality may be offered penile vibratory stimulation combined with self-insemination at home. Together with intrauterine insemination or fertilization techniques used in vitro, the pregnancy rate per treatment cycle for SCI couples may approach that of natural procreation in healthy and fertile couples.

  8. High efficient and non-invasive collection of ejaculates from rats using penile vibratory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxing; Baloch, Zulqarain; Wang, Ge; Xue, Senren; Huang, Qunshang; Yang, Shihua

    2018-01-15

    The rat is one of the most important experimental animals, which plays an indispensable role in biomedical research, particularly in reproduction. However, according to our best knowledge, there is no easy and efficient method available for semen collection from rats. In this study, we successfully collected semen through penile vibratory stimulation ejaculation (PVSE) from laboratory rats. This is an easier and more efficient method compared with rectal probe electro-ejaculation (RPE). We found that the ejaculation rate, volume, concentration and motility of semen collected with PVSE were substantially better than those of RPE. Although PVSE was time-consuming compared to RPE, the quality of semen was better; additionally, sperm concentration and motility of semen were significantly higher with a two-day interval between collections compared to a five-day interval. Moreover, we found that electrical stimulation, use of anesthesia and increased age of rats have a negative effect on sperm quality. In the last experiment, four fertile female rats were artificially inseminated with PVSE-collected semen, and healthy offspring were born. Here, for the first time, we established the repeated collection of semen using the PVSE method in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Male-derived cuticular hydrocarbons signal sperm competition intensity and affect ejaculate expenditure in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melissa L.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2008-01-01

    Female sexual promiscuity can have significant effects on male mating decisions because it increases the intensity of competition between ejaculates for fertilization. Because sperm production is costly, males that can detect multiple matings by females and allocate sperm strategically will have an obvious fitness advantage. The presence of rival males is widely recognized as a cue used by males to assess sperm competition. However, for species in which males neither congregate around nor guard females, other more cryptic cues might be involved. Here, we demonstrate unprecedented levels of sperm competition assessment by males, which is mediated via the use of chemical cues. Using the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus, we manipulated male perception of sperm competition by experimentally coating live unmated females with cuticular compounds extracted from males. We found that males adjusted their ejaculate allocation in response to these compounds: the viability of sperm contained within a male's ejaculate decreased as the number of male extracts applied to his virgin female partner was increased. We further show that males do not respond to the relative concentration of male compounds present on females, but rather to the number of distinct signature odours of individual males. Our results conform to sperm competition theory, and show for the first time, to our knowledge, that males can detect different intensities of sperm competition by using distinct chemical cues of individual males present on females. PMID:18854298

  10. Quantitative genetic evidence that males trade attractiveness for ejaculate quality in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2010-10-22

    Polyandry, where females mate with multiple males, means that a male's reproductive success will depend both on his ability to acquire mates and the ability of his sperm to compete effectively for fertilizations. But, how do males partition their reproductive investment between these two episodes of selection? Theory predicts that increases in ejaculate investment will come at a cost to investment in other reproductive traits. Although evidence revealing such trade-offs is accumulating, we know little about their genetic basis. Here, I report patterns of genetic (co)variation for a range of traits subject to pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a promiscuous livebearing fish in which males alternate between courtship and sneak matings to obtain copulations. The analyses of genetic variation and covariation for these behaviours revealed a strong genetic predisposition for one tactic over the other. Both mating tactics were also strongly genetically integrated with the level of sexual ornamentation and ejaculate quality. Males that predominantly performed sneak matings were less ornamented but had faster swimming sperm than those that predominantly used courtship. These patterns of genetic variation and covariation reveal potential evolutionary constraints on the direction of selection of pre- and post-copulatory traits, and support sperm competition theory by revealing a trade-off between sexual attractiveness and investment in ejaculates.

  11. Cultivating Lifelong Learning Skills During Graduate Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rajiv; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-09-08

    Lifelong learning is referred to as learning practiced by the individual for the whole life, is flexible, and is accessible at all times. Medical Council of India has included lifelong learning as a competency in its new regulations for graduate medical training. Acquisition of metacognitive skills, self-directed learning, self-monitoring, and reflective attitude are the main attributes of lifelong learning; and all of these can be inculcated in the students by using appropriate instructional methodologies. It is time to deliberate upon the instructional designs to foster the lifelong learning skills and behaviors in medical graduates. In this communication, we aim to debrief the concept of lifelong learning, particularly in context with medical training and detailing the process that can be explicitly used to cultivate the attitude of lifelong learning in medical graduates.

  12. Lifelong Learning for the Hand Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Hand surgeons are faced with the impossible task of mastering a rapidly expanding pool of knowledge and surgical techniques. Dedication to lifelong learning is, therefore, an essential component of delivering the best, most up-to-date care for patients. Board certification, participation in continuing medical education and maintenance of certification activities, and attendance at national meetings are essential mechanisms by which hand surgeons may foster the acquisition of essential knowledge and clinical skills, This article highlights the history, current status, and emerging needs in continuing medical education for the hand surgeon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sperm morphometric subpopulations are differentially distributed in rams with different maturity age in cryopreserved ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Martí, J I; Aparicio, I M; García-Herreros, M

    2011-07-01

    It is widely accepted that sperm morphology is a good indicator of fertility and it has been proposed that sperm quality may be related to subtle changes in sperm head morphology. However, a precise estimation of the morphology of ram sperm would be very useful to improve reproductive success in ovine. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis and clustering analysis have been important tools to study sperm subpopulations in domestic animals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data exist studing morphometric differences regarding to sperm subpopulations within the ovine ejaculate. The aim of this study was to test the presence and distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in cryopreserved ejaculates from yearling and mature rams using an objective method by computer analysis system and to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and sperm quality in each individual ram. Principal component analysis revealed that three principal components for yearlings and four components for mature rams that represented more than 84% of the cumulative variance in both cases. After cluster analysis, three sperm morphometric subpopulations for yearlings (CLY) and four for mature (CLM) rams were identified with defined sperm dimensions and shapes. CLY1 included big, round and short sperm (37%), CLY2 included average size and slightly elliptical and elongated sperm (48%), CLY3 included small, long, elliptical and elongated sperm cells (15%). CLM1 consisted of average size and moderate elliptical and elongated (26%), CLM2 consisted of small, long, elliptical and elongated (31%), CLM3 consisted of small and round (32%) and CLM4 included big, short and round (8%) spermatozoa respectively. There were significant differences in the distribution of the three subpopulations (P < 0.001) as well as in the sperm concentration, total motility (%), sperm viability (%) and the overall (P < 0.05) in the ejaculates among the four yearling rams

  14. Confucian Educational Philosophy and Its Implication for Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, from historical and philosophical perspectives, presents Confucian education philosophy, a philosophy that is argued is a philosophy of lifelong learning. Examined and illustrated are the Confucian concepts of "Sage", a Confucian ideal human model, and "Jun Zi", a Confucian realistic educational result. Through "Sage", Confucius…

  15. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  16. Learning to Live: The Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which people with lifelong chronic illness engage with learning, and how learning impacts on the ways in which they learn to live with their illness. It considers their engagement with and changing focus of learning at different stages: prior to diagnosis, at about the time of diagnosis, and as their understanding…

  17. Lifelong Literacy: Some Trends and Issues in Conceptualising and Operationalising Literacy from a Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire…

  18. Complications of Prematurity - An Infographic

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-01-01

    Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522

  19. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  20. Premature Needle Loss of Spruce

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Joseph G. O Brien

    1990-01-01

    Premature needle loss on white, black and Norway spruce has been observed in forest plantations in Wisconsin and Minnesota during the past six years. Symptoms vary by species but usually appear first in 2-4-year old needles on lower branches. Infected needles are dropped, resulting in branch mortality that progresses upward through the crown, sometimes killing even...

  1. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values.

    PubMed

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-03-01

    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  2. Understanding the Short- and Long-Term Respiratory Outcomes of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Jessica Y.; Keller, Roberta L.; Aschner, Judy L.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease associated with premature birth that primarily affects infants born at less than 28 weeks’ gestational age. BPD is the most common serious complication experienced by premature infants, with more than 8,000 newly diagnosed infants annually in the United States alone. In light of the increasing numbers of preterm survivors with BPD, improving the current state of knowledge of long-term respiratory morbidity for infants with BPD is a priority. We undertook a comprehensive review of the published literature to analyze and consolidate current knowledge of the effects of BPD that are recognized at specific stages of life, including infancy, childhood, and adulthood. In this review, we discuss both the short-term and long-term respiratory outcomes of individuals diagnosed as infants with the disease and highlight the gaps in knowledge needed to improve early and lifelong management of these patients. PMID:26038806

  3. Information-Theoretic Objective Functions for Lifelong Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    example of lifelong learning problems . In addition, the learner can observe many or indefinite series of different times series, in which case each...the classes of lifelong classification and regression learning. Since these supervised learning problems do not care about the sequence of

  4. TBI-ROC Part Six: Lifelong Living after TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeing, Marianne; Barton, Barbara; Zinsmeister, Paula; Brouwers, Lynn; Trudel, Tina M.; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This article is the sixth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and discusses lifelong living after TBI. Following TBI, lifelong outcomes vary depending on the individual affected, treatment provided and severity of injury. Fortunately, many individuals who experience mild concussions common to childhood have no lasting symptoms.…

  5. Revisiting Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Ohsako, Toshio; Mauch, Werner

    Although lifelong learning is being increasingly cited as one of the key principles in the fields of education and development, shared understanding of the term's usage at the global level is lacking. Lifelong learning is closely tied to the challenge of openness and the changes with which modern individuals must cope in their lifetimes. Lifelong…

  6. Landscapes of Learning: Lifelong Learning in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Fred, Ed.

    This document contains 12 papers about lifelong learning in rural communities in Great Britain. The papers, which are intended for lecturers, tutors, and guidance professionals but may also prove useful to organizations providing lifelong learning and policymakers, include conceptual tools as well as empirical case studies documenting lifelong…

  7. Investigation of the Lifelong Learning Tendency of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Hamit; Erbay, Hasan; Kör, Hakan; Engin, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The concept of "lifelong learning (LLL)" has emerged because of the necessity of renewing earlier and immemorial information in time. LLL is involved in a various kind of international foundations' works. European Union is perceived as more efficient in comparison with international companies in terms of lifelong learning practices.…

  8. Lifelong Learning: Foundational Models, Underlying Assumptions and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive.…

  9. Guidelines for Lifelong Education Management to Mobilize Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida

    2018-01-01

    This article is a study of the guidelines for lifelong education management to mobilize learning communities in the social-cultural context of Thailand is intended to 1) analyze and synthesize the management of lifelong learning to mobilize learning community in the social-cultural context of Thailand; and 2) propose guidelines for lifelong…

  10. HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogisu-Kamiya, Motoyo

    Advocating the development of a new vision and strategies for lifelong learning in the multicultural workplace, this paper describes the influences of cultural issues on the human resource development (HRD) interface at a Japanese multinational firm operating in Canada. Following an introduction defining lifelong learning and related terms,…

  11. Lifelong Learning Key Competence Levels of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adabas, Abdurrahman; Kaygin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The European Union defines lifelong learning as all activities aimed at improving an individual's knowledge, skills and competences individually, socially or vocationally throughout his/her life. In 2007, eight key competences necessary for lifelong learning were identified by the European Union Education and Culture Commission. These competences…

  12. Learners or Participants? The Pros and Cons of "Lifelong Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…

  13. Charting the Course of Lifelong Learning for Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Shirley T.

    This overview of the history of lifelong learning for African Americans is in a chart format. Lifelong learning events are matched with social and historical events and with black adult educators and black adult education-related institutions. The chart begins with slavery around 1800, a time when slaves were forbidden to learn how to read. It…

  14. Higher Education and Lifelong Learners: International Perspectives on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Slowey, Maria, Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on higher education and lifelong learners. The following papers are included: "Traditions and New Directions in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Non-Traditional Students and Lifelong Learners" (Hans G. Schuetze, Maria Slowey); "Austria: The Enduring Myth of the Full-Time Student: An…

  15. Lifelong Learning in a Developed and a Developing Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Charles

    Comparing the evolution of lifelong learning in Chinese Taipei and Vietnam, this paper describes cultural, political, and economic factors influencing approaches and attitudes towards the lifelong learning movement and makes projections for the future. Following a description of sources used, including informal interviews with 50 adult learners in…

  16. Lifelong Learning--Is It Just for the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a powerful concept and perspective for transforming education systems and enabling learning societies. Developed in the advanced industrialised North, it is now being considered in poor countries where Education for All is a main educational preoccupation. The meaning of lifelong learning is confused and contested, caught up…

  17. Development of a Global Lifelong Learning Index for Future Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JuSeuk

    2016-01-01

    Since the transition from industrial society to a knowledge-based society, the source of national competitiveness is also changing. In this context, lifelong education has become a new competitive strategy for countries. This study broadly consists of three steps. Step I features a theoretical review of global lifelong learning indices and a…

  18. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. Objective The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. Methods In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. Results In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Conclusion Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care. PMID:29238496

  19. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  20. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care.

  1. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Lifelong Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on lifelong learning from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Study on the School Information Technology Pilot Scheme: Possibilities of Creative and Lifelong Learning" (Siu-Cheung Kong,…

  2. Factors Contributing to Lifelong Science Learning: Amateur Astronomers and Birders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Corin, Elysa Nicole; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    This research examined lifelong science learning reported by amateur astronomers and birders. One hundred seven adults who reported engaging in an informal (out-of-school) science interest were interviewed as part of an ongoing series of studies of lifelong science learners. The goal of the study was to gain insight into how and why amateur…

  3. Researching Lifelong Learning Participation through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interdisciplinary nature of studies in the field of lifelong learning participation. Until recently, participation studies have been presented in a rather fragmented way, often drawing on insights from separate disciplines such as sociology or psychology. The complex nature of lifelong learning participation, however, urges…

  4. Applying Andragogical Concepts in Creating a Sustainable Lifelong Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…

  5. Project of a life-long education platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasagesse, Laëtitia

    2005-10-01

    Opticsvalley proposes to present its project of a life-long education platform, with the objective to: - gather training centres in the optics field - exchange information on best practice and markets - promote the life-long optics education offer - present collective responses to the existing training needs - foster interactions between training centres and optics industry representatives

  6. Understanding Adult Lifelong Learning Participation as a Layered Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the layered nature of lifelong learning participation, bringing together fragmented insights in why adults do or do not participate in lifelong learning activities. The paper will discuss the roles and responsibilities of individual adults, education and training providers and countries' social education policies, often…

  7. Lifelong Education (Learning) in China: Present Situation and Development Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhupeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the historic background and development of lifelong education (learning) in China, this paper introduces major developments of lifelong education (learning) that have been achieved through adopting a series of measures under policies issued by the Chinese government since the 1990s. Throughout the decades, efforts have been made to…

  8. Some Critical Reflections on Lifelong Learning Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayilan, Fevziye

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the Lifelong Learning Strategy document which was on the agenda during the European Union harmonization process of Turkey. The public policies in the document, regarding non-formal and adult education, will be analyzed. Lifelong Learning strategy became a current issue in the last stage of neoliberal transformation of…

  9. Challenges in Evaluating the EU's Lifelong Learning Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clain, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, lifelong learning has become a major policy concern for the European Union, being seen as a means for enabling individuals to be more competitive in social and economic contexts that are continually changing. After a series of white papers and strategies in the field of lifelong learning, the EU launched the Lifelong…

  10. Africa and International Policy Making for Lifelong Learning: Textual Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…

  11. The Design and Management of an Organisation's Lifelong Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the successful design and management of high performance work-based lifelong learning processes. Design: The paper summarises the process management practices and contextual parameters that are being applied in the successful design and management of high performance work based lifelong learning…

  12. Lifelong Learning: Conceptualizations in European Educational Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Mariana Gaio; Neves, Claudia; Gomes, Elisabete Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, lifelong learning has been a central and guiding principle in the formulation of European educational policies. Within this general framework, the authors have been developing a research project that allows them to approach the theme of lifelong learning and European educational policies, taking into account four levels of…

  13. Adult Education as Part of Life-Long Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapanes, Tomas

    Lifelong education in Cuba is seen in a socioeconomic context. The characteristics of lifelong education in Cuba are implicit in its revolutionary setting, and the task of carrying it through has become an obligation and a right affecting every citizen. The training of teachers is at present the center of greatest effort. The Literacy Campaign,…

  14. Lifelong Learning in Swedish Curricula. Didakometry No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredriksson, Lennart; Gestrelius, Kurt

    An examination of the lifelong learning aspect of the central and nationwide curricula in Sweden has been made by the UNESCO Institute for Education. The concept of lifelong learning is defined and criteria for developing positive attitudes and opportunities for its development are discussed. The analysis of the curricula in the basic and upper…

  15. Lifelong Learning for All in Asian Communities: ICT Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The necessity to adjust to the prerequisites of the knowledge based society and economy brought about the need for lifelong learning for all in Asian communities. The concept of lifelong learning stresses that learning and education are related to life as a whole - not just to work - and that learning throughout life is a continuum that should run…

  16. Lifelong Adaptability: A Cultural Literacy Perspective (Revised Edition)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, John Thayer

    2011-01-01

    This revised 1997 ex post facto study attempted to identify a lifelong adaptability curriculum from a cultural literacy perspective. It investigated students' lifelong adaptability ratings of 15 general school subjects as predicted by family structure, parental age, parental educational level, student cultural literacy, and student gender;…

  17. Architecture for Implementation of a Lifelong Online Learning Environment (LOLE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gregg; Leblanc, Frederic; Grant, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an architecture for the implementation of a lifelong online learning environment (LOLE). The stakeholder independent architecture enables the development of a LOLE system to fulfill the complex requirements of the different actors involved in lifelong education. A particular emphasis is placed on the continuation of a…

  18. Propensity to Lifelong Learning: Reflections of a Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The author's tertiary learning journey began as a research assistant reviewing educational literature. Among the mountain of lifelong learning literature, the author could find nothing that explained why people are or are not lifelong learners. Eventually he found the British work of Gorard and Selwyn (2005). Mindful of Osborne's (2002) caution…

  19. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (< 1000 grams) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30–50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20–50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for

  20. Semen quality in ejaculates produced by masturbation in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, A S Q; Ibrahim, E; Modh, R; Aballa, T C; Lynne, C M; Brackett, N L

    2012-12-01

    Retrospective study. Most men with spinal cord injury are anejaculatory. Much has been reported about their semen quality collected by penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation (EEJ). What is not well-described is the nature of semen quality in SCI patients who can ejaculate by masturbation. This study was performed to understand the degree to which their semen quality differed from that of anejaculatory SCI patients versus that of healthy non-SCI control subjects. University of Miami. Retrospective chart review of Male Fertility Research Program participants from 1991 to 2011. Of 528 SCI subjects, 444 met inclusion criteria of completing an algorithm in which ejaculation occurred by masturbation (n=43), PVS (n=243), or EEJ (n=158). Sperm motility was higher in the SCI-masturbation group (36.9%) than the PVS group (25.9%, P<0.001) or EEJ group (15.0%, P<0.001), but lower compared with a control group of 61 non-SCI healthy men who collected their semen by masturbation (58.0%, P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had similar antegrade sperm concentration (83.3×10(6) cc(-1)) as the PVS group (77.4×10(6) cc(-1)) and control group (82.0×10(6) cc(-1)), but higher than the EEJ group (49.8×10(6) cc(-1), P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had significantly more men with incomplete injuries (84%) than the PVS group (54%, P<0.01) or EEJ group (41%, P<0.001). This is the first report focusing on semen quality obtained by masturbation in men with SCI. Sperm motility was higher in men with SCI who could, versus could not, ejaculate by masturbation. Completeness of injury may contribute to this difference.

  1. A new method to estimate quantitatively seminal vesicle and prostate gland contributions to ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Ndovi, Themba T; Parsons, Teresa; Choi, Leena; Caffo, Brian; Rohde, Charles; Hendrix, Craig W

    2007-01-01

    Aims We sought to optimize a quantitative noninvasive method to determine the concentration in their glands of origin of biochemical markers of compartments of the male genital tract as the first step towards validation of a novel method for estimation of drug concentrations in these male genital tract compartments. Methods Sixty-eight men participated. We compared four collection devices to split ejaculate into fractions. Fractions were assayed for fructose and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as unique markers of the seminal vesicle and prostate, respectively. Seminal vesicle fructose and prostatic PSA were estimated using a linear regression method, based on fructose-PSA axis intercepts, and compared with an older method which solves a simultaneous series of equations. Results A five-compartment collection device performed best with mean (95% confidence interval) PSA vs. fructose r2 of 0.84 (0.71, 0.98, P < 0.001). Using resampling simulations, glandular PSA and fructose estimates were highly variable and often implausible when using only two fractions. Using our method, the prostate contributed 37–44% to the whole ejaculate and the seminal vesicle contributed 55–61%. The novel regression method was highly correlated (r2 ≥ 0.98) with older methods. Conclusions We developed a noninvasive quantitative method of male genital tract biochemical marker estimation using a five-compartment tray to collect three to five ejaculate fractions. Our novel regression method is quantitative and more fully developed than older methods. This noninvasive method for determining glandular marker concentrations should be useful to provide quantitative estimates of drug concentrations in these glands. PMID:17076697

  2. The Role of Higher Education in Promoting Lifelong Learning. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies: No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Schneller, Chripa, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that universities have a vital role to play in promoting lifelong learning. This publication presents possible ways of expanding and transforming higher education to facilitate lifelong learning in different socio-economic contexts. Nine articles address the various dimensions of the role of higher education in promoting lifelong…

  3. Childhood sleep duration and lifelong mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Katherine A; Reynolds, Chandra A; Kern, Margaret L; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-10-01

    Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917-1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly White) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child's bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. For males, a quadratic relation emerged: Male children who underslept or overslept compared with peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CIs [1.05, 1.27]). Effect sizes were smaller and nonsignificant in females (HR = 1.02, CIs [0.91, 1.14]). Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire life span.

  4. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Methods Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Results Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society’s new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Conclusion Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society’s capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which ‘biographicisation’ is the seed that will promote innovative strategies. PMID:26019932

  5. [Cytomegalovirus, breast feeding and prematurity].

    PubMed

    Haÿs, S

    2007-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus can be detected in breast milk of almost all seropositive women. Postnatally acquired CMV infection through human milk feeding occurs as soon as the third week in premature infants. Even if this infection is often limited to serologic conversion, two other clinical presentations were reported. The more severe, a sepsis like syndrome, occurs more frequently among the more premature neonate. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, cholestasis and mild increase in inflammatory markers depict the more frequent form. In both presentation, clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities are transient. Until now, no significant impact on long term outcome was reported, nonetheless studies focusing on that topic are scarce and a longer follow up might be required to ascertain the good outcome. Holder pasteurization inactivates CMV, meanwhile freezing-thawing does not.

  6. Naked Aggression: The Meaning and Practice of Ejaculation on a Woman's Face.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Ezzell, Matthew B; Kendall, Olivia

    2016-10-21

    Based on in-depth interviews with 16 heterosexual men, this study focuses on participants' meaning-making surrounding a common and controversial sexual act in pornography: ejaculation on a woman's face (EOWF). We analyze the ways that male consumers decoded EOWF and the ways that EOWF, as a sexual script, was included in the men's accounts of their sexual desires and practices. The majority of the men decoded EOWF through the preferred (encoded) meaning as an act of male dominance and sexual aggression and that they wanted to engage in it despite their general belief that women would not be interested in it. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Human milk for the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Premature infants are at risk for growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of bioactive molecules. Human milk must be fortified for premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother's own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment, decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis, and should be the primary enteral diet for premature infants. Donor milk is a resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk. Challenges include the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies, and limited supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The lifelong course of chronic epilepsy: the Chalfont experience.

    PubMed

    Novy, Jan; Belluzzo, Marco; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Catarino, Claudia B; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Martinian, Lillian; Peacock, Janet L; Bell, Gail S; Koepp, Matthias J; Thom, Maria; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2013-10-01

    The long-term outcome of chronic epilepsy remains largely unknown, despite a long historical experience. We report the lifelong course of epilepsy of an historical cohort of 235 subjects who were in residential care at the Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy: 122 had comprehensive post-mortem examination. The populations admitted as resident to the centre over time followed the evolution of society's perception of epilepsy. 'Early residents' (before 1972) were admitted for sheltered employment, escaping stigmatization, whereas 'later' residents with more severe epilepsies were admitted for care. Subjects admitted before 1972 were similar to subjects followed nowadays as outpatients, whereas patients admitted later with a higher burden of disabilities are often those in residential care. This long follow-up allowed exploration of a wide spectrum of epilepsies, affecting both subjects who were otherwise healthy and those with co-morbidities. Age at death showed a bimodal distribution with an early peak of mortality between 45-50 years old, whilst the remainder had life expectancy comparable to the general population. As a group, subjects who had post-mortem examination were not significantly different from patients who did not have post-mortem examination, but post-mortem examination provided data that were otherwise unavailable. For those who had post-mortem examination, sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, 18% of all deaths) did not fully explain the early mortality, to which co-morbidities contributed. High seizure frequency was a significant independent predictor of early death even after excluding SUDEP (e.g. reduction in years of life for those who had >4 seizures/month compared with those who had <1 seizure/month: 13 years; 95% confidence interval: 6-19; overall P = 0.0006). Those who survived to older age increasingly went into spontaneous remission lasting until death (in the whole cohort, 38/166, 23% of those who died in or after sixth decade). In subjects

  9. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  10. Pregnancies following artificial insemination with spermatozoa from problem stallion ejaculates processed by single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Mari, G; Kútvölgyi, G; Meurling, S; Mislei, B; Iacono, E; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2011-08-01

    Some stallions produce ejaculates of low quality and/or low fertility when used for artificial insemination (AI). The purpose of these five case studies was to use Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) to select the best spermatozoa from 'problem' ejaculates for subsequent use in AI. Sperm quality, in terms of motility, morphology and chromatin integrity, was improved in the SLC-selected samples compared to the corresponding uncentrifuged samples, with the exception of one stallion thought to have ampullary stasis. In this stallion, neither the incidence of spermatozoa with detached heads nor the proportion of damaged chromatin was decreased by SLC, in contrast to previous results. Pregnancies were obtained after using SLC-selected spermatozoa from the five stallions for AI, indicating that the spermatozoa were functional after SLC. Overall, the results suggest that SLC may be useful when preparing AI doses from some 'problem' ejaculates. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; Ball, R L; Wolfe, B A; Finnegan, M V; O'Brien, J K

    2010-12-01

    The objective was to determine if seminal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can serve as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros. Concentrations of ALP activity were determined in seminal fractions collected from African black rhinos (Diceros bicornis), an African white rhino (Ceratotherium simum), and an Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) during electroejaculation. In addition, seminal fractions collected during penile massage of a Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) were assessed. Correlations between ALP activity and sperm concentration, fraction pH, and fraction osmolality were evaluated in the Indian rhino and black rhino. Concentrations of ALP activity in rhino ejaculate fractions ranged from < 5 to 11,780 U/L and were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with sperm concentration for both Indian rhino (r = 0.995) and black rhino (r = 0.697), but did not exhibit a strong correlation with either pH or osmolality (P > 0.05). Data were insufficient for establishing meaningful correlation coefficients in the Sumatran rhino and white rhino, but preliminary results were in accordance with findings in the Indian rhino and black rhino. We concluded that ALP was present in rhinoceros semen, likely originated from the epididymides and/or testes, and could serve as a useful tool for assessing the production of ejaculatory versus pre-ejaculatory fluid in the rhinoceros. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative population genomics of the ejaculate in humans and the great apes.

    PubMed

    Good, Jeffrey M; Wiebe, Victor; Albert, Frank W; Burbano, Hernán A; Kircher, Martin; Green, Richard E; Halbwax, Michel; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Fischer, Anne; Pääbo, Svante

    2013-04-01

    The rapid molecular evolution of reproductive genes is nearly ubiquitous across animals, yet the selective forces and functional targets underlying this divergence remain poorly understood. Humans and closely related species of great apes show strongly divergent mating systems, providing a powerful system to investigate the influence of sperm competition on the evolution of reproductive genes. This is complemented by detailed information on male reproductive biology and unparalleled genomic resources in humans. Here, we have used custom microarrays to capture and sequence 285 genes encoding proteins present in the ejaculate as well as 101 randomly selected control genes in 21 gorillas, 20 chimpanzees, 20 bonobos, and 20 humans. In total, we have generated >25× average genomic coverage per individual for over 1 million target base pairs. Our analyses indicate high levels of evolutionary constraint across much of the ejaculate combined with more rapid evolution of genes involved in immune defense and proteolysis. We do not find evidence for appreciably more positive selection along the lineage leading to bonobos and chimpanzees, although this would be predicted given more intense sperm competition in these species. Rather, the extent of positive and negative selection depended more on the effective population sizes of the species. Thus, general patterns of male reproductive protein evolution among apes and humans depend strongly on gene function but not on inferred differences in the intensity of sperm competition among extant species.

  13. Identification of bovine doppel protein in testis, ovary and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rondena, Marco; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Comazzi, Stefano; Pocacqua, Vanessa; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Luvoni, Cecilia; Chigioni, Sara; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2005-03-01

    Doppel (Dpl) protein is a recently identified prion-like protein. Although Dpl might be expressed in the brain after prion gene deletion, in both human and mice Dpl is normally expressed only in testis and spermatozoa, where it appears to be involved in male fertility. Little information is available so far about the expression pattern of Dpl in bovines, thus, hampering possible research on the role of this protein in bovine infertility. We have thus, designed, produced and validated through Western blotting a polyclonal antibody against bovine Dpl. With this antibody we then screened bovine tissues for Dpl expression by immunohistochemistry. Ejaculated spermatozoa were screened by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Bovine Dpl was expressed in all the developing stages of germinal cells, from spermatogones to ejaculated spermatozoa, in Sertoli cells and in ovarian follicles (granulosa cells and follicular fluid). Dpl immunoreactivity was also found on other tissues, where endothelial cells, peripheral nerves and scattered lymphocytes stained positive. This distribution pattern suggests that Dpl might be involved in sperm maturation/capacitation in bovines, like it might be in mice. This hypothesis needs to be verified by widespread application of the flow cytometric protocol established in this paper on spermatozoa from animals with reduced fertility.

  14. Proteomic analysis of mature and immature ejaculated spermatozoa from fertile men

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhihong; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional spermatozoa maturation is the main reason for the decrease in sperm motility and morphology in infertile men. Ejaculated spermatozoa from healthy fertile men were separated into four fractions using three-layer density gradient. Proteins were extracted and bands were digested on a LTQ-Orbitrap Elite hybrid mass spectrometer system. Functional annotations of proteins were obtained using bioinformatics tools and pathway databases. Western blotting was performed to verify the expression levels of the proteins of interest. 1469 proteins were identified in four fractions of spermatozoa. The number of detected proteins decreased according to the maturation level of spermatozoa. During spermatozoa maturation, proteins involved in gamete generation, cell motility, energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation processes showed increasing expression levels and those involved in protein biosynthesis, protein transport, protein ubiquitination, and response to oxidative stress processes showed decreasing expression levels. We validated four proteins (HSP 70 1A, clusterin, tektin 2 and tektin 3) by Western blotting. The study shows protein markers that may provide insight into the ejaculated spermatozoa proteins in different stages of sperm maturation that may be altered or modified in infertile men. PMID:26510506

  15. Oral sex, semen displacement, and sexual arousal: testing the ejaculate adjustment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Welling, Lisa L M; Ehrke, Alyse D; Sela, Yael; Goetz, Aaron T

    2013-12-20

    Male Indian Flying Foxes (Pteropus giganteus) that spend more time performing oral sex on a female also spend more time copulating with her. In humans, men who spend more time copulating with their regular partner also perform more "semen-displacing" copulatory behaviors (e.g., deeper, more vigorous penile thrusting). We investigated whether men who spend more time performing oral sex on their regular partner also spend more time copulating with her and perform more semen-displacing copulatory behaviors. We proposed and tested the ejaculate adjustment hypothesis for men's copulatory behaviors: Men adjust their copulatory behaviors to increase their sexual arousal and consequent ejaculate quality, thereby increasing their chances of success in sperm competition. Two hundred and thirty-three men in a committed, heterosexual relationship responded to questions about their copulatory behavior and sexual arousal during their most recent sexual encounter with their long-term partner. The results indicated that men who spend more time performing oral sex on their partner also spend more time copulating with her, perform more semen-displacing copulatory behaviors, and report greater sexual arousal. We discuss limitations to the current research and highlight the heuristic value of sperm competition theory for understanding human sexual behaviors.

  16. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Alparslan; Şahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Çınar, Yasin; Arı, Şeyhmus; Çaça, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as follows: group 1 included infants of GAs 25 weeks and under; group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. Results. The incidence of any ROP in the whole cohort, in group 1, and in group 2, was 66.0%, 95.5%, and 58.6%, respectively. Incidence of any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.002, resp.). The overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 35.8% (59.1% in group 1 and 29.9% in group 2). Development of type 1 ROP was independently associated with GA. Conclusion. Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. BW cannot predict the development of type 1 ROP. PMID:24734191

  17. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Alparslan; Sahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Cınar, Yasin; Arı, Seyhmus; Caça, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as follows: group 1 included infants of GAs 25 weeks and under; group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. Results. The incidence of any ROP in the whole cohort, in group 1, and in group 2, was 66.0%, 95.5%, and 58.6%, respectively. Incidence of any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.002, resp.). The overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 35.8% (59.1% in group 1 and 29.9% in group 2). Development of type 1 ROP was independently associated with GA. Conclusion. Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. BW cannot predict the development of type 1 ROP.

  18. The motivation of lifelong mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah

    2013-04-01

    As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.

  19. Lifelong Education in Jewish Sources: Principles and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodesh, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Jewish cultural tradition shows strong support for lifelong learning and study for its own sake. Basic principles of Jewish education include functionalism (life change resulting from education) and accessibility (all are entitled to education). (SK)

  20. Karl Popper at ninety: Highlights of a lifelong intellectual quest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, Franco; van der Merwe, Alwyn

    1991-12-01

    On the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, Karl Popper's lifelong pursuit of answers in several areas of scientific and philosophical thinking is briefly traced, mainly with reference to excerpts from his own writings.

  1. A Lifelong Asthma Struggle | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents A Lifelong ...

  2. Understanding Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy in Estonia: Tendencies and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…

  3. Dealing with premature employee turnover.

    PubMed

    Seybolt, J W

    1986-02-01

    Premature nurse turnover was a topic of critical concern to nursing managers through the early 1980s. For the past few years, there has been less discussion of such turnover and what had previously been an acute shortage of nurses. A recent Wall Street Journal article suggests why this lack of overt interest in nurse turnover may have arisen: "Economic downturns, paradoxically, often act as apparent cures for existing problems. In the midst of the past recession, for example, few companies [substitute hospitals] paid much attention to a management problem that was pervasive during the prerecession growth period: professional turnover." While the earlier nursing shortage may never reappear as critically as before, it is increasingly clear that understanding the causes of premature nurse turnover is essential if hospitals are to be able to retain their most valued nurse staff members. Thus, there remains a strong interest in the attitudinal precursors of such turnover and how they might help nursing managers avert dysfunctional nurse turnover.

  4. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Characterization of proteins in the bovine epididymal and seminal fluid and proteins attached to epididymal and ejaculated sperm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During final maturation sperm lose their ability to biosynthesize, repair, grow, and divide. They have minimal metabolic function, and thus become completely dependent on their environment. In the epididymis, sperm are stored for a long period of time, but upon ejaculation motility is increased and...

  6. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point® (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of “friction and fantasy”. High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner’s hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician’s most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance

  7. Efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on primary premature ejaculation in men receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Men, C; Yu, L; Yuan, H; Cui, Y

    2016-11-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) may have an additive therapeutic effect. A literature review was performed to identify all published randomised controlled trials (RCT) that used SSRIs combined with PDE5-Is therapy for the treatment of primary PE. The search included the following databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were also investigated. Five publications involving a total of 419 patients were used in the analysis, including 5 RCTs that compared PDE5-Is plus SSRIs with SSRIs treating primary PE. Primary efficacy endpoints: IELT (the standardised mean difference (SMD) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00 to 1.14, P < 0.00001) indicated that utilisation of PDE5-Is and SSRIs was more effective than the SSRIs alone for a long time in patients with primary PE. Safety assessments included headache (odds ratio (OR) = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.63 to 6.11, P = 0.0006), and flushing indicated that PDE5-Is plus SSRIs were well tolerated. This meta-analysis indicates that PDE5-Is combined with SSRIs seem to provide significantly better ejaculatory latency time as compared with SSRIs alone in patients with primary PE. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits

  9. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae) prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g), dopamine (0.1 μM/kg), aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg). Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg) prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg) were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg) induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg), no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg). Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii. PMID:23295154

  10. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  11. Identification of sperm subpopulations with defined motility characteristics in ejaculates from Ile de France rams.

    PubMed

    Bravo, J A; Montanero, J; Calero, R; Roy, T J

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify different motile sperm subpopulations in fresh ejaculates from six Ile de France rams, by using a computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system, and to evaluate the effects of individual ram and season on population distribution. Overall sperm motility and individual kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa were evaluated for 125,312 spermatozoa, defined by curvilinear velocity (VCL), linear velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity coefficient (LIN), straightness coefficient (STR), wobble coefficient (WOB), mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and frequency of head displacement (BCF). A multivariate cluster analysis was carried out to classify these spermatozoa into a reduced number of subpopulations according to their movement patterns. The statistical analysis clustered the whole motile sperm population into five separate groups: subpopulation 1, constituted by rapid, progressive and non sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=126.41 μm/s, STR=92.87% and LIN=86.47%); subpopulation 2, characterized by progressive spermatozoa with moderate velocity (VCL=74.74 μm/s and STR=84.03%); subpopulation 3, represented by rapid, progressive and sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=130.45 μm/s, STR=76.02% and LIN=47.68%); subpopulation 4 represents rapid nonprogressive spermatozoa (VCL=128.69 μm/s and STR=44.09%); subpopulation 5 includes poorly motile, nonprogressive spermatozoa with a very irregular trajectory (VCL=36.81 μm/s and STR=47.04%). Our results show the existence of five subpopulations of motile spermatozoa in ram ejaculates. The frequency distribution of spermatozoa within subpopulations was quite similar for the six rams, and the five subpopulations turned out to be very stable along seasons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Apnea of prematurity: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Moriette, G; Lescure, S; El Ayoubi, M; Lopez, E

    2010-02-01

    Prematurity apnea remains a major clinical problem that requires treatment choices which are sometimes difficult. Prematurity apnea occurs in most infants of gestational age at birth less than 33 weeks. It is a developmental disorder which usually reflects a "physiological" immaturity of respiratory control. However, neonatal diseases may be associated and play an additive role, resulting in an increased incidence of apnea. Careful screening should therefore be performed in order to make sure that no other factor than immaturity is involved in the occurrence of apnea. Short apnea (less than 10s, without hypoxemia and bradycardia), due to immaturity, are not clinically relevant. More prolonged apnea, that last for more than 15 or 20s, and / or apnea associated with bradycardia or oxygen desaturation, results in short-term disturbances of cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation, which may negatively impact on neurodevelopmental outcome. Evaluating the immediate severity of apnea and the risks that apnea may affect long-term outcome remains a challenge. The choice of treatments is based on a few evidences. Caffeine citrate, which reduces the incidence of apnea, has been used for decades. However, a thorough evaluation of risks and benefits of this medication has been performed only recently. Caffeine citrate was found to be safe and resulted in unexpected benefits. In treated infants, compared with controls, indeed, a decreased incidence of the following complications was recorded: bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of conceptional age, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral palsy at 18 months of age. Nasal CPAP can be used in association with caffeine citrate, when the latter is not effective enough. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openjuru, George L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

  14. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  15. Human milk for the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  16. Modelling lifelong costs of caries with and without fluoride use.

    PubMed

    Splieth, Christian H; Flessa, Steffen

    2008-04-01

    Cost-benefit or cost-cost analyses are becoming increasingly important in dentistry. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the economic consequences of caries prevention with fluorides. German epidemiological data were used in a system dynamics model to assess the lifelong costs of caries in a population. Without fluoride prevention, lifelong treatment for caries resulted in mean costs of 6,976 euro and a present value of 932 euro per person (5% discounting). In different scenarios of constant, increasing, or decreasing caries-controlling effects, and of limited (age 6-18 yr) or lifelong application, the combination of fluoride salt, fluoride toothpaste, and fluoride gel were most cost-effective. They reduced the costs for caries treatment and prophylaxis to 482, euro or to a present value of 148 euro (5% discounting), when applied from age 6-18 yr, and to 211-213 euro for lifelong use (present value, 5% discounting). In conclusion, a lifelong model of costs of caries demonstrates that the use of fluorides in caries prevention is highly cost-effective.

  17. Hypergraph-Based Recognition Memory Model for Lifelong Experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive agents are expected to interact with and adapt to a nonstationary dynamic environment. As an initial process of decision making in a real-world agent interaction, familiarity judgment leads the following processes for intelligence. Familiarity judgment includes knowing previously encoded data as well as completing original patterns from partial information, which are fundamental functions of recognition memory. Although previous computational memory models have attempted to reflect human behavioral properties on the recognition memory, they have been focused on static conditions without considering temporal changes in terms of lifelong learning. To provide temporal adaptability to an agent, in this paper, we suggest a computational model for recognition memory that enables lifelong learning. The proposed model is based on a hypergraph structure, and thus it allows a high-order relationship between contextual nodes and enables incremental learning. Through a simulated experiment, we investigate the optimal conditions of the memory model and validate the consistency of memory performance for lifelong learning. PMID:25371665

  18. Motility and acrosomal integrity comparisons between electro-ejaculated and epididymal ram sperm after exposure to a range of anisosmotic solutions, cryoprotective agents and low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Varisli, Omer; Uguz, Cevdet; Agca, Cansu; Agca, Yuksel

    2009-02-01

    Effective ram sperm cryopreservation protocols, which would yield acceptable lambing rates following artificial insemination (AI), are currently lacking. The objectives of the current studies were to compare the effects of various anisosmotic conditions, cryoprotective agents (CPAs) and chilling on the motility and acrosomal integrity of electro-ejaculated and epididymal ram sperm. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, ejaculated and epididymal ram sperm were exposed to 75, 150, 225, 600, 900 and 1200 milliosmolal (mOsm)/kg sucrose solutions, held for 5 min and then returned to isosmotic condition. Motility characteristics of sperm during exposure to each anisosmotic solutions and after returning to isosmotic conditions were determined. In experiment 2, ejaculated and epididymal ram sperm were exposed to 1M glycerol (Gly), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) for 5 min and then returned to isosmotic conditions. Motility characteristics of sperm samples during exposure to each CPA solution and after returning to isosmotic conditions were determined. In experiment 3, effects of various temperatures on motility characteristics of ejaculated and epididymal ram sperm were determined after exposing them to three different sub-physiologic temperatures (4, 10 and 22 degrees C) for 30 min and subsequently returning them to 37 degrees C. The motility of ejaculated ram sperm was significantly more affected from anisosmotic stress than was epididymal ram sperm (P<0.05). While anisosmotic stress had no effects on acrosomal integrity of epididymal ram sperm, there was a significant reduction in acrosomal integrity for ejaculated ram sperm after the addition and removal of a 75 mOsm sucrose solution. The abrupt addition and removal of 1M Gly, DMSO, EG or PG had no effect on the motility and acrosomal integrity of epididymal ram sperm (P>0.05). However, there was a slight decrease in acrosomal integrity for ejaculated ram sperm

  19. Order of orifices: sequence of condom use and ejaculation by orifice during anal intercourse among women: implications for HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Pamina M; Pines, Heather; Javanbakht, Marjan; Weiss, Robert E; Jeffries, Robin; Cranston, Ross D; Fuchs, Edward J; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Anton, Peter

    2014-12-01

    For women, the order of penile insertion, condom use, and ejaculation by orifice during sexual events affects the probability of HIV transmission and design of HIV prevention methods. From October 2006 to June 2009, 431 women in Los Angeles and Baltimore in a rectal health study reported the sequence of penile insertion, condom use, and ejaculation by orifice location by computer-assisted self-interview. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of condom use by orifice among women who reported vaginal intercourse (VI) during their last anal intercourse (AI) event. Of the 192 reporting on a last AI event, 96.3% (180/187) reported VI. Of these, 83.1% had VI before AI. Including the 36% who ejaculated in both the rectum and vagina, 66% report any ejaculation in the vagina and 45% in the rectum. One-third used a condom for both VI and AI, <10% for VI only or AI only, and half used no condoms. After adjusting for race, partner type, and substance use, compared with women who used condoms for both VI and AI at last AI, being older (units = 5 years) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60 to 0.96], with serodiscordant partners (AOR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.61), and HIV-positive with seroconcordant partners (AOR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.54) were associated with not using condoms. For most of the women in our study VI accompanied AI, with AI usually occurring after VI. This evidence for use of multiple orifices during the same sexual encounter and low use of condoms across orifices supports the need for a multicompartment HIV prevention strategy.

  20. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  5. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  6. Premature deterioration of jointed plain concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-29

    Six sections of jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP)s throughout the state were selected as : candidates for the evaluation of premature deterioration. The data used in performing the evaluation included manual : and historic automated distress su...

  7. Premature deterioration of jointed plain concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-29

    Six sections of jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP)s throughout the state were selected as candidates for the evaluation of premature deterioration. The data used in performing the evaluation included manual and historic automated distress survey...

  8. Assessment of chromatin status (SCSA) in epididymal and ejaculated sperm in Iberian red deer, ram and domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Macias, Vanesa; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Alvarez, Mercedes; Garde, Jose Julian; Anel, Enrique; Anel, Luis; de Paz, Paulino

    2006-11-01

    Abnormal chromatin condensation is not detected using classical techniques for sperm analysis. SCSA has demonstrated its usefulness in sperm chromatin analysis in several species (human, bull, stallion and boar). In this work, we studied sperm samples from red deer, ram and dog to analyze the differentiation of chromatin structure applying SCSA in epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa. Epididymal samples were obtained from the caput, corpus and cauda by means of cuts, and ejaculated ones were obtained by electroejaculation (deer), artificial vagina (ram) and digital manipulation (dog). SCSA results suggested different critical points in sperm maturation (spermatozoa with loose chromatin to more condensed chromatin) among species: from corpus to cauda in ram and from caput to corpus in deer and dog. Moreover, we also detected differences in ruminants and dog, reflected in the appearance of SCSA plots. Indeed, ram and deer samples rendered two peaks within the sperm main population (sperm with condensed chromatin), whereas only one was detected in dog. Although some differences were observed between cauda and ejaculated samples, SCSA parameters indicated good chromatin condensation, making these samples suitable for germplasm banking. Some species-dependent modifications in the analysis of the results may be necessary to take full advantage of its analytical power.

  9. Effects of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) on incident of ejaculation and semen quality in the goat.

    PubMed

    Kimsakulvech, S; Suttiyotin, P; Pinyopummin, A

    2015-04-01

    Male temporary contraception is occasionally required in some animals. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) can cause ejaculation disorder. Two sets of Latin square were applied to six male goats to received either normal saline, dimethylsulphoxide or tamsulosin (179.8 nmol kg(-1) ) at 1-week interval. Semen collection and libido scoring were undertaken at 3, 6 and 24 h post-injection. For ejaculated semen, its quality was evaluated. Physiological measurements including body temperature, respiration and heart rates were measured before injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that libido score and physiological changes were not affected by treatments and time periods. Anejaculation was observed in 11 (91.7%), 5 (41.7%) and 1 (8.3%) males at 3, 6 and 24 h post-tamsulosin injection respectively. The incidence returned to normal when compared with control groups at 24 h. The percentages of motile and live spermatozoa at 6 h post-tamsulosin injection were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of normal saline group. At 24 h post-injection, there were no significant differences of all semen parameters among treatments. This study demonstrated that tamsulosin had temporary effects on ejaculation and semen quality without reducing sex desire and physiological functions in male goats. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Identification, RNAi Knockdown, and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezygotic Phenotype in a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jeremy L.; Huestis, Diana L.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Wheeler, Shanda; Oppert, Cris; Marshall, Susan A.; Tomich, John M.; Oppert, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes, especially those that underlie reproductive isolation between closely related species, have been a central focus of evolutionary biologists over the past two decades. Such phenotypes are thought to evolve rapidly and be nearly ubiquitous among sexually reproducing eukaryotes where females mate with multiple partners. Because these phenotypes represent interplay between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract, they are fertile ground for reproductive senescence – as ejaculate composition and female physiology typically change over an individual's life span. Although these phenotypes and their resulting dynamics are important, we have little understanding of the proteins that mediate these phenotypes, particularly for species groups where postmating, prezygotic traits are the primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we utilize proteomics, RNAi, mating experiments, and the Allonemobius socius complex of crickets, whose members are primarily isolated from one another by postmating, prezygotic phenotypes (including the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs), to demonstrate that one of the most abundant ejaculate proteins (a male accessory gland-biased protein similar to a trypsin-like serine protease) decreases in abundance over a male's reproductive lifetime and mediates the induction of egg-laying in females. These findings represent one of the first studies to identify a protein that plays a role in mediating both a postmating, prezygotic isolation pathway and reproductive senescence. PMID:19851502

  11. Treatment of apnea of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Schumacher, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, knowledge regarding the neurodevelopment and functional aspects of the respiratory centers during postnatal maturation has increased substantially. However, an increase in such knowledge has not provided a basis for change in practice. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity (AOP) is one of exclusion. All causes of secondary apnea must be ruled out before initiating treatment for AOP. Treatment will depend on the etiology as well as effectiveness and tolerability of the treatment by the patient. The primary goal of any treatment of AOP is to prevent the frequency of apnea lasting >20 seconds, and/or those that are shorter, but associated with cyanosis and bradycardia. The clinical management of AOP is not much different today than it was two decades ago, with pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options remaining the mainstay of therapy. Methylxanthines are still the most widely used pharmacologic agents. Due to the wider therapeutic index of caffeine and ease of once daily administration, it should be the preferred agent. Doxapram, or nonpharmacologic treatment measures such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure, may be considered in infants who are unresponsive to methylxanthine treatment alone. Treatment should be continued until there is complete resolution of apnea, and for some time thereafter. The choice of method for weaning treatment remains one of individual physician preference. Discharge from hospital after apnea requires close monitoring and some infants will require home apnea monitors. The decision to provide a home apnea monitor should be individualized for each patient, depending on the effectiveness of treatment and clinical response.

  12. Guidelines for bottle feeding your premature baby.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jessica A

    2007-12-01

    Prolonged use of gavage feedings is common in premature infants who have not yet acquired suck, swallow, and breathing coordination. Preterm infants must be developmentally mature to orally feed successfully. Als' Synactive Theory of Development offers a conceptual framework to facilitate understanding of how premature infants dynamically differentiate to attain developmental milestones such as oral feeding. Key clinical implications for neonatal nurses are contingent upon incorporating evidence-based research into practice and providing consistent quality care to improve feeding outcomes.

  13. Unravelling anisogamy: egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on morphology in free-swimming sperm.

    PubMed

    Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-13

    Gamete dimorphism (anisogamy) defines the sexes in most multicellular organisms. Theoretical explanations for its maintenance usually emphasize the size-related selection pressures of sperm competition and zygote survival, assuming that fertilization of all eggs precludes selection for phenotypes that enhance fertility. In external fertilizers, however, fertilization is often incomplete due to sperm limitation, and the risk of polyspermy weakens the advantage of high sperm numbers that is predicted to limit sperm size, allowing alternative selection pressures to target free-swimming sperm. We asked whether egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on the free-swimming sperm of Galeolaria caespitosa, a marine tubeworm with external fertilization, by comparing relationships between sperm morphology and male fertility across manipulations of egg size and sperm density. Our results suggest that selection pressures exerted by these factors may aid the maintenance of anisogamy in external fertilizers by limiting the adaptive value of larger sperm in the absence of competition. In doing so, our study offers a more complete explanation for the stability of anisogamy across the range of sperm environments typical of this mating system and identifies new potential for the sexes to coevolve via mutual selection pressures exerted by gametes at fertilization. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Unravelling anisogamy: egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on morphology in free-swimming sperm

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2016-01-01

    Gamete dimorphism (anisogamy) defines the sexes in most multicellular organisms. Theoretical explanations for its maintenance usually emphasize the size-related selection pressures of sperm competition and zygote survival, assuming that fertilization of all eggs precludes selection for phenotypes that enhance fertility. In external fertilizers, however, fertilization is often incomplete due to sperm limitation, and the risk of polyspermy weakens the advantage of high sperm numbers that is predicted to limit sperm size, allowing alternative selection pressures to target free-swimming sperm. We asked whether egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on the free-swimming sperm of Galeolaria caespitosa, a marine tubeworm with external fertilization, by comparing relationships between sperm morphology and male fertility across manipulations of egg size and sperm density. Our results suggest that selection pressures exerted by these factors may aid the maintenance of anisogamy in external fertilizers by limiting the adaptive value of larger sperm in the absence of competition. In doing so, our study offers a more complete explanation for the stability of anisogamy across the range of sperm environments typical of this mating system and identifies new potential for the sexes to coevolve via mutual selection pressures exerted by gametes at fertilization. PMID:27412273

  15. Ejaculation failure on the day of oocyte retrieval for IVF: case report.

    PubMed

    Emery, M; Senn, A; Wisard, M; Germond, M

    2004-09-01

    Unexpected ejaculation failure on the day of oocyte retrieval for IVF occurs once or twice a year in our Reproductive Medicine Unit, where approximately 500 oocyte retrievals are performed each year. Two clinical situations which occurred in 2001 are presented. In the first case, sperm were finally obtained by epididymal aspiration and resulted in the fertilization of five oocytes by ICSI. The transfer of two fresh embryos did not result in a pregnancy and the three supernumerary zygotes were cryopreserved. The male patient presented an anxio-depressive episode necessitating psychiatric hospitalization 1 week after the oocyte retrieval. In the second case, no sperm were obtained and the four oocytes were therefore lost. The couple went through a crisis in their relationship and tried another cycle of IVF 10 months later, after the preventive cryopreservation of a sperm sample. On the day of oocyte retrieval the patient was unable to produce a fresh sample but three zygotes were obtained through ICSI using the back-up cryopreserved sperm. Two embryos were transferred but no pregnancy ensued. The clinical decision-making processes for these two cases are described, as well as the measures employed to help prevent these unfortunate situations.

  16. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: LATE COMPLICATIONS IN THE BABY BOOMER GENERATION (1946–1964)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bradley T; Tasman, William S

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To report the natural history and late complications of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in members of the baby boomer generation (1946–1964). Methods Retrospective observational series of 86 eyes from 47 adult ROP patients (aged 45 to 56 years) who did not receive treatment as infants. Posterior segment pathology, refractive status, lens status, and visual acuity were evaluated. Results Seventy-six eyes (88.4%) had posterior segment pathology due to ROP, including 22 (25.6%) with retinal detachments. The rates of myopia and cataract formation were 90.7% and 83.7%, respectively. Visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in 43 eyes (51.2%) and 20/60 or better in 35 (41.7%). Conclusions There are significant late complications of ROP underscoring the importance of lifelong follow-up. PMID:17057805

  17. Lifelong Learning at the Heart of All We Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author shares his perspective on the future of lifelong learning by looking back to the vision of the pioneers of adult learning, and picking out four messages that are relevant as people face their own, distinct, challenges. The author stresses the need to seize the opportunity to reinvigorate the original vision of adult…

  18. The Relation between Lifelong Learning Tendency and Educational Philosophies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaygin, Hüseyin; Yilmaz, Emrullah; Semerci, Çetin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the relationship between lifelong learning and philosophies of education. The sampling of the study consisted of 570 prospective teachers attending a pedagogical formation course at Bartin University and Bülent Ecevit University in 2016. Relational screening model was used in the study and the data were collected through…

  19. California Community College Educational Leaders' Perceptions of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Huu Chung

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study explored eleven community college educational leaders' perceptions about the essence of lifelong learning as it pertained to their personal experiences and as it related to their administrative practices in community college settings in southern California. Few scholarly studies have examined the meaning educational…

  20. Lifelong Learning Policies in Mexico: Context, Challenges and Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Mendiola, German

    2006-01-01

    For Mexico, a country characterised by a high degree of inequality both with regard to income and education, concepts such as the "knowledge-based economy" and Lifelong Learning are even more elusive than in other countries. Given its poor school system and the large part of the adult population who are without any basic educational…

  1. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  2. The Potential for Literacy to Shape Lifelong Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Hussey, Erika K.; Ng, Shukhan

    2015-01-01

    In light of population aging, an understanding of factors that promote lifelong cognitive resilience is urgent. There is considerable evidence that education early in the life span, which promotes the development of literacy skills, leads to cognitive health and longevity, but the ways in which activity engagement in later adulthood affects…

  3. Obsolescence or Lifelong Education: A Choice for the Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    Life-long education, in which the learning process is continuous and unbroken, for the professional is discussed from the standpoint of obsolescence, its symptoms and causes, and present efforts to cope with it. The concept of half-life is used to describe a professional's competence, and it is stated that the two factors that are most prominent…

  4. Lifelong Learning and the New Economy: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruikshank, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Historically, lifelong learning (under the name adult education) in Canada had a broad base and covered a wide variety of purposes and activities. Many programs included social, community and social justice visions and worked to strengthen local communities. However, with the advent of the so-called New Economy, this has changed. Canadian…

  5. Lifelong Education--Keystone to a New Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The merging of the concept of education into a worldwide pattern of lifelong learning is reviewed and implications explored in the areas of needs, costs, organizational aspects, directions for research, and elements for strategies. Summarized reports are presented of the experiences of Peru, Cuba, and Algeria with continuing education programs.…

  6. The End of Lifelong Learning: A Post-Human Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the significance of theories of the post-human for lifelong learning. Drawing upon the works of Karen Barad and Bruno Latour, it suggests that education has focused on the learning subject as a result of an a priori assumption of a separation of matter from meaning, the object from the subject. By contrast, a post-human…

  7. Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

    This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical…

  8. Education as Liberation: The Politics and Techniques of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeir, Bert

    2005-01-01

    It is taken for granted that the complexity of the information society requires a reorientation of our being in the world. Not surprisingly, the call for lifelong learning and permanent education becomes louder and more intense every day. And while there are various worthwhile initiatives, like alphabetisation courses, the article argues that the…

  9. Perceptions of Workplace Mentoring Behaviors for Lifelong Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate the importance of mentoring functions and behaviors for lifelong career development as perceived by protégés. The population included individuals in middle to late adulthood (age 40 years and older) who reported they had been a protege in at least one mentoring association perceived as beneficial to their…

  10. Piano Performance: Group Classes for the Lifelong Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research presents data relating to eight amateur pianists who completed a 10-week Piano Performance course for lifelong learners at the University of York, UK. This article discusses the development of learning through the impact of group participation, challenges faced by learners and pedagogical strategies used by the leader to…

  11. Lifelong Learning & Distance Higher Education. Perspectives on Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…

  12. The Struggle Over Lifelong Learning: A Marxist-Feminist Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad; Gorman, Rachel

    Political and economic upheavals in the 1990s have left their mark on adult education. A major source of change is globalization of the capitalist economy and its restructuring, which make extraordinary demands on education, particularly adult education. Lifelong learning has become an ideological distraction shifting the burden of increasing…

  13. Lifelong learning in the 21st century and beyond.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong learning is now recognized by educators, governing bodies, accreditation organizations, certification boards, employers, third-party payers, and the general public as one of the most important competencies that people must possess. Promoting lifelong learning as continuous, collaborative, self-directed, active, broad in domain, everlasting, positive and fulfilling, and applicable to one's profession as well as all aspects of one's life has emerged as a major global educational challenge. Meeting this challenge will require changes in the way teachers teach and learners learn, as teachers take on a more facilitative role and learners take more responsibility for setting goals, identifying resources for learning, and reflecting on and evaluating their learning. For physicians, this will require less dependence on traditional educational venues, such as passive continuing medical education activities, and greater participation in self-assessment, peer assessment, evaluation of performance in practice, documentation of practice-based learning and improvement activities, and learning at the point of care. Radiologists in an academic setting are exposed to multiple opportunities for practicing lifelong learning, such as teaching others, participating in multidisciplinary conferences and journal clubs, and engaging in research. All radiologists can participate in self-audits and group audits of performance and become active participants in national radiology societies, where they can learn from each other. Participation in the American Board of Radiology's Maintenance of Certification program reflects a commitment to actively engage in lifelong learning and is one way of demonstrating to the general public a commitment to maintaining competence. (c) RSNA, 2009.

  14. The Shifting Demographics and Lifelong Learning. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper was presented at the International Symposium on Lifelong Learning for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Developing a Research Agenda for the Asia-Pacific in Hong Kong, 12-13 January 2011. Tom Karmel suggests that there are four implications of an ageing population: the need to improve labour force participation and…

  15. A European Lens upon Adult and Lifelong Learning in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Michael; Borkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we seek to assess the extent to which adult and lifelong learning policies and practices in Asia have distinctiveness by comparison to those found in western societies, through an analysis of inter-governmental, national and regional policies in the field. We also inform our study through the analysis of the work of organisations…

  16. Learning among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, G. M.; Buys, L.; Tedman-Jones, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article includes a description of conceptions of aging and engagement with learning for 16 older people (52 to 80 years; mean age 62 years) with a lifelong intellectual disability. The sample also included the care workers and family member/friend. The older people had sufficient verbal skills to participate in the interviews. Half the sample…

  17. Self-Education: The Process of Life-Long Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Maurice; Phillips, Gary

    1982-01-01

    Describes growing acknowledgment worldwide that educational services must train people and provide support systems for lifelong self-directed education. Outlines 10 basic elements of programs designed to teach self-education, including visualization, learning style, personal curriculum planning, risk experiences, and self-culture. (Author/BRR)

  18. Lifelong Learning and the Visual Arts: A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Donald H.; And Others

    This volume of selected readings is designed to aid artists and educators in the development of a knowledge base within the realm of lifelong learning and the visual arts. Compiled for use by both student and practitioner, these readings are divided into three chapters. The first chapter provides readers with background, rationale, and directions…

  19. Lifelong Learning: Web-Based Information Literacy Module for Merchandisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Jean D.; Frey, Diane K.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Universities are strategically positioned to serve as a vital impetus in developing pre-professionals' lifelong learning skills. The development of a Web portal, InfoWIZARD, a tool for integrating information literacy and information technology in problem-based research assignments is described in this article. InfoWIZARD includes 20 modules in…

  20. The Lifelong Learning Ecosystem in Korea: Evolution of Learning Capitalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    Korean lifelong learning in practice is gradually adapted by neo-liberals and the discourses of the economic market. Considering that the public foundation of Korean education is fragile to cope with the market challenge, the whole picture of Korean learning ecology is rapidly distorted towards the establishment of the learning market and the…

  1. My Lifelong Learning Realm: An Autoethnography Experiential Learning in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    My journey to write autoethnography report started with inclination to learn cultural and social phenomena in Finland. This was my realm of learning through experiential learning. The ontological philosophy was perceived through objectivistic and subjectivistic approaches. The lifelong experiential learning realm was a benchmark for me to perceive…

  2. From Policy to Guidelines: Metamorphosis of Lifelong Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Sayantan

    2013-01-01

    In this era of globalisation, the present perception of lifelong learning (LLL) in the Indian policy domain has been going through major changes in an attempt to make it nationally realistic yet globally viable. In this process, all facets of the concept of LLL are constantly metamorphosing, and this in many ways outperforms the older perception…

  3. Cyberspace Education and Lifelong Learning for Professionals: Dangerous Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattem, Linda; Reynolds, Kathryn; Bernhardt, Gregory R.; Burdeshaw, Jean R.

    Rapidly advancing technology presents challenges in the education of helping professionals. With these challenges come limitless opportunities. Using technology, professionals reach more people, individualize therapeutic approaches, access more resources, and support different learning styles. And they become lifelong learners themselves as they…

  4. Lifelong Learning and Higher Education: Implications for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.; Cropley, Arthur J.

    Widespread and rapid changes in society, leading to knowledge and skill obsolescence, have provided impetus for the concept of lifelong education. Learning is not confined to a particular period of life or to formal educational institutions, but is a set of attitudes and skills to be used throughout life and in a wide variety of situations. As…

  5. Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Community Development in a Japanese Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The scope of lifelong learning in Japan covers school education and informal learning. Japan faces large social changes: severe child population decline could ease competition for entrance examination but students are pushed to win in the society; cyber communication changes the human relationships more invisible and atomized; the gap between…

  6. Lifelong Learning for Elders in Hong Kong: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong's ageing population is growing at an unprecedented rate. Over the past two decades, the government has implemented policies and innovative engagement activities for elders in areas including lifelong learning and community participation. This paper aims to discuss conceptual, policy and practical issues relevant to the participation of…

  7. Measuring the Earnings Returns to Lifelong Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the earnings returns to learning that takes place following the conventional "school-to-work" stage of the life-course. We operationalise such "lifelong learning" as the attainment of certified qualifications in adulthood, following the completion of the first period of continuous full-time education. Using…

  8. PKS: An Ontology-Based Learning Construct for Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manganello, Flavio; Falsetti, Carla; Spalazzi. Luca; Leo, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses adult lifelong learners, i.e., persons interested in learning or compelled to learn during their working life but not able to, or not interested in participating in formal learning. These learners are motivated and self-aware enough to self-direct their learning, are presumed to be novices with respect to the needed knowledge…

  9. Thoughts on a Regional Approach for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshio, Jiro

    An improved educational infrastructure must be developed in East and Southeast Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries in order to accommodate the surge of economic growth and advanced technology. The increased need for highly educated and skilled technicians can be met through a system of lifelong learning. The need for borderless…

  10. Lifelong Learning Bibliography: A European VET Perspective. CEDEFOP Dossier Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This annotated bibliography is designed to inform vocational education and training specialists in Europe of new publications on lifelong learning. The 394 publications included are organized into four sections. Section 1 is organized by the following key themes: (1) skill development (literacy, learning to learn); (2) human and financial…

  11. Lifelong Learning in Europe: Equity and Efficiency in the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila, Ed.; Markowitsch, Jorg, Ed.; Weedon, Elisabet, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing economic crisis in Europe raises fundamental questions about the European Union's ability to harmonize educational policy across its member states. With evidence that European unity is clearly faltering, many educational goals, including lifelong learning, are in trouble. In this book, the contributors work toward a greater…

  12. Measuring and Predicting Participation in Lifelong Education Using Longitudinal Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert; Fagerlind, Ingemar

    1989-01-01

    Factors influencing 834 Swedish men to participate in organized adult education programs on a life-long basis were studied. Indicators of social origins, cognitive ability, formal youth education, occupational status, job satisfaction, and attitudes toward education collectively explained little of the variation in participation. Factors possibly…

  13. Participation in Lifelong Learning in Portugal and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Hilary; Ingham, Mike; Afonso, José Adelino

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a long-standing European Union priority, with an emphasis on the need for it to be pursued by all, but particularly those at the risk of exclusion. This study explores participation in Portugal and the UK, countries at opposite ends of the European adult learning spectrum with markedly different contexts. Analysis reveals that…

  14. Lifelong Professional Education in the Russian Federation: Personal Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Ippolitova, Natalia V.; Mukhametgaliyeva, Safia Kh.; Rodionova, Anna E.; Yagafarova, Khafiza N.; Ikonnikova, Ludmila N.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problem of realization of the postulate of "lifelong education" in the field of professional education in Russia, and reveals its importance for the development of personality of a future specialist. A brief overview and the results of the implementation of this principle in the process of professional training…

  15. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  16. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a Lifelong Learning Program: Program 60.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2016-09-28

    Lifelong learning programs meet older adults' educational needs and further support their health and well-being leading to more successful aging. In particular, university-based lifelong learning programs have provided older adults with opportunities to not only develop skills and knowledge but also expand new social networks with people of different ages. This study evaluated a university-based lifelong learning program, Program 60, to identify the relationships between participants' experiences in the program and their quality of life. An online survey was employed, and 107 participants completed the self-report survey. The participants reported that classes helped increase their emotional satisfaction and that they enjoyed taking classes with younger students. Their experiences in the program reliably predicted psychological and social elements of their quality of life (p = .004 and p = .019, respectively). Study results provide helpful information for the development of lifelong learning programs that are responsive to the increasing demands of older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. University Continuing Education for Lifelong Learning in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Haejoo

    2008-01-01

    Lifelong education achieves its goals when it improves people's quality of life and when it brings social cohesion and development. University continuing education (UCE) has contributed to the expansion of higher education opportunities in terms of its quantity. However, we have to look further than sheer volume of activity. Original ideals of…

  18. Conceptual Evolution and Policy Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Valdes-Cotera, Raul, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the status of the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai as a platform for exchange of ideas and experience in lifelong learning, UNESCO, the Shanghai Municipal People's Government, the Chinese Society of Educational Development Strategy and the Chinese National Commission for UNESCO joined forces to co-organise the Shanghai International…

  19. Lessons in Lifelong Learning: Earning a Bachelor's Degree in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helterbran, Valeri R.

    2017-01-01

    Many older learners are choosing to return to school to meet varying learning needs; some are returning to satisfy a lifelong desire to earn a college degree. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the motivation and experiences of adults aged 65 years or older who earned a bachelor's degree in retirement and their perceptions…

  20. Financing Lifelong Learning for All: An International Perspective. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    Recent international discussions provide information on various countries' responses to lifelong learning, including the following: (1) existing unmet needs and emerging needs for education and training; (2) funds required compared with what was provided; and (3) methods for acquiring additional funds, among them efficiency measures leading to…

  1. Lifelong or School-Long Learning: A Daily Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helterbran, Valeri R.

    2005-01-01

    Many districts have a vision or mission statement that includes the importance of lifelong learning. The alternative, school-long learning, is exemplified by curricula and instruction that are generally only useful while the student is in school; it does little to stimulate or fulfill that element in those who find pleasure in the process and the…

  2. Lifelong Learning in the EU: Changing Conceptualisations, Actors, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volles, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…

  3. Quality Assurance in Lifelong Learning. ENQA Workshop Report 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoetxea, Endika; Kallioinen, Outi; Schmidt-Jortzig, Immo; Thorn, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Lifelong Learning (LLL) in European higher education institutions is one of the most important educational and carrier development oriented initiatives of this decade. Albeit an essential path in the continuous improvement of skills, competences and knowledge throughout the life of an individual, this project is also…

  4. Lifelong Learning: Proceedings of a Symposium. 16 May 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby Smith, Chris, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The Educational Research Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) conducted a survey focusing on lifelong learning and the world of work, particularly on the need for retraining and upgrading of skills and knowledge. The survey involved five different approaches: surveys of the available quantitative and qualitative material; a…

  5. School Nurse Book Clubs: An Innovative Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawald, Deborah A.; Adams, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested…

  6. Lifelong Learning to Labour: Apprenticeship, Masculinity and Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of gender identity within the context of lifelong learning. Constructed specifically around individual experiences of occupational apprenticeship in English professional football, it draws on a re-reading of data collected in the early 1990s to depict the way in which a group of young men were socialised into…

  7. Research in the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, R. Jack; Brady, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    A 19-question online survey was administered to all 115 directors of Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLIs) across the United States to explore the extent to which research is being conducted and for what purposes. A response rate of 87% was attained. Findings revealed that most research focused on issues such as course and instructor…

  8. "Active Learning for Active Citizenship": Democratic Citizenship and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annette, John

    2009-01-01

    This article explores to what extent citizenship education for lifelong learning should be based on a more "political" or civic republican conception of citizenship as compared to a liberal individualist conception, which emphasizes individual rights, or a communitarian conception, which emphasizes moral and social responsibilities. It…

  9. Self-Directed Lifelong Learning in Hybrid Learning Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremers, Petra H. M.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Wesselink, Renate; Nieveen, Nienke; Mulder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Present-day students are expected to be lifelong learners throughout their working life. Higher education must therefore prepare students to self-direct their learning beyond formal education, in real-life working settings. This can be achieved in so-called hybrid learning configurations in which working and learning are integrated. In such a…

  10. Design of Educational Delivery Systems for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver; Gilbert, Randall L.

    To clarify delivery system concepts, several topics will be addressed: educational needs of lower-income older people, formulation of a design concept, specification of the system's concrete aspects, and research/development implications. As the proportion of persons over age sixty-four grows and sensitivity to unmet lifelong learning needs rises,…

  11. Sustainable Literacies and the Ecology of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    The New Literacy Studies (NLS) is an approach that places literacy in its wider context of institutional purposes and power relationships. The NLS has been suggested as offering a useful theoretical basis from which to proceed in developing sustainable lifelong learning in relation to literacy. The first of three issues related to this suggestion…

  12. What Do We Mean by Lifelong Learning and Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Bernt

    2002-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the concepts of lifelong learning and knowledge have been expressed in economic terms, losing their humanistic and democratic content. To broaden the concept beyond theoretical-scientific knowledge, phronesis (practical wisdom) is defined as the ability to meet concrete situations with sensitivity and imagination, a concept…

  13. Foundations of Life-Long Sexual Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…

  14. Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…

  15. Preparation for Lifelong Learning Using ePortfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, E.; Bhattacharya, M.; Rayudu, R.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid technological change, increasing globalization and a changing world of employment with multiple roles during one's professional life are necessitating a change from knowledge to learning societies. Full participation requires lifelong learning skills, meaning the ability to solve problems, work both independently and in a team, communicate…

  16. Knowledge, Sentience and Receptivity: A Paradigm of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eneroth, Bo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to develop a paradigm of lifelong learning situations. The starting point is the EU-Commission policy document where three kinds of learning situations are identified: formal, non-formal and informal. The article tries to deepen this categorisation by searching for the underlying ontological and epistemological dimensions. The…

  17. Lifelong Learning in Artistic Context Mediated by Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    This research starts by analysing the current state of artistic heritage in Italy and studying some examples in Europe: we try to investigate the scope of non-formal learning in artistic context, mediated by advanced technology. The framework within which we have placed our investigation is that of lifelong learning and lifedeep learning. The…

  18. Lifelong Learning - A Political Agenda! Also a Research Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    Adult and continuing education are undergoing simultaneous processes of institutionalization (adding schools for adults) and deinstitutionalization (broadening the scope of interventions and focusing on learning processes inside and outside schools). Lifelong learning assumes that learning takes place in all spheres of life, including the…

  19. Action Learning Guided by Tao for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Sam Kong

    2006-01-01

    Information Technology brings about rapid changes in working environment, quickly rendering skills and knowledge gained in formal learning institutions obsolete. Even as they prepare students for their first career, institutions also need to equip students with skills necessary for lifelong learning. The Nanyang Technological University (NTU),…

  20. Lifelong Learning in Architectural Design Studio: The Learning Contract Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanpour, B.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Usman, I. M. S.; Johar, S.; Tawil, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Avant-garde educational systems are striving to find lifelong learning methods. Different fields and majors have tested a variety of proposed models and found varying difficulties and strengths. Architecture is one of the most critical areas of education because of its special characteristics, such as learning by doing and complicated evaluation…

  1. Lifelong learning: Foundational models, underlying assumptions and critiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-04-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive. For UNESCO and the World Bank, lifelong learning has been a novel education model to improve educational policies and programmes in developing countries. In the existing body of literature on the topic, various models of lifelong learning are discussed. After reviewing a number of relevant seminal texts by proponents of a variety of schools, this paper argues that the vast number of approaches are actually built on two foundational models, which the author calls the "human capital model" and the "humanistic model". The former aims to increase productive capacity by encouraging competition, privatisation and human capital formation so as to enhance economic growth. The latter aims to strengthen democracy and social welfare by fostering citizenship education, building social capital and expanding capability.

  2. Real Stakeholder Education? Lifelong Learning in the Buffyverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the representation of lifelong learning in "Buffy the Vampire Slayer (BtVS)." Critics acknowledge the series' representation of school life, but pay less attention to its emphasis on self-directed adult learning. The article draws on the extensive range of academic "BtVS" writing and on relevant educational theory concerned…

  3. The Relation between Lifelong Learning Tendency and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Emrullah; Kaygin, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the relation between lifelong learning tendency and achievement motivation. The sampling of the study consisted of 570 prospective teachers attending a pedagogical formation course at two universities in Turkey in 2016. Relational screening model was used in the study and the data were collected through…

  4. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning: Annual Report 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the introduction to this report, UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) Director, Arne Carlsen, announces that UIL is presenting a new design and a new concept, aiming to make the report more reader-friendly. The main activities are highlighted, testimonies from beneficiaries and actors are included, and the report opens with a…

  5. Job Requirements and Lifelong Learning for Older Workers: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    This document was prepared by the authors to support their report "Job Requirements and Lifelong Learning for Older Workers." This document contains the following sections: (1) Definition of variables; (2) Descriptive statistics; and (3) Additional figures. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.) [Funding for this document was provided…

  6. Expanding the frontiers of national qualifications frameworks through lifelong learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw

    2017-10-01

    The adoption of a national qualifications framework (NQF) by some governments in all world regions has shown some success in the area of formal learning. However, while NQFs continue to enhance formal learning in many countries, the same cannot be said for the recognition, validation and accreditation (RVA) of non-formal and informal learning. Focusing on competency-based technical and vocational education and training (TVET) within its NQF, Ghana introduced the National Technical and Vocational Education and Training Qualifications Framework (NTVETQF) as a sub-framework in 2012. In the wake of the NTVETQF's limited success, the author of this article reasons that a lifelong learning approach could enhance its effectiveness considerably. Comparing national and international policies, he argues that the NTVETQF should be able to properly address the issues of progression from informal and non-formal to formal modes of lifelong learning within the country's broad context of education. In addition, the study conceptualises the integration of lifelong learning within a broad NQF in four key domains: (1) individual; (2) institutional; (3) industry; and (4) state. The author concludes that, for the NTVETQF to achieve its goal of facilitating access to further education and training while also promoting lifelong learning for all (including workers in the informal economy), effective integration of all modes of lifelong learning is required. Although this entails some challenges, such as recognition of prior learning and validation of all modes of learning, it will help to widen access to education as well as providing individuals with a pathway for achieving their educational aspirations.

  7. An Examination of Lifelong Learning Policy Rhetoric and Practice in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2013-01-01

    Lifelong learning is now a recurring topic in national human resource, employment, entrepreneurship and educational reform discourse. In Singapore, the government urges citizens to be lifelong learners to enhance their employability and reminds them that lifelong learning is a survival strategy for the country. This paper presents and analyses…

  8. International Handbook of Lifelong Learning. Part One [and] Part Two. Kluwer International Handbooks of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspin, David, Ed.; Chapman, Judith, Ed.; Hatton, Michael, Ed.; Sawano, Yukiko, Ed.

    These volumes contain 40 papers examining the principles, policies, structure, and practice of lifelong learning worldwide. The following are among the papers included: "Towards a Philosophy of Lifelong Learning" (David Aspin, Judith Chapman); "Locating Lifelong Learning and Education in Contemporary Currents of Thought and…

  9. Conceptions of Lifelong Learning in Confucian Culture: Their Impact on Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiyuan

    2008-01-01

    The philosophy and practice of lifelong learning has a long history in China, being traceable to Confucius's idea (circa 500 BC) of "education for all". However, very little research has been done on the development of the Confucian idea of lifelong learning in ancient China, or on its influence on current practices of lifelong learning…

  10. The EU "Memorandum on Lifelong Learning". Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the EU's "Memorandum on lifelong learning" in light of the evolution of the concepts of lifelong education and lifelong learning from the late sixties onward. It also analyses this document in light of the forces of globalisation that impinge on educational policy-making in Europe as well as the…

  11. Lifelong and Continuing Education. What Is a Learning Society? Monitoring Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Paul, Ed.

    The 14 chapters in this book explore the concept of lifelong learning and illustrate its application to specific situations. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Concept of Lifelong Learning" (Paul Oliver); "Degrees of Adult Participation: Lifelong Learning in European Universities" (Barbara Merrill); "Lifelong…

  12. Lifelong Learning Bibliography: A European VET Perspective, January-June 2001. CEDEFOP Dossier Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willem, Marc, Ed.; Brenner, Bettina, Ed.; da Cruz, Carlos, Ed.; Santos, Maite, Ed.; Waniart, Anne, Ed.

    This first issue of the semi-annual lifelong learning bibliography contains references to output from January to June 2001, a time of intense debate and reflection on lifelong learning in Europe. It also includes monographs, chapters, journal articles, legal texts, Internet sites, and CD-ROMs dealing with lifelong learning at European,…

  13. How Social and Human Capital Predict Participation in Lifelong Learning: A Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…

  14. Developing a Lifelong Learning System in Ethiopia: Contextual Considerations and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…

  15. Older Lifelong Learners' Motivations for Participating in Formal Volunteer Activities in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; López, Erick B.; Soligo, Marta; Keene, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, volunteering has received increasing attention as a unique form of learning, one which may complement lifelong learning programs for older adults. This study examined the underlying volunteer motivations as well as formal volunteer behaviors among older adult lifelong learners. Data from 277 members of the Osher Lifelong Learning…

  16. Risk Management by a Neoliberal State: Construction of New Knowledge through Lifelong Learning in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the current developments in Japan's lifelong learning policy and practices. I argue that promoting lifelong learning is an action that manages the risks of governance for the neoliberal state. Implementing a new lifelong learning policy involves the employment of a political technique toward integrating the currently divided…

  17. Meta-Analyses from a Collaborative Project in Mobile Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigo, Marco; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Kismihok, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of mobile technologies in relation to the aims of the European Union's Lifelong Learning programme. First, we explain the background to the notion of mobile lifelong learning. We then present a methodological framework to analyse and identify good practices in mobile lifelong learning, based on the outcomes of the…

  18. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  19. Effect of Environmental Factors on Low Weight in Non-Premature Births: A Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Julio; Arroyo, Virginia; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Linares, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Exposure to pollutants during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. LBW can give rise to lifelong impairments. Prematurity is the leading cause of LBW, yet few studies have attempted to analyse how environmental factors can influence LBW in infants who are not premature. This study therefore sought to analyse the influence of air pollution, noise levels and temperature on LBW in non-premature births in Madrid during the period 2001–2009. Methods Ecological time-series study to assess the impact of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations, noise levels, and temperatures on LBW among non-premature infants across the period 2001–2009. Our analysis extended to infants having birth weights of 1,500 g to 2,500 g (VLBW) and less than 1,500 g (ELBW). Environmental variables were lagged until 37 weeks with respect to the date of birth, and cross-correlation functions were used to identify explaining lags. Results were quantified using Poisson regression models. Results Across the study period 298,705 births were registered in Madrid, 3,290 of which had LBW; of this latter total, 1,492 were non-premature. PM2.5 was the only pollutant to show an association with the three variables of LBW in non-premature births. This association occurred at around the third month of gestation for LBW and VLBW (LBW: lag 23 and VLBW: lag 25), and at around the eighth month of gestation for ELBW (lag 6). Leqd was linked to LBW at lag zero. The RR of PM2.5 on LBW was 1.01 (1.00 1.03). The RR of Leqd on LBW was 1.09 (0.99 1.19)(p<0.1). Conclusions The results obtained indicate that PM2.5 had influence on LBW. The adoption of measures aimed at reducing the number of vehicles would serve to lower pregnant women's exposure. In the case of noise should be limited the exposure to high levels during the final weeks of pregnancy. PMID:27788159

  20. Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Ron

    This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

  1. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  2. Detrimental Effects of Non-Functional Spermatozoa on the Freezability of Functional Spermatozoa from Boar Ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J.; Valverde, Anthony; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Roca, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of non-functional spermatozoa on the cryopreservation success of functional boar spermatozoa was evaluated. Fifteen sperm-rich ejaculate fractions collected from five fertile boars were frozen with different proportions of induced non-functional sperm (0 –native semen sample-, 25, 50 and 75% non-functional spermatozoa). After thawing, the recovery of motile and viable spermatozoa was assessed, and the functional of the spermatozoa was evaluated from plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to capacitation conditions. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane was assessed by the indirect measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. The normalized (with respect to a native semen sample) sperm motility (assessed by CASA) and viability (cytometrically assessed after staining with Hoechst 33342, propidium iodide and fluorescein-conjugated peanut agglutinin) decreased (p<0.01) as the proportion of functional spermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing decreased, irrespective of the semen donor. However, the magnitude of the effect differed (p<0.01) among boars. Moreover, semen samples with the largest non-functional sperm subpopulation before freezing showed the highest (p<0.01) levels of MDA after thawing. The thawed viable spermatozoa of semen samples with a high proportion of non-functional spermatozoa before freezing were also functionally different from those of samples with a low proportion of non-functional spermatozoa. These differences consisted of higher (p<0.01) levels of intracellular ROS generation (assessed with 5-(and-6) chloromethyl-20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester; CM-H2DCFDA) and increased (p<0.01) membrane fluidity (assessed with Merocyanine 540). These findings indicate that non-functional spermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing negatively influence the freezability of functional spermatozoa. PMID

  3. Ventilatory strategies for the extremely premature infant.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Anne; Premkumar, Muralidhar; Patel, Deena

    2008-05-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which has long-term adverse outcomes, is common following extremely premature birth. BPD has a multifactorial etiology, including a high level or prolonged use of mechanical ventilation. Numerous research studies, therefore, have attempted to identify ventilatory techniques which reduce the likelihood of baro/volutrauma and hence BPD; these have been critically examined in this review, particularly with regard to their relevance to the extremely prematurely born infant. This has highlighted that few randomized studies of ventilatory strategies have concentrated exclusively on those high-risk infants. Overall, in prematurely born infants, advantages have been suggested by the results of studies examining pressure support, proportional assist and volume-targeted ventilation. In addition, High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) may reduce the deterioration seen in lung function of prematurely born infants over the first year after birth. In conclusion, more randomized studies are required which concentrate exclusively on the extremely prematurely born population who are at highest risk of BPD. It is essential in such studies that long-term follow-up assessment is inbuilt so that the benefits/adverse effects can be appropriately identified.

  4. Auditory processing abilities in prematurely born children.

    PubMed

    Durante, Alessandra Spada; Mariano, Stefanie; Pachi, Paulo Roberto

    2018-03-29

    Aim To compare the performance in temporal auditory ordering and resolution tests and the latency and amplitude in the records of middle latency auditory evoked potential and P3 of prematurely born children with the performance of full-term children undergoing the same assessment protocol. Cross-sectional observational study. Fifty-two children, aged 8 to 10 years, participated in the study and were divided into two groups: study group: 16 prematurely born children, and control group: 36 born full-term, at low risk for developmental alteration and without scholastic or hearing difficulties. All subjects underwent ordering tests (Frequency and duration pattern tests) and temporal auditory resolution tests (Gaps in noise test) and had their middle-latency auditory evoked potential and P3 recorded by using an Intelligent Hearing System unit. Prematurely born children had worse performance in the temporal ordering and resolution tests as compared with children born full-term. With regard to middle-latency auditory evoked potential and P3, prematurely born children had higher mean values of latencies and poorer morphology, a statistical significance was evidenced for P3 in the right ear. A prematurity effect was found in the temporal auditory processing measurements and in the P3. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Learning/work: Turning work and lifelong learning inside out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Shirley; Cooper, Linda

    2011-08-01

    CONFINTEA VI took place against the background of an uneven and contradictory social and economic impact of globalisation. This impact registered globally and locally, in both the political North and South, drawing new lines of inequality between "core" and "periphery", between insiders and outsiders of contemporary society. Financial turmoil in the world has exacerbated levels of poverty and insecurity. The question is how work-related education and conceptions of learning might promote greater inclusion and security for those whose livelihoods are most severely affected by globalisation. The Belém Framework for Action implicitly recognises that lifelong learning and work cannot be discussed outside broader socio-economic and political contexts. The authors of this article draw substantially on research from around the world and argue for the re-insertion of "politics and power" into both the theory and practice of "lifelong learning" and "work".

  6. Lifelong Persistence of Toxoplasma Cysts: A Questionable Dogma?

    PubMed

    Rougier, Solène; Montoya, Jose G; Peyron, François

    2017-02-01

    It is believed that infection by Toxoplasma gondii triggers a lifelong protective immunity due to the persistence of parasitic cysts which induce immunoprotection against reinfection. A review of the scientific literature since the 1950s did not yield any definitive data regarding the duration of cysts in the host or the presence of lifelong protective immunity, which led us to question this dogma. We put forward the hypothesis that sustained immunity to T. gondii requires repeated antigenic stimulations. The decline of seroprevalence recently observed in many countries might contribute to explain the loss of immunity. We address the potential consequences of this phenomenon, should it persist and worsen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of intracellular infections in premature childbirth.

    PubMed

    Zurabishvili, S; Mamamtavrishvili, I; Apridonidze, K; Shanidze, L

    2005-09-01

    Vaginal Smear taken by sterile Folkman spoon from 15 women with premature birth was studied. The study was performed by the direct immune fluorescence method with the luminescence microscope. We aimed to study the effect of intracellular infections: ureaplasma urealitikum, mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus of I and II type and cytomegalovirus. Intracellular infections were detected in at about 82% of cases, which included mono infections with cytomegalovirus and in 9 cases in the form of bi-component associations. The obtained results may be interesting from the etiologic point of view of premature births in Georgian population.

  8. Differential distribution of sperm subpopulations and incidence of pleiomorphisms in ejaculates of captive howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, R. R.; Carvalho, F. M.; Muniz, J. A. P. C.; Leal, C. L. V.; García-Herreros, M.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to determine the incidence of pleiomorphisms and its influence on the distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in ejaculates of howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya) by using a combination of computerized analysis system (ASMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Ejaculates were collected by electroejaculation methods on a regular basis from five individuals maintained under identical captive environmental, nutritional, and management conditions. Each sperm head was measured for dimensional parameters (Area [ A, (square micrometers)], Perimeter [ P, (micrometers)], Length [ L, (micrometers)], and Width [ W, (micrometers)]) and shape-derived parameters (Ellipticity [( L/ W)], Elongation [( L - W)/( L + W)], and Rugosity [(4л A/ P 2)]). PCA revealed two principal components explaining more than the 96 % of the variance. Clustering methods and discriminant analyzes were performed and seven separate subpopulations were identified. There were differences ( P < 0.001) in the distribution of the seven subpopulations as well as in the incidence of abnormal pleiomorphisms (58.6 %, 49.8 %, 35.1 %, 66.4 %, and 55.1 %, P < 0.05) among the five donors tested. Our results indicated that differences among individuals related to the incidence of pleiomorphisms, and sperm subpopulational structure was not related to the captivity conditions or the sperm collection method, since all individuals were studied under identical conditions. In conclusion, the combination of ASMA and PCA is a useful clinical diagnostic resource for detecting deficiencies in sperm morphology and sperm subpopulations in A. caraya ejaculates that could be used in ex situ conservation programs of threatened species in Alouatta genus or even other endangered neotropical primate species.

  9. Creative and Inclusive Strategies for Lifelong Learning: Report of International Roundtable (Hamburg, Germany, November 27-29, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Gillian, Ed.; Ohsako, Toshio, Ed.; Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This document consists of 12 papers from an international roundtable on creative and inclusive strategies for lifelong learning that focused on the following topics: the need to redefine lifelong learning; ways lifelong learning can aid critical understanding of globalization and its problems; and ways lifelong learning can be a transformative…

  10. Testing the interactive effects of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids on ejaculate traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Gasparini, C; Turchini, G M; Evans, J P

    2015-05-01

    Using the polyandrous livebearing guppy Poecilia reticulata, this study revealed no main effects of carotenoids in the diet on ejaculate traits, but significant main effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sperm viability and weak but significant interacting effects of both nutrients on sperm length. Collectively, these findings not only add evidence that PUFAs are critical determinants of sperm quality, but also provide tentative evidence that for some traits these effects may be moderated by carotenoid intake. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Commission Staff Working Document: Lifelong Learning Practice and Indicators. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document provides information relevant to the commission's communication on "Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality." Section 2 presents a selection of illustrative examples of lifelong learning in practice throughout Europe, grouped under these same priority areas used in the communication itself: valuing learning;…

  12. Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

    1997-11-01

    In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P < 0.05) when compared with those not prematurely gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density.

  13. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  14. Issues of Premature Indoctrination into Sexualized Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippens, Paula D.; Baldwin, Cynthia

    One dynamic that is often neglected in treatment of child sexual abuse is that of how a child's premature indoctrination into sexualized behavior, and the behaviors themselves, may inadvertently contribute to the overall victimization process. Children are capable of experiencing physical and psychological pleasure from sexual stimulation and are…

  15. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  16. Variables Related to Premature Terminations in a University Counseling Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodolfa, Emil R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated influence of sex and experience level of intake, interviewer and assigned counselor, sex of client, and administratiave variables on premature terminations in college counseling centers. Found that administrtive variables were major factors related to premature terminations. (Author/PAS)

  17. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  18. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Correlation of the bovine cervical mucus penetration test with human sperm characterisitics in 1,406 ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Keel, B A; Schalue, T K

    2000-01-01

    The bovine cervical mucus penetration test (BCMPT) was performed to determine its usefulness in screening the ability of sperm to successfully penetrate mucus in vitro. Ejaculates were obtained by masturbation from patients attending an infertility clinic. Routine semen analysis was performed using a microcomputerized multiple-exposure photography system. The BCMPT was performed. Overall, the average penetration of the mucus was 38 +/- 0.46 mm. Of the 1,406 ejaculates analyzed, 244 (17%) displayed a negative result (0-20 mm), 291 (21%) a questionable result (21-30 mm), and 871 (62%) a positive result (>30 mm). A highly significant (p < .001) correlation between mucus penetration distance and sperm MD (r = 0.541), MI (r = 0.484), count (r = 0.475), motility (r = 0.448), velocity (r = 0.400) and morphology (r = 0.369) was observed. Overall, the finding of an abnormal semen parameter resulted in a 34 +/- 5% accurate prediction of a negative or questionable BCMPT (<30 mm), while a normal semen parameter resulted in a 90 +/- 4% accurate prediction of a positive BCMPT (>30 mm). Sperm MD showed the strongest positive predictive value (98%), while morphology showed the greatest negative predictive value (50%). Of the 1,406 samples, 25 +/- 2% of the samples with normal semen parameters displayed a negative BCMPT. Conversely, 6 +/- 2% of samples with abnormal parameters showed a positive BCMPT. The BCMPT successfully identifies a significant subpopulation of patients as having an inadequate penetration of mucus with otherwise normal semen characteristics.

  20. Test of Fruit Extract Pare (Momordica charantia L.) to Quality of Ejaculated Spermatozoa Mice (Mus musculus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifendy, M.; Indriati, G.

    2018-04-01

    Pare (Momordica charantia L.) can be used in the treatment of various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, antimitotic and antifertilitas. This study aimed to determine the effect of the herbal bitter (Momordica charantia L.) to ejaculated sperm quality mice (Mus musculus L.). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 6 replications, water and fed adlibitum. First treatment is given solvent extract. Second treatments extract were given 0.2 gram, third treatment were given 0.4 gram of extracts and fourth treatment were treated exstrac 0.6 gram were orally for 30 days. After the mice decapitated, dissected and take sperm from vas deferens. Then, the sperm preparation determined using the improved Neubauer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Varians). The results shoured at doses of 0,2 gram, the average sperm count was 19.89. decrease significant when compared with the control in which the average number of sperm 29.13. So with this research the effective doses to decrease sperm count and can be used as a contraception medication dosage was 0,2 gram. It can be conclude that the extract of bitter (Momordica charantia L.) can decrease the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  1. Apnea and bradycardia in two premature infants during routine outpatient retinopathy of prematurity screening.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael G; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2009-10-01

    Two unrelated premature infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were discharged home from a neonatal intensive care unit. Appropriately timed ROP examinations were performed in an outpatient setting in a free-standing pediatric ophthalmologist's private office remote from any hospital. The infants developed severe apnea and bradycardia at the end of the ROP examinations. As a result, a new protocol for outpatient ROP screening was developed.

  2. Nurses and Lifelong Learning: Creating "Makers and Shapers" or "Users and Choosers"?

    PubMed

    Butcher, Diane; Bruce, Anne

    2016-04-01

    How have the meaning and goals of lifelong learning for nurses shifted under neoliberal political policy? This article critically scrutinizes the political undercurrents of lifelong learning. While the original intent of lifelong learning was to foster intellectual, critical, social, and political citizen engagement (creating "makers and shapers" of social policy), instrumental learning-learning to meet practical economic ends-has taken priority and is instead creating marketable workers (creating "users and choosers"). International educational neoliberal policy reform has altered the very nature of education. Under pervasive neoliberal political influence, lifelong learning has become distorted as the goals of learning have shifted towards creating marketable workers who are expected, while unsupported, to engage in learning to ensure ongoing employability in an open market. By examining new understandings of lifelong learning, nurses can make informed choices as to whether they aspire to be a "user and chooser" or "maker and shaper" of lifelong learning in their workplaces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  4. Relationship of Therapist Attitudes at Intake to Client Premature Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    Most research on premature termination from therapy has focused on client attitudes. This study examined therapists' attitudes toward their own behavior and toward their clients at intake in relation to premature termination. Premature termination was studied after different numbers of sessions to determine the relationship of therapist attitudes…

  5. Popular universities: An alternative vision for lifelong learning in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.; da Costa, Romina B.

    2017-10-01

    At its inception in 1993, the European Union (EU) did not consider education one of the pillars of its regional cohesiveness and identity. As time went by, recognition of the potential role of education at individual and social levels increased. This concern for education, however, is much more centred on the acquisition of knowledge and skills towards developing a competitive labour force than towards facilitating the integration of all citizens in the European community - a bias which is reflected in EU policies and recommendations. At local levels, communities need to offer educational opportunities to all members of society, irrespective of their social, cultural and linguistic background and their level of education. In many EU member countries, this kind of learning is offered by popular universities (PUs), which are not state-funded and run in close collaboration with their respective local communities. The authors of this paper carried out a qualitative survey, collecting data on PUs in Spain and France. Their purpose was to examine how European PU offerings align with community needs, and to what extent they address emerging issues such as immigration, the refugee crisis, an aging population and youth unemployment. In the evaluation of their comparative survey, the authors link the grassroots approaches of PUs in Spain and France to the broader European Union (EU) discourse on lifelong learning (LLL) as seen in policy documents such as the European Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Finally, they examine the ways in which PUs' approach to LLL works to contest the dominant consensus on the meaning and scope of lifelong learning, offering an alternative way forward.

  6. Internet platforms for lifelong learning: a continuum of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Sedory Holzer, Susan E; Kokemueller, Phillip

    2007-12-01

    Access to knowledge through the Internet has spawned a world of online learning, stimulating a new passion for lifelong learning in academia, professional environments, the workplace, and at home. This article takes a fresh look at the wide spectrum of opportunities for online medical education for physicians. We first explore a continuum of "e-learning" models and then look at the range of platforms used to support these systems. We will also look forward to the options likely to change e-learning in the near future and improve physician performance and patient outcomes.

  7. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A rapidly expanding body of research indicates that early social environments characterized by adversity, subordination and stress, along with individual differences in susceptibility to such environments, create risks for lifelong chronic diseases, including declines in oral health. Emerging findings suggest that gene-environment interplay, resulting in epigenetically regulated differences in gene expression, underlie many such declines in health. The origins of these processes in early life reveal how many of the chronic morbidities of adulthood should be viewed as developmental disorders, with etiologic roots in childhood.

  8. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  9. Lifelong Learning and Development of Continuing Education among Higher Education Institutions in Macau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Aliana Man Wai

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of lifelong learning and the development of continuing education among higher education institutions in Macau. Future directions for development are also identified.

  10. Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Gonzalez, Fernando; Mu, Dezhi

    2011-09-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a "physiologic" immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation to prevent pharyngeal collapse and alveolar atelectasis, while methylxanthine therapy is a mainstay of treatment of central apnea by stimulating the central nervous system and respiratory muscle function. Other therapies, including kangaroo care, red blood cell transfusions, and CO(2) inhalation, require further study. The physiology and pathophysiology behind AOP are discussed, including the laryngeal chemoreflex and sensitivity to inhibitory neurotransmitters, as are the mechanisms by which different therapies may work and the potential long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of AOP and its treatment.

  11. Transient adrenal insufficiency in the premature newborn.

    PubMed

    Quintos, Jose B; Boney, Charlotte M

    2010-02-01

    Relative adrenal insufficiency is a controversial phenomenon described in adults and children with critical illness, especially septic shock. In the past 2 decades, relative adrenal insufficiency has also been reported in the critically ill premature as well as term newborn. The present study will review the initial and more recent studies addressing adrenal insufficiency in the premature infant. Studies suggest that 'relative adrenal insufficiency' is a contributing factor to hemodynamic instability in the sick preterm newborn. Many ill preterm newborns have inappropriately low serum cortisol concentrations and respond to steroid administration. Adrenal insufficiency is transient and likely reflects normal adrenal physiology at younger gestational ages. There is no general consensus on its diagnosis, effective minimum dose for treatment and duration of treatment. More large scale, multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies are needed to make the diagnosis of relative adrenal insufficiency and to determine the indication, dose, complications and outcome of glucocorticoid therapy.

  12. Conceptualizing pathways linking women's empowerment and prematurity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-11-08

    Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving

  13. Human milk for the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M D; Desai, N S; Charlet, S S

    1979-05-01

    Closer study of premature infants has led to the establishment of human milk as the recommended nutritional standard for them. Infants fed with human milk are found to gain protection against necrotizing enterocolitis, and have fewer upper respiratory tract infections and systemic infections. Antibacterial components of human milk include leukocytes (macrophages, granulocytes, and T and B cell lymphocytes), the B cell secreted immunoglobulins, and complement factors. Lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin in breast milk are particularly active against group B beta hemolytic streptococcus and staphylococcus, respectively. Fresh human milk helps in the colonization of the infant's gut by Lactobacillus bifidus, a bacteria that suppresses other possibly pathogenic organisms. Nutritional values of human milk offer certain advantages and disadvantages over cow's milk. The quality of human milk protein is superior to that of cow's milk, and human milk's higher levels of cystine are especially required in the premature infant, where the liver is deficient in the enzyme required to convert methionine to cystine. Human milk is low in certain essential electrolytes and trace elements, such as sodium. It can also harbor drugs, pollutants, and harmful viruses that can be dangerous to the infant. Freezing of human milk for banking can destroy many of the immunological advantages of its use. Given that the advantages seem to outweigh the disadvantages, the authors favor the use of human milk for premature infants.

  14. [Gastroesophageal reflux in premature: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ndour, Daouda

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common problem in neonatology. Various physiological protective reflex responses provide a plausible biological link between gastro-esophageal reflux and apnea and bradycardia in premature. It is uncertain whether or not there is a causal relationship between the two diseases. However there is no consensus about the clinical and paraclinical diagnosis. Further explorations and treatment offered to premature infants with symptoms are discussed. We report the case of a preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and with apnea and bradycardia. Clinical examination and exploration results were normal. We retained the gastrointestinal reflux diagnosis complicated of apnea and bradycardia. Pharmacological therapy for gastro-esophageal reflux disease has not definitively been shown to be effective in improving symptoms and should be reserved especially for infants with treatment refractory apnea and bradycardia episodes suspected as being gastro-esophageal reflux in premature infants. From a case report we made a literature review to discuss at length the different aspects of the problem.

  15. Guibourtia tessmannii-induced fictive ejaculation in spinal male rat: involvement of D1, D2-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Deeh Defo, Patrick Brice; Asongu, Elvis; Wankeu, Modeste Nya; Ngadjui, Esther; Bonsou Fazin, Georges Romeo; Kemka, François Xavier; Carro-Juarez, Miguel; Kamanyi, Albert; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Watcho, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant traditionally used as aphrodisiac. We previously reported the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of G. tesmannii in spinal male rat. However, the mechanism underlying such effects has not been elucidated. This study characterizes the dopaminergic sub-type receptors involved in G. tesmannii-induced ejaculation in male Wistar rat. Urethane-anesthetized spinal male rats were intravenously treated with saline solution (1 mL/kg, control); dopamine (0.1 μmol/kg, reference); aqueous or methanol extracts of G. tesmannii (20 mg/kg) in the absence or presence of haloperidol (0.26 μmol/kg), a nonspecific dopaminergic receptor antagonist, Sch23390 (0.26 μmol/kg), a specific D1-like receptor antagonist or, sulpiride (0.26 μmol/kg), a specific D2-like receptor antagonist. Electromyography of the bulbospongiosus muscles and intraseminal pressure were recorded after urethral, penile and drug stimulations. Urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of dopamine or, aqueous and methanol extracts of G. tesmannii always triggered the expression of rhythmic contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles with an average mean of 3.33 ± 0.43; 7.83 ± 0.85; 9.80 ± 0.86; 0.83 ± 0.54 and 2.67 ± 0.95 contractions, respectively. The intraseminal pressure was more expressed after urethral and penile stimulations (15.66 ± 1.58 and 13.60 ± 2.40 mmHg, respectively). In rats pretreated with haloperidol, Sch23390 or sulpiride, no ejaculation was recorded after intravenous injection of G. tesmannii extracts or dopamine. Guibourtia tesmannii-induced ejaculation requires the integrity of D 1 and D 2 -like receptors. These findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of G. tesmannii as an aphrodisiac.

  16. Prematurity Affects Age of Presentation of Pyloric Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Caitlyn M; Vinocur, Charles; Berman, Loren

    2017-02-01

    Term infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) typically present between 4 and 6 weeks. There is limited consensus, however, regarding age of presentation of premature infants. We aim to determine if there is an association between the degree of prematurity and chronological age of presentation of HPS. A total of 2988 infants who had undergone a pyloromyotomy for HPS were identified from the 2012 and 2013 NSQIP-P Participant Use Files. Two hundred seventeen infants (7.3%) were born prematurely. A greater degree of prematurity was associated with an older chronological age of presentation ( P < .0001). Prematurity was significantly associated with an increase in overall postoperative morbidity, reintubation, readmission, and postoperative length of stay. When clinicians evaluate an infant with nonbilious emesis with a history of prematurity, they should consider pyloric stenosis if the calculated postconceptional age is between 44 and 50 weeks. When counseling families of premature infants, surgeons should discuss the increased incidence of postpyloromyotomy morbidity.

  17. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from oligozoospermic ejaculates are susceptible to in situ DNA fragmentation in polyvinylpyrrolidone-based sperm-immobilization medium.

    PubMed

    Salian, Sujit Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate the effect of sperm immobilization media that are and are not based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the DNA integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa during standard intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) conditions. Experimental prospective study. Embryology research laboratory. Forty-six ejaculates from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. DNA integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic ejaculates exposed to PVP-based and non-PVP-based media. Exposure of fresh and frozen thawed spermatozoa from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic ejaculates to PVP-based medium in an ICSI dish for 30 minutes statistically significantly increased the DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the extent of DNA fragmentation in non-PVP-based medium did not statistically significantly differ from control. A PVP-based medium can induce a statistically significant amount of sperm DNA fragmentation in an ICSI dish, and frozen-thawed sperm from oligozoospermic ejaculates are more susceptible to in situ DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Becoming Lifelong Learners: A Study in Self-Regulated Learning.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Diane E; Saylors, Cynthia P; Boone, Erna L; Rye, Kathy J; Berry, Katherine S; Kennedy, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    While health professions educators espouse the need to develop lifelong learning skills in students, little is written about such attempts. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of educational and awareness interventions designed to promote self-regulated learning processes as a means to improve lifelong learning skills. First-year students in respiratory care and radiologic imaging sciences took the Learning and Study Skills Inventory (LASSI) in fall and spring semesters. They made the decision to use or not use educational resources in an online course focused on self-regulated learning skills. All students maintained a journal and responded to prompts about changes in their study skills. Final grades, reported in percentages, from selected required courses for fall and spring semesters were recorded. There were no substantive effects of the intervention (LASSI and online resources) as measured by the LASSI and course averages. Qualitative analysis indicated that students valued the LASSI and the online resources and that they altered their study skills as they perceived the need. Suggestions for future work include continued use of the LASSI, integration of self-regulated learning strategies into courses with role-modeling by faculty, and the use of microanalytic protocols.

  19. Lifelong education in china: New policies and activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo-Dong, Xie

    1994-05-01

    In this article, the author presents a descriptive survey of China's policies in the field of lifelong education in the 1980s and early 1990s, undertaken as part of the country's overall drive towards modernization. With the second largest illiterate population in the world, one of China's highest priorities is the promotion of literacy, and a variety of initiatives with this aim have been launched at national and local level. In China, the concept of lifelong education is taken literally to encompass all ages from infancy onwards. Recognizing the importance of the family, and especially of the mother, in educating the young, China has created a programme for strengthening family education through workshops, lectures, advisory services and the mass media. The author goes on to survey recent policies in primary and secondary education, vocational education, workers' in-service training, continuing education for specialists, and the development of a radio and television university, the expansion of evening classes and correspondence courses, education for the aged, and examinations for independent learners.

  20. Life-long learning and self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jeffrey L; Greenson, Joel K

    2012-08-01

    New Frontiers in Pathology is a unique educational event intended to meet the ongoing educational needs of practicing pathologists. Continuous medical education (CME) is required for maintenance of licensure by virtually all state licensing bodies. Satisfying CME requirements hinges on earning a minimum number of American Medical Association Physician Recognition Award category 1 credits through various activities, including courses like New Frontiers in Pathology that are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. Self-assessment modules (SAMs) are a key component of the American Board of Pathology expectations for maintenance of board certification. Beginning in 2006, the American Board of Pathology granted only time-limited certificates as part of an American Board of Medical Specialties-wide process for maintenance of board certification. Maintenance of board certification has requirements in 4 categories: professional standing, life-long learning and self-assessment, cognitive expertise, and evaluation of performance in practice. Life-long learning and self-assessment includes not only the traditional elements of CME but also the SAMs that are defined as educational products comprising self-administered examinations with a predetermined minimum performance level and a mechanism for receiving feedback. New Frontiers in Pathology will offer SAMs, in addition to the American Medical Association Physician Recognition Award category 1 credits, which it has been accredited to do since its inception, at its 2012 conference scheduled for August 3 through August 5 at The Homestead Resort, Michigan's largest waterfront resort on beautiful Lake Michigan.

  1. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-09

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

  2. Arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese female pearl divers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Kosaki, Keisei; Sugawara, Jun

    2016-05-15

    Japanese female pearl divers called Ama specialize in free diving in the cold sea for collecting foods and pearls in oysters. Exercising in the water combined with marked bradycardia and pressor responses provides a circulatory challenge to properly buffer or cushion elevated cardiac pulsations. Because Ama perform repeated free dives throughout their lives, it is possible that they may have adapted similar arterial structure and function to those seen in diving mammals. We compared arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese pearl divers with age-matched physically inactive adults living in the same fishing villages. A total of 115 Japanese female pearl divers were studied. Additionally, 50 physically inactive adults as well as 33 physically active adults (participating in community fitness programs) living in the same coastal villages were also studied. There were no differences in age (∼65 yr), body mass index, and brachial blood pressure between the groups. Measures of arterial stiffness, cardio-ankle vascular index and β-stiffness index were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers and physically active adults than in their physically inactive peers. Augmentation pressure and augmentation index adjusted for the heart rate of 75 beats/min were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers than in other groups. These results indicate that lifelong Japanese pearl divers demonstrate reduced arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflection compared with age-matched physically inactive peers living in the same fishing villages. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Maintaining optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yoke Yen; Tay, Yih Yann; Shah, Varsha Atul; Chang, Pisun; Loh, Khuan Tai

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ≥3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a contributing factor. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen may cause irreversible damage to the eyes of very-low-birth-weight preterm infants and is a potential cause of blindness. We developed strategies to reduce incidence of severe ROP requiring laser surgery in premature infants. We studied 37 preterm infants who were born at a gestational age of <32 weeks, with a birth weight of <1500 g, receiving supplemental oxygen, and had been admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Infants received oxygen via mechanical ventilator, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or intranasal (I/N) and titration of oxygen was based on each infant's measured oxygen saturation (Spo(2)). For each infant, we monitored the Spo(2) trend, Spo(2) alarm limit, and the percentage of time that the alarm limit was set incorrectly. We implemented a Spo(2) targeting protocol and developed an algorithm for titrating fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)). After phase 1 of implementation, the percentage of time that Spo(2) readings were >95% was reduced to between 20% and 50%. However, our findings raised concern regarding the wide fluctuation of Spo(2) readings because of inconsistency in Fio(2) titration, which can contribute to deviation from the optimal target range. Accordingly, we developed an algorithm for titrating Fio(2) aimed at maintaining each infant's Spo(2) within the optimal target range. After phase 2 of implementation, the percentage of Spo(2) readings >95% was markedly reduced to between 0% and 15%. The incidence of infants with severe ROP requiring laser surgery decreased from 5 to 1. A change in clinical practice aimed at

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans male sensory-motor neurons and dopaminergic support cells couple ejaculation and post-ejaculatory behaviors

    PubMed Central

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; García, L René

    2014-01-01

    The circuit structure and function underlying post-coital male behaviors remain poorly understood. Using mutant analysis, laser ablation, optogenetics, and Ca2+ imaging, we observed that following C. elegans male copulation, the duration of post-coital lethargy is coupled to cellular events involved in ejaculation. We show that the SPV and SPD spicule-associated sensory neurons and the spicule socket neuronal support cells function with intromission circuit components, including the cholinergic SPC and PCB and the glutamatergic PCA sensory-motor neurons, to coordinate sex muscle contractions with initiation and continuation of sperm movement. Our observations suggest that the SPV and SPD and their associated dopamine-containing socket cells sense the intrauterine environment through cellular endings exposed at the spicule tips and regulate both sperm release into the hermaphrodite and the recovery from post-coital lethargy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02938.001 PMID:24915976

  5. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G2 Activity in the Bovine Spermatozoa Is Modulated Along the Epididymal Duct and at Ejaculation1

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Julieta; Frenette, Gilles; D'Amours, Olivier; Dufour, Maurice; Oko, Richard; Sullivan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    During their epididymal maturation, stabilizing factors such as cholesterol sulfate are associated with the sperm plasma membrane. Cholesterol is sulfated in epididymal spermatozoa by the enzyme estrogen sulfotransferase. Because of its role in the efflux of sulfate conjugates formed intracellularly by sulfotransferases, the ATP-binding cassette membrane transporter G2 (ABCG2) might have a role in the translocation of this compound across the plasma membrane. In the present study we showed that ABCG2 is present in the plasma membrane overlaying the acrosomal region of spermatozoa recovered from testis, epididymis, and after ejaculation. Although ABCG2 is also present in epididymosomes, the transporter is not transferred to spermatozoa via this mechanism. Furthermore, although epididymal sperm ABCG2 was shown to be functional, as determined by its ability to extrude Hoechst 33342 in the presence of the specific inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, ABCG2 present in ejaculated sperm was found to be nonfunctional. Additional experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation of ABCG2 tyrosyl residues, but not its localization in lipid rafts, is the mechanism responsible for its functionality. Dephosphorylation of ABCG2 in ejaculated spermatozoa is proposed to cause a partial protein relocalization to other intracellular compartments. Prostasomes are proposed to have a role in this process because incubation with this fraction of seminal plasma induces a decrease in the amount of ABCG2 in the associated sperm membrane fraction. These results demonstrate that ABCG2 plays a role in epididymal sperm maturation, but not after ejaculation. The loss of ABCG2 function after ejaculation is proposed to be regulated by prostasomes. PMID:22441796

  6. Risk reduction practices in men who have sex with men in Switzerland: serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Arber, Françoise; Jeannin, André; Lociciro, Stéphanie; Balthasar, Hugues

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of intentional use of the HIV risk reduction practices of serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation during unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners. A cross-sectional survey pertaining to the Swiss HIV behavioral surveillance system, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, was conducted in 2007 in a self-selected sample of men having sex with other men (MSM). Analysis was restricted to participants with UAI with casual partner(s) (N = 410). Logistic regression was used to estimate factors associated with intentional use of serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation. In the previous 12 months, 71% of participants reported having UAI with a casual partner of different or unknown HIV-status. Of these, 47% reported practicing withdrawal, 38% serosorting, and 25% strategic positioning. In the 319 participants with known HIV-status, serosorting was associated with frequent Internet use to find partners (OR = 2.32), STI (OR = 2.07), and HIV testing in the past 12 months (OR = 1.81). Strategic positioning was associated with HIV-status (OR = 0.13) and having UAI with a partner of different or unknown HIV-status (OR = 3.57). Withdrawal was more frequently practiced by HIV-negative participants or participants reporting high numbers of sexual partners (OR = 2.48) and having UAI with a partner of unknown or different serostatus (OR = 2.08). Risk reduction practices are widely used by MSM, each practice having its own specificities. Further research is needed to determine the contextual factors surrounding harm reduction practices, particularly the strategic or opportunistic nature of their use.

  7. Lifelong guidance: How guidance and counselling support lifelong learning in the contrasting contexts of China and Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the effects of globalisation and rapid technological development, traditional linear life course patterns of the past are gradually disappearing, and this affects education and learning systems as well as labour markets. Individuals are forced to develop lifestyles and survival strategies to manage job insecurity and make their skills and interests meet labour market needs. In modern attempts to develop and implement institutional provision for lifelong learning, guidance and counselling play an important role. The current Danish guidance system is well-organised, highly structured and professionalised. By contrast, Chinese guidance is still fragmented and "sectorisational". This paper explores whether elements of the highly structured and professionalised Danish guidance system and practice might be applicable to the Chinese context. The author begins by outlining international and national factors which are affecting citizens' life and career planning. She then presents and discusses the evolution of guidance and the different elements of provision in each of the two countries. Next, She compares the concepts and goals of "lifelong guidance" in Denmark and China, pointing out their similarities and differences and their respective strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the further development of guidance in China.

  8. Lifelong Learning and Becoming a Mother: Evaluation of the Young Parents Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Louise; Moriarty, Beverley

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify how lifelong learning has the potential to accommodate the changed circumstances and future needs of women who become mothers as teenagers. The research drew on the previously separate theories of lifelong learning and becoming a mother to frame this initial study. A qualitative case study was used to…

  9. "In and Against" Lifelong Learning: Flexibility and the Corrosion of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues against the dominant discourse of lifelong learning. It is primarily a mode of social control that acts as a new disciplinary technology to make people more compliant and adaptable for work in the era of flexible capitalism. Whilst the main reference point is trends in the UK, the argument has a wider resonance. Lifelong learning…

  10. A Study of a Two-Year College and How It Fosters Lifelong Learning and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen-Simmermon, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The study of lifelong learning is a study that has deep roots in higher education. The reasons a student seeks further education is important to the overall study of lifelong learning. When a student completes an associate degree and subsequently pursues a higher education degree, it is important to understand the motivation that drives them to…

  11. Ensuring the Continuum of Learning: The Role of Assessment for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how assessment plays a role in helping learners to learn on a continuous, sustainable basis. It begins by exploring the paradigm of lifelong learning, which implies a shift in the way we think about learning and knowledge. Based on knowledge formation rooted in a flux of learning, lifelong learning assessment is not so much…

  12. Therapist-Aided Exposure for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Replicated Single-Case Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Bulte, Isis; Weijenborg, Philomeen T. M.; Beekman, Aart; Melles, Reinhilde; Onghena, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Vaginismus is commonly described as a persistent difficulty in allowing vaginal entry of a penis or other object. Lifelong vaginismus occurs when a woman has never been able to have intercourse. A replicated single-case A-B-phase design was used to investigate the effectiveness of therapist-aided exposure for lifelong vaginismus. A baseline period…

  13. Lifelong Learning in the Information Age: Organizing Net-Based Learning and Teaching Systems. Wissenschaftliche Fachbibliothek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finke, Wolfgang F.

    This book examines lifelong learning in the Information Age and the role of higher education (HE) in providing the educational services needed by lifelong learners. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's eight chapters: (1) changes in HE (repercussions of globalization in the educational sector; competition in higher learning;…

  14. Lifelong Learning as Ideological Practice: An Analysis from the Perspective of Immigrant Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Roxana; Shan, Hongxia

    2010-01-01

    Critiques of lifelong learning have focused on the neo-liberal underpinning of state policy, where individuals are expected to take responsibility for meeting the needs of changing labour market conditions in the post-Fordist economy. We treat lifelong learning as an "ideological frame" that (re)shapes how people see and understand…

  15. Serious but Fun, Self-Directed yet Social: Blogging as a Form of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harju, Vilhelmiina; Pehkonen, Leila; Niemi, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the role of digital media in supporting lifelong learning. In particular, it focuses on bloggers who write their blogs voluntarily in their own free time. The aim is to examine how lifelong learning--viewed as self-directed, nonformal learning and active participation that evolves from a desire for self-actualization--occurs…

  16. Lifelong Learning or Re-training for Life: Scapegoating the Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruikshank, Jane

    2002-01-01

    In the new economy, increased polarization of rich and poor is supported by the rhetoric of lifelong learning policies focused on training as panacea. Adult educators are urged to analyze the new economy from alternative perspectives, adopt a holistic view of lifelong learning, and advocate more progressive policies. (Contains 47 references.) (SK)

  17. Rethinking Lifelong Learning through Online Distance Learning in Chinese Educational Policies, Practices and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Min

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a critique of the Chinese philosophy of online distance learning as a means of building a lifelong learning society. Literature about lifelong learning and its implications for online distance learning is reviewed. Documents, reports and research papers are examined to explore the characteristics of the Chinese philosophy of…

  18. Lifelong Learning and the U.S. Congress, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Ellen

    Two years of work by the 95th Congress (1977-78) are examined with regard to programs and issues which have implications for lifelong learning as a national policy. (Lifelong learning is defined as that policy or combination of policies which contribute to and/or encourage learning by persons throughout their lives in a variety of formal and…

  19. Comparative Studies on Lifelong Learning Policies. Report of a NIER/UIE Joint Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This seminar report is composed of case studies of 11 countries that represent all four regions of the world (Asia-Pacific, America, Europe, and Africa) and a synthesis of deliberations in a seminar on lifelong learning. An Introduction is followed by "Keynote: The Astonishing Return of Lifelong Learning" (Paul Belanger). Part 1, Chapters 1-11,…

  20. Lifelong Learning and Vocational Training Programmes in Northern Aegean (Greece): Weaknesses, Possibilities and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giavrimis, Panagiotis; Papanis, Efstratios; Mitrellou, Sotiria; Nikolarea, Ekaterini

    2009-01-01

    This study presents, discusses and assesses the findings of a research into lifelong learning through Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) in the region of Northern Aegean, Greece. In the first part, the paper introduces its readers to the theoretical framework of lifelong education, whereas in the second part it makes a brief historical overview of…