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Sample records for lifelong premature ejaculation

  1. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  2. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-07-01

    Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. To provide a definition for lifelong premature ejaculation that is based on epidemiological evidence including the neurobiological and psychological approach. We used the 0.5 and 2.5 percentiles as accepted standards of disease definition in a skewed distribution. We applied these percentiles in a stopwatch-determined intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of 491 nonselected men from five different countries. The practical consequences of 0.5% and 2.5% cutoff points for disease definition were taken into consideration by reviewing current knowledge of feelings of control and satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory performance of the general male population. Literature arguments to be used in a proposed consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation. The stopwatch-determined IELT distribution is positively skewed. The 0.5 percentile equates to an IELT of 0.9 minute and the 2.5 percentile an IELT of 1.3 minutes. However, there are no available data in the literature on feelings of control or satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory latency time in the general male population. Random male cohort studies are needed to end all speculation on this subject. Exact stopwatch time assessment of IELT in a multinational study led us to propose that all men with an IELT of less than 1 minute (belonging to the 0.5 percentile) have "definite" premature ejaculation, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes (between 0.5 and 2.5 percentile) have "probable" premature ejaculation. Severity of premature ejaculation (nonsymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe) should be defined in terms of associated psychological problems. We define lifelong premature ejaculation as a neurobiological dysfunction with an unacceptable increase of risk to

  3. Premature ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to sexual tension or other problems in the relationship. When to Contact a Medical ... K, Martyn-St. James M, Kaltenthaler E, et al. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: a systematic review. Sex Med . ...

  4. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Antonio L; Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6-152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  5. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. Methods: We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6–152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). Conclusions: The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24883105

  6. On-demand Modafinil Improves Ejaculation Time and Patient-reported Outcomes in Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Tuken, Murat; Kiremit, Murat Can; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of modafinil on the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Treatment-naïve lifelong PE patients were included in this proof-of-concept study. Self-estimated IELTs of the patients were recorded and the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) questionnaire was administered before the initiation of on-demand modafinil 100 mg treatment. At the end of 1 month of treatment, self-estimated IELTs were recorded again, along with posttreatment PEP outcomes. Overall, 55 lifelong PE patients with a mean age of 35.07 ± 7.80 (range: 22-58) years were enrolled. Modafinil treatment modestly increased the mean IELT at the end of 1 month (24.82 ± 16.10 seconds vs 49.82 ± 31.46 seconds, P = .0001). Moreover, at the end of 1 month, patients reported in the PEP questionnaire better control over ejaculation (0.75 ± 0.67 vs 1.35 ± 0.91, P = .0001), improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse (0.98 ± 0.78 vs 1.40 ± 0.85, P = .0001), lesser personal distress (0.42 ± 0.69 vs 0.89 ± 1.01, P = .0001), and reduced interpersonal difficulty (1.69 ± 1.48 vs 1.95 ± 1.47, P = .0001). In an uncontrolled proof-of-concept study of men with treatment-naïve lifelong PE where IELT was self-reported without a stopwatch, modest improvements of both IELT and patient-reported outcome measures were observed. Future controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond; Rowland, David; Segraves, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation (PE). There are several definitions of PE; the most commonly quoted, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Edition - Text Revision, and other definitions of PE, are all authority-based rather than evidence-based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. Thus in August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of PE. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critically assess the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The Committee unanimously agreed that the constructs which are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy, and control and negative personal consequences from PE. The Committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs before or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and patient-reported outcome measures for diagnosing and assessing the efficacy of treatment

  8. Premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  9. Premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19675782

  10. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley E; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira D; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Segraves, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The medical literature contains several definitions of premature ejaculation (PE). The most commonly quoted definition, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision, and other definitions of PE are all authority based rather than evidence based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. The aim of this article is to develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of PE. In August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critique the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy and control, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as ". . . a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy." This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and Patient Reported

  11. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor functioning. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and short IELTs in men with lifelong PE. A prospective study was conducted in 89 Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong PE. IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. Controls consisted of 92 Dutch Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Association between LL, SL, and SS genotypes, and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE was investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In men with lifelong PE, the geometric mean, median, and natural mean IELTs were 21, 26, and 32 seconds, respectively. There were no significant differences in the 5-HTT polymorphism alleles and genotypes between 89 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE (S 47%, L 53%/LL 29%, SL 48%, SS 22%) and 92 Dutch Caucasian controls (S 48%, L 52%/LL 29%, SL 45%, SS 26%). In men with lifelong PE there was a statistically significant difference between LL, SL, and SS genotypes in their geometric mean IELT (P < or = 0.027); the LL genotypes had significantly shorter IELTs than the SS and SL genotypes. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with significant effects on the latency to ejaculate in men with lifelong PE. Men with SS and SL genotypes have 100% and 90% longer ejaculation time, respectively than men with LL genotypes.

  12. An Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation: Report of the Second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. Aim The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. Methods In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. Results The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the

  13. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second international society for sexual medicine ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Peng, Dangwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Zhang, Yao; Mao, Jun; Dou, Xianming; Liang, Chaozhao

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, new evidence-based definitions of lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) were proposed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Based on the new PE definitions, the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE have not been investigated in China. To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE in China. From December 2011 to December 2015, a cross-sectional field survey was conducted in five cities in the Anhui province of China. Questionnaire data of 3,579 men were collected in our database. The questionnaire included subjects' demographic information and medical and sexual histories. Men who were not satisfied with their time to ejaculate were accepted as having the complaint of PE. Men with the complaint of PE who met the new definition of PE were diagnosed as having LPE or APE. New definition of LPE and APE. Of 3,579 men who completed the questionnaire, 34.62% complained of PE. Mean age, body mass index, and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for all subjects were 34.97 ± 9.02 years, 23.33 ± 3.56 kg/m 2 , and 3.09 ± 1.36 minutes, respectively. The prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. LPE and APE were associated with age, body mass index, and smoking and exercise rates (P < .001 for all comparisons). Men with APE reported more comorbidities than men with LPE, especially in the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease (P < .001 for all comparisons). In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward Evidence-Based Genetic Research on Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Critical Evaluation of Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recently, four premature ejaculation (PE) subtypes have been distinguished on the basis of the duration of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). These four PE subtypes have different etiologies and pathogeneses. Genetic research on PE should consider the existence of these PE subtypes and the accurate measurement of the IELT with a stopwatch. Currently, three methods of genetic research on PE have been used. They differ in the investigated population, tool of measurement, study design, and variables of PE. From animal and human research, it is derived that the central serotonergic system "modulates" ejaculation, whereas the ejaculation (reflex) itself is probably not under direct influence of the serotonergic system, but rather under the influence of other neurotransmitter systems in the spinal cord. For genetic research on PE, it is important to take into account that the (serotonergic) modulation of the IELT is variable among men and may even be absent. This means that serotonergic genetic polymorphisms may only be found in men with PE who respond with an ejaculation delay treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. PMID:21344023

  16. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  17. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured by stopwatch. Controls consisted of 92 Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of the polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Associations between the LL, SL, and SS genotypes and fold increase of mean IELT were investigated. Results Of the 54 patients, 43 (79.6%) responded to 20-mg paroxetine treatment with an ejaculation delay, whereas 11 patients (20.4%) did not respond; 44%, 18%, and 18% of the patients showed a fold increase in mean IELT of 2-10, 10-20, and more than 20, respectively. Of the 54 men, 14 (25.9%) had the LL genotype, 29 (53.7%) had the SL genotype, and 11 (20.4%) had the SS genotype. In the 92 controls, the LL, SL, and SS genotypes were present in 27 (29.3%), 41 (44.6%), and 24 (26.1%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-HTTLPR allelic variations or in 5-HTTLPR gene variations. In all men treated with 20 mg paroxetine, analysis of variance of the natural logarithm of fold increase in the IELT showed no statistically significant difference according to genotype (p=0.83). Conclusions The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is not associated with daily 20-mg paroxetine treatment-induced ejaculation delay in men with LPE. PMID:24578810

  18. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  19. [Ejaculatory disorders except premature ejaculation, orgasmic disorders].

    PubMed

    Rigot, J-M; Marcelli, F; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Disorders of ejaculation and orgasm apart from premature ejaculation are pretty uncommon. Medical literature was reviewed and combined with expert opinion of the authors. The semiology of these disorders is essential: aspermia, hypospermia, retrograde ejaculation, delayed or absent ejaculation with or without orgasm. Whether this is a lifelong or acquired condition, it is essential to assess the side-effects of medications i.e. psychotropic drugs, including antidepressant, neuroleptics, tramadol, alphablockers: tamsulosin and silodosin must always be surveyed. The management is often difficult, especially with a parenthood perspective. The management of lifelong disorders must rely on psychosexual therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy KC; van Schaik, Ron; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10–20, 20–30 and 30–60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3–27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3–80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  1. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  2. The 5-HT₁A receptor C(1019)G polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; van Schaik, R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-06-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 min, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction related to diminished serotonergic neurotransmission with 5-HT₁A receptor hyperfunction and 5-HT₂C hypofunction. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT₁A receptor gene (HTR₁A)-C(1019)G promoter polymorphism and IELT in men with LPE. This polymorphism is known to increase 5-HT1A receptor expression. A prospective study was conducted in 54 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for HTR₁A gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of C and G variants of HTR₁A polymorphism were determined. Association between CC, CG, and GG genotypes and the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, HTR₁A polymorphism. In this cohort of men with LPE, the geometric mean IELT was 23.8 s. Of the 54 men, the CC, CG and GG genotype frequency for the C(1019)G polymorphism of the 5-HT₁A gene was 33%, 43% and 24%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT for the CC, CG and GG genotypes were 14.5, 27.7 and 36.0 s, respectively (p=0.019). Compared to GG and CG genotypes, men with CC genotype had a 250% and 190% shorter ejaculation time, respectively. HTR₁A gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with CC genotype have shorter IELTs than men with GG and CG genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Premature ejaculation: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Neil R; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2008-06-02

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is ejaculation occurring without control, on or shortly after vaginal penetration and before the subject wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulties. PE is the most common male sexual complaint. Primary (lifelong) PE has a physiological basis. Therapy should involve the man and his partner. The primary aims of therapy are for the man to regain a sense of control over his ejaculation time and for him and his partner to feel satisfaction with sexual intercourse. The most effective therapies for primary PE are certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, given on a daily basis or "on demand" before sexual activity. Topical anaesthetics have also been shown to be effective. The most common cause of secondary PE is declining erectile function. The approach to treating secondary PE is to treat the underlying condition.

  4. Screening for erectile dysfunction in men with lifelong premature ejaculation--Is the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) reliable?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2009-02-01

    Some men with premature ejaculation (PE) and normal erectile function record contradictory response/s to The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and may be incorrectly categorized as suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with lifelong PE. SHIM, stopwatch intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). A prospective observational study of men with normal erectile function and lifelong PE, diagnosed using the ISSM definition of lifelong PE, was conducted. The SHIM was self-administered at Visit 1. Mean per subject stopwatch IELT was determined from four subsequent intercourse attempts. Seventy-eight subjects with a mean age of 33.2 +/- 8.3 years and a geometric mean IELT of 15.9 +/- 2.3 seconds were enrolled. The mean SHIM score for all subjects was 20.4 +/- 6.0. Fifty-two subjects (66.7%) have SHIM scores of >21 (mean 24.3 +/- 1.1), consistent with normal erectile function, and a geometric mean IELT of 18.3 +/- 2.2 seconds. Twenty-six subjects (33.3%) had SHIM scores <22 (mean 12.7 +/- 3.7), consistent with a false positive diagnosis of ED, and a geometric mean IELT of 10.5 +/- 2.3 seconds. The incidence of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED (SHIM < 22) was inversely related to the IELT. Although the geometric mean IELT for subjects with SHIM scores <22 was significantly less than that of all subjects and subjects with SHIM scores >21, there were no significant differences between the geometric mean IELT or the IELT distribution of all subjects vs. the normal erectile function IELT (SHIM > 21) cohort. This study demonstrates a 33.3% false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with PE. This is likely to limit subject recruitment in clinical trials by exclusion of subjects with low-range IELTs but is unlikely to result in significantly different baseline IELTs or IELT distributions.

  5. Effects of paroxetine on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Egyptian patients with lifelong premature ejaculation as a function of serotonin transporter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Salem, A M; Kamel, I I; Rashed, L A; GamalEl Din, S F

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common ejaculatory complaint. The estimated rates among Turkish men reached 20%, although the severest type of PE (lifelong PE) usually does not exceed 2.3%. This could be seen in line with two survey studies involving five nations. They revealed that 2.5% of men had an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of <1 min and 6% of <2 min. Rapid ejaculation may be treated pharmacologically with a variety of different medications that act either centrally or locally to delay ejaculation and subsequent orgasm. Antidepressants, particularly members of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class, retard ejaculation significantly. Recently, it was postulated that men with lifelong PE might result from a combination of polymorphisms of the serotonergic transporter and receptors, and other neurotransmitters and/or receptors. Our findings augment the significant effect of paroxetine in delaying ejaculation in the responders (P<0.001). Meanwhile, the findings do not suggest a positive association between such response and serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

  6. The majority of men with lifelong premature ejaculation prefer daily drug treatment: an observation study in a consecutive group of Dutch men.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2007-07-01

    Whether men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) prefer on-demand drug treatment to delay ejaculation time to daily drug treatment, has never been studied as a separate study question. To study how men with lifelong PE feel about the use of serotonergic antidepressants, and which option they would prefer for themselves: either a daily drug, a drug to be used on demand, or a topical anesthetic cream to be applied on demand. Treatment preference was determined by questionnaire. An observational questionnaire survey in a clinical sample. Preferences of different treatment strategies were queried before and after standard efficacy and safety information. A consecutive group of 88 men with lifelong PE who decided for themselves to be seen for rapid ejaculation was studied. The age was 37 +/- 11 years (mean +/- SD), range 18-64 years. None of these men was ever treated for PE and 21% used medication that did not affect sexual performance. Of them, 71 (81%) preferred a drug for daily use, 14 (16%) a drug on demand, while three men preferred topical anesthetic cream. Those men who initially preferred daily treatment did not change their view after standard information about efficacy and side effects, while 9 of 17 men who initially preferred on-demand drug treatment had switched their preferences to daily oral drug usage. Around 60% of men did not care about the nature of the drug, i.e., an antidepressant. The most frequently reported argument to prefer daily drug treatment was that this strategy would have the least effects toward the spontaneity of having sex. As opposed to agents that must be taken 4-6 hours prior to coitus and with the methods used here, this group of Dutch men with lifelong PE favor uninterrupted daily drug treatment to delay ejaculation mainly because daily treatment guarantees no interference with the spontaneity of having sex.

  7. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  8. Etiology of ejaculation and pathophysiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Donatucci, Craig F

    2006-09-01

    Ejaculation is comprised of three stages of the male sexual response cycle, namely emission, ejection, and orgasm; however, in comparison with erection, which is a well-understood component of male sexual response, the pathophysiology of ejaculation has yet to be fully delineated. Premature ejaculation (PE), the most common sexual disorder in men, while believed to have a multifactorial etiology, is even less well understood. This article reviews the physiology of ejaculation, and the multifactorial pathophysiology of PE. The Sexual Medicine Society of North America hosted a State of the Art Conference on Premature Ejaculation on June 24-26, 2005 in collaboration with the University of South Florida. The purpose was to have an open exchange of contemporary research and clinical information on PE. There were 16 invited presenters and discussants; the group focused on several educational objectives. Data were obtained by extensive examination of published peer-reviewed literature. Evidence supports that biologic mechanisms associated with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, oxytocin, Gamma-amino-butyric acid, and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the hormone estrogen play central roles in ejaculation, and subsequently may mediate PE. There is also emerging evidence to show that hyperthyroidism may be a causal factor in PE. Recent data also suggest that psychogenic factors include high level of any experience by some men with PE. The pathophysiology of both lifelong and acquired PE appears to be both neurobiogenic and psychogenic. While psychogenic factors appear to be contributory to PE, pharmacologic intervention of PE can modify intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), which suggests that IELT is a biological variable, and is likely biologically dependent upon neurotransmitters and hormones.

  9. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  10. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20−30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium. PMID:27652222

  11. Biallelic and Triallelic 5-Hydroxytyramine Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms and Their Relationship with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Li, Chao; Liu, Weiqun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) with respect to the biallelic and triallelic classifications. Material/Methods A total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as having lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and 101 controls without PE complaint were recruited. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between 5-HTTLPR allelic and genotypic frequencies and their association with LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different 5-HTTLPR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. The results showed no significant difference regarding biallelic 5-HTTLPR. According to the triallelic classification, no significant difference was found when comparing the genotypic distribution (P=0.091). However, the distribution of the S, LG, and LA alleles in the cases was significantly different from the controls (P=0.018). We found a significantly lower frequency of LA allele and higher frequency of LG allele in patients. Based on another classification by expression, we found a significantly lower frequency of the L’L’ genotype (OR=0.37; 95%CI=0.15–0.91, P=0.025) in patients with LPE. No significant association was detected between IELT of LPE and different genotypes. Conclusions Contrary to the general classification based on S/L alleles, triallelic 5-HTTLPR was associated with LPE. Triallelic 5-HTTLPR may be a promising field for genetic research in PE to avoid false-negative results in future studies. PMID:27311544

  12. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  13. On-demand tramadol hydrochloride use in premature ejaculation treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Kilic, Ozcan; Yurdakul, Talat

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of tramadol in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with placebo. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted with 60 lifelong (primary) patients with PE. The patients were randomized into 2 groups, each consisting of 30 patients, who took tramadol or placebo on demand. PE was defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of ≤60 seconds in 90% of intercourse episodes. The efficacy of the drugs was assessed using the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction scores after an 8-week treatment period. All participants completed the study voluntarily. Two groups were similar in terms of the patient demographics. Increases in the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction score between the placebo and tramadol groups were compared with the baseline values in both groups. At the end of study period, the tramadol group had significantly (P<.001) greater values for all 3 parameters compared with those in the placebo group. On-demand use of low-dose tramadol is effective for lifelong PE. Currently, selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors such as dapoxetine, are a more popular treatment option for PE. However, tramadol might be considered an alternative agent for primary PE treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An overview of pharmacotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of <30-60 seconds or anteportal ejaculation-combination therapy of topical and oral medications can be offered and may considerably increase IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Pharmacology for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clèment, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Male sexual response comprises four phases: excitement, including erection; plateau; ejaculation, usually accompanied by orgasm; and resolution. Ejaculation is a complex sexual response involving a sequential process consisting of two phases: emission and expulsion. Ejaculation, which is basically a spinal reflex, requires a tight coordination between sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferent pathways originating from different segments and area in the spinal cord and innervating pelvi-perineal anatomical structures. A major relaying and synchronizing role is played by a group of lumbar neurons described as the spinal generator of ejaculation. Excitatory and inhibitory influences from sensory genital and cerebral stimuli are integrated and processed in the spinal cord. Premature ejaculation (PE) can be defined by ≤1-min ejaculatory latency, an inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Because there is no physiological impairment in PE, any pharmacological agent with central or peripheral mechanism of action that is delaying the ejaculation is a drug candidate for the treatment of PE. Ejaculation is centrally mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter systems, involving especially serotonin and serotonergic pathways but also dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems. Pharmacological delay of ejaculation can be achieved either by inhibiting excitatory or reinforcing inhibitory pathways from the brain or the periphery to the spinal cord. PE can be treated with long-term use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants. Dapoxetine, a short-acting SSRI, is the first treatment registered for the on-demand treatment of PE. Anesthetics applied on the glans penis have the ability to lengthen the time to ejaculation. Targeting oxytocinergic, neurokinin-1, dopaminergic, and opioid receptors represent future avenues to delaying ejaculation.

  16. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, M Derya

    2010-02-01

    In addition to "lifelong" and "acquired" premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes, two more PE syndromes have recently been proposed: "Natural variable PE" and "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the four PE syndromes among patients who were admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with the complaint of ejaculating prematurely. Between July 2008 and March 2009, patients admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were enrolled into the study. After taking a careful medical and sexual history, patients were classified as "lifelong,"acquired,"natural variable," PE or "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." In addition to medical and sexual history, self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) of patients were used in the classification of patients. A total of 261 potent men with a mean age of 36.39 +/- 10.45 years (range 20-70) were recruited into the study. The majority of the men was diagnosed as having lifelong PE (62.5%); the remaining men were diagnosed as having acquired (16.1%), natural variable PE (14.5%), or premature-like ejaculatory disorder (6.9%). The mean age of patients with acquired PE was significantly higher than the other groups (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for educational status or income level of patients in the different PE groups (P = 0.983 and P = 0.151, respectively). The mean self-estimated IELT for all subjects was 65.16 +/- 83.75 seconds (2-420 seconds). Patients with lifelong PE had significantly lower mean self-reported IELT, whereas the patients with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction had the highest mean IELT (P = 0.001): (i) life-long PE: 20.47 +/- 28.90 seconds (2-120 seconds); (ii) aquired PE: 57.91 +/- 38.72 seconds (90-180 seconds); (iii) natural variable PE: 144.17 +/- 22.47 seconds (120-180 seconds); and (iv) premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction: 286.67 +/- 69.96 seconds (180-420 seconds

  17. Primary lifelong delayed ejaculation: characteristics and response to bupropion.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Ibrahim A; Saleh, El-Sayed

    2011-06-01

    In contrast to premature ejaculation and secondary delayed ejaculation (DE), primary lifelong DE has not been studied extensively. In addition, there is no approved drug treatment. To explore the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a series of men complaining of lifelong DE and to report the response to bupropion. Nineteen consecutive men with primary lifelong DE were prospectively enrolled in this study. Study group was compared with an age-matched group of 19 healthy men. Both groups underwent history taking, physical examination, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), anxiety, and depression scores, ejaculation latency time (IELT) using stop watch and measurement of serum prolactin (PRL) and serum total testosterone (T). Patients received open-label bupropion-SR 150 mg/day for 2 months. Stopwatch-measured IELT values, global efficacy question, IIEF, anxiety, and depression scores. The mean age was 30.8 ± 5.5 year (range 25-42 years). Men with DE exhibited significantly higher masturbatory activity during marital period, lower night emissions, longer IELT, lower orgasmic, and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF, higher anxiety and depression scores compared with the controls (all P<0.05). Both serum T and PRL levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls (all P<0.05). Four DE patients (21%) showed history of infertility. The percentage of DE men rating control over ejaculation as "fair to good" increased from 0 to 21.1% after bupropion therapy. The fold decreases of the geometric mean IELT was 0.74 after treatment. The intercourse satisfaction and the orgasmic domains of IIEF and depression score were significantly improved from baseline in the bupropion group (all P<0.05). Lifelong DE is mainly associated with higher and idiosyncratic masturbatory activity, lower night emissions, infertility, longer IELT, lower orgasmic, and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF, higher anxiety and depression scores. Bupropion-SR in

  18. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Canat, Lütfi; Erbin, Akif; Canat, Masum; Dinek, Mehmet; Çaşkurlu, Turhan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively). Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014) was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies. PMID:27619666

  19. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Olivier, Berend; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE). Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs) reported in the recently published meta-analysis. Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%), SL(-2.3%), SS(0.6%). In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%), SL(-18.5%) and SS(21.8%) with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  20. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  1. Premature ejaculation: bother and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zargooshi, Javaad

    2009-12-01

    patients with occasional PE, and the patients who reported no personal bother, of 3,458 self-reported PE patients, 2,571 (74.3%) had PE. Including the 97 patients with anteportal ejaculation, arithmetic mean IELT in 2,571 patients was 45.87 seconds, SD 36.1, median 40, and range 0-120. Excluding the anteportal ejaculation, arithmetic mean IELT in the remaining 2,474 patients was 47.67 seconds, SD 35.71, median 42, range 1-120, and geometric mean 31.06. PE has a devastating impact. In clinical practice, primary lifelong PE is by far the most common variety of PE. Occasional PE is a very rare cause of presentation. A significant proportion of the patients who consider themselves as premature ejaculators have IELTs of more than 2 minutes; the sexual medicine community should reach a consensus on the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these patients who consider themselves as premature ejaculators. The most important cause of bother in PE is the briefness of the ejaculatory latency, rather than the lack of control. Second-round ED (pseudoED) was reported for the first time. The worst type of PE, i.e., anteportal ejaculation, is not very rare; thus, geometric mean that excludes anteportal ejaculation is not suitable statistics to report the ejaculatory latency time; instead, median is the best measure of IELT reporting. Cutoffs of 0.5-2.5 percentiles are not suitable means to diagnose PE.

  2. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  3. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p.

  4. Sexual function of premature ejaculation patients assayed with Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ming; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Yan-Jie; Liu, Wu-Jiang; Tian, Long; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The sexual function of 167 patients with and 114 normal controls without premature ejaculation (PE) were evaluated with CIPE. All subjects were married and had regular sexual activity. The CIPE has 10 questions, focusing on libido, erectile function, ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction and difficulty in delaying ejaculation, self-confidence and depression. Each question was responded to on a 5 point Likert-type scale. The individual question score and the total scale score were analyzed between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the age, duration of marriage and educational level (P> 0.05) of patients with and without PE and normal controls. The mean latency of patients with PE and normal controls were 1.6 +/- 1.2 and 10.2 +/- 9.5 minutes, respectively. Significant differences between patients with (26.7 +/- 4.6) PE and normal controls (41.9 +/- 4.0) were observed on the total score of CIPE (P< 0.01). Using binary logistic regression analysis, PE was significantly related to five questions of the original measure. They are the so-called the CIPE-5 and include: ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction of patients and sexual partner, difficulty in delaying ejaculation, anxiety and depression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of CIPE-5 questionnaire indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of CIPE were 97.60 % and 94.74 %, respectively. Employing the total score of CIPE-5, patients with PE could be divided into three groups: mild (>15 point) 19.8 %, moderate (10-14 point) 62.8 % and severe (< 9 point) 16.7 %. The CIPE-5 is a useful method for the evaluation of sexual function of patients with PE and can be used as a clinical endpoint for clinical trials studying the efficacy of pharmacological intervention.

  5. [Correlation between premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and International Index of Erectile Function-15 in different types of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Dong-Dong; Gao, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Pan; Liu, Wei-Qun; Liang, Chao-Zhao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) in different types of premature ejaculation (PE). We performed a cross-section survey among 352 PE patients received in the andrology clinic from December 2014 to December 2015 and 104 healthy men from the health examination center using basic demographic information (as on age, height, weight, education status, occupation, income, etc.), PEDT results, and IIEF-15 scores of the subjects. The PE patients had remarkably higher PEDT and lower IIEF-15 scores than the healthy men (P<0.01). The PEDT score of the PE patients was negatively correlated with their total IIEF-15 score as well as with the scores in the domains of erectile function, sexual intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction after adjusted for age (P<0.01). The patients with acquired PE (APE) showed a lower IIEF-15 score than those with lifelong PE (LPE) (P<0.01). The PEDT score of the APE patients was correlated negatively with the total IIEF-15 score (r=-0.391, P<0.01) and the scores in the domains of erectile function (r=-0.362, P<0.01) and overall satisfaction (r=-0.621, P<0.01), but not correlated with intercourse satisfaction, sexual orgasm, or sexual desire. The PEDT score of the LPE group was correlated negatively with intercourse satisfaction (r=-0.286, P<0.05) but not correlated with either the total IIEF-15 score or the scores in the domains of erectile function, overall satisfaction, sexual orgasm, or sexual desire. PE patients have a higher PEDT score and a lower IIEF-15 score than normal males. The PEDT score of APE patients is significantly correlated with the total IIEF-15 score, while that of LPE patients is correlated not with the total IIEF-15 score but with intercourse satisfaction.

  6. The role of anxiety in premature ejaculation: a psychophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, D S; Mahoney, J M; Schaugaard, M; Hale, V E

    1990-06-01

    Despite the prevalence of premature ejaculation and the success in its treatment, researchers have yet to offer a compelling, empirically based theory regarding its nature or etiology. This study explored a model that argues that anxiety may not be necessary for the existence of this dysfunction. Fifteen premature ejaculators (PEs) and 17 nonpremature ejaculators (NPEs) engaged in self-stimulation to orgasm both in the laboratory and at home. The following specific hypotheses were tested: Compared to NPEs, PEs would demonstrate (i) shorter orgasmic latencies, both in the lab and at home, and (ii) equally accurate estimates of these latencies. Results offered strong support for both hypotheses. These findings, and those derived from a questionnaire completed by subjects, were seen as consistent with a psychophysiologic model of premature ejaculation. According to this model, the role of anxiety is seen as variable, interacting with the somatic vulnerability of the individual to determine orgasmic latency.

  7. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as

  8. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R.; Trost, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Methods A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. Results PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. Conclusions PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal

  9. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  10. Premature ejaculation: challenging new and the old concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Almekaty, Khaled; Blecher, Gideon; Minhas, Suks

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation remains a difficult condition to manage for patients, their partners, and the clinician. Whilst prevalence rates are estimated to be 20–40%, determining a diagnosis of premature ejaculation is difficult, as the definition remains both subjective and ill-defined in the clinical context. As our understanding of the ejaculatory pathway has improved, new opportunities to treat the condition have evolved with mixed results. In this review, we explore some of these controversies surrounding the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition and discuss potential novel therapeutic options. PMID:29259775

  11. Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Human semen contains spermatozoa secreted by the testes and a mixture of components produced by the bulbo-urethral and Littre (paraurethral) glands, prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and epididymis. Ejaculation is used as a synonym for the external ejection of semen, but it comprises two phases: emission and expulsion. As semen collects in the prostatic urethra, the rapid preorgasmic distension of the urethral bulb is pathognomonic of impeding orgasm, and the man experiences a sensation that ejaculation is inevitable (in women, emission is the only phase of orgasm). The semen is propelled along the penile urethra mainly by the bulbocavernosus muscle. With Kegel exercises, it is possible to train the perineal muscles. Immediately after the expulsion phase the male enters a refractory period, a recovery time during which further orgasm or ejaculation is physiologically impossible. Age affects the recovery time: as a man grows older, the refractory period increases. Sexual medicine experts consider premature ejaculation only in the case of vaginal intercourse, but vaginal orgasm has no scientific basis, so the duration of intercourse is not important for a woman's orgasm. The key to female orgasm are the female erectile organs; vaginal orgasm, G-spot, G-spot amplification, clitoral bulbs, clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal clitoris and female ejaculation are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist, i.e. the vaginal orgasm. The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Teenagers and men can understand their sexual responses by masturbation and learn ejaculatory control with the stop-start method and the squeeze technique. Premature ejaculation must not be classified as a male sexual dysfunction. It has become the center of a

  12. [Clinical efficacy of Viagra with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenhao; Ma, Lulin; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Yuqing; Chen, Zhenwen

    2004-05-01

    To study the efficacy of Viagra combined with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation (PE). Sixty PE patients were divided into two groups randomly: control group (behavior therapy alone) and the group of Viagra combined with behavior therapy. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and the coitus satisfaction of the patient and the partner were recorded before and after treatment. The IELTs of the two groups were 0.80 +/- 0.20 and 0.73 +/- 0.24 minutes respectively before treatment, and 1.82 +/- 0.54 and 3.63 +/- 0.55 minutes respectively after treatment. As for IELT and satisfaction degree, Viagra produced better result than behavior therapy. During this clinical trial, Viagra combined with behavior therapy prolonged IELT, which suggests that Viagra may be helpful for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  13. [An update on ejaculation physiology and premature ejaculation definition, prevalence data, and etiology].

    PubMed

    Mas, M

    2014-07-01

    Ejaculation consists of two synchronized phases: a) emission, the contraction of the vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicles and bladder neck expelling the seminal fluid to the urethra; it is mediated by sympathetic nerves, and b) expulsion, seminal fluid outward propulsion by the rhythmic contraction of perineal muscles. Ejaculation results from a complex spinal reflex having its essential components within the lumbosacral cord. The main afferent signals derive from mechanical stimulation of the glans penis and are conveyed by sacral sensory roots. The ejaculatory reflex is under strong modulatory influence from the brain through both facilitatory and inhibitory descending signals. Several central neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine modulate the ejaculatory reflex. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), measured or estimated, provides clinically useful assessment of the ejaculatory reflex. The new DSM-5 definition of premature ejaculation (PE) includes a specified time to ejaculation criterion (IELT of about one minute or shorter). Four subtypes of PE, showing different prevalence rates, have been proposed. PE etiology is multifactorial with interacting psychological and biological factors contributing to the disorder. A number of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission may predispose the bearers to developing PE. High prevalence rates of PE have been found in patients with chronic prostatitis, hyperthyroidism, and premature ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  14. The burden of premature ejaculation: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Mariano

    2005-05-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) remains an underdetected and under-treated condition, despite the advances in available treatment options. Men with PE often feel stigmatized by the condition and embarrassment is a key barrier to discussing the problem with healthcare professionals. Men with PE perceive themselves as having little control over ejaculation and this lack of control is mirrored in diminished satisfaction with sexual intercourse. The burden of PE is both emotional and physical. Premature ejaculation is associated with low self-esteem, anxiety, and feelings of shame and inferiority. In some studies there is an association with depression. Premature ejaculation places a significant burden on the patient-partner relationship and there is evidence to suggest that there is a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction associated with PE. Patients with PE often view the condition as purely psychological or as a problem that will resolve with time and many are unaware that medical treatment could be of benefit. This endorses the particularly important role of healthcare professionals in recognizing the barriers to patient diagnosis and promoting the view that PE is not only a common but also a treatable medical condition.

  15. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility.

  16. On-demand SSRI treatment of premature ejaculation: pharmacodynamic limitations for relevant ejaculation delay and consequent solutions.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H; Olivier, Berend

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the idea has emerged that on-demand use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), particularly short half-life, should be equally effective in delaying ejaculation as daily SSRI treatment of premature ejaculation. To provide evidence that SSRI-induced ejaculation delay is mainly dependent on pharmacodynamic properties of the drug and hardly on pharmacokinetic factors, and that combined SSRI administration with specific 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonism leads acutely to stronger ejaculation delay than acute SSRI monoadministration. We performed a detailed analysis of serotonin neurotransmission and reviewed animal studies with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists. In addition, we critically reviewed existing on-demand SSRI treatments publications and the current debate on a definition of premature ejaculation. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). Acute SSRI administration leads to only a mild or no increase of 5-HT neurotransmission and concomitant stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. Existing on-demand SSRI treatment studies suffer from methodological insufficiencies, and the reported high-fold increases of ejaculation time contradict with neuropharmacological insights from serotonin metabolism. Animal studies show that SSRI coadministration with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists significantly increases the ejaculation time acutely compared to acute SSRI monoadministration. On-demand SSRI treatment has less ejaculation-delaying effects than daily SSRI treatment. SSRIs with a short half-life are likely leading to much less ejaculation delay than current registered SSRIs. Combined use of SSRIs with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists increases the likelihood of clinically relevant ejaculation delay after on-demand treatment. On-demand SSRIs with short half-life that insufficiently delay ejaculation in men with IELTs less than 1 minute should be called ejaculation-delaying drugs rather than drugs against premature ejaculation.

  17. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of <1 minute was associated with poorer perceived mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Silodosin and its potential for treating premature ejaculation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo; Tobe, Musashi; Haga, Kazunori; Uchida, Kosuke; Honma, Ichiya

    2012-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is a common sexual problem, as is erectile dysfunction. We evaluated silodosin, a highly selective α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation. α1-Adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used for lower urinary tract symptoms, and clinical studies on silodosin have shown excellent clinical efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms. However, compared with other α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, silodosin appeared to suppress ejaculation in a relatively higher percent of trial participants. This suppression of ejaculation by silodosin suggested its potential for treating premature ejaculation. Consequently, we evaluated the feasibility of off-label silodosin as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation. Eight patients suffering premature ejaculation were treated with silodosin. Silodosin (4 mg) was given 2 h before sexual intercourse. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, premature ejaculation profile item, clinical global impression change in premature ejaculation and systemic adverse events were recorded. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time was significantly prolonged (from 3.4 min to 10.1 min, P = 0.003). All patients answered better (much better) or slightly better for their own premature ejaculation problem compared with pretreatment condition in the clinical global impression change. Premature ejaculation profile also significantly improved. Two (25%), three (37.5%) and seven patients (87.5%) experienced anejaculation, reduced semen volume and discomfort during orgasm, respectively. However, these problems were not of major concern for the participants. No systemic adverse effects were reported. The current results support the possible use of silodosin as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation, and suggest that a placebo controlled study assessing its clinical usefulness would be worthwhile. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jun-Young; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-07-01

    The psychological impacts of premature ejaculation (PE), which include guilt, anxiety, and distress, have been well established in Western countries. However, in Asia, although a substantial number of epidemiological studies have surveyed the prevalence of PE, researchers have not thoroughly investigated the relationship between PE and depression, or have defined PE properly. We studied the association between PE and depression and other psychological disturbances, in a Korean cohort by applying an appropriate definition for PE and validated outcome measures of depression. METHODS.  A total of 956 males (≥20 years) were initially approached via an Internet survey company. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting detailed medical and sexual histories, which included questions from the Erectile Function Domain score in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of PE was evaluated using two different definitions-self-assessed PE and presumed PE. Presumed PE was defined as a short ejaculation time (an estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time ≤5 minutes), an inability to control ejaculation, and the presence of distress resulting from PE. Ejaculation-related questionnaire, the IIEF-EF, and BDI. A total of 334 men were evaluated. The prevalence of PE was 10.5% according to the Presumed PE definition, whereas by self-assessment, it was 25.4%. Self-assessed PE patients suffered from various psychological problems, such as depression, low self-esteem, bother, and low sexual satisfaction. Even after excluding erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects, a significant relationship was found between self-assessed PE and depression. Moreover, after further classification of the Self-assessed PE group, we found that subjects included in this group, but not in the Presumed PE group, suffered more from psychological burden than any other members of the cohort. Korean men with subjective

  20. Validity of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with International Index of Erectile Function-15 in Chinese men with evidence-based-defined premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong-Dong; Li, Chao; Peng, Dang-Wei; Zhang, Xian-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) is a brief diagnostic measure to assess premature ejaculation (PE). However, there is insufficient evidence regarding its validity in the new evidence-based-defined PE. This study was performed to evaluate the validity of PEDT and its association with IIEF-15 in different types of evidence-based-defined PE. From June 2015 to January 2016, a total of 260 men complaining of PE and defined as lifelong PE (LPE)/acquired PE (APE) according to the evidence-based definition from Andrology Clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, along with 104 male healthy controls without PE from a medical examination center, were enrolled in this study. All individuals completed questionnaires including demographics, medical and sexual history, as well as PEDT and IIEF-15. After statistical analysis, it was found that men with PE reported higher PEDT scores (14.28 ± 3.05) and lower IIEF-15 (41.26 ± 8.20) than men without PE (PEDT: 5.32 ± 3.42, IIEF-15: 52.66 ± 6.86, P < 0.001 for both). It was suggested that a score of ≥9 indicated PE in both LPE and APE by sensitivity and specificity analyses (sensitivity: 0.875, 0.913; specificity: 0.865, 0.865, respectively). In addition, IIEF-15 were higher in men with LPE (42.64 ± 8.11) than APE (39.43 ± 7.84, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with LPE (adjust r = -0.225, P < 0.001) and APE (adjust r = -0.378, P < 0.001). In this study, we concluded that PEDT was valid in the diagnosis of evidenced-based-defined PE. Furthermore, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with different types of PE.

  1. Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Tara; Perelman, Michael A; Althof, Stanley; Giuliano, François; Martin, Mona; May, Kathryn; Abraham, Lucy; Crossland, Anna; Morris, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for clinical trial purposes has typically relied on intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) for entry, but this parameter does not capture the multidimensional nature of PE. Therefore, the aim was to develop a brief, multidimensional, psychometrically validated instrument for diagnosing PE status. The questionnaire development involved three stages: (1) Five focus groups and six individual interviews were conducted to develop the content; (2) psychometric validation using three different groups of men; and (3) generation of a scoring system. For psychometric validation/scoring system development, data was collected from (1) men with PE based on clinician diagnosis, using DSM-IV-TR, who also had IELTs < or =2 min (n=292); (2) men self-reporting PE (n=309); and (3) men self-reporting no-PE (n=701). Standard psychometric analyses were conducted to produce the final questionnaire. Sensitivity/specificity analysis was used to determine an appropriate scoring system. The qualitative research identified 9 items to capture the essence of DSM-IV-TR PE classification. The psychometric validation resulted in a 5-item, unidimensional, measure, which captures the essence of DSM-IV-TR: control, frequency, minimal stimulation, distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Sensitivity/specificity analyses suggested a score of < or =8 indicated no-PE, 9 and 10 probable PE, and > or =11 PE. The development and validation of this new PE diagnostic tool has resulted in a new, user-friendly, and brief self-report questionnaire for use in clinical trials to diagnose PE.

  2. Current therapeutic strategies for premature ejaculation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Zhu, Yi-Chen; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Cui, Wan-Shou; Jin, Zhe; Li, Wei-Ren; Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder in men that is mediated by disturbances in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Although all pharmaceutical treatments for PE are currently used ‘off-label', some novel oral agents and some newer methods of drug administration now provide important relief to PE patients. However, the aetiology of this condition has still not been unified, primarily because of the lack of a standard animal model for basic research and the absence of a widely accepted definition and assessment tool for evidence-based clinical studies in patients with PE. In this review, we focus on the current therapeutic strategies and future treatment perspectives for PE. PMID:21532601

  3. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The

  4. Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad

    2015-01-01

    The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 ± 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 ± 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects.

  5. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David; Cooper, Stewart

    2011-10-01

    A number of milestones in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) have occurred over the past five decades, including the development of various behavioral and cognitive techniques as well as pharmacotherapies that modify neurophysiological processes involved in ejaculation. Nevertheless, the notion that sexual responses such as PE are influenced by physiological, psychobehavioral, cultural, and relationship factors is as valid now as it was 50 years ago, and therefore, interventions should consider all such domains in the development of effective treatment strategies. Provide an overview of which patients with PE are suitable to receive psychosexual treatment and the psychological approaches for managing this disorder. Review of the literature. Psychosexual treatments that integrate behavioral, psychological, and relationship functioning. PE is typically a couple's problem and, therefore, psychotherapy is best when the partner is involved. Before embarking on psychotherapy, the clinician should obtain a medical history pertaining to sexual-, psychological-, and relationship-related factors, so that the treatment strategy can be tailored to the needs of the individual. General strategies underpinning integrative, "process-oriented" elements of psychotherapy most relevant to PE are: developing the therapist-patient relationship; expressing empathy, genuineness, and positive regard; motivational interviewing, i.e., developing motivation to change; developing discrepancy; working through resistance; identifying PE-related affect, cognitions, and behaviors (including interaction with partners); and supporting self-efficacy. The four main domains that encompass psychotherapy techniques specific to the treatment of PE are: behavioral; cognitive; affective; and relational. Sustained positive outcomes in PE may be obtained using a combination treatment strategy that addresses all elements of PE, including psychological and biological factors. Psychosexual treatments

  6. Functional and psychological characteristics of belgian men with premature ejaculation and their partners.

    PubMed

    Kempeneers, Philippe; Andrianne, Robert; Bauwens, Sabrina; Georis, Isabelle; Pairoux, Jean-François; Blairy, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors are generally acknowledged to play a role in premature ejaculation (PE). However, the nature and the extent of their etiological impact remain largely imprecise. The present study examined functional and psychometric dynamics at work in a PE population. A total of 461 men with PE and 80 partners completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self-reported ejaculatory latency time, the feeling of control upon ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, distress related to PE, trait anxiety (STAI-B), sexual cognitions (Sexual Irrationality Questionnaire [SIQ]), social anxiety (Liebowitz's Social Anxiety Scale [LSAS] and Social Interaction Self-Statement Test [SISST]), and personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised [TCI-R]). In our sample, the median latency time to ejaculation was between 1 and 2 min. Sexual satisfaction and distress correlated more strongly with the feeling of control than with the self-reported latency time. Men experienced more distress and dissatisfaction related to PE than did their partners, while overestimating their partners' distress and dissatisfaction. PE participants' scores differed significantly, albeit slightly, from STAI-B, SIQ, LSAS, and SISST norms. The differences were negligible on TCI-R. Some differences became stronger when subtypes were considered. Participants combining generalized and lifelong PE with self-reported latency times of <30 s reported lower sexual satisfaction and control, higher distress, higher social anxiety, and harm avoidance (TCI-R/HA) scores. By contrast, the situational subtype of PE was found to be characterized by a higher level of satisfaction, a greater feeling of control, less distress, and higher trait anxiety scores. However, the trends remained statistically discrete.

  7. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  8. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  9. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  10. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19412497

  11. [Dapoxetine (Priligy): on demand treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Andrianne, R

    2013-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction, affecting approximately 20-24% of men. Managing PE has been a challenge for physicians and psycho-sexologists as well because no drug for PE has been approved by European (EMA) or U.S. (FDA) drug agencies. Over the past decade, clinical evidence has emerged indicating a beneficial effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tramadol, penile anesthesia and, in some cases, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 for the treatment of men with PE. A psycho-sexological care helps support. In spite of their efficacy, adverse effects represent the major concern for the chronic use of SSRIs in patients with PE and they may prompt discontinuation from therapy. Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy, is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of PE, on demand before intercourse. Dapoxetine works by inhibiting the serotonin transporter, increasing serotonin's action at the postsynaptic cleft, and as a consequence promoting ejaculatory delay. Dapoxetine is quickly absorbed and eliminated rapidly from the body. Its fast acting property makes it suitable for the on demand treatment of PE.

  12. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  13. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon

    2016-08-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  14. New insights on premature ejaculation: a review of definition, classification, prevalence and treatment.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege C; Saitz, Theodore R

    2012-11-01

    There are ongoing debates about the definition, classification and prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE). The first evidence-based definition of PE was limited to heterosexual men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. Unfortunately, many patients with the complaint of PE do not meet these criteria. However, these men can be diagnosed as one of the PE subtypes, namely acquired PE, natural variable PE or premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction. Nevertheless, the validity of these subtypes has not yet been supported by evidence. The absence of a universally accepted PE definition and lack of standards for data acquisition have resulted in prevalence studies that have reported conflicting rates. The very high prevalence of 20%-30% is probably due to the vague terminology used in the definitions at the time when such surveys were conducted. Although many men may complain of PE when questioned for a population-based prevalence study, only a few of them will actively seek treatment for their complaint, even though most of these patients would define symptoms congruent with PE. The complaints of acquired PE patients may be more severe, whereas complaints of patients experiencing premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction seem to be least severe among men with various forms of PE. Although numerous treatment modalities have been proposed for management of PE, only antidepressants and topical anaesthetic creams have currently been proven to be effective. However, as none of the treatment modalities have been approved by the regulatory agencies, further studies must be carried to develop a beneficial treatment strategy for PE.

  15. Effects of Tadalafil 5 mg Dosed Once Daily in Men with Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Onen, Efe; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Otunctemur, Alper; Cekmen, Mustafa; Eraldemir, Ceyla; Ozbek, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of 5 mg tadalafil once daily in men with premature ejaculation (PE). Thirty married men with lifelong PE and 30 healthy men as control group were included in this study. All the patients received 5 mg tadalafil once a day for a month. The international index of erectile function questionnaire and intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE profile were recorded before and after treatment. Plasma samples were collected before and after treatment. The mean baseline IELTs was 40.8 ± 8.1 s in the PE group and 196.5 ± 26.2 s in the control group. After treatment in the PE group, the mean IELTs values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. At the end of 4 weeks, in the PE group, the mean IELT values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. Baseline serum nitric oxide (NO) levels were 27.3 ± 1.7 in the PE group and in the 31.1 ± 1.4 healthy control groups. After treatment, NO levels were increased from baseline. We consider that 5 mg tadalafil once daily is safety and effective for the treatment of PE. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fluoxetine and premature ejaculation: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Haensel, S M; Klem, T M; Hop, W C; Slob, A K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on sexual function in men with premature ejaculation and/or erectile dysfunction and control subjects in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. There were four groups: (1) premature ejaculation (PE, N = 9); (2) premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (PE/ED, N = 9); (3) erectile dysfunction (ED, N = 7); and (4) healthy, sexually functional control subjects (N = 15). The study consisted of three 4-week periods: fluoxetine, washout, and placebo (or vice versa). Fluoxetine began at 5 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by 10 mg/day for 2 weeks. At weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12, subjects visited the laboratory for evaluation of sexual function and assessment of erectile response, ejaculation, and sexual arousal to visual erotic stimulation without and with concomitant vibrotactile stimulation to the penis. At home, daily logs for sexual activities and feelings of well-being were maintained, and nocturnal penile tumescence was measured. The latency to ejaculation increased significantly in the PE/ED group (p = 0.03) and in the PE and the PE/ED group taken together (p = 0.007) but not in the PE group alone. Fluoxetine stimulated objectively but not subjectively measured erectile response during laboratory assessment in all groups. No major side effects were reported. In conclusion, fluoxetine (5-10 mg/day) was effective in increasing latency to ejaculation in patients with PE (PE and PE/ED groups combined).

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Ren, Shijie; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation within 1 minute (lifelong PE) or 3 minutes (acquired PE), inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Management includes behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. To systematically review effectiveness, safety, and robustness of evidence for complementary and alternative medicine in managing PE. Nine databases including Medline were searched through September 2015. Randomized controlled trials evaluating complementary and alternative medicine for PE were included. Studies were included if they reported on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and/or another validated PE measurement. Adverse effects were summarized. Ten randomized controlled trials were included. Two assessed acupuncture, five assessed Chinese herbal medicine, one assessed Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and two assessed topical "severance secret" cream. Risk of bias was unclear in all studies because of unclear allocation concealment or blinding, and only five studies reported stopwatch-measured IELT. Acupuncture slightly increased IELT over placebo in one study (mean difference [MD] = 0.55 minute, P = .001). In another study, Ayurvedic herbal medicine slightly increased IELT over placebo (MD = 0.80 minute, P = .001). Topical severance secret cream increased IELT over placebo in two studies (MD = 8.60 minutes, P < .001), although inclusion criteria were broad (IELT < 3 minutes). Three studies comparing Chinese herbal medicine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) favored SSRIs (MD = 1.01 minutes, P = .02). However, combination treatment with Chinese medicine plus SSRIs improved IELT over SSRIs alone (two studies; MD = 1.92 minutes, P < .00001) and over Chinese medicine alone (two studies; MD = 2.52 minutes, P < .00001). Adverse effects were not consistently assessed but where reported were generally mild. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine

  18. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1-<2 and >2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of

  19. Black stone - a natural remedy for premature ejaculation and performance enhancement, or maybe not?

    PubMed

    Bush, Carly; O'Farrell, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    We describe the use of a non-prescribed aid (Black stone) for premature ejaculation that resulted in a chemical burn on the penis with an appearance similar to severe balanitis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Evaluating the content and quality of information about premature ejaculation on the Internet: what are men being exposed to ?

    PubMed

    Gul, M; Kaynar, M

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions; however, only a few patients with premature ejaculation are seeking professional help or advice. Internet has become an important source of knowledge, and thus, more patients are looking online for health information. According to our best knowledge, no study has evaluated the content and quality of websites on premature ejaculation. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the content and quality of currently available Internet-based information on premature ejaculation. A sample was obtained comprising the 50 top sites retrieved from Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines using the terms 'premature ejaculation'. Each site then was reviewed based on some predefined evaluation criteria to determine the general quality, condition-specific content quality, popularity index and ownership. The websites reviewed were differed highly in terms of quality and ownership. Only a few sites provided comprehensive medical and complete information on premature ejaculation. The online information available is often of uncertain calibre; therefore, men are being exposed to information about premature ejaculation with a highly variable degree quality. This fact should be considered both by health professionals and website owners, and better online resources should be provided for these patients. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The global online sexuality survey (GOSS): The United States of America in 2011 Chapter III--Premature ejaculation among English-speaking male Internet users.

    PubMed

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-07-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East. This report studies the prevalence rate of premature ejaculation (PE) in the U.S. as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for PE. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the USA via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Prevalence of PE as per the International Society of Sexual Medicine's (ISSM) definition. With a mean age of 52.38 years ± 14.5, 1,133 participants reported on sexual function. As per the ISSM definition of PE, the prevalence rate of PE in the USA as of 2011 was 6.3%. This is in contrast to 49.6% as per the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), 77.6% as per unfiltered subjective reports, and 14.4% as per subjective reporting on more consistent basis. 56.3% of the latter reported lifelong PE. 63.2% could be classified as having natural variable PE. Erectile dysfunction is a possible predisposing factor for acquired PE, while genital size concerns may predispose to lifelong PE. Age, irregular coitus, circumcision, and the practice of masturbation did not pose a risk for PE, among other risk factors. Oral treatment for PE was more frequently used and reported to be more effective than local anesthetics, particularly in those with lifelong PE. Applying the ISSM definition, prevalence of PE is far less than diagnosed by other methods, 6.3% among Internet users in USA as of the year 2011. PEDT measures both lifelong and acquired PE, in addition to 35% men with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction, making it inaccurate for isolating lifelong and acquired PE cases. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Effect of DA-8031, a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Sung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Hoe; Lee, Sukhyang

    2014-03-01

    DA-8031 is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA-8031 on male sexual behavior in a rat model. Sexual behavior was examined after an acute oral administration of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of DA-8031 in copulation studies with female rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after oral administration of DA-8031 at a dose level of 30 mg/kg. DA-8031 treatment produced a dose-dependent increase in ejaculation latency time and showed statistical significance at 30 and 100 mg/kg dosage levels compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). In addition, DA-8031 treatment reduced the mean number of ejaculations in a dose-dependent manner. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA-8031 peaked at 0.38 ± 0.14 h after oral administration, and then rapidly declined with a half-life of 1.79 ± 0.32 h. Treatment with DA-8031 delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA-8031 is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA-8031 as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. A clinical trial of the beta blocker propranolol in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Magnus, R V

    1984-01-01

    Twelve male patients, with a primary complaint of premature ejaculation in a setting of chronic anxiety with prominent somatic manifestations, participated in a double-blind trial: propranolol against placebo. The study consisted of 5 X 4 week phases: run-in, propranolol or placebo--120 mg/day allocated randomly, wash-out; placebo or propranolol and run-out, in a balanced design. Anxiety was rated initially, and every 2 weeks, throughout the trial using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Sitting blood pressure and pulse were also noted. The time to coital ejaculation (every 3 days) was recorded using a stopwatch, and subjects were also required to rate "overall coital satisfaction" and "quality of erection". Neither prematurity nor other signs/symptoms of anxiety improved on the preparations, which were statistically equivalent. Moderate beta-blockade was achieved with propranolol as evidenced by a median reduction in pulse rate of 5 beats/min.

  4. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Tae Nam; Baek, Seung Ryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a reactive process caused by the regeneration of an injured nerve that usually forms a nodular proliferation of small nerve bundles. Penile traumatic neuroma is rare; only a few cases related to circumcision have been reported. To report on a case of traumatic neuroma in the penis after selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN) to treat premature ejaculation. The penile traumatic neuroma was successfully removed by excision and confirmed by histopathology. A 55-year-old man who had had several painless, slow-growing nodules on his penis for 2 years presented to our hospital. He had no history of genital trauma, urinary tract infection, or penile surgery, except SDN to treat premature ejaculation. The nodules were excised and the final diagnosis was traumatic neuroma. No recurrence has been detected during 1 year of follow-up. The main complications of SDN are recurrence of premature ejaculation, pain or paresthesia on the glans penis, and erectile dysfunction. However, no traumatic neuroma has been reported as a complication. We report that a traumatic neuroma can occur after SDN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Premature ejaculation results from partners' mismatch: development and validation of index of intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Wen, Y; Jiang, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, B

    2016-05-01

    Mismatch of partners in premature ejaculation (PE) regarding intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is usually neglected. Here we proposed the concept and evaluated the use of index of IELT (IIELT) as an objective diagnostic tool for PE. Data from 103 self-reporting PE patients and 59 normal controls were collected. The expected IELTs of both the male and female partners were provided by each participating couple in two questionnaires. IIELT=stopwatch IELT/(1/2 the male's expected IELT+1/2 the female's expected IELT). The stopwatch IELTs were 1.74±1.4 min (PE group) and 14.45±11.0 min (control group), P<0.05. The expected IELTs were 15.65±8.7 min (men) and 14.16±6.9 min (women) in the PE group, and 21.3±16.1 min (men) and 20.04±13.47 min (women) in the control group, P<0.05. The calculated IIELTs were 0.14±0.12 (PE group) and 0.83±0.60 (control group), P<0.05. The best cut-off point was 0.658, the Youden index was 0.652, sensitivity was 0.991, specificity was 0.661, positive predictive probability was 83.46% and negative predictive probability was 97.6%. We concluded that IIELT was an integrated measurement of the couples' sexual equilibrium and demonstrated that it provided a simple and objective screening indicator for diagnosing self-reported PE.

  6. Lifestyle Factors and Premature Ejaculation: Are Physical Exercise, Alcohol Consumption, and Body Mass Index Associated With Premature Ejaculation and Comorbid Erectile Problems?

    PubMed

    Ventus, Daniel; Jern, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual problem in men, but its etiology remains uncertain. Lifestyle factors have long been hypothesized to be associated with sexual problems in general and have been proposed as risk factors for PE. To explore associations among physical exercise, alcohol use, body mass index, PE, and erectile dysfunction. A population-based sample of Finnish men and a sample of Finnish men diagnosed with PE were surveyed for statistical comparisons. Participants using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other medications known to affect symptoms of PE were excluded from analyses. Self-report questionnaires: Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. The clinical sample reported lower levels of physical exercise (mean = 27.53, SD = 21.01, n = 69) than the population-based sample (mean = 34.68, SD = 22.82, n = 863, t930 = 2.52, P = .012), and the effect size was large (d = 0.85). There was a small negative correlation between levels of physical exercise and symptoms of PE (r = -0.09, P < .01, n = 863) in the population-based sample. The association between physical exercise and PE remained significant after controlling for effects of age, erectile dysfunction, alcohol use, and body mass index. If future studies show that the direction of causality of this association is such that physical activity alleviates PE symptoms, then including physical activity in PE treatment interventions could be a promising addition to treatment regimes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Premature ejaculation: on defining and quantifying a common male sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) and its individual and relationship consequences have been recognized in the literature for centuries. PE is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions, affecting nearly one in three men worldwide between the ages of 18 and 59 years. Until recently, PE was believed to be a learned behavior predominantly managed with psychosexual therapy; however, the past few decades have seen significant advances in understanding its etiology, diagnosis, and management. There is, as yet, no one universally agreed upon definition of PE. To review five currently published definitions of PE. The Sexual Medicine Society of North America hosted a State of the Art Conference on Premature Ejaculation on June 24-26, 2005 in collaboration with the University of South Florida. The purpose was to have an open exchange of contemporary research and clinical information on PE. There were 16 invited presenters and discussants; the group focused on several educational objectives. Data were utilized from the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association, the European Association of Urology, the Second International Consultation on Sexual Dysfunctions, and the American Urological Association. The current published definitions of PE have many similarities; however, none of these provide a specific "time to ejaculation," in part because of the absence of normative data on this subject. While investigators agree that men with PE have a shortened intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT; i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation), there is now a greater appreciation of PE as a multidimensional dysfunction encompassing several components, including time and subjective parameters such as "control,"satisfaction," and "distress." There is a recent paradigm shift away from PE as a unidimensional disorder of IELT toward a multidimensional description of PE as a biologic dysfunction with psychosocial components.

  8. Acupuncture versus paroxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sunay, Didem; Sunay, Melih; Aydoğmuş, Yasin; Bağbancı, Sahin; Arslan, Hüseyin; Karabulut, Ayhan; Emir, Levent

    2011-05-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used by many researchers in both male and female sexual dysfunction studies. To determine whether acupuncture is effective as a premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with paroxetine and placebo. The study was conducted with methodologic rigor based on Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria. Ninety patients referred to the urology clinic at a tertiary training and research hospital with PE were included in this randomized controlled trial and randomly assigned into paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo groups. Heterosexual, sexually active men aged between 28 and 50 yr were included. Men with other sexual disorders, including erectile dysfunction; with chronic psychiatric or systemic diseases; with alcohol or substance abuse; or who used any medications were excluded. The medicated group received paroxetine 20 mg/d; the acupuncture or sham-acupuncture (placebo) groups were treated twice a week for 4 wk. Intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were used to assess PE. IELTs were calculated by using a partner-held stopwatch. Data were analyzed statistically. Median PEDT scores of paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo groups were 17.0, 16.0, and 15.5 before treatment, and 10.5, 11.0, and 16.0 after treatment, respectively (p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.314, respectively). Subscores after treatment were significantly lower than subscores before treatment in the paroxetine and acupuncture groups but remained the same in the placebo group. Significant differences were found between mean-rank IELTs of the paroxetine and placebo groups (p=0.001) and the acupuncture and placebo groups (p=0.001) after treatment. Increases of IELTs with paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo acupuncture were 82.7, 65.7, and 33.1 s, respectively. Extent of ejaculation delay induced by paroxetine was significantly higher than that of acupuncture (p=0.001). The most important limitation

  9. Premature Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel like you are about to have an orgasm. Then the stimulation stops for about 30 seconds. Once you regain control of your response, stimulation begins again. This process is repeated 3 or 4 times before you allow yourself to have an orgasm. The squeeze method works in a similar way. ...

  10. Proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weifu; Kumar, Pardeep; Minhas, Suks; Ralph, David

    2005-09-01

    To review and present the proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation (PE). Using Medline to search for international peer reviewed manuscripts published from 1996 to 2004 about the definition and diagnosis of PE. PE, to date, has not a universally agreed definition and diagnostic criterion. Many definitions are partial, subjective and nonspecific. An ideal definition or diagnostic criterion should consist of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), the ability to control over ejaculation, the extent of male sexual satisfaction, the extent of female sexual satisfaction, the frequency of female sexual partner reaching orgasm and the extent of psychological and pathological factors. Therefore, the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE) seems an ideal tool and criterion used to diagnose PE due to including all the elements above. In the majority of cases, PE is the result of a mix of psychogenic, physiological and organic factors. So, besides some routine tests such as urine routine test, endocrine hormone assay, psychosexual counseling, couple evaluation and physical examination, prostate examination, serum leptin assay, semen magnesium assessment and glans hypersensitivity measurement, are suggested to be performed in the diagnosis of PE. Although elucidated by two clinical trials and further confirmed, serum leptin assay seems a promising and objective marker to diagnose PE because it is related to the serotonergic system whose disorder has been confirmed to contribute to the etiology of PE. None of these definitions and diagnoses has been accepted as a universal agreement of PE. CIPE seems an ideal tool and criterion used to diagnose PE and leptin maybe become a promising and objective marker for PE.

  11. Circumcision does not have effect on premature ejaculation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Wang, X; Bai, Y; Han, P

    2018-03-01

    We attempted to evaluate whether circumcision has an effect on premature ejaculation. We searched three databases: PubMed, EMBASE and Google scholar on 1 May 2016 for eligible studies that referred to male sexual function after circumcision. No language restrictions were imposed. The Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software was employed for data analysis, and the fixed or the random-effect model was selected depending on the heterogeneity. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, containing a total of 10019 circumcised and 11570 uncircumcised men. All studies were divided into five subgroups by types of study design to evaluate the effect of circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), difficulty of orgasm, erectile dysfunction (ED) and pain during intercourse were also assessed because PE was usually discussed along with these subjects. There were no significant differences in PE (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-1.13; p = .37) and orgasm (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89-1.21; p = .65) between circumcised and uncircumcised group. However, IELT (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83; p < .00001), ED (OR, 0.42;95% CI, 0.22-0.78; p = .40) and pain during intercourse (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.76; p = .007) favoured circumcised group. Based on these findings, circumcision does not have effect on PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. The relationship between female sexual function index domains and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Canat, Lütfi; Değirmentepe, Recep Burak; Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Alkan, İlter; Özbir, Sait; Çulha, Mehmet Gökhan; Ötünçtemur, Alper

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and female sexual response cycle, using the female sexual function index (FSFI). The FSFI evaluates female sexual function in six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. All men were considered to have PE if they fulfilled the criteria of the second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee. All men were also assessed by the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) using stopwatch which was held by the partner. All women completed the FSFI. A total of 181 couples who had regular sexual intercourse with one partner for the past 6 months were enrolled the study. By the definition of ISSM Committee, there were 117 men with PE and 64 men without PE. Partners of men with PE had significantly lower total FSFI scores than did partners of men without PE (21.8 ± 3.5 for PE and 26.4 ± 3.1 for non-PE, p < 0.001). Moreover, all the domains of the FSFI scoring system were separately associated with PE. According to the mean FSFI scores, the 48.43% of women had sexual dysfunction in the non-PE group, and all women had sexual dysfunction in PE group. PE is associated with female sexual dysfunction and all of the female sexual dysfunction domains, as determined by FSFI scores.

  13. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The use of tramadol "on-demand" for premature ejaculation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Billy L K; Malde, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of tramadol in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) by systematically reviewing the results of randomized controlled trials. All studies evaluating the efficacy of tramadol for the treatment of PE published in peer reviewed medical journals between 2006 and March 2012 were identified by searching for the keywords "premature ejaculation" and "tramadol" in the PubMed database. Only randomized controlled trials published in the English language were included. A total of 5 articles, comprising 823 patients, met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Overall, tramadol on-demand results in a significant improvement in mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and symptom scores compared with placebo and in an improvement in partner sexual satisfaction scores. The rate of short-term adverse effects is low. Tramadol is an effective treatment for patients with PE and represents a promising alternative to the currently used oral pharmacologic agents. Longer-term safety studies, and those comparing tramadol with the selective serotonin receptor inhibitors, are essential to determine the place of tramadol in the treatment of this distressing condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE)

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and partner, assessment, and pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments. It concluded by recognizing the continually evolving nature of clinical research and recommended a subsequent guideline review and revision every fourth year. Consistent with that recommendation, the ISSM organized a second multidisciplinary panel of experts in April 2013, which met for 2 days in Bangalore, India. This manuscript updates the previous guidelines and reports on the recommendations of the panel of experts. Aim The aim of this study was to develop clearly worded, practical, evidenced-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. Method A comprehensive literature review was performed. Results This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous treatment recommendations. Brief assessment procedures are delineated, and validated diagnostic and treatment questionnaires are reviewed. Finally, the best practices treatment recommendations are presented to guide clinicians, both familiar and unfamiliar with PE, in facilitating treatment of their patients. Conclusion Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG

  16. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision as an appropriate diagnostic for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Ridwan; Rowland, David

    2007-09-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for premature ejaculation (PE) are multifactorial, and include concepts of latency, perceived control over ejaculation, and personal distress and interpersonal difficulty related to the condition. Recent publications have suggested that these criteria are not supported by empirical evidence, leading to the proposal that a PE diagnosis should be based solely on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), while the presence of other factors (such as perceived lack of control over ejaculation) may be used to guide treatment decisions. To examine the evidence supporting the elements of the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PE. Literature searches on IELT, perceived control over ejaculation, and personal distress and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation. From a historical perspective, there has been a lack of large observational studies that evaluated the contributions of the DSM-IV-TR components in men with PE. However, recently performed large observational studies have generated data supporting the inclusion of perceived control over ejaculation and personal distress related to ejaculation in the definition of PE. Furthermore, emerging evidence indicates that a perceived lack of control over ejaculation is directly associated with elevated personal distress related to ejaculation and decreased satisfaction with sexual intercourse, while the effects of IELT on these parameters are indirect, and mediated by perceived control over ejaculation. A key advantage of the DSM-IV-TR approach to the diagnosis of PE is that it firmly links PE to a negative outcome for the patient, which is an element common to diagnostic criteria for other conditions, including depression, hypertension, and osteoporosis. This new evidence strongly suggests that the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PE encompass aspects of the condition that patients describe as important.

  17. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the efficacy of circumcision for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Jiang, H-S; Zhu, L-L; Zhang, Z; Chen, H; Dai, Y-T

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and mechanism of circumcision in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) with redundant prepuce, we enrolled a total of 81 PE patients who received circumcision. The patients' ejaculatory ability and sexual performances were evaluated before and after circumcision by using questionnaires (Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), Chinese Index of PE with 5 questions (CIPE-5) and International Index of Erectile function- 5 (IIEF-5)). Furthermore, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) including dorsal nerve (DNSEP) and glans penis (GPSEP) of the patients were also measured. The mean IELTs of preoperation and post operation were 1.10±0.55 and 2.48±2.03 min, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, the geometric mean IELT after operation was 2.16 min, compared with the baseline 1.07 min before the operation, the fold increase of the IELT was 2.02. Compared with the uncircumcised status, scores of CIPE-5 showed a significant increase after circumcision (P<0.001). The mean latencies (and amplitudes) of GPSEP and DNSEP were 38.1±4.0 ms (3.0±1.9 uV) and 40.5±3.4 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) before circumcision, respectively; and 42.8±3.3 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) and 40.5±4.1 ms (2.4±1.2 uV) in the follow-up end point after circumcision. Only the latencies of GPSEP showed significant prolongation before and after circumcision (P<0.001). The ejaculation time improvement after circumcision is so small, and equal to placebo response, therefore it could not be interpreted as a therapeutic method in men with PE.

  18. Understanding the effects of establishing various cutoff criteria in the definition of men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Kolba, Tiffany N

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, professional organizations and consensus groups have offered a variety of definitions for premature ejaculation (PE), all generally including a set of common concepts but all varying in specific language and operationalization. Clearly articulated definitions of such conditions are important because they not only affect prevalence rates but also diagnostic inclusion-who is deemed to have the condition and therefore who might be eligible for treatment. The current study had two goals: (i) to examine the effects on prevalence rates of moving the cutoff points from more stringent to less stringent for each of three PE criteria-ejaculatory latency, distress, and ejaculating before desired; and (ii) to explore in detail the relationships among the three criteria. Using an Internet-based sample of 1,183 men, we examined the responses of 374 with PE-type symptoms based on consensus definitions, and determined the effect of decreasing restrictions on the cutoff criteria. In addition, we calculated both correlations and concordance rates among criteria. Numeric and graphic depiction of the effects of moving the cutoff point for each of the three criteria is provided in the URL "PE Prevalence," a dynamic tool developed specifically for this study (https://sites.google.com/a/valpo.edu/PEprevalence/). In addition, statistical relationships among the PE criteria suggest sufficient independence to warrant inclusion of all three in a diagnostic procedure as well as to consider a 2-minute ejaculatory latency as the threshold for a PE diagnosis. Based on our data, clinicians should approach the 1-minute ejaculatory latency time (ELT) criterion with flexibility, considering ELTs up to 2 minutes for a PE diagnosis. At the same time, frequency of occurrence of either ejaculating before desired or of distress about the condition, as long as they reach at least 50% of the time, had only minor impact on PE diagnostic inclusion. © 2015 International Society for

  19. Interplay Between Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Limoncin, Erika; Sforza, Alessandra; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Maggi, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The specific determinants and underlying factors linking erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze all available data regarding the link between ED and PE. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: "premature ejaculation" and "erectile dysfunction". All observational trials comparing the risk of ED in relation to PE were included. Data extraction was performed independently by two of the authors (G.R, G.C.), and conflicts resolved by the third investigator (M.M.). Out of 474 retrieved articles, 18 were included in the study for a total of 57,229 patients, of which 12,144 (21.2%) had PE. The presence of PE, however defined, was associated with a significant increase in ED risk (odds ratio: 3.68[2.61;5.18]; P < 0.0001). Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of ED in PE subjects was higher in older individuals as well as in those with a lower level of education and in those who reported a stable relationship less frequently. In addition, subjects with PE and ED more often reported anxiety and depressive symptoms and a lower prevalence of organic associated morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All the latter associations were confirmed even after adjustment for age. Finally the risk of PE-related ED increased with the increased proportion of acquired ejaculatory problems (adj r = 0.414; P < 0.0001 after the adjustment for age). In conclusion, the present data showed that ED and PE are not distinctly separate entities, but should be considered from a dimensional point of view. Understanding this dimensional perspective might help sexual health care professionals in providing the most appropriate therapeutic approach to realistically increase patient related outcomes in sexual medicine. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. The Premature Ejaculation Profile: validation of self-reported outcome measures for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P < 0.001). Men who reported a reduction in PE with treatment in the phase III trial had significantly greater scores on each of the four measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P < 0.001) in both observational studies; higher levels of PGI were associated with higher PEP profiles (P < 0.001). The PEP index score also showed acceptable reliability and was significantly different between the PE and non-PE groups (P < 0.001). Men who reported an improvement in PE with treatment in the phase III trial had significantly greater PEP index scores. In the phase III trial, nausea was the most common adverse event with dapoxetine. The PEP provides a reliable, valid, and interpretable measure for use in monitoring

  1. Pharmacological/dynamic rehabilitative behavioural therapy for premature ejaculation: Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Franco

    2017-06-30

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a sexual disorder characterised by excessive rapidity of orgasm. It is defined as either primary (60%), present since the onset of sexual activity, or secondary (40%), manifesting later in life. To date, dapoxetine is the only preparation approved for the on-demand treatment of PE. However, side effects, costs associated with the treatment of chronic PE, drug dependence and its variable effectiveness leads to a not insignificant drop-out rate. Dynamic rehabilitative/behavioural therapy may be a viable therapeutic option, working alongside pharmacological treatment, as long as the participation and involvement of both the individual and the couple is optimal. 18 patients were enrolled, aged between 25 and 55 (mean: 40), all with primary PE, free of comorbidities and with their partners involved. Six patients were prescribed 30 mg dapoxetine two hours before sexual relations for 3 months (group A); 6 patients began the dynamic rehabilitative treatment (group B); 6 other couples were assigned to pharmacological treatment in association with dynamic rehabilitative behavioural treatment for 3 months (group C). Division of subjects was carried out by simple randomisation, excluding patients with a short frenulum, phimosis, ED, chronic prostatitis or experiencing results from previous treatment. Outcomes of treatment were evaluated at the end of the 3 months of treatment and 3 months after discontinuing treatment. In Group A 75% of patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group B 25% patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group C 75% of patients were cured 3 months and 50% at 6 months. "Cured" means a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) score reduced from an average of 12 to an average of 6 and Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IELT) values from < 1 to > 6 minutes. the integration of pharmacological treatment with dynamic behavioural rehabilitation has the specific aim of optimising and

  2. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and its clinical characteristics in Korean men according to different definitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Lee, J H; Sung, H H; Park, H J; Park, J K; Choi, S K; Kam, S C

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) diagnosed by the PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) score, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). It examined the characteristics of males diagnosed with PE by each criterion. A questionnaire survey enrolled 2081 subjects from March to October, 2010. Stopwatch-recorded IELT was measured in 1035 of the 2081 subjects. We aimed to determine whether PE has an influence on the frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse, the degree of libido/erectile function and the satisfaction. These factors were evaluated according to different definitions of PE to assess whether the definition used yielded differences in the data. The prevalence of PE, based on a PEDT score of ≥11, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded IELT of ≤1 min was 11.3%, 19.5% and 3%, respectively. The prevalence of PE diagnoses based on PEDT score and self-reporting increased with age, but stopwatch-recorded IELT-based diagnoses did not. Males experiencing PE showed lower levels of libido, erectile function and frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse compared with non-PE males. PE males felt that they did not satisfy their partners in terms of the partners' sexual satisfaction and frequency of orgasm, in comparison with non-PE males. PE is a highly prevalent sexual dysfunction in males. Regardless of whether the PE diagnosis was made on the basis of self-reporting, PEDT score or stopwatch-recorded IELT, subjective symptoms were similar among PE males.

  3. Dapoxetine: a new option in the medical management of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological consequences. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common, effective and safe. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill an unmet treatment need. The objective of this article is to review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. MEDLINE, Web of Science, PICA, EMBASE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings were searched for publications or abstracts published during the period 1993–2012 that used the word ‘dapoxetine’ in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase I, II and III studies, independent postmarketing and pharmacovigilance efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Dapoxetine is a potent SSRI which is administered on demand 1–3 h prior to planned sexual contact. It is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation, and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in five industry-sponsored randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged at least 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine versus placebo (all p <0.001). The most common treatment-related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg

  4. Relationship between premature ejaculation and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2015-03-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common etiology of premature ejaculation (PE). However, the current data are insufficient to explain this relationship and to support routine screening of men with PE. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between PE and CP/CPPS. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8,261 men who had participated in a health examination. The Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF) were used for assessment of symptoms. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. We then investigated the relationship using the Spearman correlation test, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression analyses. Associations of PEDT with NIH-CPSI. The mean age was 50.4 ± 5.5 years. In total, 2,205 (24.9%) men had prostatitis-like symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥4 and perineal or ejaculatory pain), and 618 (7.0%) men had moderate to severe symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥8). Additionally, 2,144 men (24.2%) were classified as demonstrating PE (PEDT > 10). The PEDT score was found to have a significant positive correlation with the NIH-CPSI pain domain score (correlation coefficient = 0.206; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, metabolic syndrome status, testosterone level, and IIEF score, there was no change in the positive correlation between the NIH-CPSI pain domain score and PEDT score (Beta = 0.175; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, testosterone level, metabolic syndrome, and IIEF score, the odds ratio (OR) for PE significantly increased with the severity of pelvic pain (mild prostatitis-like symptoms, OR for PE: 1.269, 95% confidence interval: 1.113-1.447; moderate to severe symptoms, OR for PE: 2.134: 95% confidence interval: 1.782-2.557). Our data showed a significant correlation between the

  5. Cross-cultural differences in women's sexuality and their perception and impact of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Graziottin, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cross-cultural differences in women's perception of premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 1463 sexually active women from 3 different countries—Mexico, South Korea, and Italy—reporting being or having been in a relationship with a man who suffers from PE were included in the study. A mix of self-constructed questions and questions taken from validated instruments were used, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Significant differences in importance of ejaculatory control and the degree of distress caused by PE were detected between the 3 countries (P < .001 for both). Lack of control was the most commonly reported reason for distress for Mexico, short latency for Italy, and lack of control for South Korea. Mexico reported the highest rates of previous relationship breakups due to PE (28.9%), whereas Italian women reported the lowest relationship satisfaction and South Korean women the highest. It is important to get a better understanding of which sexual issues are important for individuals across different cultures, and whether the same aspects of the problem are considered distressing. This can have implications on nosology, on types of treatments offered, and hence, the likelihood of their efficiency when a couple's sexual perspective is carefully considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Further definition on the multiple partner choice arena: a potential animal model for the study of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Olayo-Lortia, Jesús; Ferreira-Nuño, Armando; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Morales-Otal, Adriana

    2014-10-01

    The multiple partner choice arena (MPCA) is an experimental setup in which male rats display a significant shortening of ejaculation latency, which is the main characteristic of premature ejaculation (PE) in men. Thus, the MPCA is a potential animal model for PE. In this study, we further analyze whether the features of the MPCA satisfy the validity criteria for it to be considered an animal model as well as the possible participation of the serotoninergic system in the faster ejaculation exhibited by male rats in the MPCA. In Experiment 1, male rats were tested in a standard arena to assess their sexual behavior, then were assessed 1 week later in the MPCA. Another group was first tested in the MPCA, then in a standard arena. In Experiment 2, male rats divided into two groups were treated daily with WAY-100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist) or vehicle for 15 days. In each group, half of the subjects were tested in a standard arena and half were tested in the MPCA on days 1, 8, and 15 of treatment. Number of intromissions and intromission and ejaculation latencies were the main outcome measures. In Experiment 1, males tested in the MPCA ejaculated significantly faster, regardless of the order in which they were evaluated in both arenas. In Experiment 2, the administration of WAY-100635 increased intromission and ejaculation latencies, and the number of intromissions in the MPCA. The results obtained in the MPCA support its use as an animal model for PE evaluation. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. Results: At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. Conclusion: The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE. PMID:29850442

  8. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE.

  9. Premature and delayed ejaculation: two ends of a single continuum influenced by hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Jannini, E A; Lotti, F; Boddi, V; De Vita, G; Forti, G; Lenzi, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2011-02-01

    Although it is well established that all the aspects of male reproduction are hormonally regulated, the endocrine control of the ejaculatory reflex is still not completely clarified. Sex steroids, thyroid and pituitary hormones (oxytocin and prolactin) have been proposed to control the ejaculatory process at various levels; however, only a few reports are currently available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of testosterone, thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) in the pathogenesis of ejaculatory dysfunction in a large series of subjects consulting for sexual dysfunction. Among the 2652 patients studied, 674 (25.2%) and 194 (7.3%) reported premature and delayed ejaculation (PE and DE), respectively. Categorizing ejaculatory difficulties on an eight-point scale starting from severe PE and ending with anejaculation (0 = severe PE, 1 = moderate PE, 2 = mild PE, 3 = no difficulties, 4 = mild DE, 5 = moderate DE, 6 = severe DE and 7 = anejaculation), PRL as well as TSH levels progressively increased from patients with severe PE towards those with anejaculation. Conversely, the opposite was observed for testosterone levels. All of these associations were confirmed after adjustment for age (adjusted r = 0.050, 0.053 and -0.038 for PRL, TSH and testosterone, respectively; all p < 0.05). When all hormonal parameters were introduced in the same regression model, adjusting for age, ΣMHQ (an index of general psychopathology) and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, they were independently associated with ejaculatory problems (adjusted r = 0.056, 0.047 and -0.059 for PRL, TSH and testosterone, respectively; all p < 0.05). This study indicates endocrine system is involved in the control of ejaculatory function and that PRL, TSH and testosterone play an independent role. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2010 European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Percutaneous CT-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve for treatment of symptomatic premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    David Prologo, J; Snyder, Laura L; Cherullo, Edward; Passalacqua, Matthew; Pirasteh, Ali; Corn, David

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate expansion of image-guided interventional cryoablation techniques usually employed for pain management to address the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of treatment for a urologic condition with otherwise limited treatment options, premature ejaculation (PE). Prospective institutional review board approval was obtained, and 24 subjects with PE were enrolled. All patients underwent unilateral percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN). Postprocedural intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE Profile (PEP) results served as outcome variables. In addition, subjects were asked whether they would have the procedure done again based on their experience at the 180- and 360-day marks. The technical success rate was 100%. Baseline average IELT was 54.7 seconds ± 7.8 (n = 24), which increased to a maximum of 256 seconds ± 104 (n = 11; P = .241) by day 7 and decreased to 182.5 seconds ± 87.8 (n = 6; P = .0342) by day 90. The mean IELT remained at 182.5 seconds ± 27.6 at day 180 (n = 23; P<.0001) and decreased to 140.9 seconds ± 83.6 by 1 year (n = 22; P<.001). PEP scores improved overall, IELTs significantly improved at 180 and 360 days, and 83% of subjects reported that they would undergo the procedure again if given the same opportunity. There were no procedure-related complications. CT-guided percutaneous unilateral cryoablation of the DPN is a feasible, safe, single-day outpatient procedure for the treatment of symptomatic PE. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes of cerebral current source by audiovisual erotic stimuli in premature ejaculation patients.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jae-Seog; Kam, Sung-Chul; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2008-06-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction. The mechanisms of PE remain poorly understood, despite its high prevalence. To investigate the pathophysiology and causes of PE in the central nervous system, we tried to observe the changes in brain current source distribution by audiovisual induction of sexual arousal. Electroencephalograpies were recorded in patients with PE (45.0 +/- 10.3 years old, N = 18) and in controls (45.6 +/- 9.8 years old, N = 18) during four 10-minute segments of resting, watching a music video excerpt, resting, and watching an erotic video excerpt. Five artifact-free 5-second segments were used to obtain cross-spectral low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) images. Statistical nonparametric maps (SnPM) were obtained to detect the current density changes of six frequency bands between the erotic video session and the music video session in each group. Comparisons were also made between the two groups in the erotic video session. In the SnPM of each spectrum in patients with PE, the current source density of the alpha band was significantly reduced in the right precentral gyrus, the right insula, and both superior parietal lobules (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups in the erotic video session, the current densities of the beta-2 and -3 bands in the PE group were significantly decreased in the right parahippocampal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus (P < 0.01). Neuronal activity in the right precental gyrus, the right insula, both the superior parietal lobule, the right parahippocampal gyrus, and the left middle temporal gyrus may be decreased in PE patients upon sexual arousal. Further studies are needed to evaluate the meaning of decreased neuronal activities in PE patients.

  12. Pharmaceutical companies could serve their own interests by supporting research on the efficacy of psychotherapy on premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D; Cooper, S; Macias, L

    2008-01-01

    For many men, the treatment of sexual dysfunctions such as premature ejaculation may well be most effective when pharmacotherapy is combined with psychotherapy. Yet the essential elements of psychotherapy that might best be combined with pharmacological-based therapy are currently unknown. Support for evidence-based studies that identify key components of psychotherapy that might improve positive long-term outcomes, including patient satisfaction, are needed. Pharmaceutical companies having a vested interest in achieving both treatment adherence and improved patient outcomes could benefit from such information.

  13. Tramadol for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Cooper, Katy; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2015-01-30

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic prescribed off-label for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). However, tramadol may cause addiction and difficulty in breathing and the beneficial effect of tramadol in PE is yet not supported by a high level of evidence. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) for tramadol in the management of PE. We searched bibliographic databases including MEDLINE to August 2014 for RCTs. The primary outcome was intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Methodological quality of RCTs was assessed. Between-group differences in IELT and other outcomes were pooled across RCTs in a meta-analysis. Statistical and clinical between-trial heterogeneity was assessed. A total of eight RCTs that evaluated tramadol against a comparator were included. The majority of RCTs were of unclear methodological quality due to limited reporting. Pooled evidence (four RCTs, 721 participants), suggests that tramadol is significantly more effective than placebo at increasing IELT over eight to 12 weeks (p = 0.0007). However, a high level of statistical heterogeneity is evident (I-squared = 74%). Single RCT evidence indicates that tramadol is significantly more effective than paroxetine taken on-demand, sildenafil, lidocaine gel, or behavioural therapy on IELT in men with PE. Tramadol is associated with significantly more adverse events including: erectile dysfunction, constipation, nausea, headache, somnolence, dry mouth, dizziness, pruritus, and vomiting, than placebo or behavioural therapy over eight to 12 weeks of treatment. However, addiction problems or breathing difficulties reported by patients for PE is not assessed in the current evidence base. Tramadol appears effective in the treatment of PE. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution given the observed levels of between-trial heterogeneity and the reporting quality of the available evidence. The

  14. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT): linguistic validity of the Chinese version.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Jin, Yan; Yang, Qi; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-09-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to standardize the diagnosis of PE and has been applied in many countries. However, a linguistic validation of the Chinese version of PEDT does not exist. This study aims to undertake the Chinese validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and clinical expert diagnosis of PE. A Chinese version of PEDT was confirmed by andrologist and bilingual linguist. Participants were recruited among seven different communities of Shanghai from 2011 to 2012, and their information regarding self-reported PE, self-estimated IELT, expert diagnosis of PE, and PEDT scores were collected. Validity of the PEDT and its association with clinical expert diagnosis of PE and self-estimated IELT were analyzed. A total of 143 patients without PE (mean age 55.11 ± 7.65 years) and 100 men with PE (mean age 53.07 ± 8.08 years) were enrolled for validation. Of the patients in PE group, the number of men reporting self-estimated IELTs of ≤1, 1-2, and >2 minutes were 34 (34.0%), 22 (22.0%), and 44 (44.0%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score (α = 0.77) showed adequate internal consistency, and the test-retest correlation coefficients of each item (r ≥ 0.70, P < 0.001) indicated excellent stability over time. The frequency of agreement showed that there was excellent concordance between PEDT diagnosis and clinician diagnosis when the PEDT scores ≥11. An adequate correlation was found between total PEDT score and self-estimated IELT (ρ = -0.396, P < 0.001), and sensitivity and specificity analyses suggested a score of ≤8 indicated no time-defined PE (self-estimated IELT ≤1 minute). The Chinese version of PEDT is valid in screening the presence of PE among Chinese men. The PEDT showed an adequate negative correlation with self-estimated IELT and an excellent concordance with clinician diagnosis of PE. © 2014

  15. Prevalence and factor association of premature ejaculation among adult Asian males with lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Silangcruz, Jan Michael A.; Chua, Michael E.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) among adult Asian males presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and characterize its association with other clinical factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center to determine the prevalence of PE among adult male participants with LUTS during the Annual National Prostate Health Awareness Day. Basic demographic data of the participants were collected. All participants were assessed for the presence and severity of LUTS using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and for the presence of PE using the PE diagnostic tool. Digital rectal examination was performed by urologists to obtain prostate size. LUTS was further categorized into severity, storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, and nocturia), and voiding symptoms (weak stream, intermittency, straining, and incomplete emptying) to determine their association with PE. Data were analyzed by comparing the participants with PE (PE diagnostic tool score ≥11) versus those without PE, using the independent t test for continuous data, Mann–Whitney U test for ordinal data, and Chi-square test for nominal data. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results A total of 101 male participants with a mean ± standard deviation age of 60.75 ± 10.32 years were included. Among the participants, 33% had moderate LUTS, and 7% severe LUTS. The most common LUTS was nocturia (33%). The overall prevalence of PE was 27%. There was no significant difference among participants with PE versus those without PE in terms of age, marital status, prostate size, or total IPSS score. However, significant difference between groups was noted on the level of education (Mann–Whitney U, z = −1.993, P = 0.046) where high educational status was noted among participants with PE. Likewise, participants with PE were noted to have more prominent weak stream (Mann–Whitney U, z = −2.126, P = 0

  16. Prevalence and factor association of premature ejaculation among adult Asian males with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Silangcruz, Jan Michael A; Chua, Michael E; Morales, Marcelino L

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) among adult Asian males presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and characterize its association with other clinical factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center to determine the prevalence of PE among adult male participants with LUTS during the Annual National Prostate Health Awareness Day. Basic demographic data of the participants were collected. All participants were assessed for the presence and severity of LUTS using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and for the presence of PE using the PE diagnostic tool. Digital rectal examination was performed by urologists to obtain prostate size. LUTS was further categorized into severity, storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, and nocturia), and voiding symptoms (weak stream, intermittency, straining, and incomplete emptying) to determine their association with PE. Data were analyzed by comparing the participants with PE (PE diagnostic tool score ≥11) versus those without PE, using the independent t test for continuous data, Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal data, and Chi-square test for nominal data. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. A total of 101 male participants with a mean ± standard deviation age of 60.75 ± 10.32 years were included. Among the participants, 33% had moderate LUTS, and 7% severe LUTS. The most common LUTS was nocturia (33%). The overall prevalence of PE was 27%. There was no significant difference among participants with PE versus those without PE in terms of age, marital status, prostate size, or total IPSS score. However, significant difference between groups was noted on the level of education (Mann-Whitney U, z = -1.993, P = 0.046) where high educational status was noted among participants with PE. Likewise, participants with PE were noted to have more prominent weak stream (Mann-Whitney U, z = -2.126, P = 0.033). Among the participants consulted

  17. Geometric mean IELT and premature ejaculation: appropriate statistics to avoid overestimation of treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-02-01

    The intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) behaves in a skewed manner and needs the appropriate statistics for correct interpretation of treatment results. To explain the rightful use of geometrical mean IELT values and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT because of the positively skewed IELT distribution. Linking theoretical arguments to the outcome of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and modern antidepressant study results. Geometric mean IELT and fold increase of geometrical mean IELT. Log-transforming each separate IELT measurement of each individual man is the basis for the calculation of the geometric mean IELT. A drug-induced positively skewed IELT distribution necessitates the calculation of the geometric mean IELTs at baseline and during drug treatment. In a positively skewed IELT distribution, the use of the "arithmetic" mean IELT risks an overestimation of the drug-induced ejaculation delay as the mean IELT is always higher than the geometric mean IELT. Strong ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to a strong positively skewed IELT distribution, whereas weak ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to (much) less skewed IELT distributions. Ejaculation delay is expressed in fold increase of the geometric mean IELT. Drug-induced ejaculatory performance discloses a positively skewed IELT distribution, requiring the use of the geometric mean IELT and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT.

  18. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David; McMahon, Chris G; Abdo, Carmita; Chen, Juza; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel D; Ahn, Tai Young

    2010-04-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions, and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines concerning current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men. An international consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 25 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represent the opinion of seven experts from seven countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation and debate. Premature ejaculation management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor [SSRI] and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. Behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, pharmacotherapy, or bladder neck reconstruction. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic atiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm.

  19. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Abdo, Carmita; Incrocci, Luca; Perelman, Michael; Rowland, David; Waldinger, Marcel; Xin, Zhong Cheng

    2004-07-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders, common male sexual dysfunctions, include premature ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations/guidelines concerning state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men. An International Consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 17 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge in the respective sexual medicine topic represent the opinion of experts from five continents developed in a process over a 2-year period. Concerning the Disorders of Ejaculation/Orgasm in Men Committee, there were nine experts from six countries. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation and debate. Premature ejaculation management is dependent upon etiology. When secondary to ED, etiology-specific treatment is employed. When lifelong, initial pharmacotherapy (SSRI, topical anesthesia, PDE5 inhibitors) is appropriate. When associated with psychogenic/relationship factors, behavioral therapy is indicated. When acquired, pharmacotherapy and/or behavioral therapies are preferred. Retrograde ejaculation, diagnosed with spermatozoa and fructose in centrifuged post-ejaculatory voided urine, is managed by education, patient reassurance, pharmacotherapy or bladder neck reconstruction. Men with anejaculation or anorgasmia have a biologic failure of emission and/or psychogenic inhibited ejaculation. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured and be instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. More research is needed in understanding management of men with ejaculation

  20. The impact of premature ejaculation on the subjective perception of orgasmic intensity: validation and standardisation of the 'Orgasmometer'.

    PubMed

    Limoncin, E; Lotti, F; Rossi, M; Maseroli, E; Gravina, G L; Ciocca, G; Mollaioli, D; Di Sante, S; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no psychometric tools have been specifically developed to measure if premature ejaculation (PE) is related to low sexual pleasure in terms of perception of orgasmic intensity. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate if men with PE suffer from a low perception of orgasmic intensity using a new tool, the 'Orgasmometer', to quantitatively measure the intensity of orgasmic pleasure. Among 329 subjects attending our andrological unit for suspected PE, 257 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 156 (60.7%; 156/257) were affected by PE (PE group) and 101 (39.3%; 101/257) did not have any sexual dysfunction (Control group). Men were requested to fill out the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the Orgasmometer, a new visual tool recording orgasm intensity on a Likert scale. Interestingly, MANCOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.044) in the subjective perception of orgasm intensity with the PE group scoring lower on the Orgasmometer (mean 5.8; 95% CI 5.191-6.409) than the Control group (mean 7.95; 95% CI 7.033-8.87). In addition, multiple linear regression revealed an inverse correlation between the PEDT and the Orgasmometer scores (p < 0.0001). Hence, higher PEDT scores were associated with a lower subjective perception of orgasmic intensity. The Orgasmometer was well understood, had good test-retest reliability and a high AUC in differentiating between men with high and low orgasmic pleasure intensity. The ROC curve analysis showed that a cut-off ≤6 had 87.7% sensitivity (95% CI 79.6-92.6), 95% specificity (95% CI 88.7-98.4), 95.3% positive predictive value (PPV) and 86.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Men affected by premature ejaculation perceived significantly lower orgasmic intensity than sexually healthy men. The Orgasmometer is an easy-to-perform, user-friendly tool for measuring orgasmic intensity. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and

  1. Event-level impact of Promescent on quality of sexual experience in men with subjective premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Mark, K P; Kerner, I

    2016-01-01

    Promescent is a lidocaine-based ejaculation delaying spray that absorbs into the skin of the penis prior to sexual activity. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of Promescent on the experience of orgasm, ejaculatory latency time and quality of sexual experience (QSE). Additionally, we assessed ease of application of Promescent and the extent to which it enhanced or interrupted the sexual experience. The analytic sample consisted of 91 men with self-reported subjective premature ejaculation who were sent a sample of Promescent and completed a 14-day internet-based prospective daily electronic report. Average ejaculatory latency time was 11.16 min during product use events, compared with 6.81 min during product non-use events. Both members of the couple had an orgasm 65.6% of the time when they used the product, compared with 44.1% when they did not use the product. QSE was significantly improved on product use days (P<0.05). Quality also significantly improved each subsequent time the product was used (P<0.01). The product was reported as easy to use and did not interrupt the sexual experience. Findings suggest that the use of this topical spray significantly improves QSE and perception of partner experience, and that these improve with longer duration of use. PMID:27557610

  2. Event-level impact of Promescent on quality of sexual experience in men with subjective premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Mark, K P; Kerner, I

    2016-11-01

    Promescent is a lidocaine-based ejaculation delaying spray that absorbs into the skin of the penis prior to sexual activity. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of Promescent on the experience of orgasm, ejaculatory latency time and quality of sexual experience (QSE). Additionally, we assessed ease of application of Promescent and the extent to which it enhanced or interrupted the sexual experience. The analytic sample consisted of 91 men with self-reported subjective premature ejaculation who were sent a sample of Promescent and completed a 14-day internet-based prospective daily electronic report. Average ejaculatory latency time was 11.16 min during product use events, compared with 6.81 min during product non-use events. Both members of the couple had an orgasm 65.6% of the time when they used the product, compared with 44.1% when they did not use the product. QSE was significantly improved on product use days (P<0.05). Quality also significantly improved each subsequent time the product was used (P<0.01). The product was reported as easy to use and did not interrupt the sexual experience. Findings suggest that the use of this topical spray significantly improves QSE and perception of partner experience, and that these improve with longer duration of use.

  3. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine hydrochloride, a novel agent for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nishit B; Dresser, Mark J; Simon, Mary; Lin, Denise; Desai, Dhaval; Gupta, Suneel

    2006-03-01

    Dapoxetine is a serotonin transporter inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This randomized, 2-sequence, 2-treatment crossover study assessed the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine following once-daily administration of dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg to healthy male volunteers. Dapoxetine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations reached approximately 1 hour after dosing; plasma concentrations after single doses of dapoxetine decreased rapidly to approximately 5% of peak concentrations by 24 hours. Elimination was biphasic, with an initial half-life of approximately 1.4 hours and a terminal half-life of approximately 20 hours. Dapoxetine showed time-invariant pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality between doses, and its pharmacokinetics was unaffected by multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine metabolites, desmethyldapoxetine and dapoxetine-N-oxide, was similarly unaffected by multiple dosing. There were no serious adverse events; the most commonly reported adverse events were diarrhea, dizziness, and nausea.

  4. Psychometric validation of a sexual quality of life questionnaire for use in men with premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Lucy; Symonds, Tara; Morris, Mark F

    2008-03-01

    An instrument that can systematically capture the impact of sexual dysfunction on quality of life (QoL) in men is needed. To psychometrically validate a sexual QoL instrument for men (SQOL-M) with premature ejaculation (PE) or erectile dysfunction (ED). The main assessment populations were men participating in clinical trials of treatments for PE or ED. Men with PE had a confirmed intravaginal ejaculatory latency time of < or = 2 minutes in > or = 70% of attempts. Men with ED had a score of > 21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Confirmatory psychometric testing was conducted in further groups of men with PE. The internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and known-groups validity of the instrument were assessed. An 11-item version of the SQOL-M was produced following factor analyses on men with either PE or ED. Psychometric testing showed no overlap between items and good item-total correlations. Factor analysis confirmed a one-factor solution. Excellent internal consistency was demonstrated, with a Cronbach's alpha of > or = 0.82 in all groups. In men reporting no change in their symptoms, the SQOL-M showed excellent test-retest reliability: the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.77 for men with PE, and 0.79 for men with ED. Convergent validity was also good. In men with PE, the SQOL-M correlated with the satisfaction and distress domains of the Index of Premature Ejaculation. In men with ED, the SQOL-M correlated with the overall satisfaction domain of the IIEF. The measure also demonstrated excellent discriminant validity between men with PE or ED and men with no sexual dysfunction (P < 0.0001). The SQOL-M instrument is a useful tool for evaluating sexual QoL in men with PE and ED.

  5. The diagnostic value of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Kam, Sung Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2011-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male ejaculation disorder. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the DSM-IV-TR criteria in diagnostic PE. To evaluate the diagnostic value of the PEDT and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). (i) Korean validation of PEDT: data was collected from men interviewed by one of the two clinical experts, who made a diagnostic of present or absence of PE, using DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 103 patients with PE and 100 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the PEDT; and (ii) The correlation between IELT and PEDT: 200 participants were enrolled and each participant was asked to make out PEDT. All participants were requested to measure IELT. Validity and reliability of the PEDT and its association with IELT. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 115.37 ± 78.14 seconds. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1 to ≤ 2, and >2 minutes were 28 (28.6%), 29 (29.6%), and 41 (41.8%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score was calculated as 0.93, showing adequate internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.72 and the correlation coefficients of the total score was 0.88. (P < 0.001) Sensitivity and specificity analyses suggested a score of ≤ 8 indicated no PE, 9 and 10 probable PE, and ≥ 11 PE. The PEDT total score and IELT showed an adequate negative correlation. (ρ = -0.77, P < 0.0001) also, the PEDT total score of the PE subgroup (IELT ≤ 2 minutes) and IELT showed a negative correlation. (ρ = -0.6, P < 0.0001) The PEDT was highly effective in detecting the presence of PE. The result of our study supports its validity as a diagnostic tool in the clinical setting. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. A novel treatment modality in patients with premature ejaculation resistant to conventional methods: the neuromodulation of dorsal penile nerves by pulsed radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Basal, Seref; Goktas, Serdar; Ergin, Atilla; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Atim, Abdulkadir; Tahmaz, Lutfi; Dayanc, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem experienced by men, and it affects 20%-30% of them. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has been shown to be an effective treatment for a wide range of pain conditions. We used PRF to treat PE by desensitizing dorsal penile nerves in patients resistant to conventional treatments. Fifteen patients with a lifelong history of PE, defined as an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of <1 minute that occurred in more than 90% of acts of intercourse and was resistant to conventional treatments, were enrolled in this study. Patients with erectile dysfunction were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 39 +/- 9 years. Before and 3 weeks after the treatment, IELT and sexual satisfaction score (SSS; for patients and their partners) were obtained. The mean IELTs before and 3 weeks after procedure were 18.5 +/- 17.9 and 139.9 +/- 55.1 seconds, respectively. Side effects did not occur. Mean SSSs of patients before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5, and mean SSSs of partners before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.5, respectively. In all cases, IELT and SSS were significantly increased (P < .05). None of the patients or their wives reported any treatment failure during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 +/- 1.9 months. It is early to conclude that this new treatment modality might be used widely for the treatment of PE; however, because it is an innovative modality, placebo-controlled studies (eg, sham procedure), with larger numbers of patients and including assessment of penile sensitivity (eg, biothesiometry), are needed.

  7. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  8. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Revicki, Dennis; Howard, Kellee; Hanlon, Jennifer; Mannix, Sally; Greene, Alison; Rothman, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Methods Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Results Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative data. Conclusion This

  9. Safety and efficacy of vardenafil versus sertraline in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomised, prospective and crossover study.

    PubMed

    Mathers, M J; Klotz, T; Roth, S; Lümmen, G; Sommer, F

    2009-06-01

    We investigated safety and efficacy of vardenafil and sertraline in premature ejaculation (PE). Seventy-two men graded their primary PE on a scale of 0-8 (0 = almost never, 8 = almost always). Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) was measured. Patients were included if they scored their PE as 4 or greater and their IELTs were less than 1.30 min. After 6 weeks of behavioural psychosexual therapy, 49 patients still had a PE of 4 or greater and an IELT less than 1.30 min and they were randomised: 6 weeks vardenafil (10 mg) or sertraline (50 mg). After a wash-out phase for 1 week, medication was changed in a cross-over design. Initially, all 72 men with PE received behavioural therapy. Twenty-three men were satisfied with treatment and excluded. The remaining 49 men graded their PE as 5.94 +/- 1.6 and IELT was 0.59 min and patients were randomised. Four men discontinued the study. Vardenafil improved PE grading: 2.7 +/- 2.1 (P < 0.01) and IELT increased to 5.01 +/- 3.69 (P < 0.001). PE grading improved 1.92 +/- 1.32, (P < 0.01) and IELT 3.12 +/- 1.89 (P < 0.001) with sertraline. It is concluded that vardenafil and sertraline are useful agents in the pharmacological treatment of PE.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine, a new treatment for premature ejaculation: Impact of age and effects of a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Mark J; Kang, Dongwoo; Staehr, Peter; Gidwani, Shalini; Guo, Cindy; Mulhall, John P; Modi, Nishit B

    2006-09-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed as a treatment for premature ejaculation and has demonstrated rapid absorption and elimination in previous pharmacokinetic studies. Two open-label studies were conducted in healthy men: a parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety study in young and elderly men and a randomized crossover food-effect study. Maximal plasma dapoxetine concentrations (C(max)) were similar in young and elderly men (338 and 310 ng/mL, respectively), as were the corresponding area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) values (2040 and 2280 ng x h/mL, respectively). When coadministered with food, C(max) was reduced by 11% (398 vs 443 ng/mL in the fed and fasted states, respectively), and the peak was delayed by approximately 30 minutes, indicating that food slowed the rate of absorption; however, systemic exposure to dapoxetine (ie, AUC) was not affected by food consumption. Thus, age or consumption of a high-fat meal has only a modest impact on dapoxetine pharmacokinetics in healthy men.

  11. Female partner's perception of premature ejaculation and its impact on relationship breakups, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Giuliano, François; McMahon, Chris; Porst, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Women's perceptions of the men's ejaculatory behavior, as well as the impact premature ejaculation (PE) has on the couple's functioning, are important factors that need to be considered. This survey investigated women's perception and importance of ejaculatory function, as well as the specific aspects of PE that cause distress. In addition, the survey further identified the factors with a greater impact on intimacy, relationship, and sexual behavior. The 1,463 females belonging to a web panel from three different countries (Mexico, Italy, and South Korea), aged 20-50 years, participated in the survey. A combination of validated and self-constructed questionnaires to assess women's perception of PE, relationship satisfaction and quality, and sexual functioning and satisfaction were used. Descriptive statistics in form of proportions and percentages, correlation, and regression analyses. A significant correlation between the importance of ejaculatory control and felt distress could be observed (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001). Women reporting less sexual problems considered ejaculatory control more important and reported more PE-related distress (rho = 0.23 and 0.11, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). The male's lack of attention and focus on performance was the most frequently reported reasons for sexual distress (47.6%) followed by "the short time between penetration and ejaculation" (39.9%), and "the lack of ejaculatory control" (24.1%). Almost a quarter of women reported that the man's ejaculatory problem had previously led to relationship breakups (22.8%). Women considering duration to be important were more likely to report breakups. The study highlights the detrimental effects of PE on relationship and sexual satisfaction in the female partner and how it can lead to the termination of the relationship. Most notably, this is the first study to report that an important source of female distress are not only parameters related to performance such as

  12. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  13. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of the tramadol orally disintegrating tablet for the treatment of premature ejaculation within less than 2 minutes.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, David; Salottolo, Kristin M; Orlando, Alessandro; Winkler, James V

    2012-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a widely observed male sexual dysfunction with a major impact on quality of life for many men and their sexual partners. To assess the safety of tramadol orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) (Zertane) and its efficacy in prolonging intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and improving Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) scores. We conducted an integrated analysis of two identical 12-wk randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials across 62 sites in Europe. Healthy men 18-65 yr of age with a history of lifelong PE according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and an IELT ≤ 120 s were included. There were 604 intent-to-treat subjects included in the analysis. Subjects were randomized to receive 1:1:1 placebo (n=200), 62 mg tramadol ODT (n=206), or 89 mg tramadol ODT (n=198). We measured overall change and fold increase in median IELT and the mean change in all four measures of the PEP. Differences across treatment groups were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, analysis of variance, and chi-square analyses. Tramadol ODT resulted in significant increases in median IELT compared with placebo; increases were 0.6 min (1.6 fold), 1.2 min (2.4 fold), and 1.5 min (2.5 fold) for placebo, 62 mg tramadol ODT, and 89 mg tramadol ODT, respectively (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Men saw significantly greater improvement in all four measures of the PEP in both doses compared with placebo (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Tramadol ODT was well tolerated; study discontinuation occurred in 0%, 1.0%, and 1.6% of subjects in placebo, 62 mg, and 89 mg tramadol ODT groups, respectively. Limitations include study inclusion for men with IELT up to 120 s. On-demand 62mg tramadol ODT is an effective treatment for PE in a low and safe therapeutic dose and provides a new option for managing mild to severe PE. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Impact of erectile function and age in men with lower urinary tract symptoms on ejaculatory dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hwa, J S; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Seo, D H; Hyun, J S

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and ED are clearly correlated, but to date no correlation with ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) has been identified. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of erectile function in men with LUTS on EjD and premature ejaculation (PE). Erectile function, PE and EjD of 239 men (mean age, 53.0 ± 10.65 years), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erection Function (IIEF), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the seven-item Male Sexual Health questionnaire (MSHQ)-EjD were used to compare with the degree of LUTS. Ages were divided into five groups (<40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >70 years). The IPSS categorized patients into three symptom groups: mild, 1-7; moderate, 8-19; and severe, >19. ED was classified into five categories based on IIEF-EF scores: severe (0-6), moderate (7-12), mild-to-moderate (13-18), mild (19-24) and normal (25-30). The correlations among age, IIEF-EF, IELT and the MSHQ-EjD domain were studied through regression and cross-tabulation analyses. The results revealed that aging significantly affected each item of the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). The IIEF-EF domain was also correlated with each question on the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). PE (IELT <1 min) increased in incidence as patients got older but was not linked to IIEF-EF (P>0.05). These results indicate that EjD is closely related to age and erectile function, and that PE is closely related to age, although PE is not related to erectile function.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongseong; Lee, SeungHwan; Yi, Sojeong; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Bahng, Mi Young; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5) in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects. A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated. After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2-3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9-28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7-5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20-80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized C max and AUC 0- t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20-80 mg. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 had an effect on the systemic exposure of DA-8031. DA-8031 was well tolerated after single doses of 80 mg or less.

  16. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Parnham, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been an increased interest on premature ejaculation in the recent years, our understanding regarding the disorders of retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia remain limited. All three of these conditions require a keen clinical acumen and willingness to engage in thinking outside of the standard established treatment paradigm. The development of novel investigational techniques and treatments has led to progress in the management of these conditions symptoms; however, the literature almost uniformly is limited to small series and rare randomised trials. Further investigation and randomised controlled trials are needed for progress in these often challenging cases. PMID:27652230

  17. [Efficacy of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-xin; Lu, Qing-ge

    2015-05-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 120 patients with secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE were randomly assigned to groups A (aged [35.5 ± 5.4] yr), B (aged [36.2 ± 5.7] yr), and C (aged [35.2 ± 5.3] yr) in the ratio of 1:1:1 to receive Qilin Pills (once 6 g, bid), sertraline (once 50 mg, qd), and Qilin Pills plus sertraline, respectively, all for 4 weeks. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were obtained before and after medication and at 1 month after drug withdrawal, and comparative analyses were made among the three groups of patients. The IELT was dramatically prolonged in groups A, B, and C after treatment ([3.23 ± 1.84], [3.87 ± 2.43], and [5.92 ± 3.11] min) and at 1 month after drug withdrawal ([1.85 ± 1.27], [1.52 ± 1.06], and [ 4.26 ± 1.88 ] min) as compared with the baseline ([0.88 ± 0.45], [0.84 ± 0.47], and [0.85 ± 0.50] min) (P < 0.01), even longer in group C than in A and B (P < 0.01). The PEDT scores of the three groups were 5.1 ± 1.8, 4.9 ± 1.7, and 3.8 ± 1.2 after treatment and 8.2 ± 2.4, 8.1 ± 2.4, and 6.5 ± 2.1 at 1 month after drug withdrawal, significantly improved in comparison with 13.2 ± 3.2, 12.8 ± 3.1, and 13.1 ± 3.4 before treatment (P < 0.01), even more significantly in group C than in A and B (P < 0.01). Qilin Pills combined with sertraline has a definite efficacy in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE and therefore deserves wide clinical application.

  18. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Mondaini, Nicola; Cantiello, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Cai, Tommaso

    2016-10-05

    The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE) is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD), PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient) and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A). After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B). All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05) at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05) were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05), PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05) and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica

  19. Standard operating procedures in the disorders of orgasm and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel; Rowland, David

    2013-01-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines of the current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the treating health care professional. The International Society of Sexual Medicine Standards Committee assembled over 30 multidisciplinary experts to establish SOPs for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The SOP for the management of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represents the opinion of four experts from four countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, limited expert opinion, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. PE management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. All men seeking treatment for PE should receive basic psychosexual education. Graded behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic etiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, and pharmacotherapy. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries.

    PubMed

    Buvat, Jacques; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Rothman, Margaret; Rivas, David A; Giuliano, François

    2009-04-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Previous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and efficacy. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with PE. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, conducted in 22 countries, enrolled men (N=1162) > or = 18 yr of age who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision criteria for PE for > or = 6 mo, with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) < or = 2 min in > or = 75% of intercourse episodes at baseline. Dapoxetine 30 mg or dapoxetine 60 mg or placebo on demand (1-3 h before intercourse) for 24 wk. Stopwatch-measured IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of change, adverse events (AEs). The study was completed by 618 men. Mean average IELT increased from 0.9 min at baseline (all groups) to 1.9 min, 3.2 min, and 3.5 min with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively, at study end point; geometric mean IELT increased from 0.7 min at baseline to 1.1 min, 1.8 min, and 2.3 min, respectively, at study end point. All PEP measures and IELTs improved significantly with dapoxetine versus placebo at week 12 and week 24 (p<0.001 for all). The most common AEs were nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and headache. AEs led to discontinuation in 1.3%, 3.9%, and 8.2% of subjects with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively. Limitations of this study included the exclusion of men who were not in long-term monogamous relationships. Dapoxetine significantly improved all aspects of PE and was generally well tolerated in this broad population.

  1. Delayed Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner. Often, men might have difficulty reaching orgasm during sexual intercourse or other sexual activities with a partner. Some men can ejaculate only when masturbating. Delayed ejaculation is divided into the following types based on ...

  2. Effects of sertraline on brain current source of the high beta frequency band: analysis of electroencephalography during audiovisual erotic stimulation in males with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O Y; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Hyun, J S

    2011-01-01

    To identify the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), changes in brain current-source density (CSD) of the high beta frequency band (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline administration were investigated during audiovisual erotic stimulation. Eleven patients with PE (36.9±7.8 yrs) and 11 male volunteers (24.2±1.9 years) were enrolled. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was conducted twice: once before sertraline administration and then again 4 h after the administration of 50 mg sertraline. Statistical non-parametric maps were obtained using the EEG segments to detect the current-density differences in the high beta frequency bands (beta-3, 22-30 Hz) between the EEGs before and after sertraline administration in the patient group and between the patient group and controls after the administration of sertraline during the erotic video sessions. Comparing between before and after sertraline administration in the patients with PE, the CSD of the high beta frequency band at 4 h after sertraline administration increased significantly in both superior frontal gyri and the right medial frontal gyrus (P<0.01). The CSD of the beta-3 band of the patients with PE were less activated significantly in the middle and superior temporal gyrus, lingual and fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus and cuneus of the right cerebral hemisphere compared with the normal volunteers 4 h after sertraline administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, sertraline administration increased the CSD in both the superior frontal and right middle temporal gyrus in patients with PE. The results suggest that the increased neural activity in these particular cerebral regions after sertraline administration may be associated with inhibitory effects on ejaculation in patients with PE.

  3. Validity of the patient-reported Clinical Global Impression of Change as a measure of treatment response in men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; Brock, Gerald B; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Aquilina, Joseph W; Rothman, Margaret; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Bull, Scott

    2010-06-01

    The Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) measures have high utility in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether the CGIC is valued for assessing premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms and/or the relationship between CGIC and other validated PE patient-reported measures. The study aims to assess the validity of the patient-reported CGIC measure in men with PE and to examine the relationship between CGIC ratings and assessments of control, satisfaction, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Data from a randomized, double-blind, 24-week phase 3 trial in 1,162 men with PE who received dapoxetine (30 mg or 60 mg) or placebo on demand provided the basis for the analysis. Patients were ≥18 years, in a stable monogamous relationship for ≥6 months, met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria for PE for ≥6 months, and had an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤2 minutes in ≥75% of intercourse episodes. The CGIC asked patients to rate improvement or worsening of their PE compared with the start of the study using a 7-point response scale; other patient-reported measures were control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, interpersonal difficulty, and personal distress related to ejaculation. Stopwatch-measured IELT was recorded. Associations between CGIC and change in other measures at study end point were assessed. The magnitude of IELT increased for each category of improvement on the CGIC: 1.63, 4.03, and 7.15 minutes for slightly better, better, and much better, respectively. Higher CGIC ratings were correlated with greater improvement in control (r = 0.73), satisfaction (r = 0.62), greater reduction in distress (r = -0.52), and interpersonal difficulty (r = -0.39). Total variance accounted for was 57.4%: control (48.7%), satisfaction (4.5%), IELT (2.8%), and distress (1.15%). The analyses support the validity of the CGIC measure in men with PE. The CGIC

  4. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part I--validity of DSM-IV-TR.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2006-07-01

    In former days, information obtained from randomized well-controlled clinical trials and epidemiological studies on premature ejaculation (PE) was not available, thereby hampering the efforts of the consecutive DSM Work Groups on Sexual Disorders to formulate an evidence-based definition of PE. The current DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is still nonevidence based. In addition, the requirement that persistent self-perceived PE, distress, and interpersonal difficulties, in absence of a quantified ejaculation time, are necessary to establish the diagnosis remains disputable. To investigate the validity and reliability of DSM and ICD diagnosis of premature ejaculation. The historical development of DSM and ICD classification of mental disorders is critically reviewed, and two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is critically reanalyzed. Reanalysis of two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE has shown that DSM-diagnosed PE can be accompanied by long intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) values. The reanalysis revealed a low positive predictive value for the DSM-IV-TR definition when used as a diagnostic test. A similar situation pertains to the American Urological Association (AUA) definition of PE, which is practically a copy of the DSM-IV-TR definition. It should be emphasized that any evidence-based definition of PE needs objectively collected patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from epidemiological studies, as well as reproducible quantifications of the IELT.

  5. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-05-01

    The DSM-III definition of premature ejaculation (PE) contains the criterion "control" but not that of "ejaculation time." In contrast, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) contains the criterion "short ejaculation time," while it lacks "control." To review the adequacy and consequent use of all criteria of the DSM-IV-TR definition in previously published PE Internet surveys. Reviewing all published cohort studies on PE from 2004 to 2007. MEDLINE and EMBASE computer bibliographies were used. Definitions of DSM-III, DSM-IV-TR, and International Classification of Diseases. Five papers, of which three are original studies, reported inclusion of men with PE according to DSM-IV-TR definition but omitted to apply the required "short ejaculation time" criterion. These studies, which have defined PE according to subjective criteria such as control, actually referred to the DSM-III definition. Using DSM-III-like definitions in three different studies revealed a highly variable prevalence of PE (32.5%, 27.6%, and 13.0%). In contrast, based on studies using a 1-minute cutoff point, being the time that is required to call ejaculation time "short" or using the criterion "persistent occurrence," PE revealed to be far less prevalent (5-6%). Unacceptable discrepancies of PE definitions according to DSM-III (abandoned but still used) and DSM-IV-TR argue strongly in favor of a multidimensional new classification of PE for the DSM-V.

  6. Contemporary Management of Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center, and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and postorgasmic illness syndrome can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety and efficacy of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drug dapoxetine in delaying ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 212 potent men with PE were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg orally dapoxetine (group 1, N=106) twice daily or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, N=106) during a 12-week period for each agent. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, geometric mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, primary outcome measure), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The efficacy of two treatments was assessed every 2 weeks during treatment, at the end of study, and in 3-month follow-up after cessation of treatment. We measured geometric mean IELT. Thus, the IELT values were logarithmically transformed before statistical analysis, and the results are reported as fold increases from baseline with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The independent sample two-tailed t-test was used to compare the IELTs. At the end of 12-week treatment, the dapoxetine group had a 2.9- (95% CI, 1.84-4.16) fold increase of the geometric mean IELT, while after placebo the geometric mean IELT did not increase significantly (1.4-fold increase; 95% CI, 0.84-1.63) (p=0.001). The mean weekly intercourse episodes increased from pretreatment values of 1.16 and 1.14 to 2.2 and 1.4, for dapoxetine and placebo, respectively (p=0.04). Baseline mean intercourse satisfaction domain values of IIEF, 12 and 11, reached to 16 and 10 at the 12-week treatment in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.04). At the end of 3-month follow-up period, the geometric mean IELT in dapoxetine and placebo group demonstrated 1.4- (95% CI, 0.66-1.46) and 1.3- (95% CI, 0.77-1.63) fold increase, respectively (p=0.1). Three-month intercourse satisfaction domain value of IIEF was 11 in group 1 and 10 in group 2 (p=0.1). Mean number of adverse events was 19 for dapoxetine and 7 for

  8. Initiators and Barriers to Discussion and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation Among Men and Their Partners in Asia Pacific - Results From a Web-based Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, George; McMahon, Chris G; McCabe, Marita; Jiang, Hui; Lee, Sung Won; Lim, Peter; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent yet under-reported sexual disorders. Differing sociocultural norms across the Asia-Pacific region provide unique challenges in PE management. This web-based study collected data from 5,038 men and women across 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Respondents were recruited from an existing database. The initiators and barriers for PE discussions and for seeking professional management following self-treatment, as well as their choices and expectations of healthcare professionals (HCPs). More than two-thirds of respondents have discussed PE with their partners, and men are more likely to initiate the discussion. Top drivers were for both partners to attain sexual satisfaction and greater fulfillment in the relationship. Emotional insecurity was the top barrier for men as they did not want to feel hurt or inadequate. Before consulting an HCP, more than two-thirds of men self-treated their PE for at least 20 months. The primary reason for stopping self-treatment and seeking medical management was a lack of improvement in sexual satisfaction. The ideal attributes that men seek in their HCP included trust and being knowledgeable about PE management. Attitudes and barriers to PE and its treatment in the Asia-Pacific region are poorly understood. Many men are reluctant to seek professional advice and therefore resort to self-treatment for extended periods. HCPs can play a key role to empower PE sufferers and partners to understand the prevalence, medical relevance, treatability, and negative impacts of PE on sexual and overall relationships. Greater awareness of the diverse cultural and social norms, education of both partners and HCPs, and the involvement of HCPs through a patient-centric approach are all pivotal in managing PE optimally across the Asia-Pacific region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Causes Lifelong Molecular Reprogramming of the Hypothalamus and Premature Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Zama, Aparna M.; Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Gestational exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors reprograms expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive aging. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 μg/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were aged to 16–17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life exposure to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence. PMID:22016562

  10. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ... infertility. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. [Neurobiology of ejaculation and orgasm disorders].

    PubMed

    Salinas Casado, J; Vírseda Chamorro, M; Samblás García, R; Esteban Fuertes, M; Aristizábal Agudelo, J M; Delgado Martín, J A; Blázquez Izquierdo, J; Resel Estévez, L

    1998-04-01

    To determine the neurologic alterations of patients with ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders. A study of the neuroandrologic profile was performed in eight patients; 6 presented an ejaculation, one premature ejaculation and one presented an orgasm. The neuroandrologic profile consisted in performing selective electromyography of the bulbocavernosus muscle, recording of the S2-S4 evoked potentials, evoked somatosensory potentials of the pudendal nerve, electromyography of the smooth cavernous muscle (SPACE), sympathetic skin response and cystometry. The sympathetic lesion was more frequent in the cases with an ejaculation (four cases; 66%); a pudendal efferent lesion was demonstrated in one case (17%) and a suprasacral lesion in one case (16%). A pudendal afferent lesion was observed in the two cases with premature ejaculation (100%). Both cases with an orgasm had a pudendal afferent lesion (100%) and one of them also presented a sympathetic lesion (50%). An ejaculation appears to be caused by sympathetic, motor pudendal or suprasacral lesion. An altered perception of genital sensations due to lesion of the afferent pudendal pathway appears to be present in premature ejaculation. An orgasm could be ascribed to an alteration of the pudendal sensibility or to the absence of ejaculation.

  12. [Painful ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Delavierre, D; Sibert, L; Rigaud, J; Labat, J-J

    2014-06-01

    To clarify definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, etiologies and treatment of painful ejaculation (PE). Review of the literature performed by searching the Medline database using keywords ejaculation, orgasm, pain, pelvic pain, sexual behavior. PE is a pelviperineal pain caused by ejaculation or orgasm. Its prevalence rate is between 1 and 4% amongst the general population. Mainly located in the penis, pain usually lasts less than 5 minutes. Assessment is clinical and there is no level of evidence about the strategy of complementary investigations. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy and some antidepressant medications are the best estimated etiologies found in the literature. A link between urogenital infections and PE is likely but not clearly established. Alpha-blockers had good therapeutic results in few low level of evidence studies. The assessment of PE is not clearly defined. Some etiologies are known but PE may be a functionnal pain. Only high level of evidence studies would validate the use of the alpha-blockers as an efficient therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sirt3 modulation may be beneficial in the treatment of ejaculation dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Sree Harsha; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-09-01

    Disorders of ejaculation are the most common form of sexual dysfunction. The ejaculatory reflex consists of two phases: emission and expulsion. Premature ejaculation (PE) can arise from overactivity of the smooth muscles responsible for ejaculation. On the other side of the spectrum, delayed ejaculation occurs when an individual is unable to either reach orgasm within an adequate time frame or experiences no ejaculation. While premature ejaculation and to a lesser degree delayed ejaculation have been recognized for quite some time, no FDA approved treatment has been developed. Since both types of ejaculatory dysfunction have an underlying neuro-muscular component, this may be a target for future treatment strategies. We thereby hypothesize that modulation of the rhythmic contraction of the ejaculatory smooth muscles with either a Sirt3 activator or inhibitor may prove beneficial in treating either premature or delayed ejaculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The hormonal control of ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Vignozzi, Linda; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Hormones regulate all aspects of male reproduction, from sperm production to sexual drive. Although emerging evidence from animal models and small clinical studies in humans clearly point to a role for several hormones in controlling the ejaculatory process, the exact endocrine mechanisms are unclear. Evidence shows that oxytocin is actively involved in regulating orgasm and ejaculation via peripheral, central and spinal mechanisms. Associations between delayed and premature ejaculation with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively, have also been extensively documented. Some models suggest that glucocorticoids are involved in the regulation of the ejaculatory reflex, but corresponding data from human studies are scant. Oestrogens regulate epididymal motility, whereas testosterone can affect the central and peripheral aspects of the ejaculatory process. Overall, the data of the endocrine system in regulating the ejaculatory reflex suggest that widely available endocrine therapies might be effective in treating sexual disorders in these men. Indeed, substantial evidence has documented that treatments of thyroid diseases are able to improve some ejaculatory difficulties.

  15. The Evaluation and Treatment of Delayed Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel H; Spitz, Aaron

    2014-10-01

    Delayed ejaculation is a small but important subsection of ejaculatory dysfunction, with prevalence estimated at 1-4%. It is most commonly defined by DSM-IV-TR criteria, as "a persistent delay in, or absence of, orgasm in a male following a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity that the clinician, taking into account the person's age, judges to be adequate in focus, intensity, and duration." The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation is related to disruptions in ejaculatory apparatus, nervous transmission, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control, or psychosocial factors. To update the clinician on the evaluation and treatment of delayed ejaculation. The keywords "delayed ejaculation" and "retarded ejaculation" were utilized to search Pubmed for relevant publications. 319 results were generated from the search, and those publications judged relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of delayed ejaculation were included in the review. 110 articles were ultimately selected for inclusion in this review. The evaluation of this condition requires a focused history and physical, which includes a detailed sexual history, examination of the genitalia, and inquiry into the status of the partner. Laboratory tests are aimed at the detection of abnormalities in the blood count, glucose level, hormone levels, or kidney function. If a correctable etiology is discovered, treatment is directed towards the reversal of this condition. In some cases, the delayed ejaculation may be a lifelong problem. Also, in some cases the etiology of the delayed ejaculation may be irreversible, such as in the case of age-related sensation loss or diabetes-related neuropathy. In these instances treatment may require a combination of behavioral modification, sexual therapy, or perhaps pharmaceutical drugs. Participation of the partner in therapy may sometimes be necessary. Future investigations will continue to elucidate the complex biological and

  16. Retarded ejaculation in men: an overview of psychological and neurobiological insights.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-06-01

    Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation are erroneously mixed up in the DSM-IV classification system. Male Orgasmic Disorder to denote "delayed ejaculation" is inadequate as orgasm and ejaculation represent clinical expressions of different neurobiological phenomena. Unfortunately, the DSM-IV criteria for delayed ejaculation were accepted regardless of any research with appropriate methodology and design. The psychological approach and associated psychotherapy to solve this problem is rather disappointing. The neurobiological approach, which started with animal studies, has demonstrated various neurotransmitters with the potency to inhibit ejaculation. Indeed, several experimental drugs have been tested in rats, showing the successful acceleration of ejaculation. We propose that human research should start with the development of an operational definition of delayed ejaculation. To achieve this goal, we propose unselected epidemiological stopwatch studies which also provide information on the prevalence and incidence of delayed ejaculation in men. Currently, no effective and safe drugs are available to accelerate ejaculation time in men. The best way to treat lifelong delayed ejaculation is, thus far, to inform the patients about biological and psychological inhibiting factors which they need to avoid, and to remain critical about unrealistic expectations from psychotherapy. Psychotherapy may be useful in subgroups, particularly in the absence of effective and safe drugs.

  17. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  18. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  19. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Estimated median MELTs were 15.0 minutes for DE vs 8.0 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Ejaculation time was not associated with serum testosterone levels. Younger men and those with less severe erectile dysfunction had longer IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not

  20. Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Quarterly, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The theme of this issue is lifelong learning. Contents include a message introducing the publisher's Chief Executive Officer, Devron Gaber, and letters to the editor. A guest editorial, "Lifelong Learning For All: A National, Social, Corporate, and Personal Imperative for the Knowledge-Based 21st Century" (Ron Faris), considers how…

  1. The history of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Korda, Joanna B; Goldstein, Sue W; Sommer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The existence of female ejaculation and the female prostate is controversial; however, most scientists are not aware that historians of medicine and psychology described the phenomenon of female ejaculation approximately 2,000 years ago. To review historical literature in which female ejaculation is described. A comprehensive systematic literature review. Emission of fluid at the acme of orgasm and/or sexual pleasure in females was considered as a description of female ejaculation and therefore all documents referring to this phenomenon are included. Physicians, anatomists, and psychologists in both eastern and western culture have described intellectual concepts of female ejaculation during orgasm. In ancient Asia female ejaculation was very well known and mentioned in several Chinese Taoist texts starting in the 4th century. The ancient Chinese concept of female ejaculation as independent of reproduction was supported by ancient Indian writings. First mentioned in a 7th century poem, female ejaculation and the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) are described in detail in most works of the Kāmaśāstra. In ancient Western writings the emission of female fluid is mentioned even earlier, depicted about 300 B.C. by Aristotle and in the 2nd century by Galen. Reinjier De Graaf in the 16th century provided the first scientific description of female ejaculation and was the first to refer to the periurethral glands as the female prostate. This concept was held by other scientists during the following centuries through 1952 A.D. when Ernst Gräfenberg reported on "The role of the urethra in female orgasm. Current research provides insight into the anatomy of the female prostate and describes female ejaculation as one of its functions. Credible evidence exists among different cultures that the female prostate and female ejaculation have been discovered, described and then forgotten over the last 2,000 years.

  2. [Ejaculation inadequacy in sexual disorders].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K H; Krause, W

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen men with missing ejaculation were observed as outpatients in our department within the past years. Among these, four patients with retrograde ejaculation are included. Possible reasons for the missing ejaculation are operations in the genital region or the pelvis, and spinal cord injuries. Endocrine disorders, diabetes mellitus, drug dependence, and psychogenic alterations have to be discussed as etiologic factors. Secondary lack of ejaculation, which is acquired in later years of life, seems to have a poorer prognosis than the primary disease, which begins with puberty. This group of patients is well responsive to psychotherapy. Other therapeutic approaches are hormonal substitution, care of drug dependence, and treatment with sympathicomimetica in some cases of retrograde ejaculation.

  3. Subjectively measured ejaculation latency time and its association with different sexual activities while controlling for age and relationship length.

    PubMed

    Jern, Patrick; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Recently, attempts to formulate valid and suitable definitions for (different subcategories of) premature ejaculation have resulted in substantial progress in the pursuit to gain knowledge about ejaculatory function. However, the association between ejaculatory dysfunction and different types of sexual activities has yet to be thoroughly investigated, and (due to conflicting results between studies) the potential effects of age and relationship length still need to be taken into account. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of age, relationship length, frequency of different sexual activities, and different modes of achieving ejaculation with self-reported ejaculation latency time. The main outcome is establishing associations between age, relationship length, self-reported ejaculation latency time, and frequency of different kinds of sexual activities and different modes of achieving ejaculation (such as achieving ejaculation through oral or vaginal sex). Statistical analyses of data on age, relationship length, self-reported ejaculation latency time, and frequency of different sexual activities and different modes of achieving ejaculation were conducted on a population-based sample of 3,189 males aged 18-48 years (mean = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 6.94). Age and relationship length were significantly negatively associated with self-reported ejaculation latency time. Frequency of different kinds of sexual behavior generally had a positive association with self-reported ejaculation latency time, as had different modes of achieving ejaculation. The findings highlight the need for more extensive studies on and increased knowledge of different aspects of ejaculatory function before a valid and suitable definition for premature ejaculation can be formulated.

  4. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it.

  5. Brain activation during human male ejaculation revisited.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Reinders, A A T Simone; Van der Graaf, Ferdinand H C E; Paans, Anne M J; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2007-04-16

    In a prior [O]-H2O positron emission tomographic study we reported brain regions involved in human male ejaculation. Here, we used another, more recently acquired data set to evaluate the methodological approach of this previous study, and discovered that part of the reported activation pattern was not related to ejaculation. With a new analysis of these ejaculation data, we now demonstrate ejaculation-related activations in the deep cerebellar nuclei (dentate nucleus), anterior vermis, pons, and ventrolateral thalamus, and, most importantly, ejaculation-related deactivations throughout the prefrontal cortex. This revision offers a new and more accurate insight into the brain regions involved in human male ejaculation.

  6. Prevalence of Prostatitis-Like Symptoms and Outcomes of NIH-CPSI in Outpatients with Lifelong and Acquired PE: Based on a Large Cross-Sectional Study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daofang; Dou, Xianming; Tang, Liang; Tang, Dongdong; Liao, Guiyi; Fang, Weihua; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, which were associated with prostatitis-like symptoms (PLS). We intended to explore the prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms and outcomes of National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scores in outpatients with lifelong (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE). From December 2013 to December 2015, a total of 498 consecutive heterosexual men with PE and 322 male healthy subjects without PE were enrolled. Each of them completed a detailed questionnaire on demographics information, sexual and medical histories, and the NIH-CPSI. Assessment of NIH-CPSI and definition of PLS and PE were used to measure the PLS and NIH-CPSI scores and ejaculatory function for all subjects. Finally, a total of 820 subjects (including 498 men in PE group and 322 men in control group) were enrolled in our study. The mean ages were significantly different between PE and no PE groups. Men with PE reported worse PLS and higher NIH-CPSI scores ( P < 0.001 for all). Similar findings were also observed between men with LPE and APE. Men with APE also reported higher rates of PLS and scores of NIH-CPSI ( P < 0.001 for all). Multivariate analysis showed that PLS and NIH-CPSI scores were significantly associated with PE.

  7. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  8. Integrating Lifelong Learning Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This publication is comprised of 43 papers on the topic of promoting lifelong learning. The papers in Part 1, Overcoming False Dichotomies, are "Lifelong Learning in the North, Education for All in the South" (Torres); "Practice of Lifelong Learning in Indigenous Africa" (Omolewa); "Gender and Information Societies"…

  9. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1–4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject. PMID:27652227

  10. [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and disorders of ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Ranieri, A; Micheli, E; Peracchia, G; Canclini, L P; Sironi, D; Levorato, C A; Lembo, A

    1999-09-01

    Retrograde ejaculation is a frequent and permanent complication after bilateral retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND). Seminal emission and ejaculation are primarily under sympathetic control. Several studies after RPLND in patients with nonseminomatous testis cancer proved the role of preservation of the efferent fibers originating from the lumbar sympathetic ganglia. Based on the results of anatomical studies, a modified unilateral operative technique and nerve-sparing approach permit to preserve normal anterograde ejaculation without reduction of long-term survival.

  11. Premature menopause.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Ub; Ezenyeaku, Cc

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk.

  12. Premature Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk. PMID:23634337

  13. Effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Hengeveld, M W; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    1998-08-01

    Depression is a common cause of sexual dysfunction, but also antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. This article includes two related studies. The first double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation and aimed to assess putative differences between the major selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) with regard to their ejaculation-delaying effect. Sixty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of 1 minute or less were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/day, fluvoxamine 100 mg/day, paroxetine 20 mg/day, sertraline 50 mg/day, or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment periods, the men measured their IELT at home using a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 51 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was constant at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-groups difference in the evolution of IELT delay (p = 0.0004); in the paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline groups there was a gradual increase to about 110 seconds, whereas in the fluvoxamine group, IELT was increased to only approximately 40 seconds. The paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.017, respectively) from placebo but the fluvoxamine group did not (p = 0.38). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, followed by fluoxetine and sertraline. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with fluvoxamine. In men with lifelong rapid ejaculation, paroxetine delayed ejaculation most strongly, whereas fluvoxamine delayed ejaculation the least. The second double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation (IELT < or = 1 minute) and in men with lifelong less-rapid ejaculation (IELT > 1 minute) to

  14. Understanding men's attributions of why they ejaculate before desired: an internet study.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Neal, Cody J

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in the study of men's sexual response have raised significant issues related to the definition and diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE). We wanted to understand men's perceived reasons for "ejaculating before they wanted," whether they selected attributions from the same broad category when allowed to endorse multiple reasons, and whether younger and older cohorts differed in their attributions. A subsample of 376 men who indicated that they "ejaculated before they wanted" was drawn from a larger pool of 1,249 men participating in an online survey on men's sexual health. This subsample responded to a number of items regarding their ejaculatory patterns, including two questions listing 10 possible self-reported attributions/reasons for their quick ejaculation--one item allowed respondents to endorse multiple reasons, the other limited the response to the most important reason. The primary outcome measure was men's attributions for ejaculating before desired, with choices from 10 possible pretested reasons. In addition, concordance across attributions was determined, that is, if a man responded to one category, was he also likely to select another category? Men who met the ejaculatory latency criterion for PE were generally no different from those who did not. Overall, when required to select the most important attribution, most men identified a specific issue with "lack of self-efficacy" (lack of control or aroused too quickly). Few respondents identified erection loss, partner issues, or medical/medication concerns as the reason--and these patterns were independent of age. Concordance was high across self-efficacy attributions but low across other attributions. Most men who complain of ejaculating before desired attribute this response to problems with self-efficacy. Only a small percent of men identified other possible reasons for their quick ejaculation. Such findings have implications for both the diagnostic process and definitional

  15. The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling.

    PubMed

    Smith, C; Warren, M; Rouchet, R; Reichard, M

    2014-09-01

    In some taxa, males perform multiple ejaculations, which may function in sperm competition or in maintaining a baseline density of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract to ensure fertilization, a process that has been termed 'topping up'. We investigated the function of multiple ejaculations in two species of bitterling, the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) and Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Bitterling oviposit in living freshwater mussels, with fertilization taking place within the mussel gill cavity. Thus, although fertilization is external, the mussel is analogous to the female reproductive tract in an internally fertilizing species. We measured the frequency of ejaculations and mussel inspections by individual males of two bitterling species in 28 replicated mesocosms and examined focal male responses to rival ejaculations and the presence of females in spawning condition. We used a model of ejaculatory behaviour to simulate the temporal abundance of spermatozoa in mussels. Male R. amarus exhibited high rates of ejaculation and inspection of the siphons of mussels and increased their ejaculation rate in response to the presence of females in spawning condition. Rhodeus ocellatus showed lower overall rates of ejaculation, but significantly elevated ejaculation rate in response to rival ejaculations. The ejaculatory strategy of R. amarus is one that maintains a minimum level of spermatozoa in mussels, which is elevated when the probability of oviposition increases. In contrast, R. ocellatus engages more directly in sperm competition with rivals. We discuss these results in the context of the function of multiple ejaculations and male mating tactics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. [Premature orgasm in the male].

    PubMed

    Köhn, F M

    2003-11-13

    To date, we have no uniform definition of ejaculatio praecox. In a qualitative approach, premature ejaculation is ascribed to a failure to control excitement. As causes, organic disorders and erectile dysfunction must be excluded. The majority of cases, however, are due to psychological or partnership problems. The history-taking should aim, in particular, to uncover possible anxiety in conjunction with premature orgasm, and also to establish the reactions of the partner. As therapy, medication (local anesthetics, antidepressive agents, PDE-5 inhibitors) and sexual-therapeutic measures are available. Since few sufferers take the initiative in seeking treatment, particular importance attaches to providing the public with information about the therapeutic options for treating this common disorder.

  17. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  18. Physiology of ejaculation: emphasis on serotonergic control.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clément, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Ejaculation is constituted by two distinct phases, emission and expulsion. Orgasm, a feature perhaps unique in humans, is a cerebral process that occurs, in normal conditions, concomitantly to expulsion of semen. Normal antegrade ejaculation is a highly coordinated physiological process with emission and expulsion phases being under the control of autonomic and somatic nervous systems respectively. The central command of ejaculation is located at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels of the spinal cord and is activated by stimuli from genital, mainly penile, origin although cerebral descending pathways exert both inhibitory and excitatory regulatory roles. Cerebral structures specifically activated during ejaculation form a tightly interconnected network comprising hypothalamic, diencephalic and pontine areas. A rational neurobiological approach has led to identify several neurotransmitters contributing to the ejaculatory process. Amongst them, serotonin (5-HT) has received strong experimental evidences indicating its inhibitory role in the central control of ejaculation. In particular, 5-HT1A cerebral autoreceptors but also spinal 5-HT1B and, in a lesser extent, 5-HT2C receptors have been shown to mediate the effects of 5-HT on ejaculation. Pharmacological strategies, especially those targeting serotonergic system, for the treatment of ejaculatory disorders in human will undoubtedly benefit from the application of basic and clinical research findings. In this perspective, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which basically increase the amount of central 5-HT and delay ejaculation in humans seems promising.

  19. Orchid sexual deceit provokes ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Winnick, C G; Herberstein, M E

    2008-06-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators by mimicking female insects. Male insects fooled into gripping or copulating with orchids unwittingly transfer the pollinia. The effect of deception on pollinators has been considered negligible, but we show that pollinators may suffer considerable costs. Insects pollinating Australian tongue orchids (Cryptostylis species) frequently ejaculate and waste copious sperm. The costs of sperm wastage could select for pollinator avoidance of orchids, thereby driving and maintaining sexual deception via antagonistic coevolution or an arms race between pollinator learning and escalating orchid mimicry. However, we also show that orchid species provoking such extreme pollinator behavior have the highest pollination success. How can deception persist, given the costs to pollinators? Sexually-deceptive-orchid pollinators are almost exclusively solitary and haplodiploid species. Therefore, female insects deprived of matings by orchid deception could still produce male offspring, which may even enhance orchid pollination.

  20. Antidepressants and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study with paroxetine, sertraline, and nefazodone.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-06-01

    Antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to assess the effects of two selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors--paroxetine and sertraline--and the 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor nefazodone on the latency to ejaculate. Forty-eight men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of a maximum of 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day), sertraline (50 mg/day), nefazodone (400 mg/day), or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home with a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 40 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was stable at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.002); the IELT after paroxetine and sertraline gradually increased to approximately 146 and 58 seconds, respectively, compared with 28 seconds in the nefazodone group. The paroxetine and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively) from placebo, but the nefazodone group did not (p = 0.85). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, whereas sertraline delayed it only moderately. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with nefazodone.

  1. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  2. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Quinn, Paul; Dilleen, Maria; Mundayat, Rajiv; Schweitzer, Dave H; Boolell, Mitradev

    2005-07-01

    Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18-30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (P<0.0001). The median IELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9-30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N=98) and not-circumcised (N=261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7-44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5-37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men

  3. Pontine control of ejaculation and female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu K; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Lovick, Thelma A; Holstege, Gert

    2013-12-01

    The physiological component of ejaculation shows parallels with that of micturition, as both are essentially voiding activities. Both depend on supraspinal influences to orchestrate the characteristic pattern of activity in the pelvic organs. Unlike micturition, little is known about the supraspinal pathways involved in ejaculation and female orgasm. To identify brainstem regions activated during ejaculation and female orgasm and to compare them with those activated during micturition. Ejaculation in men and orgasm in women were induced by manual stimulation of the penis or clitoris by the participants' partners. Positron emission tomography (PET) with correction for head movements was used to capture the pattern of brain activation at the time of sexual climax. PET scans showing areas of activation during sexual climax. Ejaculation in men and orgasm in women resulted in activation in a localized region within the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum on the left side and in another region in the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum on the right side. The dorsolateral pontine area was also active in women who attempted but failed to have an orgasm and in women who imitated orgasm. The ventrolateral pontine area was only activated during ejaculation and physical orgasm in women. Activation of a localized region on the left side in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, which we termed the pelvic organ-stimulating center, occurs during ejaculation in men and physical orgasm in women. This same region has previously been shown to be activated during micturition, but on the right side. The pelvic organ-stimulating center, via projections to the sacral parasympathetic motoneurons, controls pelvic organs involved in voiding functions. In contrast, the ventrolateral pontine area, which we term the pelvic floor-stimulating center, produces the pelvic floor contractions during ejaculation in men and physical orgasm in women via direct projections to pelvic floor motoneurons. © 2013

  4. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 to 42 weeks gestation) ...

  5. [Therapy of rapid ejaculation using dietary supplement "NeyroDoz": results of a multicenter non-randomized clinical study].

    PubMed

    Kamalov, A A; Aboian, I A; Sitdykova, M É; Tsukanov, A Iu; Teodorovich, O V; Medvedev, V L; Komiakov, B K; Zhuravlev, V N; Novikov, A I; Erkovich, A A; Okhobotov, D A; Karpov, V K; Zubkov, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent dietary supplement NeyroDoz in patients with rapid ejaculation. We examined 50 patients with rapid ejaculation (premature ejaculation), who were recruited in 9 clinical centers in different regions of Russia. These patients received NeyroDoz, 2 capsules twice a day for one month, followed by a control observation for 1 month. In study group of patients, symptomatic improvement was achieved in 45 (90%) of 50 patients at 4-week observation target date. In assessing the impact of NeyroDoz on different groups of symptoms, it was found that it significantly increases the average time of sexual intercourse by 2 times, increases the orgasm brightness, reduces the severity of psychosomatic component and has a positive effect on all components of the copulative cycle. In assessing the afterimpression, this effect was maintained throughout the period of follow-up.

  6. Delayed Ejaculation: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is a poorly defined and uncommon form of male sexual dysfunction, characterized by a marked delay in ejaculation or an inability to achieve ejaculation. It is often quite concerning to patients and their partners, and sometimes frustrates couples' attempts to conceive. This article aims to review the pathophysiology of DE and anejaculation (AE), to explore our current understanding of the diagnosis, and to present the treatment options for this condition. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to October 2017, including PubMed (MEDLINE) and Embase. We combined “delayed ejaculation,” “retarded ejaculation,” “inhibited ejaculation,” or “anejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with “epidemiology,” “etiology,” “pathophysiology,” “clinical assessment,” “diagnosis,” or “treatment.” Relevant sexual medicine textbooks were searched as well. The literature suggests that the pathophysiology of DE/AE is multifactorial, including both organic and psychosocial factors. Despite the many publications on this condition, the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. There is currently no single gold standard for diagnosing DE/AE, as operationalized criteria do not exist. The history is the key to the diagnosis. Treatment should be cause-specific. There are many approaches to treatment planning, including various psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy, and specific treatments for infertile men. An approved form of drug therapy does not exist. A number of approaches can be employed for infertile men, including the collection of nocturnal emissions, prostatic massage, prostatic urethra catheterization, penile vibratory stimulation, probe electroejaculation, sperm retrieval by aspiration from either the vas deferens or the epididymis, and testicular sperm extraction. PMID:29299903

  7. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  8. Loans for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mick, Ed.

    This collection of eight papers looks at how a system of loans for lifelong learning in Great Britain and New Zealand might be positioned. It examines where such loans might work best and where they seem inappropriate. In particular, the collection assembles the available evidence about the role and impact of loans in the world of education and…

  9. Lifelong Learning: Capabilities and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    The present paper discusses the potential of the capability approach in conceptualizing and understanding lifelong learning as an agency process, and explores its capacity to guide empirical studies on lifelong learning. It uses data for 20 countries from the Adult Education Survey (2007; 2011) and focuses on aspirations for lifelong learning. The…

  10. New Technology and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Mary

    Key issues related to the relationship between new technology and lifelong learning in the United Kingdom and elsewhere were identified through reviews of the literature on information and communications technology (ICT) and the literature on lifelong learning. Two overarching issues related to the interplay of new technology and lifelong learning…

  11. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

    Kary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  12. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lue, Tom F.

    2016-01-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. PMID:26385403

  13. An electrophysiologic study of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Ahmed; Shafik, Ismail A; El Sibai, Olfat; Shafik, Ali A

    2009-01-01

    Opinions vary over whether female ejaculation exists or not. We investigated the hypothesis that female orgasm is not associated with ejaculation. Thirty-eight healthy women were studied. The study comprised of glans clitoris electrovibration with simultaneous recording of vaginal and uterine pressures as well as electromyography of corpus cavernous and ischio- and bulbo-cavernosus muscles. Glans clitoris electrovibration was continued until and throughout orgasm. Upon glans clitoris electrovibration, vaginal and uterine pressures as well as corpus cavernous electromyography diminished until a full erection occurred when the silent cavernosus muscles were activated. At orgasm, the electromyography of ischio-and bulbo-cavernosus muscles increased intermittently. The female orgasm was not associated with the appearance of fluid coming out of the vagina or urethra.

  14. The drug treatment of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Moustafa A.; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology. To achieve the maximum sensitivity of the search strategy and to identify all studies, we combined “delayed ejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with each of “testosterone” or “cabergoline” or “bupropion” or “amantadine” or “cyproheptadine” or “midodrine” or “imipramine” or “ephedrine” or “pseudoephedrine” or “yohimbine” or “buspirone” or “oxytocin” or “bethanechol” as MeSH terms or keywords. There are a number of drugs to treat patients with DE including: testosterone, cabergoline, bupropion, amantadine, cyproheptadine, midodrine, imipramine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, yohimbine, buspirone, oxytocin, and bethanechol. Although there are many pharmacological treatment options, the evidence is still limited to small trials, case series or case reports. Review of literature showed that evidence level 1 (Double blind randomized clinical trial) studies were performed with testosterone, oxytocin, buspirone or bethanechol treatment. It is concluded that successful drug treatment of DE is still in its infancy. The clinicians need to be aware of the pathogenesis of DE and the pharmacological basis underlying the use of different drugs to extend better care for these patients. Various drugs are available to address such problem, however their evidence of efficacy is still limited and their

  15. Who Is the Lifelong Learner? Globalization, Lifelong Learning and Hermeneutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggla, Bengt Kristensson

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to elaborate on the inner connection between three such diverse entities as lifelong learning, globalization and hermeneutics. After placing lifelong learning in a societal context framed by globalization, my intention is to reflect on the prerequisites for introducing a hermeneutical contribution to the understanding of…

  16. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... of calcium and phosphorus needed to form strong bones. While in the womb, fetal activity increases during ...

  17. Lifelong Education: Concept or Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that lifelong education is a policy for education, and education is too broadly defined. Education should be restricted to areas of learning that produce desired effects. The place of knowledge in lifelong education is discussed, and distinction is drawn between education and training. (Availability: Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe,…

  18. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  19. Federal Programs Supporting Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffel, Pam, Comp.

    Approximately 275 Federal programs support some form of lifelong learning. While the majority of the lifelong learning programs are administered by the various agencies within HEW, a significant number of programs are run by such Federal agencies as the Department of Justice, the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, and the Smithsonian…

  20. Revisiting post-ejaculation refractory time-what we know and what we do not know in males and in females.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roy J

    2009-09-01

    The post-ejaculation refractory time (PERT), the period after a single ejaculation when further erections and ejaculations are inhibited, has been studied and well-documented in male rats. Since its first attribution in men by Masters and Johnson and its inaccurate delineation in their graphic sexual response model in 1966 it has been infrequently studied whereas scant attention has been paid to any such possible activity in women after female ejaculation. To critically review our current knowledge about PERT in rats and humans and describe and correct shortcomings and errors in previous publications and propose corrections. Review of published literature. Identifying evidence-based data to support authority-based facts. The review exposes the extremely limited evidence-based data that our knowledge of PERT is based on. The paucity of data for most aspects of human PERT is remarkable; even the generally accepted statement that the duration of PERT increases with age has no published support data. Despite numerous studies in rats the mechanisms and site(s) of the activity are poorly understood. Dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways are thought to shorten PERT whereas serotonergic pathways lengthen its duration. Raising the brain serotonin levels in men using SSRIs helps reduce early or premature ejaculation. Rats have an absolute PERT (aPERT) during which erection and ejaculation is inhibited and a relative PERT (rPERT) when a stronger or novel stimulus can, whether such phases exist in men is unexamined. Apart from possible depressed activity in the amygdala and penile dorsal nerve and rejection of prolactin as a major factor in PERT little or no significant advance in understanding human male PERT has occurred. No evidence-based data on women's PERT after female ejaculation exists. New investigations in young and older men utilizing brain imaging and electromagnetic tomography are priority studies to accomplish.

  1. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Results Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Conclusion Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results. PMID:19087292

  2. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time.

    PubMed

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Worley, Kirsty; Burke, Terry; Froman, David P

    2008-12-16

    A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results.

  3. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F

    2015-11-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of treatment with pseudoephedrine in men with retrograde ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shoshany, O; Abhyankar, N; Elyaguov, J; Niederberger, C

    2017-07-01

    The use of pseudoephedrine, an alpha agonist, for the treatment of retrograde ejaculation is well-known, however, there is no clear consensus from the literature regarding its efficacy and treatment protocol. We evaluated the efficacy of pseudoephedrine treatment in patients with retrograde ejaculation, utilizing a yet undescribed short-period treatment protocol. Twenty men were medically treated with pseudoephedrine for retrograde ejaculation between January 2010 and May 2016 (12 with complete retrograde ejaculation and 8 with partial retrograde ejaculation). All patients had a semen analysis and post-ejaculatory urinalysis before and after treatment. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 mg of pseudoephedrine every 6 h on the day before semen analysis and two more 60 mg doses on the day of the semen analysis. Diabetes was the most common etiology for complete retrograde ejaculation (60%), whereas an idiopathic cause was the most common etiology for partial retrograde ejaculation (82%). Of the 12 complete retrograde ejaculation patients treated with pseudoephedrine prior to semen analysis, 7 (58.3%) recovered spermatozoa in the antegrade ejaculate, with a mean total sperm count of 273.5 ± 172.5 million. Of the eight patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, five (62.5%) had a ≥50% increase in the antegrade total sperm count. In this group, the mean total sperm count increased from 26.9 ± 8.5 million before treatment to 84.2 ± 24.6 million after treatment, whereas the percentage of spermatozoa in the urine declined from 43.2 ± 9% to 17 ± 10%, respectively (both p < 0.05). Overall, in men with retrograde ejaculation treated with a pseudoephedrine regimen prior to ejaculation, some improvement in seminal parameters occurred in 14 (70%) patients, with 10 patients (38.5% of all patients) achieving antegrade total sperm counts over 39 million. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Social media for lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Kind, Terry; Evans, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Learning is ongoing, and can be considered a social activity. In this paper we aim to provide a review of the use of social media for lifelong learning. We start by defining lifelong learning, drawing upon principles of continuous professional development and adult learning theory. We searched Embase and MEDLINE from 2004-2014 for search terms relevant to social media and learning. We describe examples of lifelong learners using social media in medical education and healthcare that have been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Medical or other health professions students may have qualities consistent with being a lifelong learner, yet once individuals move beyond structured learning environments they will need to recognize their own gaps in knowledge and skills over time and be motivated to fill them, thereby incorporating lifelong learning principles into their day-to-day practice. Engagement with social media can parallel engagement in the learning process over time, to the extent that online social networking fosters feedback and collaboration. The use of social media and online networking platforms are a key way to continuously learn in today's information sharing society. Additional research is needed, particularly rigorous studies that extend beyond learner satisfaction to knowledge, behaviour change, and outcomes.

  6. Changing Notions of Lifelong Education and Lifelong Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijnman, Albert; Boström, Ann-Kristin

    2002-03-01

    Drawing on material from IRE as well as other sources, this article describes how the notion of lifelong education came into prominence in the educational world in the late 1960s, how it related to the concepts of formal, non-formal and informal education, and how it contrasted with the idea of recurrent eduction, as promoted by the OECD. The author goes on to discuss the emergence of the broader and more holistic concept of lifelong learning and the various ways in which it is understood. The article shows how IRE and its host institute have played an important part in the debate on these issues.

  7. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  8. New insights from one case of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Casillas, Alberto; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2011-12-01

    Although there are historical records showing its existence for over 2,000 years, the so-called female ejaculation is still a controversial phenomenon. A shared paradigm has been created that includes any fluid expulsion during sexual activities with the name of "female ejaculation." To demonstrate that the "real" female ejaculation and the "squirting or gushing" are two different phenomena. Biochemical studies on female fluids expelled during orgasm. In this case report, we provided new biochemical evidences demonstrating that the clear and abundant fluid that is ejected in gushes (squirting) is different from the real female ejaculation. While the first has the features of diluted urines (density: 1,001.67 ± 2.89; urea: 417.0 ± 42.88 mg/dL; creatinine: 21.37 ± 4.16 mg/dL; uric acid: 10.37 ± 1.48 mg/dL), the second is biochemically comparable to some components of male semen (prostate-specific antigen: 3.99 ± 0.60 × 103 ng/mL). Female ejaculation and squirting/gushing are two different phenomena. The organs and the mechanisms that produce them are bona fide different. The real female ejaculation is the release of a very scanty, thick, and whitish fluid from the female prostate, while the squirting is the expulsion of a diluted fluid from the urinary bladder. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Critical Approaches to Lifelong Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Rosemary

    1999-11-01

    This paper argues that contemporary interest in lifelong learning can be seen as an artefact of the market. It points out how the attractive vocabulary associated with personal development and empowerment often masks other economic and social purposes. Bearing in mind the social function of education, the author compares the strategies for the promotion of lifelong learning designed for those in "included social categories" with the policies designed for those in marginal and excluded positions. It concludes by challenging its own position by citing positive learner experience in each case.

  10. The Perils of Confusing Lifelong Learning with Lifelong Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes lifelong learning as a socio-personal process and a personal fact. As such, it is conceptually distinct from an educational provision, which constitutes one kind of institutional fact. In making this distinction, this article seeks to elaborate a major flaw in the precepts for conceptualisation and enactment of the report…

  11. Psychological interventions for delayed ejaculation/orgasm.

    PubMed

    Althof, S E

    2012-01-01

    Of all the male sexual dysfunctions, delayed ejaculation (DE) is the least understood, least common and least studied. This paper aims to review and integrate the diverse psychological theories and proposed psychological interventions for DE. Clinicians will then be able to more clearly discern the relevant psychological/interpersonal issues of the patient/couple and implement systematically based effective interventions. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that no one theory accounts for all the varied presentations of DE, and no theory by itself has strong empirical support. However, awareness of the diverse points of view helps clinicians conduct better assessments and broaden their understanding of the patient's ejaculatory dysfunction. Similarly, no one psychological intervention works for all patients, nor will unsystematic random selection of interventions. This paper stresses on the need to clearly identify the source of the dysfunction and select treatments based upon the precipitating and maintaining factors. Much work remains to be done with regard to our understanding and treatment of DE. Specifically, we need to craft an evidence-based definition, assess the true prevalence of the dysfunction, demonstrate the efficacy of psychological interventions and design validated outcome measures.

  12. Electronic Education and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Russo, Marianne Robin; Dennett, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Due to de-institutionalization and open system, it is inappropriate to equate education with youth education. In the new century, education has been delivered electronically to accommodate lifelong learning. It has become a reality that the four walled classrooms have been used to complement and supplement E-learning. No need to argue that…

  13. A Model for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Norman V.; And Others

    Following an assessment of the present situation of lifelong learning, particularly in the U.S., a model is presented for the symtematic development of the concept and its implications for society. The basis presented for the model is the definition: ..."any purposeful learning that an individual (actor) engages in throughout the life span,"…

  14. A Look at Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donnie

    Adults must continue to learn. The accelerating pace of cultural change has made today's knowledge and skills tomorrow's obsolescence. A society that makes its educational investment almost entirely in children and youth is on the way to becoming obsolete and is reducing its survival chances. To promote the cause of lifelong learning, we need to…

  15. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  16. Re-Thinking Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    The current dominant concept of lifelong learning has arisen from the pressures of globalisation, economic change and the needs of the "knowledge economy". Its importance is not disputed in this paper. However, its proponents often advocate it in a form which places unrealistic demands on the individual without at the same time addressing their…

  17. Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glastra, Folke J.; Hake, Barry J.; Schedler, Petra E.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization and individualization have radically changed both the economic system and the personal life world in industrial or postindustrial nation-states. To survive hypercompetition and volatile consumer choice, learning organizations and a workforce engaged in lifelong learning are needed. Constructing "the good life" has become an…

  18. The Promise of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Peter Jarvis's work offers a comprehensive grounding in many of the key principles and insights offered through the field of adult education. His work directs us to the different factors--psychological, social, economic and political required for understanding lifelong learning contexts. As scholars and educators, he…

  19. What's Become of Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    The author's father left school aged 13 at the start of the Great Depression. When he finally found work the wealth of educational opportunity he encountered inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. He signed up for evening classes and loved anything and everything to do with what he proudly called self-improvement. As a novice to retirement…

  20. The Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As lifelong learning grows in popularity, few comprehensive pictures of the phenomenon have emerged. The "Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning" provides a disciplined and complete overview of lifelong learning internationally. The theoretical structure puts the learner at the centre and the book emanates from there,…

  1. Lifelong Learning--A Public Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlert, Maureen

    This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the…

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  3. Lifelong Learning Policies, Paradoxes and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that there are many ways of conceptualising lifelong learning and examines EU and Scottish lifelong learning policies in order to identify their underlying assumptions. Through an analysis of these policies, it is demonstrated that they draw on a number of inter-related fallacies that prioritise lifelong learning mainly in…

  4. Towards a Conceptual Understanding of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCannon, Roger S.

    Despite the lengthy existence of the concept of lifelong learning, there is still no one generally accepted theory of education as a lifelong process. More than an extension of adult education, lifelong learning rests on the belief that learning occurs throughout life, in different ways and through different processes. The key notion in lifelong…

  5. Lifelong Learning and the New Educational Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    This document explores the sudden increase in interest in lifelong learning among policymakers in Great Britain and elsewhere; existing patterns of participation in lifelong learning; the measures being developed to promote lifelong learning; and the prospects of achieving a viable learning society. The following are among the topics discussed in…

  6. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…

  7. Lifelong Learning in Singapore: Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Johnny; Freebody, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning policy came and went in many countries in the last few decades. Much of the lifelong learning policy experience has been either ineffective or drifting in and out of policy discussions unnoticed. Yet, in 2015, Singapore launched a new policy initiative known as SkillsFuture, which brought lifelong learning back into mainstream…

  8. Lifelong Learning: A Rationale for Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    If lifelong learning were to become the norm, it would require a supporting system of lifelong education, and special skills and attitudes on the part of teachers. This paper examines changes made in the teacher training programs of five institutions in four countries in response to the idea of lifelong learning. (Author/FG)

  9. Lifelong Education: A Stocktaking. UIE Monographs, 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, A. J., Ed.; And Others

    Seven internationally known educators were asked to assess lifelong learning especially in relation to lifelong education and (1) revision of educational thinking and (2) educational practice. The authors addressed several key questions on lifelong education: For and by whom? Of and for what? How can it be achieved? The editor's overview and…

  10. Lunar and climatic effects on boar ejaculate traits.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Vargas, Josué; Kerns, Karl; Rothschild, Max F

    2018-06-01

    There is evidence that phases of the moon affect wild animal behaviors including reproduction. There is, however, little evidence of moon phase effects on domestic livestock reproduction. This study investigated the effects of moon phase and climatic variables on boar ejaculate traits. Records of 4149 semen collections from boars of nine different breeds at one boar stud were used. The response variables were volume of ejaculate, concentration of sperm in the ejaculate, and number of doses obtained per ejaculate. Moon phase, greatest daily temperature (T), least daily T, average daily relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI), season and the interaction of moon phase with season were analyzed at the day of collection and 45 days prior to date of collection as a proxy of initiation of spermatogenesis. For both dates analyzed season and the interaction of season with moon had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the volume of the ejaculate. Moon phase had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on volume of ejaculate at the day of collection. Sperm concentration was affected (P < 0.05) by the interaction of moon phase with season, high and low temperature, THI, RH and breed. Season had an effect (P < 0.01) on concentration of sperm at the initiation of spermatogenesis. For doses that could be used for AI that were obtained/ejaculate, there were effects of moon phase, season, the interaction between season and moon phase and breed (P < 0.05) at collection day and at the initiation of spermatogenesis. There was an interaction (P < 0.0001) between season and moon phase for volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration and number of doses obtained per ejaculate at date of collection and at day of initiation of spermatogenesis. The significant interaction of season and moon phase on boar semen traits suggests that to maximize productivity of modern swine production systems determining a collection schedule in some seasons relative to moon phase may

  11. Do women with female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity?

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rufus; Elvy, Susannah; Cardozo, Linda

    2007-11-01

    Questionnaire surveys suggest that 40-54% of women have experienced an expulsion of fluid at orgasm. Some of these women have coital incontinence, whereas others identify the fluid passed as female ejaculate. To assess whether women who have experienced female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity or the bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms associated with coital incontinence. We recruited six women who self-identified as having experienced female ejaculation and six controls who had not. Each woman completed a 3-day bladder diary and two validated bladder questionnaires: the Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Each woman underwent short provocative ambulatory urodynamics, a modified form of urodynamics, with a high sensitivity for detrusor overactivity. Prevalence of detrusor overactivity, 24-hour urinary frequency, IIQ and UPS scores. No woman in either group had detrusor overactivity. The bladder diaries and questionnaire results were within the normal range for all women. Women who experience female ejaculation may have normal voiding patterns, no bothersome incontinence symptoms, and no demonstrable detrusor overactivity. Women who report female ejaculation, in the absence of other lower urinary tract symptoms, do not require further investigation, and may be reassured that it is an uncommon, but physiological, phenomenon.

  12. Painful Ejaculation with Cyclobenzaprine: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wie, Christopher S.; Gorlin, Andrew W.; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Rosenfeld, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Sexual dysfunction is a well‐known side effect of antidepressants. Painful ejaculation is a rare side effect that has been reported with the use of some psychiatric drugs such as triclyclic antidepressants. Cyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant that is structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants. It is the most commonly prescribed muscle relaxant in the United States and accounts for 18% of all prescriptions written for chronic back pain. Methods A 55‐year‐old man was referred to our pain medicine clinic for evaluation and treatment of pain with ejaculation. Main outcome Measure The main outcome measure was to review the current published literature and case reports on painful ejaculation from medication use, in particular tricyclic antidepressants. Results After discontinuation of cyclobenzaprine, our patient's sexual dysfunction resolved. This result was consistent with the literature reviewed on the topic. Conclusion Painful ejaculation is likely an underreported side effect of tricyclic antidepressants and cyclobenzaprine use. Fortunately, these symptoms are reversible and discontinuation of these medications is typically an effective cure. K raus MB , W ie CS , G orlin AW , W isenbaugh ES , and R osenfeld DM . Painful ejaculation with cyclobenzaprine: A case report and literature review. S ex M ed 2015;3:343–345. PMID:26797071

  13. [G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Horowitz, Eran

    2007-02-01

    The G-spot is an ill-defined region, located on the anterior vaginal wall, in its upper outer third, suggested by Ernst Grafenberg, and commemorates the first letter of his name. This area is sensitive to tactile touch, which, when applied, is claimed to result in an intense female orgasm. The G-spot is thought to be the vaginal part that lies beneath the posterior part of the "female prostatic gland", which, when stimulated, results in female ejaculation during orgasm. G-spot and female ejaculation have been studied intensively during the last 50 years and there is scientific (anatomical and biochemical) evidence for their existence. However, this evidence has been challenged, and the debate regarding the existence of the G-spot and female ejaculation as true clinical entities is still ongoing.

  14. Evolutionary Trade-Off between Secondary Sexual Traits and Ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lüpold, Stefan; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2017-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that the evolutionary diversification of the weapons and ornaments of pre-mating sexual selection should be influenced by trade-offs with male expenditure on ejaculates. However, the patterns of association between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate expenditure are frequently inconsistent in their support of this prediction. We show why consideration of additional life-history, ecological, and mating-system variables is crucial for the interpretation of associations between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate production. Incorporation of these 'missing variables' provides evidence that interactions between pre- and post-mating sexual selection can underlie broad patterns of diversification in male weapons and ornaments. We call for more experimental and genetic approaches to uncover trade-offs, as well as for studies that consider the costs of mate-searching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The effect of selected antibiotics on microorganisms contaminating boar ejaculate].

    PubMed

    Mazurová, J; Vinter, P

    1991-04-01

    The occurrence of microorganisms, including their total counts in boar native ejaculates, was investigated in two stages; the objective of this investigation also was to determine contamination after the sperms were treated with diluents containing the antibiotics ampicillin, gentamycin, apramycin, cefoxitin, or antibiotic combinations penicillin + streptomycin, ampicillin + cefoxitin, gentamycin + cefoxitin and ampicillin + gentamycin. The representation of bacterial species and total counts of microbes in 1 ml diluted sperm stored at a temperature of about 18 degrees C were determined in 24, 48 and 72 h after dilution. The microorganisms were cultivated from all native ejaculates. Proteus sp. (63.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (51.5% of the total number of examined samples) were the most frequent species. The number of contaminated diluted ejaculates ranged from 12.5 to 95.8% in 24 h after dilution, from 12.5 to 98.5% in 48 h and from 16.8 to 95.8% of the total number of examined ejaculates in 72 h. The occurrence of microorganisms correlated mostly with the efficiency spectrum of the antibiotics or their combinations. The average counts of microorganisms in 1 ml of native ejaculate made 2,363,000 in stage I and 1,472,108 in stage II. The highest average counts in 1 ml of diluted sperm were found in ejaculates containing cefoxitin and apramycin. Gentamycin was the most effective antibiotic used as a sole component (average counts of microorganisms CPM in 1 ml were 416 in 24 h, 955 in 48 h and 2260 in 72 h after dilution); ampicillin and gentamycin were the most efficient combination (14--20--21). This combination exerted very good effects also on Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  16. Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has increased due to a high incidence of premature, low birthweight infants. Stages of severity range from no visual damage to total blindness, and educational problems of ROP children parallel those of other visually impaired children, early intervention being crucial. Treatments are either pharmacological or…

  17. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  18. Lifelong learning in nursing: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Taylor, Heidi; Reyes, Helen

    2014-03-01

    In order to foster a culture of lifelong learning in nursing, it is important to identify what the concept means in the nursing profession as well as the characteristics of a lifelong learner. The purpose of this Delphi study was to conceptualize lifelong learning from the perspective of nursing, and to identify characteristics and essential elements of lifelong learning. A Delphi Study technique in three phases was completed using an online survey tool. Data were analyzed for conceptual description, ratings of characteristics and attributes, and expert consensus in these three phases. An online survey tool was used in this study. Recognized experts in nursing education, administration and public policy participated in this study. Lifelong learning in nursing is defined as a dynamic process, which encompasses both personal and professional life. This learning process is also both formal and informal. Lifelong learning involves seeking and appreciating new worlds or ideas in order to gain a new perspective as well as questioning one's environment, knowledge, skills and interactions. The most essential characteristics of a lifelong learner are reflection, questioning, enjoying learning, understanding the dynamic nature of knowledge, and engaging in learning by actively seeking learning opportunities. Keeping the mind active is essential to both lifelong learning and being able to translate knowledge into the capacity to deliver high quality nursing care. It is hoped that a clearer understanding of lifelong learning in nursing will foster more discussion and research about intentional, active inclusion of lifelong learning behaviors in nursing curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations at ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique; Charvier, Kathleen; Leriche, Albert; Vézina, Jean-Guy; Côté, Isabelle; Raymond, Denis; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Fournier, Christine; Bélanger, Marc

    2008-10-01

    With the advances in penile vibrator stimulation (PVS), most spinal cord injured (SCI) men can self-ejaculate. Oral midodrine may further increase ejaculation success, while maintaining autonomy. Since most SCI men attempt ejaculation for sexual rather than reproductive purposes, self-ejaculation should be emphasized and sensations explored. Explore (i) self-ejaculation success rate in SCI men; (ii) vascular parameters indicative of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during sexual stimulation and ejaculation; and (iii) sensations associated with ejaculation. Ejaculation was assessed on 81 SCI men with complete ASIA A (49%) and incomplete B to D lesions (51%), subdivided into tetraplegics (C2-T2), paraplegics sensitive to AD (T3-T6), paraplegics not sensitive to AD (T7-T10), paraplegics with lesions to the emission pathway (T11-L2), and paraplegics with lesions interrupting the emission-ejaculation pathways (L3-below). Natural stimulation was attempted first followed, if negative, by PVS followed, if again negative, by PVS combined with oral midodrine (5-25 mg). Ejaculation success, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations. Overall 91% reached ejaculation, 30% with natural stimulation, 49% with PVS and 12% with midodrine plus PVS. Midodrine salvaged up to 27% depending upon the lesion. Physiological and orgasmic sensations were perceived significantly more at ejaculation than sexual stimulation. Tetraplegics did not differ from paraplegics sensitive to AD on perceived cardiovascular and muscular sensations, but perceived significantly more autonomic sensations, and generally more physiological sensations than lower lesions unsensitive to AD. Most SCI men can self-ejaculate and perceive physiological and orgasmic sensations. The climactic experience of ejaculation seems related to AD, few sensations being reported when AD is not reached, pleasurable climactic sensations being reported when mild to moderate AD is reached, and

  20. Salvaging urospermic ejaculates from brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C A; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2014-11-30

    The objective of this study was to reverse the osmotic stress of sperm in urine contaminated bear ejaculates that were obtained by electroejaculation using pre-freezing washing or density gradient centrifugation isolation. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were divided into six aliquots, five were diluted in each washing extender: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 700 mOsm/kg (prepared from a Tes-Tris-Fructose base, adding water or fructose as corresponds), at a 1:2 ratio (raw semen: washing solution, v/v); and the other aliquot was handled without washing (Control group). Samples were centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min prior to freezing. In Experiment 2, ejaculates were divided into two aliquots: one was diluted 1:1 with TCG (Tris-Citric acid-Glucose) and centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min (Centrifugation Control; C-Control); the other was treated with PureSperm density gradient column. After treatments, samples were cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)) and acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (PNA-FITC)/PI) were analyzed before and after freezing. Ejaculates with an initial osmolality of less than 120 mOsm/kg treated with pre-freezing washing, and the Control sample had greater pre-freezing sperm motility than the raw ejaculate, but sperm viability was not different among these groups. The samples washed with 700 mOsm/kg solutions had the least pre-freezing viability. In the post-thawing evaluation, pre-freezing washing treatments did not provide any improvement in comparison with the Control sample, and treatment with 700 mOsm/kg extender had deleterious effects in all urospermic samples. PureSperm density gradient centrifugation applied to urospermic raw semen was suitable for improving sperm motility and viability of pre-freezing samples and the selected spermatozoa had greater freezing capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mentoring is a Lifelong Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    One of the greatest personal benefits of mentoring and working with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows is the life-long journey together. Having graduate students who keep up with you, ask advice and sometimes get it when they haven't asked for it, being able to help them find a job, and in some cases, continuing to do research together for over 50 years is a real gift. Seeing the success of your students in their own research programs, or as Professors, or in industry, makes me feel proud like I do in my children, and when we gather at conferences, it does seem like a family.

  2. Retinopathy of prematurity

    MedlinePlus

    ... CO2) in the blood Infection Low blood acidity (pH) Low blood oxygen Respiratory distress Slow heart rate (bradycardia) Transfusions The rate of ROP in most premature infants has gone down greatly in developed countries over the ...

  3. Your Premature Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...

  4. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  5. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  6. Candlestick and Faces: Aspects of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Government policies view lifelong learning in terms of economic development. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the environment of British community education councils revealed other views of lifelong learning: it takes time and political expediency and national policy can adversely affect what and how people learn.…

  7. WTO and Lifelong Education Strategies for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhi-guo; Zheng, Yu

    2006-01-01

    After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), teachers have been confronted with many opportunities and challenges. Lifelong education strategies are problems we should take into account carefully. This article expounds the objective demands, ideas, content, measures and functions of lifelong education.

  8. Toward a Model of Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.

    Some of the criticisms that have been leveled at the educational establishment by social analysts are discussed. It is suggested that one of the new realities is that education must be a lifelong process in order to avoid the catastrophe of human obsolescence. The assumptions and elements for a new model of education as a lifelong process are…

  9. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  10. Where's the Learning in Lifelong Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a retrospective review and analysis of New Labour's policies in relation to lifelong learning. New Labour's plans to promote social inclusion through lifelong learning resulted in a focus upon participation in terms of increasing the numbers of students involved in formal learning and increasing their participation in…

  11. A Critical Look at Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, H. Eylem

    2014-01-01

    Education, which is a fundamental right of human being, has been transformed into a kind of lifelong prisoning by marketing step by step under the name of lifelong learning. Adult education as one of the most crucial parts of the educational system has also been affected by the global trend of an international actor, the European Union through its…

  12. Lifelong Learning in the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Norman D.

    In this paper, the author notes that lifelong learning is at the confluence of a number of separate streams from the recent past, each of which flows into the broad concept of lifelong learning and brings its own set of concerns that have helped generate a need to consider where the streams are going. These streams, or educational areas, are…

  13. Supporting Lifelong Learning in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…

  14. Economics and Finance of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verry, Donald

    This book represents one result of the international conference on "Lifelong Learning as an Affordable Investment," held December 6-8, 2000 in Ottawa, Canada. It examines the economic and financial issues that arise in implementing lifelong learning and considers how the public and private sectors are actually addressing or might address…

  15. Social Software for Life-Long Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klamma, Ralf; Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Duval, Erik; Hummel, Hans; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Kravcik, Milos; Law, Effie; Naeve, Ambjorn; Scott, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Life-long learning is a key issue for our knowledge society. With social software systems new heterogeneous kinds of technology enhanced informal learning are now available to the life-long learner. Learners outside of learning institutions now have access to powerful social communities of experts and peers who are together forging a new web 2.0.…

  16. A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    The first paper of this set of 12 conference papers, "Nine Learning Fallacies and Their Replacement by a National Strategy for Lifelong Learning," by Frank Coffield, synthesizes the opinions of other participants, and goes beyond them to set forth an outline of a strategy for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom. Following this…

  17. Lifelong Learning and the Absence of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies that (with very few exceptions) in most of current literature on lifelong learning, gender issues are ignored or overlooked. An extensive review of the literature demonstrates this neglect. Some reasons are given for this, including the fact that most analyses of lifelong learning tend to stress the individual learning…

  18. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A…

  19. Complex patterns of multivariate selection on the ejaculate of a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Simmons, Leigh W; Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Assessing how selection operates on several, potentially interacting, components of the ejaculate is a challenging endeavor. Ejaculates can be subject to natural and/or sexual selection, which can impose both linear (directional) and nonlinear (stabilizing, disruptive, and correlational) selection on different ejaculate components. Most previous studies have examined linear selection of ejaculate components and, consequently, we know very little about patterns of nonlinear selection on the ejaculate. Even less is known about how selection acts on the ejaculate as a functionally integrated unit, despite evidence of covariance among ejaculate components. Here, we assess how selection acts on multiple ejaculate components simultaneously in the broadcast spawning sessile invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis using the statistical tools of multivariate selection analyses. Our analyses of relative fertilization rates revealed complex patterns of selection on sperm velocity, motility, and morphology. Interestingly, the most successful ejaculates were made up of slower swimming sperm with relatively low percentages of motile cells, and sperm with smaller head volumes that swam in highly pronounced curved swimming trajectories. These results are consistent with an emerging body of literature on fertilization kinetics in broadcast spawners, and shed light on the fundamental nature of selection acting on the ejaculate as a functionally integrated unit. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E H; Dammann, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal–fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In very premature infants, controlled oxygen administration reduces but does not eliminate retinopathy of prematurity. Identification and control of factors that contribute to development of retinopathy of prematurity is essential to prevent progression to severe sight-threatening disease and to limit comorbidities with which the disease shares modifiable risk factors. Strategies to prevent retinopathy of prematurity will depend on optimisation of oxygen saturation, nutrition, and normalisation of concentrations of essential factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as curbing of the effects of infection and inflammation to promote normal growth and limit suppression of neurovascular development. PMID:23782686

  1. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings.

  2. International online survey: female ejaculation has a positive impact on women's and their partners' sexual lives.

    PubMed

    Wimpissinger, Florian; Springer, Christopher; Stackl, Walter

    2013-07-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Genital secretions during female orgasm (female ejaculation) have been a matter of controversy for centuries. Scientific work on this essential part of female sexual function has been able to differentiate between female ejaculation, urinary incontinence and vaginal transudate. According to earlier studies, less than 50% of women actually do ejaculate during sexual stimulation. Few affected women discuss female ejaculation with their physician--partly because of its physiological nature, partly through embarrassment. To gain knowledge on the characteristics of female ejaculation and its impact on women's sexual lives, an online questionnaire has been designed and published internationally. In this way, data from 320 women who perceive ejaculation could be acquired. Most women and their partners perceive female ejaculation as an enrichment of their sexual lives. To study characteristics of female ejaculation as perceived by healthy women. To evaluate whether fluid emission during sexual activity has an impact on women's or their partners' sexual lives. An online questionnaire consisting of 23 questions addressing the participants' characteristics, aspects of perceived female ejaculation, and its impact on women's and their partners' lives was published internationally on various online platforms. Over a period of 18 months, 320 women from all over the world were included in the study (excluding women below the age of 18 years and double entries). The women's mean age was 34.1 years (±11.1) and their mean age at first ejaculation was 25.4 years. Most women ejaculate a few times a week. The volume of ejaculation is approximately 2 oz (29.1%), and the fluid is usually clear as water (83.1%). For most women (78.8%) and their partners (90.0%), female ejaculation is an enrichment of their sexual lives, whereas 14 women (4.4%) stated that their partners were unaware of their potential ejaculation. Perceived

  3. Do Men Produce Higher Quality Ejaculates When Primed With Thoughts of Partner Infidelity?

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Barbaro, Nicole; Holub, Andrew M; Holden, Christopher J; Mogilski, Justin K; Lopes, Guilherme S; Nicolas, Sylis C A; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Welling, Lisa L M

    2018-01-01

    Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity) relative to a control prime. Men ( n = 45) submitted two masturbatory ejaculates-one ejaculate sample for each condition (i.e., sperm competition and control conditions). Ejaculates were assessed on 17 clinical parameters. The results did not support the hypothesis: Men did not produce higher quality ejaculates in the sperm competition condition relative to the control condition. Despite the null results of the current research, there is evidence for psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans. We discuss methodological limitations that may have produced the null results and present methodological suggestions for research on human sperm competition.

  4. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  5. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...

  7. Lifelong Learning in Policy and Practice: The Case of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Ann-Kristin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the changes in lifelong learning policy that have taken place since the 1990s in Sweden. Policy documents regarding lifelong learning in Sweden have appeared since 1994. The first of these documents contains general recommendations with regard to lifelong learning, in both a lifelong and a lifewide perspective, concerning…

  8. Female ejaculation orgasm vs. coital incontinence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Zlatko

    2013-07-01

    Women may expel various kinds of fluids during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Their origins, quantity, compositions, and expulsion mechanisms depend on anatomical and pathophysiological dispositions and the degree of sexual arousal. These are natural sexual responses but may also represent symptoms of urinary incontinence. The study aims to clarify the etiology of fluid leakage at orgasm, distinguish between associated physiological sexual responses, and differentiate these phenomena from symptoms of illness. A systematic literature review was performed. EMBASE (OvidSP) and Web of Science databases were searched for the articles on various phenomena of fluid expulsions in women during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Articles included focused on female ejaculation and its variations, coital incontinence (CI), and vaginal lubrication. Female ejaculation orgasm manifests as either a female ejaculation (FE) of a smaller quantity of whitish secretions from the female prostate or a squirting of a larger amount of diluted and changed urine. Both phenomena may occur simultaneously. The prevalence of FE is 10-54%. CI is divided into penetration and orgasmic forms. The prevalence of CI is 0.2-66%. Penetration incontinence occurs more frequently and is usually caused by stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urodynamic diagnoses of detrusor overactivity (DOA) and SUI are observed in orgasmic incontinence. Fluid expulsions are not typically a part of female orgasm. FE and squirting are two different physiological components of female sexuality. FE was objectively evidenced only in tens of cases but its reported high prevalence is based mostly on subjective questionnaire research. Pathophysiology of squirting is rarely documented. CI is a pathological sign caused by urethral disorder, DOA, or a combination of both, and requires treatment. An in-depth appreciation of these similar but pathophysiologically distinct phenomena is essential for distinguishing normal, physiological sexual

  9. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants <2 years of age. Data were obtained from all completed phase I–III clinical trials with micafungin that had enrolled infants (<2 years of age) that were listed in the Astellas Clinical Study Database. Demographics, adverse events, hepatic function tests and treatment success data were extracted and validated by the Astellas biostatistical group for all micafungin-treated patients, <2 years of age, using the unique patient identifier. Results: One-hundred and sixteen patients included in 9 clinical trials, 48% premature [birth weight (BW) <2500 g and/or gestational age <37 weeks], 52% non-premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (<1000 g). Ninety patients (78%) completed the studies; 13 [11% (4 premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  10. First stirrings: cultural notes on orgasm, ejaculation, and wet dreams.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2007-05-01

    Both the findings and the limitations of numeric milestone research in sexology have a bearing on the pedagogical status of pleasure, as well as the cultural underpinnings of the notion of a psychosexual milestone. An overview is offered of international data pertaining to the chronology of three "milestones" in sexual autobiography: first orgasm (orgasmarche), first ejaculation (oigarche), and first wet dream (nocturnal emission). Methodological problems associated with the measurement of these variables are discussed. These problems are then situated in a culturalist perspective. It is concluded that orgasms are cultural artifacts in terms of their chronological occurrence as well as perceived salience, necessity, and "age appropriateness".

  11. Effect of sperm concentration in an ejaculate on morphometric traits of spermatozoa in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Kondracki, S; Wysokińska, A; Iwanina, M; Banaszewska, D; Sitarz, D

    2011-01-01

    The experimental material consisted of 75 ejaculates collected form 8 Duroc boars. The ejaculates were divided into three groups according to sperm concentration in an ejaculate. An ejaculate was obtained from each boar monthly and it was used to make microscopic preparations to examine spermatozoa morphology. In each preparation morphometric measurements were taken of fifteen randomly selected spermatozoa characterized by normal morphology. The following measurements of spermatozoa were taken: length and width of the spermatozoa head, head area, length of the flagellum, perimeter of the spermatozoon head and total spermatozoon length. The results were used to calculate indicators of spermatozoa morphology. Moreover, assessments were made of frequency of morphological defects to isolate spermatozoa with primary and secondary abnormalities following the Blom classification system. It was found that the concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate influenced the morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa. Ejaculates with low sperm concentrations are characterized by larger spermatozoa as compared to ejaculates with high sperm concentrations. However, sperm concentration in the ejaculate does not much influence the shape of spermatozoa.

  12. Correlated evolution between male ejaculate allocation and female remating behaviour in seed beetles (Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Katvala, M; Rönn, J L; Arnqvist, G

    2008-03-01

    Sperm competition theory suggests that female remating rate determines the selective regime that dictates the evolution of male ejaculate allocation. To test for correlated evolution between female remating behaviour and male ejaculate traits, we subjected detailed experimental data on female and male reproductive traits in seven-seed beetle species to phylogenetic comparative analyses. The evolution of a larger first ejaculate was positively correlated with the evolution of a more rapid decline in ejaculate size over successive matings. Further, as predicted by theory, an increase in female remating rate correlated with the evolution of larger male testes but smaller ejaculates. However, an increase in female remating was associated with the evolution of a less even allocation of ejaculate resources over successive matings, contrary to classic sperm competition theory. We failed to find any evidence for coevolution between the pattern of male ejaculate allocation and variation in female quality and we conclude that some patterns of correlated evolution are congruent with current theory, whereas some are not. We suggest that this may reflect the fact that much sperm competition theory does not fully incorporate other factors that may affect the evolution of male and female traits, such as trade-offs between ejaculate expenditure and other competing demands and the evolution of resource acquisition.

  13. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility.

    PubMed

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D; Piffer, Renata C; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antônio C M; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Pupo, André S

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg(-1), ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca(2+) transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg(-1) increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 microM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 microM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl(2). In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 microM inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca(2+) may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  14. Conceptualising Lifelong Learning: A Reflection on Lifelong Learning at Lund University (Sweden) and Middlesex University (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abukari, Abdulai

    2005-01-01

    Lifelong Learning has in recent years become a fundamental element of many educational policy strategies aimed at achieving the goal of socio-economic development. The role of universities in this is viewed by some as crucial and requires some attention. This article examines the concept of lifelong learning and suggests another way in which it…

  15. Lifelong Education and Lifelong Learning with Chinese Characteristics: A Critical Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in China have keenly explored how lifelong education and lifelong learning, as imports from "the West," may become localized in China, although a small chorus has also tried to revitalize Confucianism to bear on the field. This paper adds to this domain of discussion with a critical discourse analysis of Chinese lifelong…

  16. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  17. Male crickets adjust ejaculate quality with both risk and intensity of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Denholm, Amy; Jackson, Chantelle; Levy, Esther; Madon, Ewa

    2007-10-22

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should increase their expenditure on the ejaculate with increasing risk of sperm competition, but decrease their expenditure with increasing intensity. There is accumulating evidence for sperm competition theory, based on examinations of testes size and/or the numbers of sperm ejaculated. However, recent studies suggest that ejaculate quality can also be subject to selection by sperm competition. We used experimental manipulations of the risk and intensity of sperm competition in the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. We found that males produced ejaculates with a greater percentage of live sperm when they had encountered a rival male prior to mating. However, when mating with a female that presented a high intensity of sperm competition, males did not respond to risk, but produced ejaculates with a reduced percentage of live sperm. Our data suggest that males exhibit a fine-tuned hierarchy of responses to these cues of sperm competition.

  18. Retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disabilities in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Beligere, Nagamani; Perumalswamy, Vijayalaksmi; Tandon, Manish; Mittal, Amit; Floora, Jayasheele; Vijayakumar, B; Miller, Marilyn T

    2015-10-01

    Prematurity is a major global health issue leading to high mortality and morbidity among the survivors. Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are the most common complications of prematurity. In fact, ROP is the second leading cause of childhood blindness in the world. Although there is much information regarding the occurrence of ROP and of NDD in premature infants, there have been few studies on ROP and its association with NDD. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature on the subject and to publish our own findings concerning the association between ROP and NDD in premature infants. The review suggests that although NDDs are related to degree of prematurity, NDD could also be the result of visual impairments resulting from ROP. Our own study shows a close association between NDD and zonal involvement of ROP: higher NDD if zone 1 is involved and less if zone 3 is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ejaculation profiles of men following radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John F; Stember, Doron S; Deveci, Serkan; Akin-Olugbade, Yemi; Mulhall, John P

    2013-05-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with anejaculation, which for some men is a source of bother and sexual dissatisfaction. Clinical experience has shown us some men after pelvic radiation therapy (RT) also experience anejaculation. This analysis was conducted to define the ejaculation profiles of men after RT for prostate cancer (PCa). As a routine part of the sexual health evaluation for post-RT patients, men provided information regarding their ejaculatory function and orgasm. Analysis was conducted of a sexual medicine database reviewing demographic data, PCa factors, erectile, ejaculatory, and orgasmic function. Men with prior history of RP, cryotherapy, focal therapies, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded. Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire at follow-up visits commencing with the first posttreatment visit and specific attention was paid to the IIEF orgasm domain. Three hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients were included. Two hundred and fifty-two patients had external beam, and 112 patients had brachytherapy (BT). Mean age was 64 ± 11 (42-78) years and mean follow-up after RT was 6 ± 4.5 years. Mean prostate size at time of RT was 42 ± 21 g. Of the entire population, 72% lost the ability to ejaculate in an antegrade fashion after prostate RT by their last visit. The proportion experiencing anejaculation at 1, 3, and 5 years after RT was 16%, 69%, and 89%, respectively. For men with at least two IIEF questionnaires completed, the orgasm domain scores decreased dramatically over the follow-up period; orgasm domain scores (0-10): <12 months post-RT 7.4, 13-24 months 5.4, 25-36 months 3.2, >36 months 2.8 (P < 0.01). Multivariable analysis identified several factors predictive of failure to ejaculate: older age, ADT, RT dose > 100 Gy, and smaller prostates at the time of RT. The vast majority of men after prostate RT will experience anejaculation and should be

  20. Prematurity and bone health.

    PubMed

    Pieltain, C; de Halleux, V; Senterre, Th; Rigo, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in neonatal care significantly increases survival rate in preterm and particularly in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW infants) and nutrition is becoming one of the most challenging issue to improve short and long term health and developmental outcomes. Nutrition is also relevant for bone development and mineralization reducing the risk of osteopenia and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Osteopenia of prematurity is a multifactorial disease including predominantly nutritional but also biomechanical and environmental factors. At birth, the fetal active mineral transfer is interrupted and the preterm becomes related to the parenteral and enteral mineral supplies. On the other hand, physiological adaptation of bone to extra uterine life leads to an increase in bone resorption. This process occurring earlier in preterm than in term infants can be accompanied by an increased risk of bone fragility and fractures. Early provision of highly bioavailable mineral supplies, correction of vitamin D deficiency and the screening of serum phosphorus concentration combined to urinary mineral excretion appears to be helpful for the prevention of MBD. When available, DEXA is more sensitive than ultrasound for quantifying osteopenia in VLBW infants at the time of discharge. Catch-up of mineralization is rapidly observed during the post term period and osteopenia of prematurity seems to be a self-resolving disease although the potential long-term consequences on the attainment of peak bone mass remains uncertain. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  2. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  3. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists.

  4. Lifelong Education: A Panacea for all Educational Ills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Article presented an analytical summary of some of the main features of lifelong education (and the process of lifelong learning which it presumably facilitates), together with some critical review. (Author/RK)

  5. Time-to-ejaculation and the quality of semen produced by masturbation at a clinic.

    PubMed

    Elzanaty, Saad

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the association between the length of time-to-ejaculation and semen parameters. Ejaculates from 142 men under infertility assessment were analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), zinc, and fructose were also measured. Three groups according to the length of the time-to-ejaculation were defined: G(<10) (<10 minutes), G(10-15) (10 to 15 minutes), and G(>15) (greater than 15 minutes). Time to ejaculation showed negative significant correlation with sperm concentration (rho = -0.20, P = 0.02), total sperm count (rho = -0.20, P = 0.04), NAG (rho = -0.20, P = 0.01), and fructose (rho = -0.30, P = 0.02), respectively. No significant correlations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and age, sexual abstinence, semen volume, sperm motility, PSA, and zinc. There were negative significant associations among time-to-ejaculation and sperm concentration (beta = -3.0; P = 0.004), total sperm count (beta = -10; P = 0.02), total count of progressive motility (beta = -7.0; P = 0.02), and fructose (beta = -0.30; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant associations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and semen volume, motility grades, NAG, PSA, and zinc. G(<10) was characterized by higher sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total count of progressive motility compared with G(10-15) (mean difference = 33 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 96 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.50), (mean difference = 77 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), respectively, and G(>15) (mean difference = 50 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 176 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), (mean difference = 110 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.03), respectively. Fructose was significantly higher in G(<10) compared with G(>15) (mean difference = 5.0 mmol/L; P = 0.03). The time-to-ejaculation length was associated with semen parameters. These results might reflect the negative effect of acute stress during semen

  6. Quality of Life--Lifelong Education Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovanovic, Ivica; Bogavac, Dragana; Cvetanovic, Zorica; Kovacevic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the quality of adolescents' lives in order to assess how much it serves the purpose of effective lifelong education. The sample consisted of 220 pupils from the first to the fourth grade of secondary school on the territory of Serbia. The quality of life of the respondents was assessed by means of a…

  7. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  8. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative…

  9. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  10. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  11. Students' Plans for Lifelong Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavšic, Marlena; Dikovic, Marina

    2015-01-01

    One of the roles of higher education is to prepare and encourage students for lifelong learning. However, no evidence can be found about students' plans for further learning and teaching related to formal, non-formal and informal context. The purpose of this study was to explore these students' plans in relation to their study group, level of…

  12. Developing "Masterity": The "Habitus" of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wonsup; Koo, Yoojeong

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers "masters" as the ideal archetype of workers. Here, the term "master" includes not only those who are in traditional handcrafting or manufacturing industry, but also who work in various fields such as information technology, medicine, arts, and so on. To explore the lifelong learning of masters, we conducted…

  13. Getting Closer: Workplace Guidance for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Peter; Turner, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this article are twofold. First, it considers the policy links between guidance and lifelong learning, highlighting in particular the implications of findings from a recent study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Secondly, it critically compares two approaches to workplace guidance about…

  14. Flexible Studies as Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugge, Liv Susanne; Wikan, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Many countries face a challenge in recruiting teachers. At the same time, the labour market is changing and the demand for re-education is increasing. In this situation, lifelong learning is seen as relevant and higher education institutions are asked to offer flexible and decentralised study programmes in order to accommodate the need for formal…

  15. Lifelong Learning and Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on programs that promote lifelong learning through literacy education, parent empowerment, or parent leadership training. "Adult Literacy Outreach Innovations: Porque Significa Tanto" (Christie L. Goodman) describes a Texas outreach project that focuses on raising public awareness about adult education and…

  16. Lifelong Learning and the Limits of Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong education or learning theory is presented by its apologists as a universal normative ethic. That ethic may be understood as an aretaic ethic, embracing a number of ethical values or informed commitments and a teleology of optimising universal human flourishing through learning. In an effort to examine possible barriers to the universality…

  17. Credit for Lifelong Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Carolyn M.

    This guide to developing a prior learning portfolio was prepared to assist students in the Credit for Lifelong Learning Program (CLLP) at Sinclair Community College (SCC) in Dayton, Ohio, through the process of identifying college-level prior learning, matching their learning to specific courses, and articulating and documenting their learning.…

  18. Wise Up. The Challenge of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy

    This book on lifelong learning has two overarching themes: the three Rs of learning power (resilience, resourcefulness, and reflectiveness) and a good learner's toolkit of learning strategies. An introduction previews the main conclusions. Chapter 1 explains how different communities can hold different beliefs about learning. Chapter 2 explores…

  19. Foreign Language and Business. A Lifelong Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, T. Bruce

    The Masters Degree in International Business Program at the University of South Carolina, begun in June 1974, has as its unique feature the emphasis on "lifelong experience." This emphasis affects both the student and the department. From the first year of the program (the basic features of which are intensive training in language,…

  20. Life-Long Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaron, Kalman, Ed.

    The essays in this collection describe some of the main aspects--theories, programs and practices--of adult education in Israel. The 22 essays are: "Problems and Objectives of Adult Education," by Elad Peled; "The Principle of Dialogue in Education," by Martin Buber; "The Jewish Tradition of Life-long Learning," by…

  1. Virtual Reality for Training and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellet-d'Huart, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the application of virtual reality (VR) to training and lifelong learning. A number of considerations concerning the design of VR applications are included. The introduction is dedicated to the more general aspects of applying VR to training. From multiple perspectives, we will provide an overview of existing applications with…

  2. Curiosity: A Link to Assessing Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.

    2008-01-01

    Scores of colleges and universities have pledged to promote lifelong learning in their most central document, the mission statement. Moreover, "A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of Higher Education," the report from the Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education (2006), stresses the importance of lifelong…

  3. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  4. Flexible Querying of Lifelong Learner Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulovassilis, A.; Selmer, P.; Wood, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of flexible querying facilities over heterogeneous data arising from lifelong learners' educational and work experiences. A key aim of such querying facilities is to allow learners to identify possible choices for their future learning and professional development by seeing what others have done. We motivate and…

  5. Options for Lifelong Learners: The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowperthwaite, Gordon

    1980-01-01

    Suggests alternatives to traditional methods of "dispensing" higher education to lifelong learners, focusing on changing teacher responsibilities, older college students, crediting experiential learning, extending services to private and public agencies, and learning contracts. Cites two examples of using contract learning. (JM)

  6. Changing Lives through Lifelong Learning Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    As conceived by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL), Lifelong Learning Accounts (LiLAs[SM]) are employer-matched, portable individual accounts used to finance employee education and training. They provide employees with an affordable means of upgrading their skills and knowledge, while helping to meet the needs of employers and…

  7. The Waikiki Lifelong Learning Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Noelani; Mahuka, Ruth

    The Waikiki Lifelong Learning Center (WLLC) project was undertaken to establish a literacy consortium of visitor industry businesses and the University of Hawaii at Manoa and to develop/implement an instructional program that included bilingual/English-as-a-second language (ESL) and General Educational Development (GED)/pre-GED components. After…

  8. Designing Instruction to Improve Lifelong Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rafferty, Anna; Vitale, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Citizens need the capability to conduct their own inquiry projects so that they can make sense of claims about new energy policies, health remedies, or financial opportunities. To develop the lifelong capability to grapple with these dilemmas, we report on ways to design precollege units that engage students in realistic, personally relevant…

  9. Measuring Lifelong Learning for the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Describes the challenges that research and statistical systems are faced with in the education sector. Argues these consequences are the result of decisions made for economically advanced countries to adopt a lifelong learning framework and strategy in response to the move toward the new global economy. (CAJ)

  10. Creating Environments Conducive for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    A technological transformation during the past decade has eliminated the boundaries between formal and informal learning. As people adapt to a knowledge-driven society, a cultural transformation is occurring. Lifelong learning is an essential goal of education as a means to improve the quality of life for an individual, a culture, or a society.…

  11. Visual Imagery, Lifecourse Structure and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Imagery could add an extra dimension to analyses of lifelong learning, which need to draw on diverse sources and techniques. This article has two principal components. First I suggest that the use of images might be divided into three categories: as illustration; as evidence; and as heuristic. I go on to explore the latter two categories, first by…

  12. Lifelong Learning in Higher Education. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.; Cropley, Arthur J.

    This book, which is intended for academics, educators, educational managers, and policymakers concerned with higher education, examines how universities and colleges can prepare their students for lifelong learning through continuing education, specialized courses for adults, and mainstream teaching programs geared toward traditional students. The…

  13. Lifelong Learning to Empowerment: Beyond Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alexis; Balasubramanian, K.; Atieno, Rosemary; Onyango, James

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of lifelong learning vis-à-vis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and stresses the need for an approach blending formal education, non-formal and informal learning. The role of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in moving beyond formal education and the importance of integrating pedagogy, andragogy and…

  14. [Retinopathy of prematurity].

    PubMed

    Promelle, V; Milazzo, S

    2017-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affecting extremely preterm infants exposed to high concentrations of oxygen therapy. Infants born before 32 post-menstrual weeks or with a birth weight of less than 1500g should systematically have a dilated fundus examination. The time of screening and schedule for follow-up are guided by the various risk factors. This disease results from immaturity of the peripheral retinal vessels at the time of premature birth. The classification of ROP depends on the anteroposterior extent of involvement (from center to periphery: zone I, II and III), its extension in 30° sectors (clock hours) and its stage (stage 1 to 5). "Plus" disease is defined as dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels in the posterior pole of the eye and represents a major risk factor for rapid unfavorable progression. A majority of patients will spontaneously recover, but patients with a high risk of progression will require treatment to prevent retinal detachment and blindness. The indications for treatment are threshold disease and type 1 pre-threshold disease. The current treatment of choice is peripheral retinal ablation with transpupillary laser, but ab externo cryotherapy may be used instead. Intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be an attractive therapeutic option and is currently under investigation. After laser treatment, unfavorable outcomes occur in only 9 to 14 % of eyes, but at the price of peripheral retinal destruction. For all patients, whether treated or not, a regular fundus examination should be insured until complete retinal vascularization has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifelong Learning: An Instrument for Improving School Education in Japan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawano, Yukiko

    Although Japanese society has long valued and practiced lifelong learning, it has not yet been successful in building an ethic that prizes learning, teaches creativity, and includes everyone. Bureaucratic and legal mechanisms undertaken in Japan to promote lifelong learning have included the establishment of Lifelong Learning Councils, a system…

  16. Lifelong Learning Strategies and Practice in Latvia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Ineta; Sungsri, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning has been recognized for many years and consequently many countries, disregarding their geographical location, differences in education systems and traditions, have adopted their lifelong learning policies to develop the lifelong learning system. The goal of the present comparative research is to study the…

  17. Undergraduate College Students, Laptop Computers, and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chong Leng; Morris, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Many universities and colleges list the development of lifelong learning skills as a curriculum objective and have adopted laptop programs that may enable lifelong learning. The purpose of this research is to address the effectiveness of a technology-based and computer-mediated learning environment in achieving lifelong learning skills from the…

  18. Methods for a Rapid Systematic Review and Metaanalysis in Evaluating Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Premature Ejaculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn-St. James, Marrissa; Cooper, Katy; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a rapid systematic review method in which randomised controlled trial (RCT) data was extracted from existing reviews and subsequent RCTs. The method enabled: identification of RCTs not included by existing reviews; cross-checking RCT data for consistency where there was more than one review; double data…

  19. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loadedmore » with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.« less

  20. Within-population variation in ejaculate characteristics in a prolonged breeder, Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Craig D. H.; Uller, Tobias; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2008-11-01

    Sperm number is often a good predictor of success in sperm competition; however, it has become increasingly clear that, for some species, variation in probability of paternity cannot be explained by sperm number alone. Intraspecific variation in ejaculate characteristics, such as the number of viable sperm and sperm longevity, may play an equally important role in determining fertilization success. Here, we assess variation among ejaculates in three factors that may contribute to fertilization success (number of sperm per ejaculate, viability, and longevity), in a population of Peron’s tree frog ( Litoria peronii). We detected large variation among males in the number of sperm per ejaculate and the proportion of viable sperm within ejaculates, which could not be explained by variation in either male size or body condition. However, the proportion of viable sperm released by males increased over the season. Finally, we assessed sperm longevity (proportion viable sperm determined using a dual-fluorochrome vital dye) at two different temperatures. At 23°C, on average, 75% of sperm remained viable after 2 h, but there were significant differences amongst males with the percentage of viable sperm ranging from 43% to 95%. For sperm incubated at 4°C, ejaculates varied fivefold in sperm longevity with some males having 50% viable sperm after 5 days. Our data suggest that ejaculate characteristics (sperm number, viability, and longevity) vary widely in Peron’s tree frog and may therefore play an important role in determining siring success both in the presence and absence of sperm competition. We discuss the results in relation to selection on ejaculate traits via natural and sexual selection in this and other amphibians.

  1. Ejaculate components delay reproductive senescence while elevating female reproductive rate in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A.; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Increased female reproductive rates usually result in accelerated senescence. This correlation provides a link between the evolutionary conflict of the sexes and aging when ejaculate components elevate female reproductive rates at the cost of future reproduction. It is not clear whether this female cost is manifest as shorter lifespan or an earlier onset or a steeper rate of reproductive senescence. It also is unclear whether beneficial ejaculates release females from reproductive trade-offs and, if so, which senescence parameters are affected. We examined these issues in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, a long-lived insect that shows reduced female lifespan as well as female reproductive senescence at the male-determined mating frequency. We demonstrate experimentally that, independently of the mating frequency, females receiving more ejaculate show increased reproductive rates and enter reproductive senescence later than females receiving less ejaculate. The rate of reproductive senescence did not differ between treatments, and reproductive rates did not predict mortality. The ejaculate effects were consistent in inter- and intra-population crosses, suggesting they have not evolved recently and are not caused by inbreeding. Our results suggest that ejaculate components compensate for the costs of elevated female reproductive rates in bedbugs by delaying the onset of reproductive senescence. Ejaculate components that are beneficial to polyandrous females could have arisen because male traits that protect the ejaculate have positive pleiotropic effects and/or because female counteradaptations to antagonistic male traits exceed the neutralization of those traits. That males influence female reproductive senescence has important consequences for trade-offs between reproduction and longevity and for studies of somatic senescence. PMID:19996174

  2. The effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Ji; Yang, Go-Eun; Chueh, Hee Won; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty”) and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”). We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors. Results Early first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08). After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20). Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables. Conclusion There is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early. PMID:28443258

  3. Ejaculate quality and constraints in relation to sperm competition levels among eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The outcome of sperm competition is influenced by the relative quantity and quality of sperm among competing ejaculates. Whereas it is well established that individual ejaculate traits evolve rapidly under postcopulatory sexual selection, little is known about other factors that might influence the evolution of ejaculates. For example, the metabolic rate is likely to affect the sperm production rate and the cellular activity or metabolism of sperm, and it has recently been suggested to constrain the evolution of sperm length in large but not small mammals. I thus examined in eutherian mammals how ejaculate quality traits vary with one another and with testis mass, body size, and metabolism. I found all ejaculate traits to covary positively with one another and to increase with relative testis mass. When controlling for testis mass, small-bodied species showed superior sperm quality (but not sperm number). Furthermore, sperm motility and viability were positively associated with the mass-corrected metabolic rate, but the percentage of morphologically normal and acrosome-intact sperm were not. These results indicate that body size and the energy budget may also influence the evolution of ejaculate quality, although these influences appear to vary among traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  5. Lifelong literacy: Some trends and issues in conceptualising and operationalising literacy from a lifelong learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire basic competencies through formal schooling. Within a lifelong learning framework, literacy and numeracy are viewed as foundation skills which are the core of basic education and indispensable to full participation in society. This article discusses recent developments in conceptualising literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. Starting from the evolving notions of adult literacy, the author identifies some current trends, the most important being that literacy is now perceived as a learning continuum of different proficiency levels. Dichotomous states of being either "literate" or "illiterate" no longer apply. She analyses (1) findings extracted from UNESCO Member States' national reports submitted to the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) for the 2nd Global Report on Adult Learning and Education; (2) a desk study of national literacy campaigns and programmes as well as (3) some recent developments in formal education. Her suggested three-dimensional analytical framework considers literacy as a lifelong and life-wide learning process and as part of lifelong learning systems. She draws a number of conclusions for policy and practice of literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. These conclusions are a timely contribution to the ongoing post-2015 education debate, in particular to the challenge of how to mainstream youth and adult literacy into the implementation of the sustainable development agenda for 2015-2030.

  6. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... large bursts of breath followed by periods of shallow breathing or stopped breathing. Apnea of prematurity usually ... seconds and is followed by several fast and shallow breaths. Periodic breathing doesn't cause a change ...

  7. Caring for Your Premature Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... being born premature increase my baby’s risk of cerebral palsy or other chronic health conditions? Resources March of ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control ...

  8. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...

  9. Surfing and Swimming of Ejaculated Sperm in the Mouse Oviduct.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yu; Usui, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Misuzu; Kanemori, Yoshinori; Baba, Tadashi

    2016-04-01

    To accomplish fertilization in the oviductal ampulla, ejaculated sperm are required to migrate through the female reproductive tract. However, this fundamental process largely remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of oviductal smooth muscle (myosalpinx) contractions in the sperm migration. Administration of prifinium bromide, padrin, to mice effectively suppressed myosalpinx contractions, resulting in a decreased rate of fertilization in a dose-dependent manner, and an abrogation of high-speed back-and-forth/shuttling flows of oviductal fluids around the isthmus. Regardless of padrin administration, no shuttling flows were found near the ampulla. In the isthmus, sperm formed a tight assemblage that was synchronized with the shuttling flows. The sperm assemblage was gradually loosened and then completely abolished near the ampulla. No sperm assemblage was formed in the isthmus when padrin was administrated. These results suggest that myosalpinx contractions play important roles in the formation of sperm assemblage in the isthmus, and in the transport of the assemblage to the middle region of the oviduct. It is also suggested that the motility of sperm is essential for the migration of sperm from the middle oviductal region to the ampulla. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. Lifelong-RL: Lifelong Relaxation Labeling for Separating Entities and Aspects in Opinion Targets.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lei; Liu, Bing; Xu, Hu; Kim, Annice

    2016-11-01

    It is well-known that opinions have targets. Extracting such targets is an important problem of opinion mining because without knowing the target of an opinion, the opinion is of limited use. So far many algorithms have been proposed to extract opinion targets. However, an opinion target can be an entity or an aspect (part or attribute) of an entity. An opinion about an entity is an opinion about the entity as a whole, while an opinion about an aspect is just an opinion about that specific attribute or aspect of an entity. Thus, opinion targets should be separated into entities and aspects before use because they represent very different things about opinions. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, called Lifelong-RL , to solve the problem based on lifelong machine learning and relaxation labeling . Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm Lifelong-RL outperforms baseline methods markedly.

  11. Larger testes are associated with a higher level of polyandry, but a smaller ejaculate volume, across bushcricket species (Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim; Parker, Darren J.; Gilbert, James D. J.

    2011-01-01

    While early models of ejaculate allocation predicted that both relative testes and ejaculate size should increase with sperm competition intensity across species, recent models predict that ejaculate size may actually decrease as testes size and sperm competition intensity increase, owing to the confounding effect of potential male mating rate. A recent study demonstrated that ejaculate volume decreased in relation to increased polyandry across bushcricket species, but testes mass was not measured. Here, we recorded testis mass for 21 bushcricket species, while ejaculate (ampulla) mass, nuptial gift mass, sperm number and polyandry data were largely obtained from the literature. Using phylogenetic-comparative analyses, we found that testis mass increased with the degree of polyandry, but decreased with increasing ejaculate mass. We found no significant relationship between testis mass and either sperm number or nuptial gift mass. While these results are consistent with recent models of ejaculate allocation, they could alternatively be driven by substances in the ejaculate that affect the degree of polyandry and/or by a trade-off between resources spent on testes mass versus non-sperm components of the ejaculate. PMID:21068028

  12. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  13. Neural mechanisms of sexual behavior in the male rat: emphasis on ejaculation-related circuits.

    PubMed

    Veening, J G; Coolen, L M

    2014-06-01

    Sexual behavior of the male rat can be described as a 'sequence': a series of behavioral transitions eventually leading to a consummatory act: ejaculation. A 'funnel-model' is presented to describe the behavioral progression during the sexual sequence. The ejaculation itself is extensively controlled by the 'spinal ejaculation generator', consisting of several elements with afferent sources of genitosensory information, with ascending projection fibers to inform the brainstem and forebrain as well as with descending afferent fibers providing the supraspinal control mechanisms with the opportunity to restrict ejaculations to the optimal moments and circumstances. The messages ascending from the spinal cord reach several interconnected thalamic, hypothalamic and limbic brain areas and are integrated with olfactory information. These brain areas play a role in mechanisms like 'sexual satiety' or a temporary interruption of sexual activities (post-ejaculatory interval), but the exact facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms involved have not been elucidated yet. In the 'downward' mechanisms controlling the spinal 'release' of an ejaculation, the medial preoptic nucleus plays an important role in cooperation with a number of brainstem areas. This nucleus is also explicitly involved in the rewarding experiences coming with an ejaculation. Finally, the role of several neurotransmitters and-peptides on male sexual behavior are discussed shortly, because sometimes they show remarkable effects on specific aspects of the behavioral sequence. We conclude that, despite our increased knowledge about the brain mechanisms involved in the control of ejaculation, we are still far away from a complete understanding and quite a few questions remain to be resolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Premature Brain Aging in Baboons Resulting from Moderate Fetal Undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Dahnke, Robert; Gaser, Christian; Kuo, Anderson H; Li, Cun; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the known benefits from a moderate dietary reduction during adulthood on life span and health, maternal nutrient reduction during pregnancy is supposed to affect the developing brain, probably resulting in impaired brain structure and function throughout life. Decreased fetal nutrition delivery is widespread in both developing and developed countries, caused by poverty and natural disasters, but also due to maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, pregnancy in women over 35 years of age, placental insufficiency, or multiples. Compromised development of fetal cerebral structures was already shown in our baboon model of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. The present study was designed to follow-up and evaluate the effects of moderate maternal nutrient reduction on individual brain aging in the baboon during young adulthood (4-7 years; human equivalent 14-24 years), applying a novel, non-invasive neuroimaging aging biomarker. The study reveals premature brain aging of +2.7 years ( p < 0.01) in the female baboon exposed to fetal undernutrition. The effects of moderate maternal nutrient reduction on individual brain aging occurred in the absence of fetal growth restriction or marked maternal weight reduction at birth, which stresses the significance of early nutritional conditions in life-long developmental programming. This non-invasive MRI biomarker allows further longitudinal in vivo tracking of individual brain aging trajectories to assess the life-long effects of developmental and environmental influences in programming paradigms, aiding preventive and curative treatments on cerebral atrophy in experimental animal models and humans.

  15. Premature Brain Aging in Baboons Resulting from Moderate Fetal Undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Clarke, Geoffrey D.; Dahnke, Robert; Gaser, Christian; Kuo, Anderson H.; Li, Cun; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the known benefits from a moderate dietary reduction during adulthood on life span and health, maternal nutrient reduction during pregnancy is supposed to affect the developing brain, probably resulting in impaired brain structure and function throughout life. Decreased fetal nutrition delivery is widespread in both developing and developed countries, caused by poverty and natural disasters, but also due to maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, pregnancy in women over 35 years of age, placental insufficiency, or multiples. Compromised development of fetal cerebral structures was already shown in our baboon model of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. The present study was designed to follow-up and evaluate the effects of moderate maternal nutrient reduction on individual brain aging in the baboon during young adulthood (4–7 years; human equivalent 14–24 years), applying a novel, non-invasive neuroimaging aging biomarker. The study reveals premature brain aging of +2.7 years (p < 0.01) in the female baboon exposed to fetal undernutrition. The effects of moderate maternal nutrient reduction on individual brain aging occurred in the absence of fetal growth restriction or marked maternal weight reduction at birth, which stresses the significance of early nutritional conditions in life-long developmental programming. This non-invasive MRI biomarker allows further longitudinal in vivo tracking of individual brain aging trajectories to assess the life-long effects of developmental and environmental influences in programming paradigms, aiding preventive and curative treatments on cerebral atrophy in experimental animal models and humans. PMID:28443017

  16. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  17. Quality of 4-hourly ejaculates--levels of calcium and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Valsa, J; Skandhan, K P; Gusani, P H; Sahab Khan, P; Amith, S

    2013-02-01

    A four-hourly ejaculation study was conducted in which eleven normal healthy subjects participated. Five of them discontinued after submitting three samples. One alone was present for submission at the end of 16 h (fifth ejaculate), which was his last submission. Physical exhaustion was the sole reason for all participants for their discontinuation from the study. The result showed a decrease in semen volume and sperm count from first to last ejaculate. The increase in motility was probably due to reduction in exposure time to sperm motility inhibitory factors. In general, total motile spermatozoa as well as actively motile spermatozoa progressively increased from first to last ejaculate at the cost of sluggish spermatozoa. A significant increase in seminal plasma calcium and magnesium was seen as well as a significant increase in magnesium inside the cell from the first to the fourth ejaculate. Considering the quality of semen, which was good in sperm count and excellent in motility, calcium and magnesium may be helpful in cleaning motility inhibitory factors of spermatozoa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Morphometric and kinematic sperm subpopulations in split ejaculates of normozoospermic men

    PubMed Central

    Santolaria, Pilar; Soler, Carles; Recreo, Pilar; Carretero, Teresa; Bono, Araceli; Berné, José M; Yániz, Jesús L

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the sperm kinematic and morphometric subpopulations in the different fractions of the ejaculate in normozoospermic men. Ejaculates from eight normozoospermic men were collected by masturbation in three fractions after 3–5 days of sexual abstinence. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-Mot), and of sperm morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) using fluorescence were performed. Clustering and discriminant procedures were performed to identify sperm subpopulations in the kinematic and morphometric data obtained. Clustering procedures resulted in the classification of spermatozoa into three kinematic subpopulations (slow with low ALH [35.6% of all motile spermatozoa], with circular trajectories [32.0%], and rapid with high ALH [32.4%]), and three morphometric subpopulations (large-round [33.9% of all spermatozoa], elongated [32.0%], and small [34.10%]). The distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations was different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with higher percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting slow movements with low ALH in the second and third portions, and with a more homogeneous distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations in the first portion. The distribution of morphometric sperm subpopulations was also different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with more elongated spermatozoa in the first, and of small spermatozoa in the third, portion. It is concluded that important variations in the distribution of kinematic and morphometric sperm subpopulations exist between ejaculate fractions, with possible functional implications. PMID:27624985

  19. Lifelong Exercise Patterns and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Martijn F H; Verbeek, André L M; Bakker, Esmée A; Thompson, Paul D; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2016-06-01

    To determine the relationship between lifelong exercise dose and the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity. From June 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014, 21,266 individuals completed an online questionnaire regarding their lifelong exercise patterns and cardiovascular health status. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) were defined as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or type 2 diabetes. Lifelong exercise patterns were measured over a median of 32 years for 405 patients with CVD, 1379 patients with CVRFs, and 10,656 controls. Participants were categorized into nonexercisers and quintiles (Q1-Q5) of exercise dose (metabolic equivalent task [MET] minutes per week). The CVD/CVRF prevalence was lower for each exercise quintile compared with nonexercisers (CVD: nonexercisers, 9.6% vs Q1: 4.4%, Q2: 2.8%, Q3: 2.4%, Q4: 3.6%, Q5: 3.9%; P<.001; CVRF: nonexercisers, 24.6% vs Q1: 13.8%, Q2: 10.2%, Q3: 9.0%, Q4: 9.4%, Q5: 12.0%; P<.001). The lowest exercise dose (Q1) significantly reduced CVD and CVRF prevalence, but the largest reductions were found at 764 to 1091 MET-min/wk for CVD (adjusted odds ratio=0.31; 95% CI, 0.20-0.48) and CVRFs (adjusted odds ratio=0.36; 95% CI, 0.28-0.47). The CVD/CVRF prevalence did not further decrease in higher exercise dose groups. Exercise intensity did not influence the relationship between exercise patterns and CVD or CVRFs. These findings demonstrate a curvilinear relationship between lifelong exercise patterns and cardiovascular morbidity. Low exercise doses can effectively reduce CVD/CVRF prevalence, but engagement in exercise for 764 to 1091 MET-min/wk is associated with the lowest CVD/CVRF prevalence. Higher exercise doses do not yield additional benefits. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifelong Learning for the Hand Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Hand surgeons are faced with the impossible task of mastering a rapidly expanding pool of knowledge and surgical techniques. Dedication to lifelong learning is, therefore, an essential component of delivering the best, most up-to-date care for patients. Board certification, participation in continuing medical education and maintenance of certification activities, and attendance at national meetings are essential mechanisms by which hand surgeons may foster the acquisition of essential knowledge and clinical skills, This article highlights the history, current status, and emerging needs in continuing medical education for the hand surgeon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Educational paper: Retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Casteels, Ingele; Cassiman, Catherine; Van Calster, Joachim; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, retinopathy of prematurity has become one of the leading causes of childhood blindness. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ROP, to a large extent as a result of changes in clinical risk factors (oxygen and non-oxygen related) and characteristics observed in ROP cases. This article provides a literature review on the evolution in clinical characteristics, classification and treatment modalities and indications of ROP. Special attention is hereby paid to the neonatal factors influencing the development of ROP and to the necessity for everyone caring for premature babies to have a well-defined screening and treatment protocol for ROP. Such screening protocol needs to be based on a unit-specific ROP risk profile and, consequently, may vary between different European regions. Retinopathy of prematurity is an important cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in children. With better understanding of the pathogenesis, screening and treatment guidelines have changed over time and are unit specific.

  2. Confucian Educational Philosophy and Its Implication for Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, from historical and philosophical perspectives, presents Confucian education philosophy, a philosophy that is argued is a philosophy of lifelong learning. Examined and illustrated are the Confucian concepts of "Sage", a Confucian ideal human model, and "Jun Zi", a Confucian realistic educational result. Through "Sage", Confucius…

  3. Lifelong Literacy: Some Trends and Issues in Conceptualising and Operationalising Literacy from a Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire…

  4. Learning to Live: The Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which people with lifelong chronic illness engage with learning, and how learning impacts on the ways in which they learn to live with their illness. It considers their engagement with and changing focus of learning at different stages: prior to diagnosis, at about the time of diagnosis, and as their understanding…

  5. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  6. Healthy live birth using theophylline in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Thomas; Shebl, Omar; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Moser, Marianne; Costamoling, Walter; Oppelt, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To analyze whether the use of ready-to-use theophylline is a feasible option in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Case report. In vitro fertilization unit of a public hospital. Thirty-one-year-old nulliparous woman, and 39-year-old male with retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Retrieval of postejaculatory urine, restoration of motility using a methylxanthine, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, single-embryo transfer. Sperm motility, fertilization, embryo quality, live birth. Successful fertilization and a single-embryo transfer resulted in a healthy live birth. Theophylline turned out to be a safe, efficient agent for stimulating immotile spermatozoa in patients with retrograde ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values.

    PubMed

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-03-01

    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  8. Identification, RNAi Knockdown and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezgotic Phenotype in a cricket

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male ejaculate proteins, including both sperm and seminal fluid proteins, play an important role in mediating reproductive biology. The function of ejaculate proteins can include enabling sperm-egg interactions, enhancing sperm storage, mediating female attractiveness, and even regulating female lif...

  9. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  10. [Ejaculatory profile: a pressure of 5 meters H2O at the level of the bladder neck during ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Hugonnet, Christophe L; Böhlen, Dominik; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2002-12-01

    The existence of a pressure gradient in order to prevent retrograde ejaculation in men with no ejaculatory disorders has always been postulated, but without any scientific evidence. The profile of the prostatic urethra was recorded during ejaculation in 5 men with no ejaculatory disorders using a 10 F balloon catheter with 16 pressure channels, situated in pairs every 5 mm, starting just below the balloon in the bladder neck and extending as far as the external urethral sphincter. The pressure in the proximal part of the proximal urethra was 500 cm H2O in the five men, but this pressure did not exceed 400 cm H2O distally as far as the colliculus seminalis. The authors present a new method for recording the urethral pressure profile during ejaculation (ejaculatory profile). This study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of normal ejaculation and could be useful for the evaluation of disorders of ejaculation.

  11. Factors Contributing to Lifelong Science Learning: Amateur Astronomers and Birders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Corin, Elysa Nicole; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    This research examined lifelong science learning reported by amateur astronomers and birders. One hundred seven adults who reported engaging in an informal (out-of-school) science interest were interviewed as part of an ongoing series of studies of lifelong science learners. The goal of the study was to gain insight into how and why amateur…

  12. Development of a Global Lifelong Learning Index for Future Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JuSeuk

    2016-01-01

    Since the transition from industrial society to a knowledge-based society, the source of national competitiveness is also changing. In this context, lifelong education has become a new competitive strategy for countries. This study broadly consists of three steps. Step I features a theoretical review of global lifelong learning indices and a…

  13. Architecture for Implementation of a Lifelong Online Learning Environment (LOLE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gregg; Leblanc, Frederic; Grant, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an architecture for the implementation of a lifelong online learning environment (LOLE). The stakeholder independent architecture enables the development of a LOLE system to fulfill the complex requirements of the different actors involved in lifelong education. A particular emphasis is placed on the continuation of a…

  14. Lifelong Learning: Conceptualizations in European Educational Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Mariana Gaio; Neves, Claudia; Gomes, Elisabete Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, lifelong learning has been a central and guiding principle in the formulation of European educational policies. Within this general framework, the authors have been developing a research project that allows them to approach the theme of lifelong learning and European educational policies, taking into account four levels of…

  15. Investigation of the Lifelong Learning Tendency of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Hamit; Erbay, Hasan; Kör, Hakan; Engin, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The concept of "lifelong learning (LLL)" has emerged because of the necessity of renewing earlier and immemorial information in time. LLL is involved in a various kind of international foundations' works. European Union is perceived as more efficient in comparison with international companies in terms of lifelong learning practices.…

  16. Guidelines for Lifelong Education Management to Mobilize Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida

    2018-01-01

    This article is a study of the guidelines for lifelong education management to mobilize learning communities in the social-cultural context of Thailand is intended to 1) analyze and synthesize the management of lifelong learning to mobilize learning community in the social-cultural context of Thailand; and 2) propose guidelines for lifelong…

  17. Learners or Participants? The Pros and Cons of "Lifelong Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…

  18. Propensity to Lifelong Learning: Reflections of a Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The author's tertiary learning journey began as a research assistant reviewing educational literature. Among the mountain of lifelong learning literature, the author could find nothing that explained why people are or are not lifelong learners. Eventually he found the British work of Gorard and Selwyn (2005). Mindful of Osborne's (2002) caution…

  19. Revisiting Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Ohsako, Toshio; Mauch, Werner

    Although lifelong learning is being increasingly cited as one of the key principles in the fields of education and development, shared understanding of the term's usage at the global level is lacking. Lifelong learning is closely tied to the challenge of openness and the changes with which modern individuals must cope in their lifetimes. Lifelong…

  20. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Lifelong Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on lifelong learning from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Study on the School Information Technology Pilot Scheme: Possibilities of Creative and Lifelong Learning" (Siu-Cheung Kong,…

  1. Lifelong Learning for All in Asian Communities: ICT Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The necessity to adjust to the prerequisites of the knowledge based society and economy brought about the need for lifelong learning for all in Asian communities. The concept of lifelong learning stresses that learning and education are related to life as a whole - not just to work - and that learning throughout life is a continuum that should run…

  2. Development of a Scale to Measure Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Knapper, Christopher; Lamon, Patrick; Egnatoff, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary objective: to develop a scale to measure students' disposition to engage in lifelong learning. Research design, methods and procedures: using items that reflected the components of lifelong learning, we constructed a 14-item scale that was completed by 309 university and vocational college students, who also completed a measure of deep and…

  3. Lifelong Adaptability: A Cultural Literacy Perspective (Revised Edition)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, John Thayer

    2011-01-01

    This revised 1997 ex post facto study attempted to identify a lifelong adaptability curriculum from a cultural literacy perspective. It investigated students' lifelong adaptability ratings of 15 general school subjects as predicted by family structure, parental age, parental educational level, student cultural literacy, and student gender;…

  4. HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogisu-Kamiya, Motoyo

    Advocating the development of a new vision and strategies for lifelong learning in the multicultural workplace, this paper describes the influences of cultural issues on the human resource development (HRD) interface at a Japanese multinational firm operating in Canada. Following an introduction defining lifelong learning and related terms,…

  5. The Design and Management of an Organisation's Lifelong Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the successful design and management of high performance work-based lifelong learning processes. Design: The paper summarises the process management practices and contextual parameters that are being applied in the successful design and management of high performance work based lifelong learning…

  6. Purpose of Lifelong Learning: Analysis from a Single Participant Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    What should be goal of education in general? What type of education are we practicing in the name of lifelong learning? What perspective of lifelong learning is becoming more dominant? Should the education system of a nation fulfill the demand of the market or the demand of the society? In this short single participant interview research I have…

  7. Higher Education and Lifelong Learners: International Perspectives on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Slowey, Maria, Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on higher education and lifelong learners. The following papers are included: "Traditions and New Directions in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Non-Traditional Students and Lifelong Learners" (Hans G. Schuetze, Maria Slowey); "Austria: The Enduring Myth of the Full-Time Student: An…

  8. Lifelong Learning Key Competence Levels of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adabas, Abdurrahman; Kaygin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The European Union defines lifelong learning as all activities aimed at improving an individual's knowledge, skills and competences individually, socially or vocationally throughout his/her life. In 2007, eight key competences necessary for lifelong learning were identified by the European Union Education and Culture Commission. These competences…

  9. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care.

  10. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. Objective The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. Methods In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. Results In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Conclusion Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care. PMID:29238496

  11. The Politics of 'Lifelong Learning' in Post-1997 Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article is concerned with the politics of lifelong learning policy in post-1997 Hong Kong (HK). The paper is in four parts. Continuing Education, recast as 'lifelong learning', is to be the cornerstone of the post-Handover education reform agenda. The lineaments of a familiar discourse are evident in the Education Commission policy documents.…

  12. Applying Andragogical Concepts in Creating a Sustainable Lifelong Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…

  13. Lifelong Learning in Swedish Curricula. Didakometry No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredriksson, Lennart; Gestrelius, Kurt

    An examination of the lifelong learning aspect of the central and nationwide curricula in Sweden has been made by the UNESCO Institute for Education. The concept of lifelong learning is defined and criteria for developing positive attitudes and opportunities for its development are discussed. The analysis of the curricula in the basic and upper…

  14. The Application of Buddhist Principles to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Defining lifelong learning as conscious learning taking place throughout life, Buddhist meditation, contemplation, and mindfulnes are practices suitable to developing awareness of life experience. This broadens the concept of lifelong learning beyond the narrow vocationalism and economic determinism of much current discourse. (Contains 36…

  15. Africa and International Policy Making for Lifelong Learning: Textual Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…

  16. Individual Learning Accounts and Other Models of Financing Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.

    2007-01-01

    To answer the question "Financing what?" this article distinguishes several models of lifelong learning as well as a variety of lifelong learning activities. Several financing methods are briefly reviewed, however the principal focus is on Individual Learning Accounts (ILAs) which were seen by some analysts as a promising model for…

  17. Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Adult Education in the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…

  18. TBI-ROC Part Six: Lifelong Living after TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeing, Marianne; Barton, Barbara; Zinsmeister, Paula; Brouwers, Lynn; Trudel, Tina M.; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This article is the sixth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and discusses lifelong living after TBI. Following TBI, lifelong outcomes vary depending on the individual affected, treatment provided and severity of injury. Fortunately, many individuals who experience mild concussions common to childhood have no lasting symptoms.…

  19. Lifelong Learning: Foundational Models, Underlying Assumptions and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive.…

  20. Researching Lifelong Learning Participation through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interdisciplinary nature of studies in the field of lifelong learning participation. Until recently, participation studies have been presented in a rather fragmented way, often drawing on insights from separate disciplines such as sociology or psychology. The complex nature of lifelong learning participation, however, urges…

  1. Some Critical Reflections on Lifelong Learning Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayilan, Fevziye

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the Lifelong Learning Strategy document which was on the agenda during the European Union harmonization process of Turkey. The public policies in the document, regarding non-formal and adult education, will be analyzed. Lifelong Learning strategy became a current issue in the last stage of neoliberal transformation of…

  2. Understanding Adult Lifelong Learning Participation as a Layered Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the layered nature of lifelong learning participation, bringing together fragmented insights in why adults do or do not participate in lifelong learning activities. The paper will discuss the roles and responsibilities of individual adults, education and training providers and countries' social education policies, often…

  3. Higher Education and the Promotion of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, A. J.; Knapper, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Definitions and goals of lifelong education are discussed, and how instructors in the colleges and universities of Great Britain could change their own instructional methods and course content to make them compatible with the promotion of lifelong learning is examined. (RM)

  4. Challenges in Evaluating the EU's Lifelong Learning Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clain, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, lifelong learning has become a major policy concern for the European Union, being seen as a means for enabling individuals to be more competitive in social and economic contexts that are continually changing. After a series of white papers and strategies in the field of lifelong learning, the EU launched the Lifelong…

  5. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  6. Complications of Prematurity - An Infographic

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-01-01

    Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522

  7. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  8. Premature Needle Loss of Spruce

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Joseph G. O Brien

    1990-01-01

    Premature needle loss on white, black and Norway spruce has been observed in forest plantations in Wisconsin and Minnesota during the past six years. Symptoms vary by species but usually appear first in 2-4-year old needles on lower branches. Infected needles are dropped, resulting in branch mortality that progresses upward through the crown, sometimes killing even...

  9. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  10. Lifelong Learning in Transformation: Promising Practices in Southeast Asia. UIL Publications Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies: No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorozu, Rika, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Learning throughout life is the driving force for transforming the world to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Many countries and communities regard lifelong learning for all as essential to their education goals and development frameworks. This report is a compendium of country reports on good practice in lifelong learning in…

  11. The Role of Higher Education in Promoting Lifelong Learning. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies: No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Schneller, Chripa, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that universities have a vital role to play in promoting lifelong learning. This publication presents possible ways of expanding and transforming higher education to facilitate lifelong learning in different socio-economic contexts. Nine articles address the various dimensions of the role of higher education in promoting lifelong…

  12. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Methods Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Results Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society’s new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Conclusion Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society’s capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which ‘biographicisation’ is the seed that will promote innovative strategies. PMID:26019932

  13. Quality of seminal fluids varies with type of stimulus at ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jeannerat, E.; Janett, F.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.; Burger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of ejaculate economics was mainly built around different sperm competition scenarios but also predicts that investments into ejaculates depend on female fecundity. Previous tests of this prediction focused on invertebrates and lower vertebrate, and on species with high female reproductive potential. It remains unclear whether the prediction also holds for polygynous mammals with low female reproductive potential (due to low litter size and long inter-birth intervals). We used horses (Equus caballus) to experimentally test whether semen characteristics are adjusted to the oestrous cycle of the mare a stallion is exposed to during few moments before ejaculation. We analysed 122 weekly semen samples collected from 16 stallions during exposure to either an oestrous or a dioestrous mare. Semen volume and the rate of motile sperm were higher when stallions were exposed to an oestrous than to a diestrous mare, while total sperm counts and sperm velocity remained unchanged. Sperm collected after exposure to an oestrous mare also showed reduced oxidative degeneration of cell membranes over a period of 48 hours. We conclude that stallions invest more into their seminal fluids when the chance of fertilization is elevated, and that this adjustment of ejaculate quality can happen very quickly. PMID:28287188

  14. Five meters of H(2)O: the pressure at the urinary bladder neck during human ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Böhlen, D; Hugonnet, C L; Mills, R D; Weise, E S; Schmid, H P

    2000-09-01

    There are no data in the literature on pressure changes in the prostatic urethra during ejaculation. In healthy men, it has always been postulated that there must be a pressure gradient in order to prevent retrograde ejaculation, but scientific proof for that is pending. In five healthy male volunteers, the pressure profile in the prostatic urethra was registered during ejaculation, using a 10 French balloon catheter with 16 pressure channels. The channels were arranged in pairs at 5-mm intervals, beginning just below the balloon at the bladder neck and extending down to the external urethral sphincter. In the proximal part of the prostatic urethra, a pressure of up to 500 cm of H(2)O was measured in all subjects. Contrary to that, pressures did not exceed 400 cm of H(2)O distally to the verumontanum. A novel method to register the pressure profile in the lower urinary tract during ejaculation (ejaculomanometry) is presented. This study adds to the knowledge of the normal physiology of reproductive function and may be useful in the evaluation of male sexual and reproductive disorders. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  16. Influence of season and frequency of ejaculation on production of stallion semen for freezing.

    PubMed

    Magistrini, M; Chanteloube, P; Palmer, E

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to define optimal season and ejaculation frequency for frozen semen, semen was collected from 6 stallions (3 horses and 3 ponies) 3 times per week or every day, alternating every week, for 1 year. The semen was evaluated and frozen. All the samples were thawed at the end of the experiment. At collection, fresh semen evaluations showed that winter (as opposed to spring and summer) was associated with low sexual behaviour, small volumes of spermatozoa and gel, high sperm concentration and lower motility. The high ejaculation frequency yielded a decreased volume, concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and slightly improved motility. The quality of thawed semen was analysed by video and microscope estimations for motility and by two staining methods for vitality. No variation was observed according to the ejaculation frequency; the best freezability was obtained in winter but the difference was small compared to between-stallion variability and optimization of frequency and season did not change a 'bad freezer' into a good one.

  17. Sperm competition in humans: mate guarding behavior negatively correlates with ejaculate quality.

    PubMed

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans.

  18. Socially cued seminal fluid gene expression mediates responses in ejaculate quality to sperm competition risk.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lovegrove, Maxine

    2017-08-30

    There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets ( Teleogryllus oceanicus ) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in part, to male adjustments in the protein composition of the seminal fluid. Seven seminal fluid protein genes were found to have an increased expression in males exposed to rival calls. Increased expression of these genes was correlated with increased sperm viability in whole ejaculates, and gene knockdown confirmed that at least one of these proteins promotes sperm viability. Our results lend support for recent theoretical models that predict complex responses in male allocation to seminal fluid composition in response to sperm competition risk. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (< 1000 grams) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30–50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20–50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for

  20. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address

  1. Comparison of intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between spermatozoa retrieved from testicular biopsy and from ejaculation in cryptozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, N; Heidari-Vala, H; Akhondi, M A; Hosseini Jadda, S H; Kamali, K; Sadeghi, M R

    2012-05-01

    The infrequent presence of spermatozoa in cryptozoospermic men ejaculate is a limiting factor in the treatment of them. Sometimes, this consideration impels us to apply meticulous microscopic search in ejaculate or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) method. The aim of this study was to assess putative effectiveness of sperm origin, ejaculated or testicular, in cryptozoospermia treatment. In this context, were evaluated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in two parameters including fertilisation rate (2PN) and embryo quality, independently. We compared the outcome in two groups: patients who underwent ejaculate/ICSI and ones who underwent TESE/ICSI process. Nineteen ICSI cycles performed with testicular spermatozoa and the rest of cycles (n = 208) carried out with ejaculated spermatozoa. Result analysis showed similar fertilisation rate between testicular and ejaculated spermatozoa (respectively, 60% versus 68%, P ≥ 0.05). Also, on the other hand, embryo quality did not show significant differences between two groups, except grade A with low significance. With regard to almost equal performance of both methods in results and being invasive of TESE as surgical sperm retrieval method, the use of ejaculated sperm more than testicular sperm should be recommended in patients with cryptozoospermia whenever possible. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Structural complexity and molecular heterogeneity of a butterfly ejaculate reflect a complex history of selection

    PubMed Central

    Cherwin, Tamara S.; Plakke, Melissa S.; Hill, Jason; Small, Brandon S.; Goetz, Breanna J.; Wheat, Christopher W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2017-01-01

    Male ejaculates are often structurally complex, and this complexity is likely to influence key reproductive interactions between males and females. However, despite its potential evolutionary significance, the molecular underpinnings of ejaculate structural complexity have received little empirical attention. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand the biochemical and functional properties of the structurally complex ejaculates of Pieris rapae butterflies. Males in this species produce large ejaculates called spermatophores composed of an outer envelope, an inner matrix, and a bolus of sperm. Females are thought to benefit from the nutrition contained in the soluble inner matrix through increases in longevity and fecundity. However, the indigestible outer envelope of the spermatophore delays female remating, allowing males to monopolize paternity for longer. Here, we show that these two nonsperm-containing spermatophore regions, the inner matrix and the outer envelope, differ in their protein composition and functional properties. We also reveal how these divergent protein mixtures are separately stored in the male reproductive tract and sequentially transferred to the female reproductive tract during spermatophore assembly. Intriguingly, we discovered large quantities of female-derived proteases in both spermatophore regions shortly after mating, which may contribute to spermatophore digestion and hence, female control over remating rate. Finally, we report evidence of past selection on these spermatophore proteins and female proteases, indicating a complex evolutionary history. Our findings illustrate how structural complexity of ejaculates may allow functionally and/or spatially associated suites of proteins to respond rapidly to divergent selective pressures, such as sexual conflict or reproductive cooperation. PMID:28630352

  3. Ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation in the endangered Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Togna, Gina Della; Padilla, Luis; Smith, Diorene; Sanchez, Carlos; Pelican, Katey; Sanjur, Oris I

    2011-01-01

    There is little information on the reproductive biology of the male Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). In this study, we characterized the ejaculate traits and evaluated the efficacy of 2 cryodiluents on sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates were assessed for volume, pH, sperm motility, forward progression, osmolality, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, and acrosomal integrity. For cryopreservation, ejaculates with >50% total sperm motility were washed, and sperm pellets were resuspended in either Botu-Crio (CryoVital, Grandau, Germany) or INRA 96 containing 2% egg yolk and 2.5% each of methyl- and dimethylformamide (INRA 96), and they were cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen vapor. Thawed samples were incubated in vitro (25 °C) and evaluated for percent total sperm motility, forward progression, and acrosomal integrity at hourly intervals for 4 hours. Spermic ejaculates were obtained from all males, and the mean seminal volume, sperm concentration per milliliter, percent sperm motility, progressive status, and percent morphologically normal cells were 20.4 ± 4.3 mL, 101.2 ± 24.0 × 10(6)/mL, 46.1% ± 5.0%, 2.9 ± 0.1, and 6.9% ± 1.4%, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between percent normal sperm and animal age (r = 0.66; P < .004). Cryopreservation in either Botu-Crio or INRA 96 resulted in a decline (P < .05) in percent sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Sperm forward progression remained unaffected immediately after thawing in INRA 96 but continued to decline over time. These results characterize, for the first time, the ejaculate traits of the tapir; demonstrate that tapir spermatozoa can be cryopreserved in diluents containing amides alone or in combination with glycerol; and provide fundamental information critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies for the Baird's tapir.

  4. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  5. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the "classical" statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs.

  6. Ejaculates are not used as nuptial gifts in simultaneously hermaphroditic snails.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Monica; Meijer, Fedde W; Koene, Joris M

    2017-08-01

    Promoted by sexual selection, males usually adopt different ways to increase their fertilization chances. In many insect taxa males donate nuptial gifts, together with sperm, which represent a valuable additional nutrient source that females can use to provision eggs. This has also been suggested to occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites, organisms with both sex functions. In theory, donation of nuptial gifts or extra nutrients might work in hermaphrodites that mate unilaterally (one-way donation of ejaculates), but will not be effective when these organisms mate reciprocally (mutual exchange of ejaculates), since on average each partner would receive the amount it also transfers. Hence, for the latter the net amount gained would be zero, and when considering the non-trivial costs of metabolic conversion the energy balance of this exchange ends up negative. To test this prediction, we measured the material (dry weight) and resource (carbon and nitrogen content) investment into ejaculates of the unilaterally mating freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis and spermatophores of the reciprocally mating land snail Cornu aspersum. When compared to eggs, our measurements indicate that the investment is low for ejaculates and spermatophores, neither of which represent a significant contribution to egg production. Importantly, during reciprocal matings, couples exchanged similar amounts of material and resources, thus a gain of extra substances seems irrelevant. Hence, caution is needed when generalizing functions of male reproductive strategies across mating systems. Although digestion of ejaculates does not provide extra material and resources in simultaneous hermaphrodites, their absorption could still be important to eliminate an excess of received sperm and to select sperm via cryptic female choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  8. Vaccine responsiveness in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Baxter, David

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to document adaptive immune responses in premature infants with a gestational age ≤32 weeks to the different vaccines used in the primary immunisation programme in the UK. Evidence suggests that these infants have impaired immune functioning that is consequent on maturational status and which resolve at variable time periods after birth - this impacts both on their risk of infection and response to vaccination. Assessing vaccine responsiveness can help establish whether the administration of additional vaccines is appropriate for a premature infant, and this may be determined either by vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy studies. The focus of the paper is immunogenicity studies for the following vaccines: tetanus, and diphtheria (toxoid vaccines), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), meningococcal C (Men C) and pneumococcal (PnC) (subunit glycoconjugate vaccines), pertussis (subunit vaccine) and polio (inactivated vaccine). Data show that immunogenicity in premature infants is vaccine specific and whilst highly protective for the toxoid and inactivated preparations, responses to the subunit preparations are less optimal and consequently additional vaccinations or serology testing for ≤32 week gestation infants be considered.

  9. The motivation of lifelong mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah

    2013-04-01

    As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.

  10. Understanding Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy in Estonia: Tendencies and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…

  11. Pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Alan L; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Demuth, James E

    2007-08-15

    To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the "routine." The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure.

  12. Pharmacists' Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Lifelong Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bruskiewitz, Ruth H.; DeMuth, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. Methods A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. Results The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the “routine.” The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Conclusions Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure. PMID:17786254

  13. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Alparslan; Şahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Çınar, Yasin; Arı, Şeyhmus; Çaça, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as follows: group 1 included infants of GAs 25 weeks and under; group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. Results. The incidence of any ROP in the whole cohort, in group 1, and in group 2, was 66.0%, 95.5%, and 58.6%, respectively. Incidence of any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.002, resp.). The overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 35.8% (59.1% in group 1 and 29.9% in group 2). Development of type 1 ROP was independently associated with GA. Conclusion. Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. BW cannot predict the development of type 1 ROP. PMID:24734191

  14. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Alparslan; Sahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Cınar, Yasin; Arı, Seyhmus; Caça, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as follows: group 1 included infants of GAs 25 weeks and under; group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. Results. The incidence of any ROP in the whole cohort, in group 1, and in group 2, was 66.0%, 95.5%, and 58.6%, respectively. Incidence of any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.002, resp.). The overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 35.8% (59.1% in group 1 and 29.9% in group 2). Development of type 1 ROP was independently associated with GA. Conclusion. Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. BW cannot predict the development of type 1 ROP.

  15. MR Imaging of the Prostate and Adjacent Anatomic Structures before, during, and after Ejaculation: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation1

    PubMed Central

    Medved, Milica; Sammet, Steffen; Yousuf, Ambereen; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the possibility of obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance (MR) images before, during, and immediately after ejaculation and detecting measurable changes in quantitative MR imaging parameters after ejaculation. Materials and Methods In this prospective, institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study, eight young healthy volunteers (median age, 22.5 years), after providing informed consent, underwent MR imaging while masturbating to the point of ejaculation. A 1.5-T MR imaging unit was used, with an eight-channel surface coil and a dynamic single-shot fast spin-echo sequence. In addition, a quantitative MR imaging protocol that allowed calculation of T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values was applied before and after ejaculation. Volumes of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) were calculated by using whole-volume segmentation on T2-weighted images, both before and after ejaculation. Pre- and postejaculation changes in quantitative MR parameters and measured volumes were evaluated by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment. Results There was no significant change in prostate volumes on pre- and postejaculation images, while the SV contracted by 41% on average (median, 44.5%; P = .004). No changes before and after ejaculation were observed in T1 values or in T2 and ADC values in the central gland, while T2 and ADC values were significantly reduced in the peripheral zone by 12% and 14%, respectively (median, 13% and 14.5%, respectively; P = .004). Conclusion Successful dynamic MR imaging of ejaculation events and the ability to visualize internal sphincter closure, passage of ejaculate, and significant changes in SV volumes were demonstrated. Significant changes in peripheral zone T2 and ADC values were observed. PMID:24495265

  16. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-01-01

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment. PMID:29084621

  17. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  18. Do male secondary sexual characters signal ejaculate quality? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mautz, Brian S; Møller, Anders P; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons ('the phenotype-linked fertility' hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, the extent of variation among males in condition (resources available to allocate to reproductive traits), and variation among males in the cost or rate of mating. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the average relationship between the expression of behavioural and morphological male secondary sexual characters and four assays of ejaculate quality (sperm number, viability, swimming speed and size). Regardless of how the data were partitioned the mean relationship was consistently positive, but always statistically non-significant. The only exception was that secondary sexual character expression was weakly but significantly positively correlated with sperm viability (r = 0.07, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the strength or direction of the relationship between behavioural and morphological SSCs, nor among relationships using the four ejaculate quality assays. The implications of our findings are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews

  19. Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-03-04

    Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.

  20. Effect of boar ejaculate fraction, extender type and time of storage on quality of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dziekońska, A; Świąder, K; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Mietelska, K; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Kordan, W

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect the sperm-rich fraction (F1) and the post-F1 fraction (F2) on the quality of boar spermatozoa stored in a liquid state. Ejaculates were collected from three Polish Landrace boars. Each ejaculate fraction was diluted with BTS short-term extender and Safe-Cell Plus (SCP) long-term extender and stored for seven days (D1-D7) at 17°C. Analyses included sperm motility parameters, normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosomes and plasma membrane integrity (PMI). Prior to the dilution of fractions, marked changes (p<0.05) were noted between F1 and F2 in progressive motility (PMOT), velocity average pathway (VAP) and velocity straight line (VCL). After the ejaculate was diluted, the type of fraction and type of extender significantly affected (p<0.05) PMOT, being markedly higher (p<0.05) for F1 extended in BTS. No marked changes (p<0.05) were observed between F1 and F2 extended in SCP for any of the analyzed sperm quality parameters during seven days of storage. Significantly higher (p<0.05) values of sperm quality parameters were noted in F1 compared with F2 for BTS on D7 of storage. The results of the four-way ANOVA analysis indicate that boar, fraction of ejaculate, extender type and day of storage had significant effects on the quality of boar stored spermatozoa. The F1 was characterised by higher quality of spermatozoa during storage in comparison with F2 in the short-term extender. Using the long-term extender containing the proteins allowed for a better application of F2, which could be important for the pig industry.

  1. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

    PubMed

    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Equivalent seminal characteristics in human and stallion at first and second ejaculated fractions.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Sánchez-Martín, P; Gosálvez, J; Crespo, F

    2017-10-01

    Sperm quality was assessed in normozoospermic human (n = 10) and Spanish breed stallion (n = 10) after sperm fractionation during ejaculation. The first ejaculated fraction was separated from the second. A third sample was reconstituted using equivalent proportion of both fractions (RAW). Fraction 1, Fraction 2 and RAW semen were incubated for 30 min at 37°C to homogenise the impact of iatrogenic damage between both species. Sperm concentration, motility and sperm DNA damage were assessed in each fraction and RAW semen. The results showed two important facts: (i) spermatozoa confined at Fraction 1 exhibit superior parameters than those included at Fraction 2 in both species, and (ii) there is a certain level of concordance between species in the proportion of benefit observed when Fraction 1 is compared to RAW semen. Altogether, these results call into question whether the standard practice of whole ejaculate collection can be considered the best strategy when using male gametes for artificial insemination. In fact, the reconstituted RAW semen exhibits poorer semen characteristics than those found in Fraction 1. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. [Laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care units. Premature Eye Rescue Program].

    PubMed

    Maka, Erika; Imre, László; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Németh, János

    2015-02-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness around the world. The Department of Ophthalmology at the Semmelweis University and the Peter Cerny Neonatal Emergency and Ambulance Service started an innovative Premature Eye Rescue Program to reduce the non-essential transport of premature babies suffering from retinopathy of prematurity. During the first 5 years 186 eyes of 93 premature babies were treated at the bedside with stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity in the primary hospitals. In this first 5-years period the authors reduced the number of transports of premature babies for laser treatment; 93 children avoided the unnecessary transport, saving altogether a distance of 21,930 kilometers for children, as well as the ambulance service. The Premature Eye Rescue Program offers a good and effective alternative for treatment of retinopathy in the primary hospitals. The authors propose the national extension of this program.

  4. Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openjuru, George L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

  5. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p < 0.01); the volume decreased for each ejaculate. Mean sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p < 0.01). Pooling three consecutive ejaculates within 24 h increased the numbers of available motile sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  6. Human milk for the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  7. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

  8. Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results with an Additional Decade of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Jennifer R.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Kelly, Rachel S.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that ejaculation frequency may be inversely related to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa), a disease for which few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Objective To incorporate an additional 10 yr of follow-up into an original analysis and to comprehensively evaluate the association between ejaculation frequency and PCa, accounting for screening, clinically relevant disease subgroups, and the impact of mortality from other causes. Design, setting, and participants A prospective cohort study of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study utilizing self-reported data on average monthly ejaculation frequency. The study includes 31 925 men who answered questions on ejaculation frequency on a 1992 questionnaire and followed through to 2010. The average monthly ejaculation frequency was assessed at three time points: age 20–29 yr, age 40–49 yr, and the year before questionnaire distribution. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Incidence of total PCa and clinically relevant disease subgroups. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results and limitations During 480 831 person-years, 3839 men were diagnosed with PCa. Ejaculation frequency at age 40–49 yr was positively associated with age-standardized body mass index, physical activity, divorce, history of sexually transmitted infections, and consumption of total calories and alcohol. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test utilization by 2008, number of PSA tests, and frequency of prostate biopsy were similar across frequency categories. In multivariable analyses, the hazard ratio for PCa incidence for ≥21 compared to 4–7 ejaculations per month was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72–0.92; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 20–29 yr and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69–0.89; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 40–49 yr. Associations were driven by low-risk disease, were similar when restricted

  9. The improving effect of reduced glutathione on boar sperm cryotolerance is related with the intrinsic ejaculate freezability.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Pinart, Elisabeth; Bonet, Sergi; Miró, Jordi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-04-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) improves boar sperm cryosurvival and fertilising ability when added to freezing extenders. Poor freezability ejaculates (PFE) are known to present lower resistance than good freezability ejaculates (GFE) to cryopreservation procedures. So far, no study has evaluated whether the ability of GSH to counteract the cryopreservation-induced injuries depends on ejaculate freezability (i.e. GFE vs. PFE). For this reason, thirty boar ejaculates were divided into three equal volume fractions and cryopreserved with or without GSH at a final concentration of either 2 or 5mM in freezing media. Before and after freeze-thawing, sperm quality was evaluated through analysis of viability, motility, integrity of outer acrosome membrane, ROS levels, integrity of nucleoprotein structure, and DNA fragmentation. Ejaculates were classified into two groups (GFE or PFE) according to their post-thaw sperm motility and viability assessments in negative control (GSH 0mM), after running cluster analyses. Values of each sperm parameter were then compared between treatments (GSH 0mM, GSH 2mM, GSH 5mM) and freezability groups (GFE, PFE). In the case of GFE, GSH significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance, without differences between 2 and 5mM. In contrast, PFE freezability was significantly increased when supplemented with 5mM GSH, but not when supplemented with 2mM GSH. In conclusion, PFE need a higher concentration of GSH than GFE to improve their cryotolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Osteopenia of Prematurity: Are We at Risk?

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A; Jahan, I; Rahman, M Z; Hasan, Z; Dey, A C; Shahidullah, M

    2015-07-01

    The continuous advances in intensive care have led to increased survival of premature infants. As a consequence, the problem of less imminent, slowly progressing disorders such as osteopenia of prematurity has been emerging. Osteopenia of prematurity (OOP) also called metabolic bone disease of prematurity (MBD) or rickets of prematurity is characterized by a reduction in bone mineral content usually manifest between 6th to 12th weeks of corrected gestational age. It occurs in up to 55% of infants born with weight <1000gm and 23% of infants weighing <1500gm. Clinical features of osteopenia of prematurity are mostly non-specific often appears as a late symptoms. Several biochemical markers have frequently been used as screening tools and diagnostic markers, but timing of measurements and the levels at which treatment should be initiated vary widely. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and Quantitative ultrasnogram are important diagnostic tool. Standard X-ray, a widely accepted but cannot detect osteopenia unless 20% loss of bone mineralization. The treatment of osteopenia includes provision of adequate mineral supplementation. Monitoring of serum and urinary markers are mandatory. The focus on prevention has largely centered on providing adequate intake of phosphorus and calcium but more research is needed. Till date there are neither enough data regarding clinical risk factors, valid biochemical markers which can detect premature babies at risk of osteopenia nor supplementation as well as appropriate timely management protocol is practicing in Bangladesh.

  11. [Nursing care to the premature some basics procedures].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    1985-12-01

    The basics procedures of nursing care to the premature are presented here. They are: observation of the premature during the first 24 hours of life, hidratation by bottle, feeding by nosogastric tube, care of premature after feeding, tecnnique of bathing the premature in the incubator, care of premature skin to avoid from infection, care of the umbilical stump, care of premature with moniliasis, with respiratory distress, with diarrhea, with vomitus, cleaning and preservation of the incubator, care of the premature who is receving oxigen therapy, control of humidity of the incubator, care of the premature under phototherapy, care with the phototherapy equipment.

  12. Semen quality in ejaculates produced by masturbation in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, A S Q; Ibrahim, E; Modh, R; Aballa, T C; Lynne, C M; Brackett, N L

    2012-12-01

    Retrospective study. Most men with spinal cord injury are anejaculatory. Much has been reported about their semen quality collected by penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation (EEJ). What is not well-described is the nature of semen quality in SCI patients who can ejaculate by masturbation. This study was performed to understand the degree to which their semen quality differed from that of anejaculatory SCI patients versus that of healthy non-SCI control subjects. University of Miami. Retrospective chart review of Male Fertility Research Program participants from 1991 to 2011. Of 528 SCI subjects, 444 met inclusion criteria of completing an algorithm in which ejaculation occurred by masturbation (n=43), PVS (n=243), or EEJ (n=158). Sperm motility was higher in the SCI-masturbation group (36.9%) than the PVS group (25.9%, P<0.001) or EEJ group (15.0%, P<0.001), but lower compared with a control group of 61 non-SCI healthy men who collected their semen by masturbation (58.0%, P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had similar antegrade sperm concentration (83.3×10(6) cc(-1)) as the PVS group (77.4×10(6) cc(-1)) and control group (82.0×10(6) cc(-1)), but higher than the EEJ group (49.8×10(6) cc(-1), P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had significantly more men with incomplete injuries (84%) than the PVS group (54%, P<0.01) or EEJ group (41%, P<0.001). This is the first report focusing on semen quality obtained by masturbation in men with SCI. Sperm motility was higher in men with SCI who could, versus could not, ejaculate by masturbation. Completeness of injury may contribute to this difference.

  13. Ejaculation Induced by the Activation of Crz Neurons Is Rewarding to Drosophila Males.

    PubMed

    Zer-Krispil, Shir; Zak, Hila; Shao, Lisha; Ben-Shaanan, Shir; Tordjman, Lea; Bentzur, Assa; Shmueli, Anat; Shohat-Ophir, Galit

    2018-05-07

    The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]. It is not clear which of the multiple sensory and motor responses performed during mating induces perception of reward. Sexual interactions with female flies that do not reach copulation are not sufficient to reduce ethanol consumption [5], suggesting that only successful mating encounters are rewarding. Here, we uncoupled the initial steps of mating from its final steps and tested the ability of ejaculation to mimic the rewarding value of full copulation. We induced ejaculation by activating neurons that express the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) [8] and subsequently measured different aspects of reward. We show that activating Crz-expressing neurons is rewarding to male flies, as they choose to reside in a zone that triggers optogenetic stimulation of Crz neurons and display conditioned preference for an odor paired with the activation. Reminiscent of successful mating, repeated activation of Crz neurons increases npf levels and reduces ethanol consumption. Our results demonstrate that ejaculation stimulated by Crz/Crz-receptor signaling serves as an essential part of the mating reward mechanism in Drosophila. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Retention of Ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster Females Requires the Male-Derived Mating Plug Protein PEBme.

    PubMed

    Avila, Frank W; Cohen, Allie B; Ameerudeen, Fatima S; Duneau, David; Suresh, Shruthi; Mattei, Alexandra L; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-08-01

    Within the mated reproductive tracts of females of many taxa, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) coagulate into a structure known as the mating plug (MP). MPs have diverse roles, including preventing female remating, altering female receptivity postmating, and being necessary for mated females to successfully store sperm. The Drosophila melanogaster MP, which is maintained in the mated female for several hours postmating, is comprised of a posterior MP (PMP) that forms quickly after mating begins and an anterior MP (AMP) that forms later. The PMP is composed of seminal proteins from the ejaculatory bulb (EB) of the male reproductive tract. To examine the role of the PMP protein PEBme in D. melanogaster reproduction, we identified an EB GAL4 driver and used it to target PEBme for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. PEBme knockdown in males compromised PMP coagulation in their mates and resulted in a significant reduction in female fertility, adversely affecting postmating uterine conformation, sperm storage, mating refractoriness, egg laying, and progeny generation. These defects resulted from the inability of females to retain the ejaculate in their reproductive tracts after mating. The uncoagulated MP impaired uncoupling by the knockdown male, and when he ultimately uncoupled, the ejaculate was often pulled out of the female. Thus, PEBme and MP coagulation are required for optimal fertility in D. melanogaster. Given the importance of the PMP for fertility, we identified additional MP proteins by mass spectrometry and found fertility functions for two of them. Our results highlight the importance of the MP and the proteins that comprise it in reproduction and suggest that in Drosophila the PMP is required to retain the ejaculate within the female reproductive tract, ensuring the storage of sperm by mated females. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. [Psychologic management of extreme prematurity].

    PubMed

    Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B

    1995-05-01

    The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.

  16. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point(®) (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of "friction and fantasy". High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner's hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician's most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance. Coaching

  17. Naked Aggression: The Meaning and Practice of Ejaculation on a Woman's Face.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Ezzell, Matthew B; Kendall, Olivia

    2016-10-21

    Based on in-depth interviews with 16 heterosexual men, this study focuses on participants' meaning-making surrounding a common and controversial sexual act in pornography: ejaculation on a woman's face (EOWF). We analyze the ways that male consumers decoded EOWF and the ways that EOWF, as a sexual script, was included in the men's accounts of their sexual desires and practices. The majority of the men decoded EOWF through the preferred (encoded) meaning as an act of male dominance and sexual aggression and that they wanted to engage in it despite their general belief that women would not be interested in it. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  19. Recurrent Education and Lifelong Learning. World Yearbook of Education 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom, Ed.; Megarry, Jacquetta, Ed.

    To bring a comparative education perspective to the practical problems of recurrent education and lifelong learning, the essays in this collection are written by authors from around the world. Parts 1 (Orientation) and 2 (Major Issues) clarify concepts and issues of general application. Topics include work/leisure/education life cycle, definitions…

  20. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning: Annual Report 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the introduction to this report, UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) Director, Arne Carlsen, announces that UIL is presenting a new design and a new concept, aiming to make the report more reader-friendly. The main activities are highlighted, testimonies from beneficiaries and actors are included, and the report opens with a…

  1. Learning among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, G. M.; Buys, L.; Tedman-Jones, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article includes a description of conceptions of aging and engagement with learning for 16 older people (52 to 80 years; mean age 62 years) with a lifelong intellectual disability. The sample also included the care workers and family member/friend. The older people had sufficient verbal skills to participate in the interviews. Half the sample…

  2. Lifelong Education--Keystone to a New Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The merging of the concept of education into a worldwide pattern of lifelong learning is reviewed and implications explored in the areas of needs, costs, organizational aspects, directions for research, and elements for strategies. Summarized reports are presented of the experiences of Peru, Cuba, and Algeria with continuing education programs.…

  3. PKS: An Ontology-Based Learning Construct for Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manganello, Flavio; Falsetti, Carla; Spalazzi. Luca; Leo, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses adult lifelong learners, i.e., persons interested in learning or compelled to learn during their working life but not able to, or not interested in participating in formal learning. These learners are motivated and self-aware enough to self-direct their learning, are presumed to be novices with respect to the needed knowledge…

  4. Financing Lifelong Learning for All: An International Perspective. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    Recent international discussions provide information on various countries' responses to lifelong learning, including the following: (1) existing unmet needs and emerging needs for education and training; (2) funds required compared with what was provided; and (3) methods for acquiring additional funds, among them efficiency measures leading to…

  5. Piano Performance: Group Classes for the Lifelong Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research presents data relating to eight amateur pianists who completed a 10-week Piano Performance course for lifelong learners at the University of York, UK. This article discusses the development of learning through the impact of group participation, challenges faced by learners and pedagogical strategies used by the leader to…

  6. Got Ice? Teaching Ice-Skating as a Lifelong Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarkinton, Brenda C.; Karp, Grace Goc

    2010-01-01

    With today's focus on the importance of lifelong physical activity, educators are increasingly offering a variety of such activities in their classes, as well as in before- and after-school programs. This article describes the benefits of offering ice skating as a challenging and rewarding lifetime activity, either before or after school or in…

  7. The Era of Lifelong Learning: Implications for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Jennifer; Frigo, Tracey; McKenzie, Phillip; Withers, Graeme

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role that schools can play in engaging young people in their learning, and helping them to develop skills and attitudes that will give them an orientation towards learning for life. To meet the needs of an era of lifelong learning, schools need to view themselves as a stage in the ongoing learning process, where…

  8. Design of Educational Delivery Systems for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver; Gilbert, Randall L.

    To clarify delivery system concepts, several topics will be addressed: educational needs of lower-income older people, formulation of a design concept, specification of the system's concrete aspects, and research/development implications. As the proportion of persons over age sixty-four grows and sensitivity to unmet lifelong learning needs rises,…

  9. Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Community Development in a Japanese Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The scope of lifelong learning in Japan covers school education and informal learning. Japan faces large social changes: severe child population decline could ease competition for entrance examination but students are pushed to win in the society; cyber communication changes the human relationships more invisible and atomized; the gap between…

  10. Thoughts on a Regional Approach for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshio, Jiro

    An improved educational infrastructure must be developed in East and Southeast Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries in order to accommodate the surge of economic growth and advanced technology. The increased need for highly educated and skilled technicians can be met through a system of lifelong learning. The need for borderless…

  11. Organizing for Life-Long Learning. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Association for Continuing Education, Burnaby (British Columbia).

    The statement reflects Canada's growing interest in adult education. Lifelong learning is viewed as necessary for coping with a complex and rapidly changing society and additional benefits of adult education can be seen in terms of cost benefits and the use of existing educational structures. Social factors influencing the need for adult learning…

  12. The Struggle Over Lifelong Learning: A Marxist-Feminist Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad; Gorman, Rachel

    Political and economic upheavals in the 1990s have left their mark on adult education. A major source of change is globalization of the capitalist economy and its restructuring, which make extraordinary demands on education, particularly adult education. Lifelong learning has become an ideological distraction shifting the burden of increasing…

  13. Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

    This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical…

  14. Lifelong Learning & Distance Higher Education. Perspectives on Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…

  15. Real Stakeholder Education? Lifelong Learning in the Buffyverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the representation of lifelong learning in "Buffy the Vampire Slayer (BtVS)." Critics acknowledge the series' representation of school life, but pay less attention to its emphasis on self-directed adult learning. The article draws on the extensive range of academic "BtVS" writing and on relevant educational theory concerned…

  16. Foundations of Life-Long Sexual Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…

  17. Lifelong Learning to Labour: Apprenticeship, Masculinity and Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of gender identity within the context of lifelong learning. Constructed specifically around individual experiences of occupational apprenticeship in English professional football, it draws on a re-reading of data collected in the early 1990s to depict the way in which a group of young men were socialised into…

  18. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  19. Lifelong Education. II. Factors Contributing to Change in Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The factors contributing to the need for educational change in the direction of lifelong learning are discussed: global phenomena (economic change and demographic trends); scientific and technological developments (obsolescence of knowledge, development of human sciences, the application of technological progress to education); and social dynamics…

  20. Back to school. Lifelong learning comes to health care.

    PubMed

    Gearon, Christopher J

    2003-03-01

    North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System's corporate university is designed to nurture lifelong learning for its 30,000 employees, and heighten their skills and enthusiasm for their work. "The better you teach your employees and motivate them, the better for your bottom line," contends CEO Michael Dowling.

  1. Lifelong learning in the 21st century and beyond.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong learning is now recognized by educators, governing bodies, accreditation organizations, certification boards, employers, third-party payers, and the general public as one of the most important competencies that people must possess. Promoting lifelong learning as continuous, collaborative, self-directed, active, broad in domain, everlasting, positive and fulfilling, and applicable to one's profession as well as all aspects of one's life has emerged as a major global educational challenge. Meeting this challenge will require changes in the way teachers teach and learners learn, as teachers take on a more facilitative role and learners take more responsibility for setting goals, identifying resources for learning, and reflecting on and evaluating their learning. For physicians, this will require less dependence on traditional educational venues, such as passive continuing medical education activities, and greater participation in self-assessment, peer assessment, evaluation of performance in practice, documentation of practice-based learning and improvement activities, and learning at the point of care. Radiologists in an academic setting are exposed to multiple opportunities for practicing lifelong learning, such as teaching others, participating in multidisciplinary conferences and journal clubs, and engaging in research. All radiologists can participate in self-audits and group audits of performance and become active participants in national radiology societies, where they can learn from each other. Participation in the American Board of Radiology's Maintenance of Certification program reflects a commitment to actively engage in lifelong learning and is one way of demonstrating to the general public a commitment to maintaining competence. (c) RSNA, 2009.

  2. Learning Habitus and the Dynamics of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Heidrun

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the thesis is posited that Bourdieu's concept of habitus, if used in the analysis of lifelong (biographical) learning and training processes, requires reformulation in terms of biographical theory. In the light of this suggestion, the author presents her own concept of a biographical learning habitus. In an intergenerational study…

  3. Lifelong Learning in Artistic Context Mediated by Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    This research starts by analysing the current state of artistic heritage in Italy and studying some examples in Europe: we try to investigate the scope of non-formal learning in artistic context, mediated by advanced technology. The framework within which we have placed our investigation is that of lifelong learning and lifedeep learning. The…

  4. A Living Example of Lifelong Learning: Prof. Dr. Necmettin Tozlu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürbüz, Fatih; Töman, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propound the views, thoughts and suggestions of Prof. Dr. Necmettin Tozlu related to lifelong learning. He is an academician and a doyen in education and philosophy fields who teaches in many universities of our country training students in the four corners of the country and is awarded by the Writers Union of…

  5. Participation in Lifelong Learning in Portugal and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Hilary; Ingham, Mike; Afonso, José Adelino

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a long-standing European Union priority, with an emphasis on the need for it to be pursued by all, but particularly those at the risk of exclusion. This study explores participation in Portugal and the UK, countries at opposite ends of the European adult learning spectrum with markedly different contexts. Analysis reveals that…

  6. A European Lens upon Adult and Lifelong Learning in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Michael; Borkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we seek to assess the extent to which adult and lifelong learning policies and practices in Asia have distinctiveness by comparison to those found in western societies, through an analysis of inter-governmental, national and regional policies in the field. We also inform our study through the analysis of the work of organisations…

  7. Lifelong Learning in Architectural Design Studio: The Learning Contract Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanpour, B.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Usman, I. M. S.; Johar, S.; Tawil, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Avant-garde educational systems are striving to find lifelong learning methods. Different fields and majors have tested a variety of proposed models and found varying difficulties and strengths. Architecture is one of the most critical areas of education because of its special characteristics, such as learning by doing and complicated evaluation…

  8. Lifelong Learning: Proceedings of a Symposium. 16 May 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby Smith, Chris, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The Educational Research Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) conducted a survey focusing on lifelong learning and the world of work, particularly on the need for retraining and upgrading of skills and knowledge. The survey involved five different approaches: surveys of the available quantitative and qualitative material; a…

  9. Measuring the Earnings Returns to Lifelong Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the earnings returns to learning that takes place following the conventional "school-to-work" stage of the life-course. We operationalise such "lifelong learning" as the attainment of certified qualifications in adulthood, following the completion of the first period of continuous full-time education. Using…

  10. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  11. The Relation between Lifelong Learning Tendency and Educational Philosophies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaygin, Hüseyin; Yilmaz, Emrullah; Semerci, Çetin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the relationship between lifelong learning and philosophies of education. The sampling of the study consisted of 570 prospective teachers attending a pedagogical formation course at Bartin University and Bülent Ecevit University in 2016. Relational screening model was used in the study and the data were collected through…

  12. From Policy to Guidelines: Metamorphosis of Lifelong Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Sayantan

    2013-01-01

    In this era of globalisation, the present perception of lifelong learning (LLL) in the Indian policy domain has been going through major changes in an attempt to make it nationally realistic yet globally viable. In this process, all facets of the concept of LLL are constantly metamorphosing, and this in many ways outperforms the older perception…

  13. Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…

  14. Effect of lifelong antibiotic treatment for aortic arch prosthesis infection.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Leopold; Grosse, Jirka; Hellwig, Dirk; Schmid, Christof

    2017-11-01

    A patient who underwent multiple aortic operations suffered persistent infection of the ascending aorta and arch prosthesis and was finally treated with lifelong antibiotics. An 8-year follow-up with positron emission computed tomography is reported. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-Directed Lifelong Learning in Hybrid Learning Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremers, Petra H. M.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Wesselink, Renate; Nieveen, Nienke; Mulder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Present-day students are expected to be lifelong learners throughout their working life. Higher education must therefore prepare students to self-direct their learning beyond formal education, in real-life working settings. This can be achieved in so-called hybrid learning configurations in which working and learning are integrated. In such a…

  16. Lifelong or School-Long Learning: A Daily Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helterbran, Valeri R.

    2005-01-01

    Many districts have a vision or mission statement that includes the importance of lifelong learning. The alternative, school-long learning, is exemplified by curricula and instruction that are generally only useful while the student is in school; it does little to stimulate or fulfill that element in those who find pleasure in the process and the…

  17. Lifelong Education--Permanent Education--Recurrent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alanen, Aulis

    1982-01-01

    The author discussed the role of three international organizations--UNESCO, Council of Europe, and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development--in the development and diffusion of knowledge of educational thinking. Three conceptual models (lifelong education, permanent education, and recurrent education) associated with these agencies…

  18. The Potential for Literacy to Shape Lifelong Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Hussey, Erika K.; Ng, Shukhan

    2015-01-01

    In light of population aging, an understanding of factors that promote lifelong cognitive resilience is urgent. There is considerable evidence that education early in the life span, which promotes the development of literacy skills, leads to cognitive health and longevity, but the ways in which activity engagement in later adulthood affects…

  19. Lifelong learning: Foundational models, underlying assumptions and critiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-04-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive. For UNESCO and the World Bank, lifelong learning has been a novel education model to improve educational policies and programmes in developing countries. In the existing body of literature on the topic, various models of lifelong learning are discussed. After reviewing a number of relevant seminal texts by proponents of a variety of schools, this paper argues that the vast number of approaches are actually built on two foundational models, which the author calls the "human capital model" and the "humanistic model". The former aims to increase productive capacity by encouraging competition, privatisation and human capital formation so as to enhance economic growth. The latter aims to strengthen democracy and social welfare by fostering citizenship education, building social capital and expanding capability.

  20. Lifelong Professional Education in the Russian Federation: Personal Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Ippolitova, Natalia V.; Mukhametgaliyeva, Safia Kh.; Rodionova, Anna E.; Yagafarova, Khafiza N.; Ikonnikova, Ludmila N.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problem of realization of the postulate of "lifelong education" in the field of professional education in Russia, and reveals its importance for the development of personality of a future specialist. A brief overview and the results of the implementation of this principle in the process of professional training…

  1. Individual Learning Accounts: A Strategy for Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkema, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…

  2. University Continuing Education for Lifelong Learning in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Haejoo

    2008-01-01

    Lifelong education achieves its goals when it improves people's quality of life and when it brings social cohesion and development. University continuing education (UCE) has contributed to the expansion of higher education opportunities in terms of its quantity. However, we have to look further than sheer volume of activity. Original ideals of…

  3. The Shifting Demographics and Lifelong Learning. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper was presented at the International Symposium on Lifelong Learning for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Developing a Research Agenda for the Asia-Pacific in Hong Kong, 12-13 January 2011. Tom Karmel suggests that there are four implications of an ageing population: the need to improve labour force participation and…

  4. Preparation for Lifelong Learning Using ePortfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, E.; Bhattacharya, M.; Rayudu, R.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid technological change, increasing globalization and a changing world of employment with multiple roles during one's professional life are necessitating a change from knowledge to learning societies. Full participation requires lifelong learning skills, meaning the ability to solve problems, work both independently and in a team, communicate…

  5. The Relation between Lifelong Learning Tendency and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Emrullah; Kaygin, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the relation between lifelong learning tendency and achievement motivation. The sampling of the study consisted of 570 prospective teachers attending a pedagogical formation course at two universities in Turkey in 2016. Relational screening model was used in the study and the data were collected through…

  6. My Lifelong Learning Realm: An Autoethnography Experiential Learning in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    My journey to write autoethnography report started with inclination to learn cultural and social phenomena in Finland. This was my realm of learning through experiential learning. The ontological philosophy was perceived through objectivistic and subjectivistic approaches. The lifelong experiential learning realm was a benchmark for me to perceive…

  7. Lifelong Learning in Europe: Equity and Efficiency in the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila, Ed.; Markowitsch, Jorg, Ed.; Weedon, Elisabet, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing economic crisis in Europe raises fundamental questions about the European Union's ability to harmonize educational policy across its member states. With evidence that European unity is clearly faltering, many educational goals, including lifelong learning, are in trouble. In this book, the contributors work toward a greater…

  8. Lifelong Learning in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huiping; Ye, Qilian

    Despite the relative novelty of lifelong learning in the People's Republic of China (PRC), significant achievements have been made, and China's potential for economic development and personal enrichment remains undisputed. Economic and social change, as well as technological advancements, have profoundly influenced educational development and…

  9. Perceptions of Workplace Mentoring Behaviors for Lifelong Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate the importance of mentoring functions and behaviors for lifelong career development as perceived by protégés. The population included individuals in middle to late adulthood (age 40 years and older) who reported they had been a protege in at least one mentoring association perceived as beneficial to their…

  10. School Nurse Book Clubs: An Innovative Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawald, Deborah A.; Adams, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested…

  11. Lifelong Learning: The Whole DAMN Cycle--A Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Daphne Yuen

    The Desire, Ability, Means, and Need (DAMN) Cycle is a useful paradigm for understanding the lifelong learning framework in Singapore. The cycle suggests that, for learning to occur, students must have a desire and an ability to learn, including inquiring minds and higher order process skills; the means must be provided through a well-defined…

  12. Cartographical Imaginations: Spatiality, Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Cervero, Ron; Clarke, Julia; Morgan-Klein, Brenda; Usher, Robin; Wilson, Arthur

    Recent empirical and theoretical literature in cultural geography, feminist and postcolonial philosophy, cultural studies, and political economy, was explored in an examination of the significance of spatiality to the changes taking place in the policy, practice, and study of adult education and lifelong learning. The following were among the key…

  13. Measuring the Returns to Lifelong Learning. CEE DP 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Using the 1991 to 2007 waves of the UK British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the authors estimate a fixed effects specification that has as outcomes (i) earnings and (ii) an indicator of social position measured using the CAMSIS scale. Adopting a fixed effects specification enables them to isolate the role of lifelong learning on these two…

  14. Conceptual Evolution and Policy Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Valdes-Cotera, Raul, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the status of the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai as a platform for exchange of ideas and experience in lifelong learning, UNESCO, the Shanghai Municipal People's Government, the Chinese Society of Educational Development Strategy and the Chinese National Commission for UNESCO joined forces to co-organise the Shanghai International…

  15. Lifelong Learning and the New Economy: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruikshank, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Historically, lifelong learning (under the name adult education) in Canada had a broad base and covered a wide variety of purposes and activities. Many programs included social, community and social justice visions and worked to strengthen local communities. However, with the advent of the so-called New Economy, this has changed. Canadian…

  16. Towards the Construction of Life-Long Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-Oka, Kazufusa

    Since the ideal of lifelong education is closely related to the reorganization of the entire educational system, it is necessary to recognize the distinction between education and its administration. Democratization, continuity, flexibility and freedom are principles related to planning and administration; active participation, initiative and…

  17. Roundtable: Theory, Policy and Practice in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.

    This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…

  18. The Development of a System for Supporting the Lifelong Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Sara; Harrison, Ian; Magoulas, George; Mee, Adrian; Mohamad, Fitri; Oliver, Martin; Papamarkos, George; Poulovassilis, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Given the rapidly changing skills needs of post-industrial economies, lifelong learning forms an integral part of government policy within the UK and abroad. However, like the UK, most economies are faced with the problem of how to reach those sections of the community that have traditionally not embraced learning and educational opportunities. In…

  19. Lifelong Learning: Web-Based Information Literacy Module for Merchandisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Jean D.; Frey, Diane K.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Universities are strategically positioned to serve as a vital impetus in developing pre-professionals' lifelong learning skills. The development of a Web portal, InfoWIZARD, a tool for integrating information literacy and information technology in problem-based research assignments is described in this article. InfoWIZARD includes 20 modules in…

  20. Education in the Rural American Community: A Lifelong Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

    This book provides a conceptual and practical framework for understanding lifelong education in the context of the multifaceted rural community. The goal of the discussion is to develop educational programs involving new combinations of services and new organizational arrangements so that individuals will become resourceful, autonomous, and…