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Sample records for lifelong trained male

  1. [Lifelong coprophagy in male mice].

    PubMed

    Ebino, K Y; Suwa, T; Kuwabara, Y; Saito, T R; Takahashi, K W

    1987-07-01

    Changes in coprophagy with age were investigated in male ICR mice during their life span. Sucklings showed coprophagy at 17 to 18 days old, i.e., a few days after they began to excrete feces autonomously. The number of fecal pellets ingested peaked at 5 to 6 weeks old (13 pellets/day) and gradually decreased, thereafter (2.1 pellets at 78 weeks old, 1.5 pellets at 104 weeks old). The diurnal pattern of coprophagy also changed with age. Growing mice showed vigorous coprophagous activity in both light and dark phases, whereas animals over 30 weeks old exhibited less activity in both phases, especially in the dark phase. Feces proved to be abundant in vitamin B12 and folic acid throughout the life span. These results suggest that the frequency of coprophagy changes in association with the nutritional requirements of mice during the process of growth or aging.

  2. Virtual Reality for Training and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellet-d'Huart, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the application of virtual reality (VR) to training and lifelong learning. A number of considerations concerning the design of VR applications are included. The introduction is dedicated to the more general aspects of applying VR to training. From multiple perspectives, we will provide an overview of existing applications with…

  3. Cultivating Lifelong Learning Skills During Graduate Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rajiv; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-09-08

    Lifelong learning is referred to as learning practiced by the individual for the whole life, is flexible, and is accessible at all times. Medical Council of India has included lifelong learning as a competency in its new regulations for graduate medical training. Acquisition of metacognitive skills, self-directed learning, self-monitoring, and reflective attitude are the main attributes of lifelong learning; and all of these can be inculcated in the students by using appropriate instructional methodologies. It is time to deliberate upon the instructional designs to foster the lifelong learning skills and behaviors in medical graduates. In this communication, we aim to debrief the concept of lifelong learning, particularly in context with medical training and detailing the process that can be explicitly used to cultivate the attitude of lifelong learning in medical graduates.

  4. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-01-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P < 0.001) with most increase occurring during preconditioning (~10%; P = 0.007). Free-T was unaffected by conditioning exercise (P = 0.102) but was significantly higher following HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C (P = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. PMID:28515052

  5. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P < 0.001) with most increase occurring during preconditioning (~10%; P = 0.007). Free-T was unaffected by conditioning exercise (P = 0.102) but was significantly higher following HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C (P = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  6. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  7. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  8. Lifelong Learning in Finland: The Extent to Which Vocational Education and Training Policy Is Nurturing Lifelong Learning in Finland. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyyssola, Kari; Hamalainen, Kimmo

    The extent to which vocational education and training policy is nurturing lifelong learning in Finland was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: the political and structural framework of education in Finland; mechanisms supporting lifelong learning; and pedagogical solutions and learning environments facilitating lifelong…

  9. The EC Discourse on Vocational Training: How a "Common Vocational Training Policy" Turned into a Lifelong Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a "common vocational training policy" as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational training has served as a lever for the…

  10. The EC Discourse on Vocational Training: How a "Common Vocational Training Policy" Turned into a Lifelong Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a "common vocational training policy" as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational training has served as a lever for the…

  11. Faculty Members' Views on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs to Upskill Life-Long Learning Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Hilal; Demiralp, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Teacher training programs are expected to provide teachers with life-long learning competence and enable them to practice this competence after graduation in all areas of their lives. In this way, teachers who undergo qualified pre-service training in accordance with the concept of life-long learning will shape the education…

  12. Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.F.; Healy, B.B.; Wong, W.H.M.; Olson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    The athletic activity of the adult U.S. population has increased markedly in the last 20 years. To evaluate the possible long-term effects of such activity on the cervical and lumbar spine, we studied a group of asymptomatic currently very active lifelong male athletes over age 40 (41-69 years old, av. age 53). Nineteen active, lifelong male athletes were studied with MRI and the results compared with previous imaging studies of other populations. An athletic history and a spine history were also taken. Evidence of asymptomatic degenerative spine disease was similar to that seen in published series of other populations. Degenerative changes including disk protrusion and herniation, spondylosis, and spinal stenosis were present and increased in incidence with increasing patient age. In this group, all MRI findings proved to be asymptomatic and did not limit athletic activity. The incidence of lumbar degenerative changes in our study population of older male athletes was similar to those seen in other populations. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. In-Company Continuing Training--A Contribution to Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Uwe

    1996-01-01

    A study shows little congruence between in-company continuing training and the following objectives of a European Commission white paper on lifelong learning: encouraging acquisition of new knowledge, bringing school and business sectors closer together, combating exclusion, developing proficiency in languages, and raising investment in training…

  14. Youth Education and Training in the Context of Lifelong Learning and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffenden, Ian G.

    1987-01-01

    Criteria for analysis of youth education and training in the context of lifelong learning and continuing education should be democratization, vertical articulation, and horizontal integration. Such an analysis should pay attention to the psychological development of youth and the meaning given to the criteria in specific national contexts. (CH)

  15. Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of a "Successful" Lifelong Learning Training Intervention--An EMILIA Project Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, James; Griffiths, Chris; Ryan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the definition of lifelong learning in the context of the European Union policy agenda as sets out in the Lisbon strategy. The paper also reports on the mental health service users' and trainers' perceptions of a "successful" lifelong learning training intervention. The work reported in this paper was part of a larger…

  16. Effect of lifelong football training on the expression of muscle molecular markers involved in healthy longevity.

    PubMed

    Mancini, A; Vitucci, D; Labruna, G; Imperlini, E; Randers, M B; Schmidt, J F; Hagman, M; Andersen, T R; Russo, R; Orrù, S; Krustrup, P; Salvatore, F; Buono, P

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men (66.7 ± 1.3 years). Gene and protein expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA and by western blotting on protein extracts from muscle biopsies, respectively. The expression of AMPKα1/α2, NAMPT, TFAM and PGC1α, which are markers of oxidative metabolism, and MyHC β isoform expression was higher in the muscle of football-trained men vs untrained men. Also citrate synthase activity was higher in trained than in untrained men (109.3 ± 9.2 vs 75.1 ± 9.2 mU/mg). These findings were associated with a healthier body composition in trained than in untrained men [body weight: 78.2 ± 6.5 vs 91.2 ± 11.2 kg; body mass index BMI: 24.4 ± 1.6 vs 28.8 ± 4.0 kg m(-2); fat%: 22.6 ± 8.0 vs 31.4 ± 5.0%)] and with a higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max: 34.7 ± 3.8 vs 27.3 ± 4.0 ml/min/kg). Also the expression of proteins involved in DNA repair and in senescence suppression (Erk1/2, Akt and FoxM1) was higher in trained than in untrained men. At BMI- and age-adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, fat percentage was independently associated with Akt protein expression, and VO2max was independently associated with TFAM mRNA and with Erk1/2 protein expression. Lifelong football training increases the expression of key markers involved in muscle oxidative metabolism, and in the DNA repair and senescence suppression pathways, thus providing the molecular basis for healthy longevity.

  17. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated (r = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Aging of Attentiveness in Border Collies and Other Pet Dog Breeds: The Protective Benefits of Lifelong Training

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Durga; Virányi, Zsófia; Wallis, Lisa J.; Huber, Ludwig; Serra, Jessica; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Aging of attentiveness affects cognitive functions like perception and working memory, which can seriously impact communication between dogs and humans, potentially hindering training and cooperation. Previous studies have revealed that aged laboratory beagles and pet Border collies (BC) show a decline in selective attention. However, much less is known about the aging of attentiveness in pet dogs in general rather than in specific breeds. Using 185 pet dogs (75 BC and 110 dogs of other breeds) divided into three age groups [late adulthood (6- < 8 year), senior (8- < 10 year) and geriatric (≥10 year)], we assessed the progress of aging of attentional capture, sustained and selective attention in older dogs in order to explore if prior results in BC are generalizable and to evaluate the influence of lifelong training on measures of attention. Each dog’s lifelong training score (ranging from 0 to 52) was calculated from a questionnaire filled in by the owners listing what kinds of training the dog participated in during its entire life. Dogs were tested in two tasks; the first, measuring attentional capture and sustained attention toward two stimuli (toy and human); and the second, measuring selective attention by means of clicker training for eye contact and finding food on the floor. In the first task, results revealed a significant effect of age but no effect of lifelong training on latency to orient to the stimuli. Duration of looking decreased with age and increased with lifelong training. In the second task, while lifelong training decreased the latency of dogs to form eye contact, aged dogs needed longer to find food. BC did not differ from other dogs in any measures of attention except latency to find food. In conclusion, aged dogs showed a decline in attentional capture and sustained attention demonstrating that these tests are sensitive to detect aging of attentiveness in older pet dogs. Importantly, selective attention remained unchanged with age and

  19. Aging of Attentiveness in Border Collies and Other Pet Dog Breeds: The Protective Benefits of Lifelong Training.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Durga; Virányi, Zsófia; Wallis, Lisa J; Huber, Ludwig; Serra, Jessica; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Aging of attentiveness affects cognitive functions like perception and working memory, which can seriously impact communication between dogs and humans, potentially hindering training and cooperation. Previous studies have revealed that aged laboratory beagles and pet Border collies (BC) show a decline in selective attention. However, much less is known about the aging of attentiveness in pet dogs in general rather than in specific breeds. Using 185 pet dogs (75 BC and 110 dogs of other breeds) divided into three age groups [late adulthood (6- < 8 year), senior (8- < 10 year) and geriatric (≥10 year)], we assessed the progress of aging of attentional capture, sustained and selective attention in older dogs in order to explore if prior results in BC are generalizable and to evaluate the influence of lifelong training on measures of attention. Each dog's lifelong training score (ranging from 0 to 52) was calculated from a questionnaire filled in by the owners listing what kinds of training the dog participated in during its entire life. Dogs were tested in two tasks; the first, measuring attentional capture and sustained attention toward two stimuli (toy and human); and the second, measuring selective attention by means of clicker training for eye contact and finding food on the floor. In the first task, results revealed a significant effect of age but no effect of lifelong training on latency to orient to the stimuli. Duration of looking decreased with age and increased with lifelong training. In the second task, while lifelong training decreased the latency of dogs to form eye contact, aged dogs needed longer to find food. BC did not differ from other dogs in any measures of attention except latency to find food. In conclusion, aged dogs showed a decline in attentional capture and sustained attention demonstrating that these tests are sensitive to detect aging of attentiveness in older pet dogs. Importantly, selective attention remained unchanged with age and

  20. Lifelong strength training mitigates the age-related decline in efferent drive.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Runar; Nygård, Mona; van den Hoven, Lene T; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    Recently, we documented age-related attenuation of efferent drive to contracting skeletal muscle. It remains elusive if this indication of reduced muscle strength is present with lifelong strength training. For this purpose, we examined evoked potentials in the calf muscles of 11 [71 ± 4 (SD) yr] strength-trained master athletes (MA) contrasted with 10 (71 ± 4 yr) sedentary (SO) and 11 (73 ± 6 yr) recreationally active (AO) old subjects, as well as 9 (22 ± 2 yr) young controls. As expected, MA had higher leg press maximal strength (MA, 185 ± 32 kg; AO, 128 ± 15 kg; SO, 106 ± 11 kg; young, 147 ± 22 kg, P < 0.01) and rate of force development (MA, 5,588 ± 2,488 N/s; AO, 2,156 ± 1,100 N/s; SO, 2,011 ± 825 N/s; young, 3,663 ± 1,140 N/s, P < 0.05) than the other groups. MA also exhibited higher musculus soleus normalized V waves during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) [maximal V wave amplitude/maximal M wave during MVC (Vsup/Msup); 0.28 ± 0.15] than AO (0.13 ± 0.06, P < 0.01) and SO (0.11 ± 0.05, P < 0.01), yet lower than young (0.45 ± 0.12, P < 0.01). No differences were apparent between the old groups in H reflex recorded at rest or during MVC [maximal H reflex amplitude/maximal M wave during rest (Hmax/Mmax); maximal H reflex amplitude during MVC/maximal M wave during MVC (Hsup/Msup)], and all were lower (P < 0.01) than young. MA (34.4 ± 2.1 ms) had shorter (P < 0.05) H reflex latency compared with AO (36.4 ± 3.7 ms) and SO (37.3 ± 3.2 ms), but longer (P < 0.01) than young (30.7 ± 2.0 ms). Using interpolated twitch analysis, MA (89 ± 7%) had plantar flexion voluntary activation similar to young (90 ± 6%), and this was higher (P < 0.05), or tended to be higher (P = 0.06-0.09), than SO (83 ± 10%) and AO (84 ± 5%). These observations suggest that lifelong strength training has a protective effect against age-related attenuation of efferent drive. In contrast, no beneficial effect seems to derive from habitual recreational activity, indicating

  1. Lifelong Learning in a Market Economy: Education, Training and the Citizen-Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Beverley; Seddon, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Australian public policy adopted the concept of lifelong learning in the 1980s and harnessed it to human capital theory to articulate a new policy emphasis on "up-skilling" the Australian labour force. This paper addresses the question of how this conception of lifelong learning has fared in practice as Australian Commonwealth government…

  2. Lifelong Learning: Developing a Training Culture. Papers Presented at the Concurrent Sessions on Research into a Training Culture at the Conference, "Creating Our Future: A New Training Culture for Australia" (Brisbane, Australia, August 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Chris, Ed.; Arthy, Kareena, Ed.

    This book contains seven papers from a conference on lifelong learning and creation of a new training culture for Australia. "Promoting a Training Culture in Industry" (Chris Robinson) discusses the extent to which a training culture exists in Australia. The results of a 1997 survey of Australian employers' satisfaction with vocational…

  3. Lifelong training preserves some redox-regulated adaptive responses after an acute exercise stimulus in aged human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cobley, J N; Sakellariou, G K; Owens, D J; Murray, S; Waldron, S; Gregson, W; Fraser, W D; Burniston, J G; Iwanejko, L A; McArdle, A; Morton, J P; Jackson, M J; Close, G L

    2014-05-01

    Several redox-regulated responses to an acute exercise bout fail in aged animal skeletal muscle, including the ability to upregulate the expression of antioxidant defense enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). These findings are generally derived from studies on sedentary rodent models and thus may be related to reduced physical activity and/or intraspecies differences as opposed to aging per se. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the influence of age and training status on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and NO synthase isoenzymes in quiescent and exercised human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 3 days after an acute high-intensity-interval exercise bout in young trained, young untrained, old trained, and old untrained subjects. Levels of HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS were significantly higher in quiescent muscle of older compared with younger subjects, irrespective of training status. 3-NT levels were elevated in muscles of the old untrained but not the old trained state, suggesting that lifelong training may reduce age-related macromolecule damage. SOD1, CAT, and HSP27 levels were not significantly different between groups. HSP27 content was upregulated in all groups studied postexercise. HSP72 content was upregulated to a greater extent in muscle of trained compared with untrained subjects postexercise, irrespective of age. In contrast to every other group, old untrained subjects failed to upregulate CAT postexercise. Aging was associated with a failure to upregulate SOD2 and a downregulation of PRX5 in muscle postexercise, irrespective of training status. In conclusion, lifelong training is unable to fully prevent the progression toward a more stressed muscular state as evidenced by increased HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS protein levels in quiescent muscle. Moreover, lifelong training preserves some (e.g., CAT) but not all (e.g., SOD2, HSP72, PRX5) of the adaptive redox-regulated responses after an

  4. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  5. "The Kings New Training Courses"--A Research Project: The New Clothes May Have a CBT Label, but Do They Really Promote Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    This paper outlines the background and preliminary findings of a study currently in progress in Perth, Western Australia, to investigate the relationship between competence based training and the development of lifelong learning skills. The paper explores both the underlying aims of competency-based training (CBT) and the educational antecedents…

  6. Benefits of music training are widespread and lifelong: a bibliographic review of their non-musical effects.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications indicate that musical training has effects on non-musical activities, some of which are lifelong. This study reviews recent publications collected from the Performing Arts Medicine Association bibliography. Music training, whether instrumental or vocal, produces beneficial and long-lasting changes in brain anatomy and function. Anatomic changes occur in brain areas devoted to hearing, speech, hand movements, and coordination between both sides of the brain. Functional benefits include improved sound processing and motor skills, especially in the upper extremities. Training benefits extend beyond music skills, resulting in higher IQs and school grades, greater specialized sensory and auditory memory/recall, better language memory and processing, heightened bilateral hand motor functioning, and improved integration and synchronization of sensory and motor functions. These changes last long after music training ends and can minimize or prevent age-related loss of brain cells and some mental functions. Early institution of music training and prolonged duration of training both appear to contribute to these positive changes.

  7. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    PubMed Central

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  8. Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement is preserved with lifelong endurance training and is the main determinant of maximal cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A; Åkeson, Per; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2015-12-01

    Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine resting longitudinal and radial pumping in elderly athletes, sedentary elderly and young sedentary subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate determinants of maximal cardiac output in elderly. Eight elderly athletes (63 ± 4 years), seven elderly sedentary (66 ± 4 years) and ten young sedentary subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using a dye dilution technique. Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups (longitudinal left ventricle (LV) 52-65%, P = 0.12, right ventricle (RV) 77-87%, P = 0.16, radial 7.9-8.6%, P = 1.0). Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement (LVAVPD) was higher in elderly athletes and young sedentary compared with elderly sedentary subjects (14 ± 3, 15 ± 2 and 11 ± 1 mm, respectively, P < 0.05). There was no difference between groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01, β = 0.78). Longitudinal and radial contributions to stroke volume did not differ between groups. However, how longitudinal pumping was achieved differed; elderly athletes and young sedentary subjects showed similar AVPD whereas this was significantly lower in elderly sedentary subjects. Elderly sedentary subjects achieved longitudinal pumping through increased short-axis area of the ventricle. Large AVPD was a determinant of maximal cardiac output and exercise capacity.

  9. [Empathy, inter-professional collaboration, and lifelong medical learning in Spanish and Latin-American physicians-in-training who start their postgraduate training in hospitals in Spain. Preliminary outcomes].

    PubMed

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Roig-Carrera, Helena; Villalonga-Vadell, Rosa M; Benito-Sevillano, Carmen; Torres-Salinas, Miquel; Claret-Teruel, Gemma; Robles, Bernabé; Sans-Boix, Antonia; Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    To identify similarities and differences in empathy, abilities toward inter-professional collaboration, and lifelong medical learning, between Spanish and Latin-American physicians-in-training who start their posgraduate training in teaching hospitals in Spain. Observational study using self-administered questionnaires. Five teaching hospitals in the province of Barcelona, Spain. Spanish and Latin-American physicians-in-training who started their first year of post-graduate medical training. Empathy was measured using the Jefferson scale of empathy. Abilities for inter-professional collaboration were measured using the Jefferson scale attitudes towards nurse-physician collaboration. Learning was measured using the Jefferson scale of medical lifelong learning scale. From a sample of 156 physicians-in-training, 110 from Spain and 40 from Latin America, the Spanish group showed the highest empathy (p<.05). On the other hand, Latin-American physicians had the highest scores in lifelong learning abilities (p<.001). A positive relationship was found between empathy and inter-professional collaboration for the whole sample (r=+0.34; p<.05). These results confirm previous preliminary data and underline the positive influence of empathy in the development of inter-professional collaboration abilities. In Latin-American physicians who start posgraduate training programs, lifelong learning abilities have a positive influence on the development of other professional competencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  11. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  12. Lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis in male mice lacking TRPV5 leads to changes in bone and calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roschger, Paul; Zillikens, M. Carola; Waarsing, Jan H.; van der Kemp, Annemiete; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Hoenderop, Joost G.J.; Klaushofer, Klaus; Bindels, René J.M.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trpv5 plays an important role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, among others by mediating renal calcium reabsorption. Accordingly, Trpv5 deficiency strongly stresses Ca2+ homeostasis in order to maintain stable serum Ca2+. We addressed the impact of lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis on the bone phenotype of these mice. Aging significantly increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH levels in both genotypes but they were more elevated in Trpv5−/− mice, whereas serum Ca2+ was not affected by age or genotype. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone mass were accelerated in Trpv5−/− mice, including reduced trabecular and cortical bone thickness as well as reduced bone mineralization. No effect of Trpv5 deficiency on bone strength was observed. In 78-week-old mice no differences were observed between the genotypes regarding urinary deoxypyridinoline, osteoclast number, differentiation and activity as well as osteoclast precursor numbers, as assessed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, life-long challenge of Ca2+ homeostasis present in Trpv5−/− mice causes accelerated bone aging and a low cortical and trabecular bone mass phenotype. The phenotype of the Trpv5−/− mice suggests that maintenance of adequate circulatory Ca2+ levels in patients with disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis should be a priority in order to prevent bone loss at older age. PMID:27102152

  13. A lifelong competitive training practice attenuates age-related lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casals, Cristina; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo; Rosillo, Silvia; Gomes, Silvana N; Rivas-García, Ana; Guisado, Rafael; Huertas, Jesús R

    2017-02-01

    The effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on health and aging is not clearly explained. This study examined the effects of habitual sport practice, age, and submaximal exercise on the blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. Seventy-two healthy men were grouped by their habitual sport practice: inactive (<1.5 h/week), recreational (3-8 h/week), and trained athletes (>8 h/week), and further divided by age: young (18-25 years), adult (40-55 years), and senior (>55 years). Blood samples were collected at rest and after submaximal effort. Hydroperoxides and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Nuclear DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay. The alpha-actin release was analyzed by Western blot. Alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and coenzyme-Q10 were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. Lipid peroxidation increased significantly with age and submaximal effort (p < 0.05). However, the trained athlete group presented lower lipid peroxidation compared with the recreational group (MD = 2.079, SED = 0.58, p = 0.002) and inactive group (MD = 1.979, SED = 0.61, p = 0.005). Trained athletes showed significant higher alpha-actin levels (p < 0.001) than the other groups. Recreational group showed lower nuclear DNA damage than trained athletes (MD = 3.681, SED = 1.28, p = 0.015). Nevertheless, the inactive group presented significantly higher superoxide dismutase and catalase (p < 0.05) than the other groups. Data suggested that habitual competitive training practice could prevent age-related increases of plasma lipid peroxidation, which, according with our results, cannot be entirely attributed to blood antioxidant defense systems.

  14. Learning and teaching Emotional Logic in Zimbabwe: A lifelong learning emotional literacy training package that promotes healthy adjustment in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Langsford, Marian; Griffiths, Trevor

    2015-07-01

    This article describes an innovative, rapidly effective, low cost, health promoting educational input that can strengthen social systems to support the social and emotional development of orphan children. The training project took place in a resource-poor area of rural southern Zimbabwe. The teaching was found to be culturally relevant and transferable, to the extent that several of the learners progressed to become tutors, training others to use the method in local languages. The method promotes healthy adjustment, emotional resilience and intelligent decision-making for health. By reducing chronic stress in orphans and their carers, lifelong learning may improve immune function. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary F.

    1977-01-01

    The Lifelong Learning Project (established under the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare) and possible approaches toward the development of effective and efficient Federal-State relationships in carrying out adult learning programs in communities are discussed along with other implications of the project. (TA)

  16. Lifelong Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorba, Barbara

    A brief review of the literature on the various approaches which have been used to help children formulate their emerging attitudes towards reading and literature helps clarify the goal of creating lifelong readers. Samway (1991), discussing literature study circles, relates that students read the book they have selected, answer assigned…

  17. Pelvic floor muscle training in males: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew L

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic floor muscles are vital to male genitourinary health. Pelvic floor muscle training may prove helpful in a variety of clinical circumstances: stress urinary incontinence that follows prostate surgery, overactive bladder, postvoid dribbling, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation issues including premature ejaculation, and pelvic pain due to levator muscle spasm.

  18. Lifelong Learning Policy and Practice: The Impact of Accreditation on Education and Training Provision for Adult Women in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Maggie

    In the United Kingdom, these two perspectives on lifelong learning sit uneasily together: emphasis on adults in employment and a focus on diversity and widening participation in adult education. A recent emphasis on accreditation with implications for funding has affected diversity and participation objectives because involving assessment,…

  19. Effects of Plymetrics Training and Weight Training on selected Motor Ability Components among University Male Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam

    2012-11-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.

  20. Training repeated effort ability in national team male volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Gabbett, Tim; Borgeaud, Russell

    2008-09-01

    This case study evaluated the effect of repeated lateral movement and jumping training on repeated effort ability in a group of national team male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players were assessed on their volleyball-specific repeated movement and jumping abilities using a volleyball-specific repeated effort test (RET) before and after 12 weeks of training. The athletes performed between 8 and 9 volleyball training sessions per week, with 5 to 6 of these sessions including specific training aimed at improving repeated effort ability. Typically these training sessions involved 8 to 12 repetitions of 2 to 3 block jumps over a 9-m lateral distance (ie, the athletes had to perform jumps and lateral movements, typical of front court play in volleyball). Population-specific repeatability data were used to determine whether any changes that may have occurred in this study were beyond the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for this testing procedure. Improvements in all variables of the RET were observed for each athlete involved in the study, with a small-to-moderate magnitude observed for the mean changes in each variable (Cohen's d, 0.21 to 0.59). All of the improvements in the results exceeded the MCID. These findings demonstrate that the RET is sensitive to training-induced changes. Lateral movement speed and repeated lateral movement speed, as well as jumping and repeated jumping ability are trainable qualities in high-performance volleyball players.

  1. Cycling efficiency in trained male and female competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Hopker, James; Jobson, Simon; Carter, Helen; Passfield, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in cycling efficiency between competitive male and female cyclists. Thirteen trained male (mean ± SD: 34 ± 8 yr, 74.1 ± 6.0 kg, Maximum Aerobic Power (MAP) 414 ± 40 W, VO2max 61.3 ± 5.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 13 trained female (34 ± 9 yr, 60.1 ± 5.2 kg, MAP 293 ± 22 W, VO2max 48.9 ± 6.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) competitive cyclists completed a cycling test to ascertain their gross efficiency (GE). Leg and lean leg volume of all cyclists was also measured. Calculated GE was significantly higher in female cyclists at 150W (22.5 ± 2.1 vs 19.9 ± 1. 8%; p < 0.01) and 180W (22.3 ± 1.8 vs 20.4 ± 1.5%; p = 0.01). Cadence was not significantly different between the groups (88 ± 6 vs 91 ± 5 rev·min(-1)). Lean leg volume was significantly lower for female cyclists (4.04 ± 0.5 vs 5.51 ± 0.8 dm(3); p < 0.01) and was inversely related to GE in both groups at 150 and 180W (r = -0.59 and -0.58; p < 0.05). Lean leg volume was shown to account for the differences in GE between the males and females. During an "unloaded "pedalling condition, male cyclists had a significantly higher O2 cost than female cyclists (1.0 ± 0.1 vs 0.7 ± 0.1 L·min(-1); p < 0.01), indicative of a greater non-propulsive cost of cycling. These results suggest that differences in efficiency between trained male and female cyclists can be partly accounted for by sex-specific variation in lean leg volume. Key pointsDifferences in GE exist between male and female cyclists.Males have a higher oxygen cost of "unloaded "cycling, as predicted by the intercept of the O2 cost-power output relationshipThis suggests that in addition to work rate, leg volume/mass may be an important determinant of observed differences in oxygen cost and therefore GE, between male and female competitive cyclists.

  2. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  3. Nonviolent communication training and empathy in male parolees.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Elizabeth; Nyamathi, Adeline; Grajeda, William T; Bailey, Newt; Weber, Amanda; Younger, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a behavioral intervention, nonviolent communication (NVC), on the development of empathic coping and communication skills in a sample of male parolees enrolled in substance abuse treatment (SAT; N = 30). At the end of the 8-week intervention, results revealed a significant increase (p = .01) in participants' empathy levels. Findings also revealed the acceptability and utility of NVC training to men on parole. Results suggest that NVC training may (a) be a useful addition to substance abuse treatment programs for parolees, (b) be effective in addressing problematic coping and communication styles resulting from incarceration and criminal behavior, and (c) assist paroled individuals in building and sustaining positive social support networks.

  4. Training practices and ergogenic aids used by male bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Daniel A; Johnson, Nathan A; Chow, Chin-Moi

    2013-06-01

    Bodybuilding involves performing a series of poses on stage where the competitor is judged on aesthetic muscular appearance. The purpose of this study was to describe training practices and ergogenic aids used by competitive bodybuilders and to determine whether training practices comply with current recommendations for muscular hypertrophy. A web-based survey was completed by 127 competitive male bodybuilders. The results showed that during the off-season phase of training (OFF), the majority of respondents performed 3-6 sets per exercise (95.3%), 7-12 repetition maximum (RM) per set (77.0%), and 61- to 120-seconds recovery between sets and exercises (68.6%). However, training practices changed 6 weeks before competition (PRE), where there was an increased number of respondents who reported undertaking 3-4 sets per exercise at the expense of 5-6 sets per exercise (p < 0.001), an increase in the number reporting 10-15RM per set from 7-9RM per set (p < 0.001), and an increase in the number reporting 30-60 seconds vs. 61-180 seconds recovery between sets and exercises (p < 0.001). Anabolic steroid use was high among respondents competing in amateur competitions (56 of 73 respondents), whereas dietary supplementation was used by all respondents. The findings of this study demonstrate that competitive bodybuilders comply with current resistance exercise recommendations for muscular hypertrophy; however, these changed before competition during which there is a reduction resistance training volume and intensity. This alteration, in addition to an increase in aerobic exercise volume, is purportedly used to increase muscle definition. However, these practices may increase the risk of muscle mass loss in natural compared with amateur bodybuilders who reportedly use drugs known to preserve muscle mass.

  5. Black Male Youth: Their Employment Problems and Training Programs. Background Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Robinson G.

    Employment problems of black males remain substantial. The unemployment rate for black males is 2.3 times that of white males. Less than one-third of 16- 19-year-old black males were employed in 1988. The most important policies affecting the employment of black males are monetary and fiscal policies. No employment and training policies can come…

  6. Left Ventricular Mechanics in Untrained and Trained Males with Tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; West, Christopher R; Stöhr, Eric J; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2017-02-01

    Reduced left ventricular (LV) function is common in tetraplegia, yet it is unknown whether intrinsic myocardial function is attenuated. This study examined the effect of SCI and exercise-training status on LV mechanics (intrinsic function) and LV systolic/diastolic function by comparing untrained (UT) and trained (TT) individuals with tetraplegia and able-bodied (AB) individuals. Individuals with tetraplegia had a traumatic, chronic, motor-complete cervical spinal cord injury. Nine UT males (40 ± 10 years), 8 TT males (30 ± 5 years), and nine AB males (37 ± 9 years) participated in the study. LV indices were assessed using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, with speckle-tracking analysis for the determination of LV mechanics. For systolic function, stroke volumes were lower in both UT (59 ± 9 mL; p < 0.001) and TT (63 ± 9 mL; p < 0.001) relative to AB (82 ± 11 mL), whereas systolic mechanics were similar across groups. Diastolic function was only reduced in UT, including a lower ratio of early-to-late transmitral filling velocity (1.55 ± 0.28) relative to TT (2.07 ± 0.42; p < 0.05) and AB (2.44 ± 0.61; p < 0.01) and longer isovolumetric relaxation times in UT (101 ± 7 ms) relative to TT (88 ± 11 ms; p < 0.05) and AB (85 ± 6 ms; p < 0.01). Diastolic mechanics (apical circumferential strain rate) were significantly enhanced in TT (3.03 ± 0.83 s(-1)) compared to AB (1.85 ± 0.65 s(-1); p < 0.05). There was a trend (p = 0.062) for a between-group difference in apical radial diastolic strain rate (UT: -2.51 ± 0.83 s(-1); TT: -3.92 ± 1.96 s(-1); AB: -1.84 ± 0.46 s(-1)). In tetraplegia, attenuated LV systolic function is not attributed to intrinsic dysfunction, whereas exercise-training status appears to improve both global LV diastolic function and LV mechanics.

  7. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Grace, Fergal M; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W; New, Karl J; Baker, Julien S; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n = 22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P < 0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P < 0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well-tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level.

  8. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n =22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P <0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P <0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well‐tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level. PMID:25626864

  9. Class and Home Problems. Lifelong Learning: A "Life Cycle" Approach to Education and Training for the Biopharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleskie, Gary L.; Reeves, Baley; van Zanten, John H.; Balchunas, John; Carbonell, Ruben G.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University is an instructional center that offers education and training programs in the area of biopharmaceutical process development and manufacturing. Our programs are designed to provide educational opportunities throughout the "life cycle" of a…

  10. Class and Home Problems. Lifelong Learning: A "Life Cycle" Approach to Education and Training for the Biopharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleskie, Gary L.; Reeves, Baley; van Zanten, John H.; Balchunas, John; Carbonell, Ruben G.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University is an instructional center that offers education and training programs in the area of biopharmaceutical process development and manufacturing. Our programs are designed to provide educational opportunities throughout the "life cycle" of a…

  11. Job Requirements and Lifelong Learning for Older Workers. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between job requirements, individual skills and the participation of workers in further education and training, with an emphasis on older workers, is the focus of this report. It found that workers who reported that their jobs are demanding relative to their skills were more likely to participate in education and training.…

  12. The effects of set volume during isolated lumbar extension resistance training in recreationally trained males

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Adam; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Fisher, James

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Exercise designed to condition the lumbar extensor musculature is often included in resistance training (RT) programs. It is suggested that deconditioning of this musculature may be linked to low back pain. Thus effective means of conditioning these muscles are of interest to pursue. Evidence suggests that isolated lumbar extension (ILEX) RT might be most efficacious, however, the best means of manipulating resistance training variables in this regard is unknown. Set volume is an easily manipulated RT variable and one thought to also interact with training status. As such this study sought to examine the effect of set volume during ILEX RT in trained males. Methods. Trained males previously engaged in exercises designed to condition the lumbar extensors underwent a 6 week intervention and were randomised to either a single set (1ST, n = 9), multiple set (3ST, n = 8) or control group (CON, n = 9). Pre- and post-testing of ILEX strength was conducted. Results. Both 1ST and 3ST significantly increased ILEX strength (p < 0.05) with large effect sizes (d = 0.89 and 0.95 respectively) whereas the CON group produced significant losses (−8.9%) with a moderate effect size (d = − 0.53). There was no statistically significant difference in ILEX strength gains when 1ST and 3ST were directly compared (p = 0.336). Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that significant ILEX strength changes occur in trained males as a result of 6 weeks of ILEX RT and that these changes are unaffected by set volume. PMID:25861560

  13. Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satomi; Takehata, Chisato; Sasahara, Ikuko; Lee, Eunjae; Akama, Takao; Taguchi, Motoko

    2017-08-21

    An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L(-1)) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L(-1); p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L(-1); p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL(-1)) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL(-1)) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL(-1)) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL(-1)). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study's findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp.

  14. Isocapnic hyperpnea training improves performance in competitive male runners.

    PubMed

    Leddy, John J; Limprasertkul, Atcharaporn; Patel, Snehal; Modlich, Frank; Buyea, Cathy; Pendergast, David R; Lundgren, Claes E G

    2007-04-01

    The effects of voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) training (10 h over 4 weeks, 30 min/day) on ventilatory system and running performance were studied in 15 male competitive runners, 8 of whom trained twice weekly for 3 more months. Control subjects (n = 7) performed sham-VIH. Vital capacity (VC), FEV1, maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, VO2max, 4-mile run time, treadmill run time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max, serum lactate, total ventilation (V(E)), oxygen consumption (VO2) oxygen saturation and cardiac output were measured before and after 4 weeks of VIH. Respiratory parameters and 4-mile run time were measured monthly during the 3-month maintenance period. There were no significant changes in post-VIH VC and FEV1 but MVV improved significantly (+10%). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, arterial oxygen saturation and cardiac output did not change post-VIH. Respiratory and running performances were better 7- versus 1 day after VIH. Seven days post-VIH, respiratory endurance (+208%) and treadmill run time (+50%) increased significantly accompanied by significant reductions in respiratory frequency (-6%), V(E) (-7%), VO2 (-6%) and lactate (-18%) during the treadmill run. Post-VIH 4-mile run time did not improve in the control group whereas it improved in the experimental group (-4%) and remained improved over a 3 month period of reduced VIH frequency. The improvements cannot be ascribed to improved blood oxygen delivery to muscle or to psychological factors.

  15. The effects of lifelong ubiquinone Q10 supplementation on the Q9 and Q10 tissue concentrations and life span of male rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Lönnrot, K; Holm, P; Lagerstedt, A; Huhtala, H; Alho, H

    1998-04-01

    The effect of lifelong oral supplementation with ubiquinone Q10 (10 mg/kg/day) was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57/B17 mice. There were no significant differences in survival or life-span found in either rats or mice. Histopathologic examination of different rat tissues showed no differences between the groups. In Q10 supplemented rats, plasma and liver Q10 levels were 2.6 to 8.4 times higher at all age points than in control rats. Interestingly, in supplemented rats the Q9 levels also were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plasma and liver at ages 18 and 24 months. Neither Q9 nor Q10 levels were affected by supplementation in kidney, heart, or brain tissues. In spite of the significant changes in plasma and liver ubiquinone concentrations, lifelong Q10 supplementation did not prolong or shorten the lifespan of either rats or mice.

  16. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  17. Integrating Lifelong Learning Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This publication is comprised of 43 papers on the topic of promoting lifelong learning. The papers in Part 1, Overcoming False Dichotomies, are "Lifelong Learning in the North, Education for All in the South" (Torres); "Practice of Lifelong Learning in Indigenous Africa" (Omolewa); "Gender and Information Societies"…

  18. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  19. Educating for a High Skills Society? The Landscape of Federal Employment, Training and Lifelong Learning Policy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara; Walker, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Government reports and documents claim that building a knowledge economy and innovative society are key goals in Canada. In this paper, we draw on critical policy analysis to examine 10 Canadian federal government training and employment policies in relation to the government's espoused priorities of innovation and developing a high skills society…

  20. Educating for a High Skills Society? The Landscape of Federal Employment, Training and Lifelong Learning Policy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara; Walker, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Government reports and documents claim that building a knowledge economy and innovative society are key goals in Canada. In this paper, we draw on critical policy analysis to examine 10 Canadian federal government training and employment policies in relation to the government's espoused priorities of innovation and developing a high skills society…

  1. The Learning Intention of Low-Qualified Employees: A Key for Participation in Lifelong Learning and Continuous Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Govaerts, Natalie; Dochy, Filip; Baert, Herman

    2011-01-01

    In our continuously changing society, a need for updating one's skills and knowledge puts pressure on safeguarding the labour market position of low-qualified employees. However, prior research and official statistics show that employees with a lower level of education tend to participate less in training than highly-educated individuals. This…

  2. The Learning Intention of Low-Qualified Employees: A Key for Participation in Lifelong Learning and Continuous Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Govaerts, Natalie; Dochy, Filip; Baert, Herman

    2011-01-01

    In our continuously changing society, a need for updating one's skills and knowledge puts pressure on safeguarding the labour market position of low-qualified employees. However, prior research and official statistics show that employees with a lower level of education tend to participate less in training than highly-educated individuals. This…

  3. Family Influences on Participation in Lifelong Learning. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Rees, Gareth; Renold, Emma; Fevre, Ralph

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines contextual analysis of…

  4. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  5. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  6. Long-term training adaptations in elite male volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newton, Robert U

    2012-08-01

    Several investigations have demonstrated differences in anthropometry, jump performance, and strength variables between developmental and elite-level volleyball players. However, within the elite level of play, the magnitude of change that can occur with training is unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the anthropometric, vertical jump, and strength quality changes over 2 years in a group of national team volleyball players. Fourteen national team volleyball players (age, 23.0 ± 4.1 years; height, 1.98 ± 0.07 m; weight, 91.7 ± 7.9 kg) began and completed this study. Participants had all played international matches (representing Australia) before the examination time period and continued to do so during the international season. Anthropometry (stature, mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), vertical jump measures (countermovement vertical jump; depth jump from 0.35 m, DJ; spike jump, SPJ, all including arm swing), and lower-body power (jump squat at body mass, and jump squat + 50% body weight, JS50) measures were tested before and at the conclusion of the investigation period. Significant (p < 0.05) improvements were observed in sum of 7 skinfolds, DJ, SPJ, and JS50 performance, with large magnitude changes (d > 0.70) in the sum of 7 skinfolds reduction, SPJ, and leg extensor power. This study has demonstrated that elite male volleyball players can improve leanness and power, which contribute to improvements in vertical jump.

  7. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  8. Does lifelong training temper age-related decline in sport performance? Interpreting differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Young, Bradley W; Weir, Patricia L; Starkes, Janet L; Medic, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In the face of remarkable aging trends in North American society, organized sport/physical activity is an important vehicle for promoting physical health, and a domain in which long-term participation might mitigate pessimistic trends for age decline. This investigation examined patterns of age-related decline in performance for 45 Masters runners who rigorously trained continuously for at least a decade. Longitudinal data for age and performance were collected for 200 m, 1500 m, and 10 km events retrospectively across participants' careers. Cross-sectional (CS) data representing normal patterns of aging were derived from online archives. Longitudinal data reflected within-participant training effects whereas CS data did not. Second-order regression analyses were performed separately for each data type and quadratic beta coefficients, indicative of accelerated age decline, were compared for CS and longitudinal samples on a within-event basis. Results showed evidence of accelerated decline with advancing age for both samples, although rates for longitudinal samples were moderated for the 200 m and 1500 m events. Findings for the long-distance event were anomalous. Results provide evidence for moderated age-decline in physical performance measures for individuals who sustain engagement in organized sport for lengthy periods. Discussion focuses on methodological considerations for advancing future research that contrasts CS and longitudinal samples, and the importance of encouraging sport involvement opportunities to aging individuals.

  9. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  10. Effects of Strength Training on Muscle Development in Prepubescent, Pubescent, and Postpubescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Ronald D.; Francis, Rulon S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three males from ages 8 to 21 years participated in a nine-week resistive exercise program to test the hypothesis that pubescent males respond better to strength training than older or younger males do. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  11. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    PubMed Central

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Methods Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. Results After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = −0.52, P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (β = 0.27, P < 0.0001) were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) − 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. Conclusion The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners. PMID:24198587

  12. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  13. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  14. Nurturing Lifelong Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, Gerri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author relates how the thing he enjoys most about his job as a school librarian is nurturing lifelong readers, in particular readers of children's literature. In talking about nurturing lifelong readers and, referring to students, staff and school librarians, the author discusses: (1) The Southwell Library Programme; (2) The Lit…

  15. Diverse patterns of myocardial fibrosis in lifelong, veteran endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, R.; Prasad, S.; Deighan, A.; MacMillan, P.; Oxborough, D.; Godfrey, R.; Smith, G.; Maceira, A.; Sharma, S.; George, K.; Whyte, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the cardiac structure and function of a unique cohort of documented lifelong, competitive endurance veteran athletes (>50 yr). Twelve lifelong veteran male endurance athletes [mean ± SD (range) age: 56 ± 6 yr (50–67)], 20 age-matched veteran controls [60 ± 5 yr; (52–69)], and 17 younger male endurance athletes [31 ± 5 yr (26–40)] without significant comorbidities underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess cardiac morphology and function, as well as CMR imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) to assess myocardial fibrosis. Lifelong veteran athletes had smaller left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (P < 0.05), but maintained LV and RV systolic function compared with young athletes. However, veteran athletes had a significantly larger absolute and indexed LV and RV end-diastolic and systolic volumes, intraventricular septum thickness during diastole, posterior wall thickness during diastole, and LV and RV stroke volumes (P < 0.05), together with significantly reduced LV and RV ejection fractions (P < 0.05), compared with veteran controls. In six (50%) of the veteran athletes, LGE of CMR indicated the presence of myocardial fibrosis (4 veteran athletes with LGE of nonspecific cause, 1 probable previous myocarditis, and 1 probable previous silent myocardial infarction). There was no LGE in the age-matched veteran controls or young athletes. The prevalence of LGE in veteran athletes was not associated with age, height, weight, or body surface area (P > 0.05), but was significantly associated with the number of years spent training (P < 0.001), number of competitive marathons (P < 0.001), and ultraendurance (>50 miles) marathons (P < 0.007) completed. An unexpectedly high prevalence of myocardial fibrosis (50%) was observed in healthy, asymptomatic, lifelong veteran male athletes, compared with zero cases in age-matched veteran controls and young athletes. These data suggest a

  16. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  17. National Actions To Implement Lifelong Learning in Europe. Survey 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This publication offers a summary overview of initiatives to promote lifelong education and training that have actually been implemented in various European countries. Six chapters describe initiatives that are supporting and promoting lifelong learning, either at a European or national level, in accordance with the six key messages (KMs) spelled…

  18. Understanding Adult Lifelong Learning Participation as a Layered Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the layered nature of lifelong learning participation, bringing together fragmented insights in why adults do or do not participate in lifelong learning activities. The paper will discuss the roles and responsibilities of individual adults, education and training providers and countries' social education policies, often…

  19. The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p < 0.05). In the following phase and in general all the groups maintained the previously achieved results. In conclusion, plyometric training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.

  20. Getting WELL: Workforce Education & Lifelong Learning. Designs for Professional Education and Action Research To Improve the Education and Training of Underserved Youth and Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; And Others

    This report focuses on work force education and lifelong learning as a newly emerging strategy for meeting many challenges of education and work in the 21st century. Chapter 1 introduces the concept, reviews the sociopolitical background to the strategy, and presents the rationale for a new type of professional, Workforce Education and Lifelong…

  1. Effect of nonviolent self-defense training on male psychiatric staff members' aggression and fear.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D; Rudestam, K E

    1995-02-01

    Male staff members at two state psychiatric hospitals were trained in nonviolent self-defense skills for dealing with potentially assaultive patients to determine whether such training could reduce the number of assaults and episodes of patient restraint. Three groups of male staff received didactic training, didactic and physical skills training, or no training in the nonviolent self-defense skills of protective profile, repel, and push-off, as well as in evasive movement. Effects of the training were evaluated using the Buss-Durkee Hostility-Guilt Inventory; a questionnaire about clinical experience and sports training; judges' evaluations of physical skill, aggression, and fear; a self-report questionnaire about the value of nonaggressive responses and felt fear and aggression; and a follow-up questionnaire about posttraining assaults. Behaviorally expressed fear and aggression were significantly reduced among staff who received both didactic and physical skills training. The other two groups showed no significant changes in this area. During the two weeks after training, subjects trained in physical and didactic skills were involved in 23 percent fewer assaults than those who received only didactic training and 20 percent fewer assaults than those who received no training. The development of increased skill in nonviolent physical techniques of self-defense was strongly correlated with an increase in the value placed on the use of the skills and on nonviolent outcomes.

  2. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  3. Phencyclidine Use in Delinquent Males Committed to a Training School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, John F.; Kashani, Javad

    1979-01-01

    Of 109 delinquents interviewed at the Missouri Training School for Boys, nine admitted past use of phencyclidine, also called PCP or "angel dust." These nine were multiple-drug users and began using drugs earlier than the other subjects. Crimes committed under PCP influence and suicide attempts were also analyzed. (SJL)

  4. The Evaluation of Strength Training and Body Plyometric Effects on the Male Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayram, Metin

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…

  5. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  6. Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Santiago, Alfonso; Cancela, Jose M.; Zubiaur, Marta; Ayan, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their…

  7. Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Santiago, Alfonso; Cancela, Jose M.; Zubiaur, Marta; Ayan, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their…

  8. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  9. The Effect of Weight Training on the Self-Concept of Male Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard; And Others

    From ancient times, physical exercise has been linked to good mental health and positive self-concepts. To investigate the effects of weight training on self-concept, 62 college males participated in a one semester (40 hours) weight training, physical education course. Subjects were pre- and post-tested on subscales of the Tennessee Self Concept…

  10. The Effect of Weight Training on the Self-Concept of Male Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard; And Others

    From ancient times, physical exercise has been linked to good mental health and positive self-concepts. To investigate the effects of weight training on self-concept, 62 college males participated in a one semester (40 hours) weight training, physical education course. Subjects were pre- and post-tested on subscales of the Tennessee Self Concept…

  11. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  12. Lifelong Learning within HE in The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Dungen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on work-based learning in higher vocational education and training in relation to lifelong learning. It begins with an overview of the Dutch National Policy and the ambitions of a national Project Directorate Learning & Working. It then goes on to the concrete results of projects within higher education (HE) aimed at the…

  13. Lifelong Learning for the Global Networked Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Graham

    Professionals have normally become qualified through a period of formal education followed by a structured training program and continuing professional development. This traditional pattern is being replaced with a process of lifelong learning that, thanks to the development and application of a wide range of information and communication…

  14. Changing Lives through Lifelong Learning Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    As conceived by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL), Lifelong Learning Accounts (LiLAs[SM]) are employer-matched, portable individual accounts used to finance employee education and training. They provide employees with an affordable means of upgrading their skills and knowledge, while helping to meet the needs of employers and…

  15. Lifelong Learning and Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on programs that promote lifelong learning through literacy education, parent empowerment, or parent leadership training. "Adult Literacy Outreach Innovations: Porque Significa Tanto" (Christie L. Goodman) describes a Texas outreach project that focuses on raising public awareness about adult education and…

  16. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = -0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults.

  17. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004

  18. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests.

  19. Lifelong Learning and the Reform of the Teaching Practicum in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Ron; Chapman, Judith; Gaff, Janet; McGilp, Jacqueline; Walsh, Maureen; Warren, Elizabeth; Williams, Irene

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a project--'Lifelong learning and teacher education'-- undertaken by the Centre for Lifelong Learning, Australian Catholic University, under the auspices of the Australian Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training. The study was designed to investigate the operationalization of lifelong learning…

  20. Hormonal and psychological adaptation in elite male rowers during prolonged training.

    PubMed

    Purge, P; Jürimäe, J; Jürimäe, T

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we examined possible hormonal and psychological changes in elite male rowers during a 24-week preparatory period. Eleven elite male rowers were tested on seven occasions over the 6-month training season. Fasting testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol, and creatine kinase activity, together with perceived recovery-stress state were evaluated after a day of rest. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was determined before and after the training period. Training was mainly organized as low-intensity prolonged training sessions. Significant increases in VO2max (from 6.2 +/- 0.5 to 6.4 +/- 0.6 l x min(-1)) were observed as a result of training. The overall perceived recovery-stress index did not change during the preparatory period. Standardized recovery and stress scores changed during the course of training in comparison with pre-training values. When basal hormone concentrations were compared with the first measurement, significant changes in testosterone and cortisol were observed together with changes in mean weekly training volume. Basal testosterone (r = 0.416; P = 0.010) and cortisol (r = 0.527; P = 0.001) were related to mean weekly training volume. Basal growth hormone did not change during the training. Changes in creatine kinase activity demonstrated similar pattern with changes in mean weekly training volume. The overall perceived recovery-stress index was related to testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and creatine kinase activity (r > 0.299; P < 0.015). Our findings indicate that testosterone and cortisol are more sensitive to changes in training volume than either growth hormone or perceived recovery-stress state in elite rowing training. Increases in these stress hormone concentrations represent a positive adaptation to current training load. Significant relationships between hormonal and perceived recovery-stress state suggest that metabolic and psychological changes should be carefully monitored to avoid a negative effect on the

  1. Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players’ Throwing Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, José; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ± 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 15). For a period of ten weeks, both groups attended their regular handball training sessions (four per week), but in addition, the experimental group participated in a program specifically aimed at progressively strengthening the lumbo-pelvic region and consisting of seven exercises performed after the general warm-up in each regular session. Pre- and post-tests were carried out to analyze each player’s throwing velocity from different throwing positions and thus assess the effects of this specific training program. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in throwing velocity were observed between the experimental group, which presented a percentage improvement of 4.5%, and the control group, which did not show any improvement. The results seem to indicate that an increase in the strength and stability of the lumbo-pelvic region can contribute to an improvement in the kinetic chain of the specific movement of throwing in handball, thus, increasing throwing velocity. PMID:28469756

  2. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. Methods The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05), had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05) and thigh (P < 0.01), and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05) compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001) and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001), but were running slower (P < 0.01) compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001) and running speed during training (P < 0.0001) were related to marathon race times. Conclusion In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance. PMID:24198595

  3. Genital examination training: assessing the effectiveness of an integrated female and male teaching programme.

    PubMed

    McBain, Lynn; Pullon, Susan; Garrett, Sue; Hoare, Kath

    2016-11-22

    Learning to undertake intimate female and male examinations is an important part of medical student training but opportunities to participate in practical, supervised learning in a safe environment can be limited. A collaborative, integrated training programme to provide such learning was developed by two university teaching departments and a specialist sexual health service, utilising teaching associates trained for intimate examinations in a simulated clinical educational setting. The objective of this research was to determine changes in senior medical students' self- reported experience and confidence in performing male and female genital examinations, before and after participating in a new clinical teaching programme. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design, using pre and post programme questionnaires and focus groups, was used to assess the effectiveness of the programme. The students reported greatly improved skill, confidence and comfort levels for both male and female genital examination following the teaching programme. Skill, confidence and comfort regarding male examinations were rated particularly low on the pre-teaching programme self- assessment, but post-programme was rated at similar levels to the female examination. This integrated female-male teaching programme (utilising trained teaching associates as simulated patients in a supervised clinical teaching environment) was successful in increasing senior medical students' skills and levels of confidence in performing genital examinations. There were differences between female and male medical students in their learning. Suggestions for improvement included providing more detailed instruction to some clinical supervisors about their facilitation role in the session.

  4. Comparisons between twice-daily and once-daily training sessions in male weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Michael J; Clark, Brandon; Bembens, Debra A; Kilgore, J Lon; Bemben, Michael G

    2007-06-01

    Many elite athletes use increased daily training frequencies as a means to increase training load without substantial published literature to support this practice. To compare the physiological responses to twice- and once-daily training sessions with similar training volumes. Ten nationally competitive male weightlifters (age 20.5 +/- 1.2 y, body mass 92.9 +/- 23.6 kg, training history 5.5 +/- 1.5 y) were matched on body mass and training experience, then randomly assigned to train either once or twice daily for 3 wk. Isometric knee-extension strength (ISO), muscle cross-sectional area, vertical-jump peak power, resting hormone concentrations, neuromuscular activation (EMG), and weightlifting performance were obtained before and after the experimental training period. All dependent measures before the training intervention were similar for both groups. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant main effects (group or trial) or interaction effects (group x trial) for any of the dependent variables. There were also no significant group differences when parameters were expressed as percentage change, but the twice-daily training group had a greater percentage change in ISO (+5.1% vs +3.2%), EMG (+20.3% vs +9.1%), testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%), and testosterone:cortisol ratio (-10.5% vs +1.3%) than did the once-daily training group. There were no additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male weightlifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.

  5. Effects of Methoxyisoflavone, Ecdysterone, and Sulfo-Polysaccharide Supplementation on Training Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lemuel W; Campbell, Bill I; Kerksick, Chad; Rasmussen, Chris J; Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M), 20-hydroxyecdysone (E), and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3) have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat) were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P); 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males. PMID:18500969

  6. Do male dropouts benefit from obtaining a GED, postsecondary education, and training?

    PubMed

    Murnane, R J; Willett, J B; Boudett, K P

    1999-10-01

    The authors use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate whether the wage trajectories of male high school dropouts are affected by the acquisition of the General Educational Development (GED) credential, by postsecondary education, and by training. The authors show that acquisition of the GED results in wage increases for dropouts who left school with weak skills, but not for dropouts who left high school with stronger skills. College and training provided by employers are associated with higher wages for male dropouts.

  7. The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance in male rugby players.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J; Bourke, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that resistance sprint (RS) training can produce significant changes in running speed and running kinematics. The longer-term training adaptations after RS training remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an RS training intervention would enhance the running speed and dynamic strength measures in male rugby players. Fifteen male rugby players aged 20.5 (+/- 2.8) years who were proficient in resisted sledge training took part in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to control or RS groups. The RS group performed two sessions per week of RS training for 6 weeks, and the control group did no RS training. Pre- and postintervention tests were carried out for 30-m sprint, drop, squat, and rebound jumps on a force sledge system. A laser measurement device was used to obtain velocities and distance measures during all running trials. The results show a statistically significant decrease in time to 5 m for the 30-m sprint for the RS group (p = 0.02). The squat jump and drop jump variables also showed significant increases in starting strength (p = 0.004) and height jumped (p = 0.018) for the RS group from pre- to post-testing sessions. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to employ an RS training intervention with the aim of increasing initial acceleration from a static start for sprinting.

  8. Effects of multi-ingredient supplementation on resistance training in young males

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Mark ET; Sallis, Chris W; Haskell, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Muscle strength and fatigue resistance increases with resistance training. Resistance training adaptations can be enhanced with single-ingredient or dual-ingredient supplementation but less is known about resistance training adaptations by multi-ingredient supplementation. We examined the effects of a commercial multi-ingredient supplement on resistance training adaptations for training-specific and non-training-specific tasks in young males. Male participants (n = 16, age 21±2 years, body mass 74.5±5.9 kg, body height 177±5 cm) had at least 1 year experience with resistance training exercises. Training (7 muscle groups, 4 sessions/week, weekly adjustments) consisted of two 6 weeks blocks with 4 weeks between blocks. During training, participants consumed placebo (i.e. maltodextrin, n = 7) or the sports nutritional supplement Cyclone (Maximuscle Ltd, UK, n = 9) (main ingredients creatine monohydrate, whey protein, glutamine and HMB) twice daily with one intake <15 min following a training session. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used for placebo and Cyclone group comparison of percentage changes with p < 0.05. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for the Cyclone group. Cyclone did not enhance maximal voluntary isometric force (MVIF) (p = 0.56), time to fatigue at 70% MVIF (p = 0.41) and peak concentric strength (60°·s−1) (p = 0.66) of m.quadriceps femoris (i.e. the non-specific training tasks). For the specific-training tasks, Cyclone did not enhance one-repetition maximum (1-RM) of lateral pull (p = 0.48) but there was a trend and large effect size for 1-RM of bench press (p = 0.07, d = 0.98) and 45° leg press (p = 0.07, d = 1.41). Cyclone resulted in an increase in number of repetitions for 80% pre-training 1-RM for lateral pull (p = 0.02, d = 1.30), bench press (p = 0.03, d = 1.20) with a trend for 45° leg press (p = 0.08, d = 0.96). Cyclone during resistance training enhanced the performance of 1-RM and number of repetitions at 80% of pre-training

  9. Inspiratory muscle performance in endurance-trained elderly males during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Chlif, Mehdi; Keochkerian, David; Temfemo, Abdou; Choquet, Dominique; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inspiratory muscle performance during an incremental exercise of twelve fit old endurance-trained athletes (OT) with that of fit young athletes (YT) and healthy age-matched controls (OC). The tension-time index (TT0.1) was determined according to the equation TT0.1=P0.1/PImax×ti/ttot, where P0.1 is the mouth occlusion pressure, PImax the maximal inspiratory pressure and ti/ttot the duty cycle. For a given VCO2, OT group displayed P0.1, P0.1/PImax ratio, TT0.1 and effective impedance of the respiratory muscle values which were lower than OC group and higher than YT group. At maximal exercise, P0.1/PImax ratio and TT0.1 was still lower in the OT group than OC group and higher than YT group. This study showed lower inspiratory muscle performance attested by a higher (TT0.1) during exercise in the OT group than YT group, but appeared to be less marked in elderly men having performed lifelong endurance training compared with sedentary elderly subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lifelong Qualifications. Developing Qualifications To Support Lifelong Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter

    If Britain is to deliver a genuine framework for lifelong learning in the 21st century, a qualifications system must be developed to support this framework. The National Qualifications Framework may not be fit for the purpose of supporting lifelong learning. A policy on lifelong learning must explicitly connect with qualifications reform to have…

  11. The Next Step: Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1976-01-01

    Schools do not exist in a vacuum and neither do people. That fact is propelling the U.S. toward a national policy on lifelong learning. Provisions of the Senate Lifelong Learning Bill are included. (LBH)

  12. The response of serum growth hormone and prolactin to training in weight-maintaining healthy males.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R S; Bossetti, B M; O'Dorisio, T M; Welch, M A; Rice, R R; Tenison, E B; Wasson, C J; Malarkey, W B

    1990-03-01

    Resting levels of serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) were measured pretraining, 3 weeks and 10 weeks posttraining in seven college age males. The exercise consisted of thrice weekly sessions at 70% VO2max for 20 minutes plus warmup and cool down. Body weight remained constant during the ten week training period. However, body fat decreased significantly. Resting daytime levels of GH decreased significantly with training while resting PRL levels were unchanged. The hormone responses suggest attenuation of resting GH levels with training and may relate to changes in body fat.

  13. Lifelong Learning and Prosperity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Pauline

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for lifelong learning to maintain a presence in a world economy. Looks at the widening gap between rich and poor and its relation to educational level and suggests that more emphasis must be placed on upgrading the skills of blue collar workers. (JOW)

  14. Death and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong learning has a crucial role in enabling individuals to handle key transition points in their lives, but what can education do to prepare them for the final, inevitable transition. Some of the educational contribution to managing the final transition is very broad, a matter of general enlightenment. But there are some more specific…

  15. Loans for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mick, Ed.

    This collection of eight papers looks at how a system of loans for lifelong learning in Great Britain and New Zealand might be positioned. It examines where such loans might work best and where they seem inappropriate. In particular, the collection assembles the available evidence about the role and impact of loans in the world of education and…

  16. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  17. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  18. Pakistan: Lifelong Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The article reports on progress towards lifelong literacy education in Pakistan, covering the project's introduction in 1972 and reviewing current activities in brief but concrete sketches of such topics as materials, operation of projects, and student drop-outs. Appendixes include a map and occupational breakdowns of teachers and students. (AJ)

  19. Lifelong Learning and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Penelope L.

    1979-01-01

    States that community colleges are in a good position to be centers of lifelong education and that adult educators must engage in politics in order to promote learning opportunities for adults. Suggests legislative, administrative, judicial, and electoral strategies for adult educators to use in influencing policymakers to support lifelong…

  20. The effect of different training programs on eccentric energy utilization in college-aged males.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Sheldon B; Doyle, Tim L A; McGuigan, Michael R

    2009-10-01

    The Eccentric Utilization Ratio (EUR), which is the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) to squat jump (SJ) performance measures, is a useful indicator of training status in elite athletes and their utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle. This investigation sought to determine if EUR was sensitive to different types of resistance training in untrained college-aged males. Twenty-nine college-aged males completed 8 weeks of training and were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 training programs: weight training (n = 10), plyometrics (n = 10), or weightlifting (n = 9). Testing occurred 3 times (pre, mid, post) with a CMJ and SJ conducted on a force plate integrated with a position transducer. Height, weight, and a 1RM (repetition maximum) squat also were measured. Weightlifting significantly (p < 0.05) helped subjects jump higher and produce more power than plyometrics for height and power for both CMJ and SJ results. This investigation indicated EUR did not significantly change, suggesting that this type of performance indicator may not be useful in a recreationally active population. Alternatively, an 8-week training program might not be a long enough time period to see changes in this group of participants. Results did indicate that high-velocity and high-force training programs, consisting of weightlifting and plyometrics, improved lower-body performance, especially in the areas of jump height and power.

  1. Lifelong Learning: Capabilities and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    The present paper discusses the potential of the capability approach in conceptualizing and understanding lifelong learning as an agency process, and explores its capacity to guide empirical studies on lifelong learning. It uses data for 20 countries from the Adult Education Survey (2007; 2011) and focuses on aspirations for lifelong learning. The…

  2. New Technology and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Mary

    Key issues related to the relationship between new technology and lifelong learning in the United Kingdom and elsewhere were identified through reviews of the literature on information and communications technology (ICT) and the literature on lifelong learning. Two overarching issues related to the interplay of new technology and lifelong learning…

  3. Effects of Teacher-to-Student Relatedness on Adolescent Male Motivation in a Weight Training Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Zack; Prusak, Keven; Barney, David; Wilkinson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the motivational profiles of male junior high weight training students differ across levels of teacher-to-student relatedness. One hundred and sixty six students participated in one of two units of instruction. Contextual motivation was measured using the Sport Motivation Scale II-Physical Education…

  4. Moderate Association of Anthropometry, but Not Training Volume, with Race Performance in Male Ultraendurance Cyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…

  5. Moderate Association of Anthropometry, but Not Training Volume, with Race Performance in Male Ultraendurance Cyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…

  6. Comparison of Male vs Female Resident Milestone Evaluations by Faculty During Emergency Medicine Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Arjun; O'Connor, Daniel M; Qadri, Usama; Arora, Vineet M

    2017-05-01

    Although implicit bias in medical training has long been suspected, it has been difficult to study using objective measures, and the influence of sex and gender in the evaluation of medical trainees is unknown. The emergency medicine (EM) milestones provide a standardized framework for longitudinal resident assessment, allowing for analysis of resident performance across all years and programs at a scope and level of detail never previously possible. To compare faculty-observed training milestone attainment of male vs female residency training. This multicenter, longitudinal, retrospective cohort study took place at 8 community and academic EM training programs across the United States from July 1, 2013, to July 1, 2015, using a real-time, mobile-based, direct-observation evaluation tool. The study examined 33 456 direct-observation subcompetency evaluations of 359 EM residents by 285 faculty members. Milestone attainment for male and female EM residents as observed by male and female faculty throughout residency and analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression modeling. A total of 33 456 direct-observation evaluations were collected from 359 EM residents (237 men [66.0%] and 122 women [34.0%]) by 285 faculty members (194 men [68.1%] and 91 women [31.9%]) during the study period. Female and male residents achieved similar milestone levels during the first year of residency. However, the rate of milestone attainment was 12.7% (0.07 levels per year) higher for male residents through all of residency (95% CI, 0.04-0.09). By graduation, men scored approximately 0.15 milestone levels higher than women, which is equivalent to 3 to 4 months of additional training, given that the average resident gains approximately 0.52 levels per year using our model (95% CI, 0.49-0.54). No statistically significant differences in scores were found based on faculty evaluator gender (effect size difference, 0.02 milestone levels; 95% CI for males, -0.09 to 0.11) or

  7. Novel Multi-System Functional Gains via Task Specific Training in Spinal Cord Injured Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909

  8. Short Term Effects of Resistance Training Modalities on Performance Measures in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Winwood, P W; Buckley, J J

    2017-05-23

    This study compared the effects of seven weeks of bodyweight, mobility and resistance training programs on strength, power, and sprint times. Thirty-nine male adolescents (aged 14-15 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups; bodyweight and mobility training (BMT) (n=25) or combined bodyweight, mobility and free weights training (CBT) (n=14). A physical education class (n=23) of similar age constituted a control group (CON). Both training groups performed two bodyweight and mobility training sessions per week and the CBT group performed two additional free-weight resistance exercise training sessions. Pre-testing and post-testing consisted of vertical and horizontal jump tests, 5- and 20-m sprint tests, 2 kg medicine ball throw test and maximal number of press ups. Small significant improvements (p ≤ 0.01) between pre-post measures were observed in the CBT group for 20 m (↑2.4%; ES = -0.45) sprint time and horizontal jump distance (↑4.2%; ES = 0.43). No significant differences existed between the groups when the mean changes were compared. Effect sizes demonstrated training improvements were in favour of the CBT group (for sprint times, horizontal jump distance and maximal press ups; ES = 0.35 to -1.35) compared to the BMT and CON groups and in favour of the BMT group (for sprint times and horizontal jump distance; ES =-0.33 to 0.34) compared to the CON group. Seven weeks of BMT and CBT can be beneficial for the development of physical performance capacities in untrained male adolescents. Increased training frequency with the addition of free-weights provided greatest training effects.

  9. Muscle Characteristics and Substrate Energetics in Lifelong Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, John J.; Broskey, Nicholas T.; Despines, Alex A.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Amati, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to explore the effect of lifelong aerobic exercise (i.e. chronic training) on skeletal muscle substrate stores (intramyocellular triglyceride [IMTG] and glycogen), skeletal muscle phenotypes, and oxidative capacity (ox), in older endurance-trained master athletes (OA) compared to non-competitive recreational younger (YA) athletes matched by frequency and mode of training. Methods Thirteen OA (64.8±4.9 yo) exercising ≥ 5 times/week were compared to 14 YA (27.8±4.9 yo) males and females. IMTG, glycogen, fiber types, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and capillarization were measured by immunohistochemistry in vastus lateralis biopsies. Fat-ox and carbohydrate (CHO)-ox were measured by indirect calorimetry before and after an insulin clamp and during a cycle ergometer graded maximal test. Results V̇O2peak was lower in OA than YA. OA had greater IMTG in all fiber types and lower glycogen stores than YA. This was reflected in greater proportion of type I and less type II fibers in OA. Type I fibers were similar in size, while type II fibers were smaller in OA compared to YA. Both groups had similar SDH content. Numbers of capillaries per fiber were reduced in OA but with a higher number of capillaries per area. Metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity were similar in both groups. Exercise metabolic efficiency was higher in OA. At moderate exercise intensities, CHO-ox was lower in OA but with similar Fatox. Conclusion Lifelong exercise is associated with higher IMTG content in all muscle fibers and higher metabolic efficiency during exercise that are not explained by differences in muscle fibers types and other muscle characteristics when comparing older to younger athletes matched by exercise mode and frequency. PMID:26460630

  10. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance.

  11. Leading Through Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Dawn

    2016-07-01

    School nurses, as leaders, are able to exhibit leadership skills through embracing, advocating for, and demonstrating a commitment to lifelong learning. With the continual changes in healthcare and technology, ongoing education is essential to maintain a high standard of expertise and practice. School nurses have many opportunities for continuing education. This article will briefly explore various levels of continuing education, as well as relating ongoing learning to leadership principles. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on fat metabolism in trained and untrained older males.

    PubMed

    Bassami, Minoo; Ahmadizad, Sajad; Doran, Dominic; MacLaren, Donald P M

    2007-11-01

    Advancing age is associated with changes in fat and carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The effects of exercise intensity and duration on fat and CHO metabolism in elderly male subjects were investigated in the present study. Seven trained (63.7+/-4.7 years) and six untrained (63.5+/-4.5 years) healthy males performed three 30 min trials on a cycle ergometer at 50, 60 and 70% VO2max and two other trials at 60 and 70% VO2max in which the total energy expenditure was equal to that for 30 min at 50% VO2max Respiratory measures were undertaken throughout the exercise and blood samples taken before and immediately after each trial. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect of exercise intensity on fat oxidation when the exercise durations were equated as well as when the energy expenditure was held constant for the three trials, though no training effect was noted. Total carbohydrate oxidation increased significantly with exercise intensity (P<0.05) and with training. Significantly higher levels of non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were observed for trained compared with untrained though not for B-hydroxybutyrate (3-OH) or insulin. No differences in NEFA, glycerol, 3-OH were evident for increases in exercise intensity. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation are significantly affected by exercise intensity in elderly males, although only CHO oxidation is influenced by training. Furthermore, training-induced increases in the availability of NEFA and glycerol are not associated with an increase in fat oxidation, rather an increase in CHO oxidation.

  13. Exercise training does not enhance hypothalamic responsiveness to leptin or ghrelin in male mice.

    PubMed

    Borg, M L; Andrews, Z B; Watt, M J

    2014-02-01

    The detection of hormone and nutrient signals by the hypothalamus is blunted in obesity and contributes to dysregulated energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training would improve long-term hypothalamic sensitivity to both leptin and ghrelin, independent of acute exercise-induced signalling. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet for 6 weeks, then remained sedentary on their respective diet, or completed 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training with a progressive increase in exercise volume and intensity. Food intake and hypothalamic signalling were assessed in mice injected with leptin or ghrelin at least 24 h after the last exercise bout. Exercise training reduced body mass, increased daily food intake and improved glucose tolerance. Intraperitoneal leptin administration reduced food intake in lean and obese mice, and this was not enhanced after exercise training. Leptin-mediated activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was not enhanced with exercise training. Ghrelin increased food intake and c-Fos positive neurones in the hypothalamus in lean and obese mice, and these physiological and molecular responses were not enhanced with exercise training. This suggests that the previously reported exercise effects on sensitising hypothalamic signalling and food intake responses may be limited to the period immediately after an exercise bout, and are not a result of stable structural or molecular changes that occur with exercise training. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  14. High-Speed Imaging Analysis of Register Transitions in Classically and Jazz-Trained Male Voices.

    PubMed

    Dippold, Sebastian; Voigt, Daniel; Richter, Bernhard; Echternach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Little data are available concerning register functions in different styles of singing such as classically or jazz-trained voices. Differences between registers seem to be much more audible in jazz singing than classical singing, and so we hypothesized that classically trained singers exhibit a smoother register transition, stemming from more regular vocal fold oscillation patterns. High-speed digital imaging (HSDI) was used for 19 male singers (10 jazz-trained singers, 9 classically trained) who performed a glissando from modal to falsetto register across the register transition. Vocal fold oscillation patterns were analyzed in terms of different parameters of regularity such as relative average perturbation (RAP), correlation dimension (D2) and shimmer. HSDI observations showed more regular vocal fold oscillation patterns during the register transition for the classically trained singers. Additionally, the RAP and D2 values were generally lower and more consistent for the classically trained singers compared to the jazz singers. However, intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant differences. Some of our results may support the hypothesis that classically trained singers exhibit a smoother register transition from modal to falsetto register. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Resistance Training and Head-Neck Segment Dynamic Stabilization in Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Jamie; Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, Kathleen A; Stearne, David

    2005-01-01

    Context: Cervical resistance training has been purported to aid in reducing the severity of brain injuries in athletes. Objective: To determine the effect of an 8-week resistance-training program on head-neck segment dynamic stabilization in male and female collegiate soccer players. Design: Pretest and posttest control group design. Setting: University research laboratory and fitness center. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (17 men, 19 women). Intervention(s): The resistance training group underwent an 8-week cervical resistance training program that consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of neck flexion and extension at 55% to 70% of their 10-repetition maximum 2 times a week. Participants in the control group performed no cervical resistance exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): Head-neck segment kinematics and stiffness, electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles during force application to the head, and neck flexor and extensor isometric strength. Results: No kinematic, electromyographic, or stiffness training effects were seen. The posttest resistance training group isometric neck flexor strength was 15% greater than the pretest measurement. Isometric neck extensor strength in the female resistance training group was 22.5% greater at the posttest than at the pretest. Women's neck girth increased 3.4% over time regardless of training group level. Women exhibited 7% less head-neck segment length and 26% less head-neck segment mass than men. Conclusions: Despite increases in isometric strength and girth, the 8-week isotonic cervical resistance training did not enhance head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during force application in collegiate soccer players. Future researchers should examine the effect of head-neck segment training protocols that include traditional and neuromuscular activities (eg, plyometrics) with the focus of

  16. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  17. Determination of Efficient Methods of Lift by Comparing Trained and Untrained Male and Female Lifters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Safety, Training, Male-Female Differences, Manual Material Handling, Biomechanics, Kinesiology , Dynamic Anthropometry 20. AGSTRACT (Contnueon veres. side...such as displacement of two or more segments with each having a separate purpose (arm and leg movement in swimming ). d) superimposed movements, such as...New York, 1968). Jokl, E., The Acquisition of Skill. Biomechanics I, Seminar, (Karger, Basel/New York, 1968). Kelley, D. L., Kinesiology , Fundamentals

  18. Effect of Sequencing Strength and Endurance Training in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Issam; Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Laurencelle, Louis; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effects of strength and endurance training sequence (strength before or after endurance) on relevant fitness variables in youth soccer players. Fifty-seven young elite-level male field soccer players (13.7 ± 0.5 years; 164 ± 8.3 cm; 53.5 ± 8.6 kg; body fat; 15.6 ± 3.9%) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14, CG) and 3 experimental training groups (twice a week for 12 weeks) strength before (SE, n = 15), after (ES, n = 14) or on alternate days (ASE, n = 14) with endurance training. A significant (p = 0.001) intervention main effect was detected. There were only trivial training sequence differences (ES vs. SE) for all variables (p > 0.05). The CG showed large squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and medium sprint, change of direction ability, and jump improvements. ASE demonstrated a trivial difference in endurance performance with ES and SE (p > 0.05). Large to medium greater improvements for SE and ES were reported compared with ASE for sprinting over 10 and 30 m (p < 0.02). The SE squat 1RM was higher than in ASE (moderate, p < 0.02). Postintervention differences between ES and SE with CG fitness variables were small to medium (p ≤ 0.05) except for a large SE advantage with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (p < 0.001, large). This study showed no effect of intrasession training sequence on soccer fitness-relevant variables. However, combining strength and endurance within a single training session provided superior results vs. training on alternate days. Concurrent training may be considered as an effective and safe training method for the development of the prospective soccer player.

  19. Validity of VO2max equations for aerobically trained males and females.

    PubMed

    Malek, Moh H; Berger, Dale E; Housh, Terry J; Coburn, Jared W; Beck, Travis W

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to cross-validate existing VO2max prediction equations on samples of aerobically trained males and females. A total of 142 aerobically trained males (mean +/- SD; 39.0 +/- 11.1 yr, N = 93) and females (39.7 +/- 10.1 yr, N = 49) performed a maximal incremental test to determine actual VO2max on a cycle ergometer. The predicted VO2max values from 18 equations (nine for each gender) were compared with actual VO2max by examining the constant error (CE), standard error of estimate (SEE), correlation coefficient (r), and total error (TE). The results of this investigation indicated that all of the equations resulted in significant (P < 0.006) CE values ranging from -216 to 1415 mL x min(-1) for the males and 132 to 1037 mL x min(-1) for the females. In addition the SEE, r, and TE values ranged from 266 to 609 mL x min(-1), 0.36 to 0.88, and 317 to 1535 mL x min(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the lowest TE values for the males and females represented 10% and 12% of the mean actual VO2max values, respectively. The results of the analysis indicated that the two equations using age, body weight, and the power output achieved at VO2 as predictor variables had the lowest SEE (7.7-9.8% of actual VO2max) and TE (10-12% of actual VO2max) values and are recommended for estimating VO2max in aerobically trained males and females. The magnitude of the TE values (>or= 20% of actual VO2max) associated with the remaining 16 equations, however, were too large to be of practical value for estimating VO2max.

  20. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  1. Effects of high versus low-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young males.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Shimokata, H; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K; Wasnich, R D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity and low-intensity resistance training upon bone mineral density (BMD) by comparing the BMD of young male powerlifters (n = 5), recreational trainees (n = 5), and controls (n = 5). Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The high-intensity group showed a significantly greater BMD when the whole body and trochanter regions were measured than the low-intensity and control group. The BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle was greater in the high-intensity group compared with the control group. There was no significant BMD difference between the low-intensity and control group except at the trochanter region. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective for increasing BMD, but low-intensity resistance training is not.

  2. Greater muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in males compared with females during sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Rebecca L; Peltonen, Garrett L; Binns, Scott E; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Giordano, Gregory R; Hartley, Dylan A; Klochak, Anna L; Lonac, Mark C; Paris, Hunter L R; Szallar, Steve E; Wood, Lacey M; Peelor, Frederick F; Holmes, William E; Hellerstein, Marc K; Bell, Christopher; Hamilton, Karyn L; Miller, Benjamin F

    2014-06-01

    Improved endurance exercise performance in adult humans after sprint interval training (SIT) has been attributed to mitochondrial biogenesis. However, muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and mitochondrial biogenesis during SIT have not been measured, nor have sex-specific differences. We hypothesized that males and females would have similar rates of MPS, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synthesis of individual proteins during SIT. Deuterium oxide (D2O) was orally administered to 21 adults [11 male, 10 female; mean age, 23±1 yr; body mass index (BMI), 22.8±0.6 kg/m(2); mean± SE] for 4 wk, to measure protein synthesis rates while completing 9 sessions of 4-8 bouts of 30 s duration on a cycle ergometer separated by 4 min of active recovery. Samples of the vastus lateralis were taken before and 48 h after SIT. SIT increased maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max), males 43.4±2.1-44.0±2.3; females 39.5±0.9-42.5±1.3 ml/kg/min; P=0.002). MPS was greater in the males than in the females in the mixed (~150%; P < 0.001), cytosolic (~135%; P=0.038), and mitochondrial (~135%; P=0.056) fractions. The corresponding ontological clusters of individual proteins were significantly greater in the males than in the females (all P<0.00001). For the first time, we document greater MPS and mitochondrial biogenesis during SIT in males than in females and describe the synthetic response of individual proteins in humans during exercise training. © FASEB.

  3. Effects of high-intensity running training on soccer-specific fitness in professional male players.

    PubMed

    Wells, Carl; Edwards, Andrew; Fysh, Mary; Drust, Barry

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not physiological and performance gains could be achieved with the addition of high-intensity running to an existing training programme in a group of well trained professional male soccer players. Sixteen professional male players (21.3 ± 2.1 years, stature 177.4 ± 4.2 cm, body mass 73.1 ± 8.1 kg) were randomised in training (TRA, n = 8) and control (CON, n = 8) groups. All players performed physiological assessments before and after a 6-week intervention. Outcome measures were: (i) V̇O2peak, (ii) V̇O2 kinetics during very heavy-intensity exercise, (iii) a maximal anaerobic running test, and (iv) Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (YIRT2). The only aerobic parameter to change after the intervention was the phase III time constant at exercise onset for CON, which lengthened (p = 0.012) to a value similar to that of the TRA group. However, TRA showed gains in anaerobic performance (p = 0.021), time to exhaustion (p = 0.019), and maximal running speed (p = 0.023). In the YIRT2, distance run increased for TRA over time (p = 0.015), and the TRA group were also capable of running further in the YIRT2 after the intervention compared with CON (p = 0.011). This study shows it is possible to improve the soccer-specific high-intensity running capacity of professional players when high-intensity intermittent training is added to the normal training load and that this effect is only detectable in anaerobic capabilities. The observed effects are meaningful to the training practices of elite athletes seeking a competitive edge in team sports when otherwise well matched.

  4. Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara

    2015-01-01

    Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9 ± 0.8 years; mean BMI 20.2 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). Hydration status was determined before and after two training sessions, using both urine specific gravity and percent loss of body weight. The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training. Players were at risk of developing heat illness during six of the 14 training sessions (60 - 90 minutes in length). Although on average players were slightly dehydrated (1.023 ± 0.006 g/ml) before and after (1.024 ± 0.007 g/ml) training, some were extremely dehydrated before (24%) and after (27%) training. Conversely some were extremely hyperhydrated before (3%) and after training (6%). The mean percent loss of body weight was 0.7 ± 0.7%. The majority did not consume fluid during the first (57.0%) and second (70.9%) training sessions. An average of 216.0 ± 140.0 ml of fluid was consumed during both training sessions. The majority (41.8%) consumed water, while a few (5.1%) consumed pure fruit juice. More than 90% stated that water was the most appropriate fluid to consume before, during and after training. Very few (5.0%) correctly stated that carbohydrate should be consumed before, during and after training. Approximately a quarter were severely dehydrated. Many did not drink or drank insufficient amounts. The players' beliefs regarding the importance of fluid and carbohydrate consumption did not correspond with their practices. A

  5. Course and predictors of posttraumatic stress among male train drivers after the experience of 'person under the train' incidents.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Anja; Nanninga, Imke; Fauth, Mathias; Schäfer, Ingo

    2012-09-01

    The present prospective study aimed to identify the frequency and course of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in train drivers after the experience of 'person under the train' incidents. Furthermore, associations between predictors of posttraumatic stress stratified by pre-, peri- and posttraumatic factors, psychological distress, quality of life (QoL), sense of coherence, lack of meaning in life, and post-trauma thoughts are analyzed. Patients (100% male, mean age 48 years) were assessed at the beginning (n=73), at the end (n=71) and six months (n=49) after a four-week rehabilitation program and completed validated self-report questionnaires (e.g. Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey). Train drivers experienced averagely 1.8 'person under the train' incidents (range 1-8); the majority (81%) was involved in a railway suicide. At the beginning of the rehabilitation, 44% of the patients were classified as having moderate to severe PTSD, and 14% as having severe PTSD. Posttraumatic stress decreased significantly over time (p=.003, η²=.17). We found no significant differences in the course of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, distress and QoL between patients who experienced one or more than one railway related accident or suicide. Anxiety, sense of guilt and sense of alienation emerged as the most important factors in predicting posttraumatic stress six months after rehabilitation (R²=0.55). Findings emphasize the importance of rehabilitation programs for train drivers after railway-related incidents. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation interventions particularly tailored to this patient group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Who Is the Lifelong Learner? Globalization, Lifelong Learning and Hermeneutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggla, Bengt Kristensson

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to elaborate on the inner connection between three such diverse entities as lifelong learning, globalization and hermeneutics. After placing lifelong learning in a societal context framed by globalization, my intention is to reflect on the prerequisites for introducing a hermeneutical contribution to the understanding of…

  7. Who Is the Lifelong Learner? Globalization, Lifelong Learning and Hermeneutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggla, Bengt Kristensson

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to elaborate on the inner connection between three such diverse entities as lifelong learning, globalization and hermeneutics. After placing lifelong learning in a societal context framed by globalization, my intention is to reflect on the prerequisites for introducing a hermeneutical contribution to the understanding of…

  8. Aerobic exercise training attenuates obesity-related hypogonadism in male rats.

    PubMed

    You, Tongjian; Disanzo, Beth L; Arsenis, Nicole C

    2013-07-01

    Hypogonadism is associated with obesity and other features of metabolic syndrome in males. The purpose of this study was to compare lean and obese male Zucker rats on their reproductive endocrine function in response to aerobic exercise training. Lean (Fa/Fa) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats at 2 months of age were randomly assigned to a sedentary and an aerobic exercise training group (lean sedentary, n = 7; lean exercise, n = 8; obese sedentary, n = 7; obese exercise, n = 7). The exercise group walked on a rat treadmill, starting at 10 m · min(-1) for 20 min and building up to 20 m · min(-1) for 60 min, five times per week for 8 wk. Serum levels of total and free testosterone and testicular levels of testosterone, as well as epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 release levels, were measured. There were significant obesity-by-exercise interactions on serum levels of total and free testosterone and testicular levels of testosterone (all P < 0.05). Compared to lean sedentary rats, obese sedentary rats had lower serum and testicular testosterone levels (0.72- to 0.74-fold, all P < 0.001). There were no group differences between lean sedentary and lean exercise rats on serum and testicular testosterone levels. However, compared to the obese sedentary group, the obese exercise group had higher serum and testicular testosterone levels (1.37- to 1.47-fold, all P < 0.05). In the whole cohort, serum and testicular testosterone levels were inversely related to epididymal adipose tissue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 secretion (r = -0.40 to r = -0.45, all P < 0.05). Our results support that aerobic exercise training could improve severe obesity-related hypogonadism in male Zucker rats. The underlying mechanism needs to be further clarified.

  9. The influence of periodized resistance training on recreationally active males with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joel K; Shepherd, Tyrell R; Kell, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The most common musculoskeletal health issue is chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). CLBP increases pain and disability, which reduces quality of life (QoL). Generally, pain, disability, and QoL are improved with a moderate volume and intensity of physical activity. Recently, periodized resistance training (PRT) was shown to be effective at improving CLBP in sedentary young, middle-age, and older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if PRT would increase strength, reduce pain and disability, and improve QoL in recreationally active, moderately trained middle- and older-age males. Forty-five male subjects were divided according to age into 1 of 3 groups: (a) middle-age exercise (ME), (b) old-age exercise (OE), or (c) control (C). All subjects suffered from CLBP and were considered to be moderately trained, participating in recreational ice hockey for 60 minutes, 2 times per wk(-1) for ∼5 months/year along with other recreational activities. The study ran for 16 weeks (3-week familiarization and 13 weeks of testing and PRT) with 5 repetition maximum testing at baseline and weeks 8 and 12. The PRT program systematically and progressively overloaded all major muscle groups (whole-body workout). The results indicate that middle- and old-age recreationally active males with CLBP respond similarly in magnitude to PRT, with improvements in all outcome measures (strength, pain, disability, QoL) across all time points of the study. Clinical significance (≥ 25%) in outcome measures was reached on most variables for the ME and OE groups. The results suggest that PRT may be effectively applied as rehabilitation for moderately trained recreational athletes with CLBP.

  10. Working-Memory Training: Effects on Delay Discounting in Male Long Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    Renda, C. Renee; Stein, Jeffrey S.; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the devaluation of a reward as the delay to the receipt of the reward increases. Because steep delay discounting is robustly correlated with a number of behavioral problems (e.g., substance dependence, gambling) and some evidence suggests steep discounting precedes and predicts drug-taking in humans and rats, this study sought to experimentally reduce rats' delay discounting. Human stimulant-dependent participants given working-memory training reportedly decreased their rates of discounting relative to a sham-training group (Bickel, Yi, Landes, Hill, & Baxter, 2011). To evaluate the cross-species generality of this effect, 38 male Long-Evans rats, matched on pretraining delay-discounting rates, were randomly assigned to receive 140 sessions of working-memory training or sham training (which required no memory of the sample stimulus). Large between-group differences in working memory were observed after training; however, posttraining delay-discounting rates were undifferentiated across groups. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:25418508

  11. A comparison of inspiratory muscle fatigue following maximal exercise in moderately trained males and females.

    PubMed

    Ozkaplan, Atila; Rhodes, Edward C; Sheel, A William; Taunton, Jack E

    2005-09-01

    Exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) has been reported in males but there are few reports of IMF in females. It is not known if a gender difference exists for inspiratory muscle strength following heavy exercise, as is reported in locomotor muscles. Therefore, the relationship between fatigue and subsequent recovery of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) following exercise to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was examined in a group of moderately trained males and females. Eighteen males (23+/-3 years; mean +/- SD) and 16 females (23+/-2 years) completed ten MIP and ten maximal handgrip (HG) strength maneuvers to establish baseline. Post-exercise MIP and HG were assessed successively immediately following a progressive intensity VO2max test on a cycle ergometer and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 15 min. VO2max, relative to fat-free mass was not statistically different between males (62+/-7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and females (60+/-8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). Males had higher absolute MIP values than females at all time intervals (P<0.05). Immediately following exercise, MIP was significantly reduced in both genders (M=83+/-16%; F=78+/-15% of baseline) but HG values were not different than resting values. MIP values remained depressed for both males and females throughout the 15 min (P<0.05). Differences for MIP between males and females were not statistically significant at any measurement time (P>0.05). The findings in this study conclude that IMF, observed immediately following maximal exercise, demonstrated the same pattern of recovery for both genders.

  12. Resistance circuit training reduced inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of male adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Fornieles, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel A; Diaz, Antonio J; Rosety, Manuel; Ordonez, Francisco J

    2013-11-07

    It is widely accepted that muscle strength plays a key role on functional tasks of daily living and employability in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Recent studies have also reported resistance training may improve chronic inflammation in other clinical situations. This is the first study conducted to determine the effect of resistance circuit training on low-grade systemic inflammation in adults with DS. A total of 40 young male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities and their families. They had medical approval for physical activity participation. Twenty-four were randomly assigned to perform resistance circuit training with 6 stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Exercise intensity was based on function of the 8RM assessments. The control group included 16 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched adults with Down syndrome. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-a were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed by nephelometry. Body composition was also determined, measuring fat-free mass percentage and waist circumference (WC). This protocol was approved by our Institutional Ethics Committee. Plasma levels of leptin, TNF-a, and IL-6 were significantly decreased after the completion of the training program, as were fat-free mass and WC. No sports-related injuries or withdrawals from the program were reported during the entire study period. No changes were observed in the control group. Resistance circuit training improved low-grade systemic inflammation in male sedentary adults with DS.

  13. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  14. Effects of High-Velocity Resistance Training on Athletic Performance in Prepuberal Male Soccer Athletes.

    PubMed

    Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés; Granacher, Urs

    2016-12-01

    Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Hammami, M, Hachana, Y, and Granacher, U. Effects of high-velocity resistance training on athletic performance in prepuberal male soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3290-3297, 2016-The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 12-week in-season low-to-moderate load high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) in addition to soccer training as compared with soccer training only on proxies of athletic performance in prepubertal soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players performed 2 different protocols: (a) regular soccer training with 5 sessions per week (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years) and (b) regular soccer training with 3 sessions per week and HVRT with 2 sessions per week (n = 13; age = 12.8 ± 0.2 years). The outcome measures included tests for the assessment of muscle strength (e.g., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat tests), jump ability (e.g., countermovement jump, squat jump [SJ], standing long jump [SLJ], and multiple 5-bound tests [MB5s]), linear speed (e.g., 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint tests), and change of direction (e.g., T-test and Illinois change of direction test). Results revealed significant group × test interactions for the SJ test (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.59) and the SLJ test (p < 0.01, d = 0.83). Post hoc tests illustrated significant pre-post changes in the HVRT group (SJ: [INCREMENT]22%, p < 0.001, d = 1.26; SLJ: [INCREMENT]15%, p < 0.001, d = 1.30) but not in the control group. In addition, tendencies toward significant interaction effects were found for the 1RM half-squat (p = 0.08, d = 0.54) and the 10-m sprint test (p = 0.06, d = 0.57). Significant pre-post changes were found for both parameters in the HVRT group only (1RM: [INCREMENT]25%, p < 0.001, d = 1.23; 10-m sprint: [INCREMENT]7%, p < 0.0001, d = 1.47). In summary, in-season low-to-moderate load HVRT conducted in combination with regular soccer training is a safe and feasible intervention that has positive effects on maximal strength

  15. Predictors of race time in male Ironman triathletes: physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience were related to performance in recreational male Ironman triathletes using bi- and multivariate analysis. 83 male recreational triathletes who volunteered to participate in the study (M age 41.5 yr., SD = 8.9) had a mean body height of 1.80 m (SD = 0.06), mean body mass of 77.3 kg (SD = 8.9), and mean Body Mass Index of 23.7 kg/m2 (SD = 2.1) at the 2009 IRONMAN SWITZERLAND competition. Speed in running during training, personal best marathon time, and personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon were related to the Ironman race time. These three variables explained 64% of the variance in Ironman race time. Personal best marathon time was significantly and positively related to the run split time in the Ironman race. Faster running while training and both a fast personal best time in a marathon and in an Olympic distance triathlon were associated with a fast Ironman race time.

  16. Explorations of Lifelong Learning Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbinomwanhia, John

    2009-01-01

    The methodological approaches that were used in this research were ethnographic, quantitative and analysis of post-compulsory education policy documents 1945-2007. The article aims to explore the issues of ethics in lifelong learning, and an alternative approach to the analysis of the impact of lifelong learning policy, by focusing research…

  17. Lifelong Learning on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brian

    As a medium for delivering lifelong learning, the Internet makes it possible to customize education to individual needs, deliver education anywhere and anytime, and enable learners to interact with other learners and teachers collaboratively to solve problems and learn new skills. Nevertheless, as a medium for delivering lifelong learning, the…

  18. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  19. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  20. Online Education for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Distance education is rapidly becoming the global trend for lifelong learning. This book emphasizes the importance of conceptual understanding of online distance learning and focuses on theoretical and practical challenges of online teaching and learning. It illustrates lifelong learning strategies and how technology can support the course…

  1. Who Pays for Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Louise

    Structural change in the economy has seen the emergence of human resource skills as an important intangible input to the value-adding process. The fastest growing sectors of the economy employ workers with high levels of skill. This has led to the development of a lifelong learning policy agenda that argues lifelong learning is the key to economic…

  2. Online Education for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Distance education is rapidly becoming the global trend for lifelong learning. This book emphasizes the importance of conceptual understanding of online distance learning and focuses on theoretical and practical challenges of online teaching and learning. It illustrates lifelong learning strategies and how technology can support the course…

  3. Federal Programs Supporting Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffel, Pam, Comp.

    Approximately 275 Federal programs support some form of lifelong learning. While the majority of the lifelong learning programs are administered by the various agencies within HEW, a significant number of programs are run by such Federal agencies as the Department of Justice, the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, and the Smithsonian…

  4. Lifelong Learning among Canadians Aged 18 to 64 Years: First Results from the 2008 Access and Support to Education and Training Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knighton, Tamara; Hujaleh, Filsan; Iacampo, Joe; Werkneh, Gugsa

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on the Access and Support to Education and Training Survey (ASETS), which was undertaken by Statistics Canada in partnership with Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). The ASETS brings together three previous education surveys that covered specific population groups: (1) the Survey of Approaches to Educational…

  5. Two Dimensions of Time: The Changing Social Context of Lifelong Learning. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Rees, Gareth; Fevre, Ralph

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines contextual analysis of…

  6. Lifelong Learning among Canadians Aged 18 to 64 Years: First Results from the 2008 Access and Support to Education and Training Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knighton, Tamara; Hujaleh, Filsan; Iacampo, Joe; Werkneh, Gugsa

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on the Access and Support to Education and Training Survey (ASETS), which was undertaken by Statistics Canada in partnership with Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). The ASETS brings together three previous education surveys that covered specific population groups: (1) the Survey of Approaches to Educational…

  7. The Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project on 'Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Europe': A Contribution to the Debate on the Future of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart

    A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…

  8. Low-Active Male Adolescents: A Dose Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Logan, Greig Robert Melrose; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Plank, Lindsay D; Merien, Fabrice; Schofield, Grant

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, nonclinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardiometabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 yr), identified as low active by nonparticipation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT "sets," which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20-s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10-s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each week for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion; body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat, and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes, and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Significant improvements were observed for V˙O2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.

  9. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Phlippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Heloise; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-09-07

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n= 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet (D, n=66) for 6 months. After 2 months of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation (Sham). Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for eight additional weeks or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 weeks resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes, and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean- but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  10. Swimming training increases the post-yield energy of bone in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Hsieh, Sandy S; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Shang-Chih; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of non-weight-bearing exercise on growing bone. Male Wistar rats (7 week-old) were assigned to one baseline control group, one control group and two swimming training groups, which were trained with 2 and 4% body-weight mass added, respectively. After an 8-week training period, three groups showed significant development compared to the baseline control group. Among the three 15-week-old groups, swimming-trained rats were lower in body weight (BW), densitometry and size-related measurements. In femoral biomechanical testing, swimming training groups were significantly lower in yield moment and ultimate moment, which may be due to a significantly lower long bone cross-sectional moment of inertia. However, the two swimming groups were higher in post-yield energy absorption and displacement. Further, in estimated tissue-level biomaterial properties, no differences were shown in yield stress, strain or toughness among the three groups. Using BW as a covariate, results of ANCOVA showed no differences in size-related parameters among the three groups, and some parameters were even higher in the two swimming groups. Regarding Pearson's correlation, size-related parameters correlated well to BW and whole bone strength but not to tissue post-yield behaviors. In conclusion, when compared to age-matched control group, swimming rats showed lower bone strength and lower yield energy absolutely at the structural level, but similar yield stress and yield toughness at the tissue level. Moreover, swimming training benefited growing bone in post-yield behaviors. Further studies should investigate the parameters that contribute to this exercise-induced post-yield behavior.

  11. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    PubMed Central

    DeNysschen, Carol A; Burton, Harold W; Horvath, Peter J; Leddy, John J; Browne, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy) versus animal-based (whey) protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30) with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9), and soy (n = 9) or whey (n = 10) supplementation) and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%), with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation. PMID:19284589

  12. Motor unit synchronization in FDI and biceps brachii muscles of strength-trained males.

    PubMed

    Fling, Brett W; Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary

    2009-10-01

    Motor unit (MU) synchronization is the simultaneous or near-simultaneous firing of two MUs which occurs more often than would be expected by chance. The present study sought to investigate the effects of exercise training, muscle group, and force level, by comparing the magnitude of synchronization in the biceps brachii (BB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of untrained and strength-trained college-aged males at two force levels, 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 80% MVC. MU action potentials were recorded directly via an intramuscular needle electrode. The magnitude of synchronization was assessed using previously-reported synchronization indices: k', E, and CIS. Synchronization was significantly higher in the FDI than in the BB. Greater synchronization was observed in the strength-trained group with CIS, but not with E or k'. Also, synchronization was significantly greater at 80% MVC than at 30% MVC with E, but only moderately greater with CIS and there was no force difference with k'. Synchronization prevalence was found to be greater in the BB (80.1%) than in the FDI (71.5%). Thus, although the evidence is a bit equivocal, it appears that MU synchronization is greater at higher forces, and greater in strength-trained individuals than in untrained subjects.

  13. Haematological and iron-related parameters of male endurance and strength trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1993-01-01

    To obtain more information on the effects of long-lasting endurance and strength training on the constituents of the blood, several haematological and iron-related parameters were measured at rest in 39 male athletes from the Polish team who participated in the Olympics in Seoul in 1988. The athletes were divided into two groups: endurance-trained subjects (group E, cyclists, canoeists and rowers; n = 22) and strength-trained subjects (group S, wrestlers and judo; n = 17). The control group was composed of untrained male subjects (n = 48). Blood samples were taken from an antecubital vein with the subject at rest for determinations of haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte (RBC) and reticulocyte count, plasma free haemoglobin concentration, haptoglobin concentration, serum iron, transferrin concentration and ferritin concentrations ([Ferr]); red blood cells were used for estimation of glutamato-oxalate transaminase (GOT) activity and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration ([FEP]). The mean [Hb], PVC, RBC measured in the E athletes were significantly lower than in the control group but were comparable to those obtained in the S atheletes. There were no significantly differences in the haematological indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean copuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] between the groups of atheletes and the control group. A significant increase in reticulocytosis and GOT activity was observed in the endurance-trained athletes. No impairment of erythropoiesis was observed as indicated by several sensitive markers of haemoglobin formation (FEP, MCV and inspection of blood smears) in the athletes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The Effects of Relaxation and Biofeedback Training on Dimensions of Self Concept (DOSC) among Hyperactive Male Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omiza, Michael M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of relaxation training and biofeedback on five factors of self-concept among hyperactive male elementary school students are investigated: levels of aspiration; anxiety; academic interest and satisfaction; leadership and initiative; and identification v alienation. Findings suggest that relaxation training/biofeedback warrant inclusion…

  15. The Effects of Relaxation and Biofeedback Training on Dimensions of Self Concept (DOSC) among Hyperactive Male Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omiza, Michael M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of relaxation training and biofeedback on five factors of self-concept among hyperactive male elementary school students are investigated: levels of aspiration; anxiety; academic interest and satisfaction; leadership and initiative; and identification v alienation. Findings suggest that relaxation training/biofeedback warrant inclusion…

  16. Policies, Politics and the Future of Lifelong Learning. The Future of Education from 14+ Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.

    This document contains 13 papers on the policies, politics, and future of lifelong learning in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. The following papers are included: "An International and Historical Context for Recent Policy Approaches to Lifelong Learning in the UK" (Ann Hodgson); "The Vocational Training Policy of the European…

  17. European Report on Quality Indicators of Lifelong Learning: Fifteen Quality Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    Lifelong learning has emerged as a central focus of the European Union's (EU) goal of becoming a knowledge society. Lifelong learning aims to build an inclusive society, to adjust the ways in which education and training are provided, and to encourage and equip people to participate in all spheres of modern public life. Indicators of lifelong…

  18. Issues of Identity and Knowledge in the Schooling of VET: A Case Study of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark; Yates, Lyn

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses two school-based case studies of vocational education and training in the areas of information technology and hospitality from the perspective of the agendas of "lifelong learning". Lifelong learning can be seen as both a policy goal leading to institutional and programme reforms and as a process which fosters in learners…

  19. Policies, Politics and the Future of Lifelong Learning. The Future of Education from 14+ Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.

    This document contains 13 papers on the policies, politics, and future of lifelong learning in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. The following papers are included: "An International and Historical Context for Recent Policy Approaches to Lifelong Learning in the UK" (Ann Hodgson); "The Vocational Training Policy of the European…

  20. Profile of weekly training load in elite male professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Vincenzo; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the training load (TL) profile of professional elite level basketball players during the crucial parts of the competitive season (pre-play-off finals). Subjects were 8 full-time professional basketball players (age 28 +/- 3.6 years, height 199 +/-7.2 cm, body mass 102 +/- 11.5 kg, and body fat 10.4 +/- 1.5%) whose heart rate (HR) was recorded during each training session and their individual response to TL monitored using the session-rate of perceived exertion (RPE) method (200 training sessions). The association between the session-RPE method and training HR was used to assess the population validity of the session-RPE method. Significant relationships were observed between individual session-RPE and all individual HR-based TL (r values from 0.69 to 0.85; p < 0.001). Coaches spontaneously provided a tapering phase during the competitive weeks irrespective of the number of games played during it (i.e., 1 or 2 games). The individual weekly players' TL resulted in being not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Elite male professional basketball imposes great physiological and psychological stress on players through training sessions and official competitions (1-2 per week). Consequently, the importance of a practical and valid method to assess individual TL is warranted. In this research, we demonstrated that session-RPE may be considered as a viable method to asses TL without the use of more sophisticated tools (i.e., HR monitors). The session-RPE method enabled the detection of periodization patterns in weekly planning in elite professional basketball during the crucial part of the competitive season (1 vs. 2 weekly fixtures model).

  1. Effects of acute ethionine injection on plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels in trained male rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Soltani, Rahelah; Shemshaki, Afsaneh; Kraemer, Robert R

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, respectively, that are secreted from the stomach mucosa into the circulation. These peptides have opposing actions on food intake, weight gain, and adiposity. It is thought that ghrelin is sensitive to a negative energy environment and also plays a considerable role in short- and long-term energy balance and glucose homeostasis. It has been suggested that the levels of ghrelin and obestatin are upregulated by fasting, hypoglycemic status, and a physical-exercise-induced energy deficit. Ethionine (ETH), the ethyl analogue of methionine, has been shown to increase food intake, decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glycogen levels, and inhibit protein synthesis in the liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single dose of ETH (0.7 mg/g of body weight) injection on resting plasma total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in male trained rats. Thirty-two adult Wistar male rats weighing 180 to 200 g were randomly assigned to control (n = 16) and training (n =16) groups. The training group was exercised for 10 weeks (25 m/min, 0% grade, 60 minutes, and 5 d/wk). Seventy-two hours after the last exercise session, rats were injected with either saline (NaCl) or ETH and then killed. Ethionine compared with a NaCl injection resulted in significant (P < .013) reductions in resting hepatic ATP and glycogen levels, and in a significant (P < .001) increase in concentrations of plasma total ghrelin but not obestatin. The results indicate that ETH-induced liver ATP and glycogen deficiency could exert a powerful regulatory influence on plasma total ghrelin, but this is not the case for obestatin. Findings demonstrate the short-term energy-regulating capacity of ghrelin.

  2. Bilevel exercise training and directed breathing relieves exertional dyspnea for male smokers.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Manuel; Saavedra, Pedro; Martin, Nieves; Polu, Jean Marie; López, Daniel; Gómez, Arturo; Servera, Emilio

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on exertional dyspnea and exercise capacity of square wave (bilevel) cycle ergometry endurance exercise training (SWEET) and comprehensive directed breathing vs. walking while pushing an OxCar and traditional diaphragmatic breathing for male smokers with normal spirometry but reduced exercise capacity. This was a prospective randomized trial of 24 unmedicated men with exertional dyspnea assigned to SWEET or OxCar groups. Exertional dyspnea was assessed using the Borg scale during four tests: incremental exercise, constant exercise at 80% of the peak work rate (PWR) (maximum tolerated for 3 mins before exhaustion), SWEET, and 6-min walk test. Both groups trained for 45 mins, 5 days a week, for 6 wks. Before, during, and after training, 32 lung function parameters were studied at ventilatory anaerobic threshold, at PWR, and during incremental exercise (30 W/3 mins). For the SWEET group, exertional dyspnea and the dyspnea index decreased during incremental exercise, at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and at PWR (P < 0.01). At the ventilatory anaerobic threshold, oxygen consumption increased by 74%; minute ventilation, 30%; tidal volume, 91%; and ventilatory efficiency and oxygen pulse (O(2)P), 25%; and breathing rate (breathing frequency) decreased by 32% (all significant at P < 0.001). At PWR, oxygen consumption increased by 30%; minute ventilation, 37%; breathing rate, 21%; and ventilatory efficiency and oxygen pulse, 25% (P < 0.01). During the full incremental test, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and heart rate (cardiac frequency) decreased significantly (P < 0.01). In addition, there was significant improvement (P < 0.001) in SWEET intensity by 63%, constant exercise intensity at 80% of PWR by 38%, and 6-min walk test by 30%. No significant changes were observed for the OxCar group other than for the 6-min walk test, which increased by 7% (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the decline in

  3. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  4. Effects of exercise rehab on male asthmatic patients: aerobic verses rebound training.

    PubMed

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-04-01

    There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients.

  5. Eccentric Training and Static Stretching Improve Hamstring Flexibility of High School Males

    PubMed Central

    Bandy, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the flexibility of high-school-aged males would improve after a 6-week eccentric exercise program. In addition, the changes in hamstring flexibility that occurred after the eccentric program were compared with a 6-week program of static stretching and with a control group (no stretching). Design and Setting: We used a test-retest control group design in a laboratory setting. Subjects were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: eccentric training, static stretching, or control. Subjects: A total of 69 subjects, with a mean age of 16.45 ± 0.96 years and with limited hamstring flexibility (defined as 20° loss of knee extension measured with the thigh held at 90° of hip flexion) were recruited for this study. Measurements: Hamstring flexibility was measured using the passive 90/90 test before and after the 6-week program. Results: Differences were significant for test and for the test-by-group interaction. Follow-up analysis indicated significant differences between the control group (gain = 1.67°) and both the eccentric-training (gain = 12.79°) and static-stretching (gain = 12.05°) groups. No difference was found between the eccentric and static-stretching groups. Conclusions: The gains achieved in range of motion of knee extension (indicating improvement in hamstring flexibility) with eccentric training were equal to those made by statically stretching the hamstring muscles. PMID:15496995

  6. Eccentric Training and Static Stretching Improve Hamstring Flexibility of High School Males.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Russell T; Bandy, William D

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the flexibility of high-school-aged males would improve after a 6-week eccentric exercise program. In addition, the changes in hamstring flexibility that occurred after the eccentric program were compared with a 6-week program of static stretching and with a control group (no stretching). DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a test-retest control group design in a laboratory setting. Subjects were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: eccentric training, static stretching, or control. SUBJECTS: A total of 69 subjects, with a mean age of 16.45 +/- 0.96 years and with limited hamstring flexibility (defined as 20 degrees loss of knee extension measured with the thigh held at 90 degrees of hip flexion) were recruited for this study. MEASUREMENTS: Hamstring flexibility was measured using the passive 90/90 test before and after the 6-week program. RESULTS: Differences were significant for test and for the test-by-group interaction. Follow-up analysis indicated significant differences between the control group (gain = 1.67 degrees ) and both the eccentric-training (gain = 12.79 degrees ) and static-stretching (gain = 12.05 degrees ) groups. No difference was found between the eccentric and static-stretching groups. CONCLUSIONS: The gains achieved in range of motion of knee extension (indicating improvement in hamstring flexibility) with eccentric training were equal to those made by statically stretching the hamstring muscles.

  7. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Bruno; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Artioli, Guilherme G; Benatti, Fabiana B; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre) and after four (Post 4), eight (Post 8) and twelve (Post 12) weeks. We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01), TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone. PMID:18831767

  8. Personal best time, percent body fat, and training are differently associated with race time for male and female ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average amount of weekly training, and best time in an Ironman triathlon. For male athletes, percent body fat (r2 = 0.57, p < .001) was related to total race time but not average weekly training. For women, percent body fat showed no association with total race time; howeven average weekly training volume was related to total race time (r = .43, p < .01). Percent body fat and average weekly training were not correlated in either gender Speed in training was not associated with race performance in either gender. For men (r2 = .56, p < .001) and women (r2 = .45, p < .05), personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was related to total race time. We concluded that percent body fat was related to race performance in male athletes and to average weekly training in female athletes. Personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was associated with total race time for both male and female athletes.

  9. Heliox breathing equally influences respiratory mechanics and cycling performance in trained males and females

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Sabrina S.; Dominelli, Paolo B.; Sporer, Benjamin C.; Koehle, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that inspiring a low-density gas mixture (helium-oxygen; HeO2) would minimize mechanical ventilatory constraints and preferentially increase exercise performance in females relative to males. Trained male (n = 11, 31 yr) and female (n = 10, 26 yr) cyclists performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion to determine maximal aerobic capacity (V̇o2max; male = 61, female = 56 ml·kg−1·min−1). A randomized, single-blinded crossover design was used for two experimental days where subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial breathing humidified compressed room air or HeO2 (21% O2:balance He). Subjects were instrumented with an esophageal balloon for the assessment of respiratory mechanics. During the time trial, we assessed the ability of HeO2 to alleviate mechanical ventilatory constraints in three ways: 1) expiratory flow limitation, 2) utilization of ventilatory capacity, and 3) the work of breathing. We found that HeO2 significantly reduced the work of breathing, increased the size of the maximal flow-volume envelope, and reduced the fractional utilization of the maximal ventilatory capacity equally between men and women. The primary finding of this study was that inspiring HeO2 was associated with a statistically significant performance improvement of 0.7% (3.2 s) for males and 1.5% (8.1 s) for females (P < 0.05); however, there were no sex differences with respect to improvement in time trial performance (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that the extent of sex-based differences in airway anatomy, work of breathing, and expiratory flow limitation is not great enough to differentially affect whole body exercise performance. PMID:25429095

  10. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

    PubMed

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam K

    2010-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a heavy weight training exercise on sprinting performance and on the effect of repeated exposure to a complex training protocol. Eleven male rugby union players (age 20.9 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study, which involved 5 separate testing sessions. Back squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) was established in session 1. Sessions 2-5 were identical and involved the subjects completing a 30-m sprint before and after a 3RM back squat protocol. Four minutes of rest was given between the back squatting and the posttest 30-m sprint. All sprint trials were measured with a laser measurement device (LAVEG, Jenoptik, Jena, Germany). Sprint time and instantaneous, average, and maximum velocity were the dependent variables. The criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p > or = 0.05. No significant improvement was evident for any of the testing sessions (p > or = 0.05). In session 1, there was a significant increase in 30-m time and a significant reduction in average 30-m velocity and maximum velocity (p < 0.05). The expected benefits in sprinting may not have been realized because of intra and intersubject variations in sprint technique. The session x phase interaction revealed a significant improvement in the pre to posttest changes in instantaneous velocity at 20 m (p = 0.035) and 30 m (p = 0.036) from session 1 to session 4. This indicates that the rugby players may be able to learn to apply the potentiation effects of complex training. From a practical perspective, players may need repeated exposure to this training modality to gain benefit from it, and this should be reflected in program planning.

  11. The Norwegian Competence Reform and the Limits of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Today, "lifelong learning for all" figures prominently within the education and training policies of governments throughout the developed world and is presented as a powerful solution to a wide range of economic and social challenges. Norway is often regarded as a country that has perhaps made more progress towards this ideal than many…

  12. Lifelong Learning Bibliography: A European VET Perspective. CEDEFOP Dossier Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This annotated bibliography is designed to inform vocational education and training specialists in Europe of new publications on lifelong learning. The 394 publications included are organized into four sections. Section 1 is organized by the following key themes: (1) skill development (literacy, learning to learn); (2) human and financial…

  13. A Living Example of Lifelong Learning: Prof. Dr. Necmettin Tozlu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürbüz, Fatih; Töman, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propound the views, thoughts and suggestions of Prof. Dr. Necmettin Tozlu related to lifelong learning. He is an academician and a doyen in education and philosophy fields who teaches in many universities of our country training students in the four corners of the country and is awarded by the Writers Union of…

  14. Lifelong Learning: Proceedings of a Symposium. 16 May 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby Smith, Chris, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The Educational Research Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) conducted a survey focusing on lifelong learning and the world of work, particularly on the need for retraining and upgrading of skills and knowledge. The survey involved five different approaches: surveys of the available quantitative and qualitative material; a…

  15. Towards CONFINTEA VI: Lifelong Learning Advocacy in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Anelia

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is a field that has so far been neglected in education and training reforms in South Eastern European countries and territories but which is beginning to emerge as an important policy area. Further efforts are needed to foster national policy debate about the importance of lifelong learning (and adult education as a vital component…

  16. Financing Lifelong Learning for All: An International Perspective. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    Recent international discussions provide information on various countries' responses to lifelong learning, including the following: (1) existing unmet needs and emerging needs for education and training; (2) funds required compared with what was provided; and (3) methods for acquiring additional funds, among them efficiency measures leading to…

  17. Lifelong Learning Bibliography: A European VET Perspective. CEDEFOP Dossier Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This annotated bibliography is designed to inform vocational education and training specialists in Europe of new publications on lifelong learning. The 394 publications included are organized into four sections. Section 1 is organized by the following key themes: (1) skill development (literacy, learning to learn); (2) human and financial…

  18. Ten weeks of capoeira progressive training improved cardiovascular parameters in male practitioners.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sérgio R; Teixeira-Araujo, Alfredo A; Dos Santos, Aristeu O; Simões, Herbert G

    2017-03-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of ten weeks of Capoeira progressive training program on the cardiovascular parameters of male practitioners. Participants were assigned into two groups (capoeira, N.=10; 25.4±3.3 years; 24.2±2.2 kg.m2(-1) and Control, N.=08; 29.6±6.3 years; 26.4±4.4 kg.m2(-1)). The Capoeira group performed ten weeks of Capoeira progressive training program, being one session per week lasting 90 minutes each. The control group was instructed to avoid any exercise training program or intense physical activities during the experimental period. The blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP), as well as HR variability (HRV) indicators were evaluated on resting, before and after intervention. A two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of group by time interaction to HR (F=6.649, η2=0.379; P=0.02), and HRV indicators (RRi: F=5.752, η2=0.313; rMSSD: F=4.652, η2=0.283; SD1: F=4.694, η2=0.409, and pNN50: F=5.561, η2=0.360; P<0.05). A main effect of time condition was verified for capoeira group (P<0.05) on HR (∆=-6.6±6.0 bpm), RRi (∆=80.1±65.4 ms), rMSSD (∆=14.1±11.6 ms), SD1 (∆=10.0±8.2 ms), and pNN50 (∆=11.3±9.7%). The between groups analysis identified significant differences (P<0.05) for the HR after intervention (capoeira: -8.6±6.9% vs. -0.7±3.9%). The comparison between capoeira vs. control for HRV indicators (RRi: ∆=10.1±8.5% vs. 0.9±7.6%; rMSSD: ∆=37.8±32.9% vs. 2.9±31.3%; pNN50: ∆=96.2±78.7% vs. 0.3±54.1%; and SD1: ∆=37.7±32.9% vs. 6.5±24.4%; respectively) differed to each other (P<0.05). Our findings showed that ten weeks of capoeira progressive training program improves both autonomic and cardiovascular parameters in male practitioners.

  19. Influence of a 3-month training program on muscular damage and neutrophil function in male university freshman judoists.

    PubMed

    Koga, Toshihiko; Umeda, Takashi; Kojima, Arata; Tanabe, Masaru; Yamamoto, Yousuke; Takahashi, Ippei; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Iwane, Kaori; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of a high intensity and high frequency 3-month training program on muscle damage and neutrophil function in male judoists. The study included 15 male judoists who started intensive judo training program after a 6-month break. Creatine kinase (CK), neutrophil counts and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability as well as phagocytic activity (PA) of neutrophils were measured at 2 stages; entering university (pre-training) and after 3-month training (post-training). At both points, we investigated parameters three times: just before, immediately after and 24 h after a 2-h practice session. Practice-mediated change in CK was lower at post-training than at pre-training. Neutrophil count significantly increased after 2-h practice but recovered 24 h later whereas it showed no subsequent and further increased at 24 h post-practice. Although neutrophil ROS production capability and PA both decreased (breakdown) after practice session, ROS production capability increased and PA decreased (well-adapted) at the post-training. Long-term training strengthened muscular function and improved neutrophil reaction against practice-mediated stress. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Acute Effect of Dynamic Stretching on Endurance Running Performance in Well-Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taichi; Takizawa, Kazuki; Shibata, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on relative high-intensity endurance running performance. The endurance running performances of 7 well-trained middle- or long-distance male runners were assessed on a treadmill after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments were nonstretching (NS) and DS treatment. In the DS treatment, DS was performed as 1 set of 10 repetitions as quickly as possible for the 5 muscle groups in lower extremities. The endurance running performances were evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE) and total running distance (TRD) during running at a velocity equivalent to 90% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in each subject. The oxygen uptake (VO2) during running was measured as an index of running economy (RE). The TTE (928.6 ± 215.0 seconds) after DS treatment was significantly (p < 0.01) more prolonged compared with that (785.3 ± 206.2 seconds) after NS. The TRD (4,301.2 ± 893.8 m) after DS treatment was also significantly (p < 0.01) longer than that (3,616.9 ± 783.3 m) after NS. The changes in the VO2 during running, however, did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the pretreatments. The results demonstrated that the DS treatment improved the endurance performance of running at a velocity equivalent to 90% VO2max in well-trained male runners, although it did not change the RE. This running velocity is equivalent to that for a 3,000- or 5,000-m race. Our finding suggests that performing DS during warm-up before a race is effective for improving performance.

  1. Designing and usage of a low-cost penile model for male medical circumcision skills training in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Godfrey; Nkale, James; Wawer, Maria; Anyokorit, Margaret; Watya, Stephen; Nalugoda, Fred; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kiwanuka, Noah; Mwinike, Joshua; Kighoma, Nehemiah; Nalwoga, Grace K; Nakigozi, Gertrude F; Katwalo, Henry; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H

    2011-06-01

    To describe the designing and usage of a locally made low-cost penile model used for male medical circumcision (MMC) skills training. The Rakai MMC training team has experienced a number of challenges during conduct of MMC skills training, one of which was the lack of a model to use for MMC skills training. To address this challenge, the Rakai MMC skills training team has designed and developed a low-cost penile model for use in MMC skills training. The model has been successfully used to demonstrate external penile anatomy, to describe the biological mechanisms through which male circumcision (MC) prevents HIV acquisition, and for demonstration and practice of the MMC procedures. With an initial cost of only $10 and a recurrent cost of $5, this is a cost-efficient and useful penile model that provides a simulation of normal penile anatomy for use in MC training in resource-limited settings. It has also been used as a visual aid in preoperative education of patients before receiving male circumcision. The model can be improved and scaled up to develop cheaper commercial penile models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  3. Exercise Training Alleviates Hypoxia-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Lymphocytes of Sedentary Males.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Chang, Shao-Chiang; Chou, Cheng-Hsien; Weng, Tzu-Pin; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-10-12

    This study elucidates how interval and continuous exercise regimens affect the mitochondrial functionality of lymphocytes under hypoxic stress. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomly assigned to engage in either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 3 min intervals at 80% and 40% VO2max, n = 20) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, sustained 60% VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks or were assigned to a control group that did not receive exercise intervention (n = 20). Lymphocyte phenotypes/mitochondrial functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2) were determined before and after the various interventions. Before the intervention, HE (i) increased the mobilization of senescent (CD57(+)/CD28(-)) lymphocytes into the blood, (ii) decreased the ATP-linked O2 consumption rate (OCR), the reserve capacity of OCR, and the citrate synthase activity in the mitochondria, and (iii) lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential (MP) and elevated the matrix oxidant burden (MOB) of lymphocytes. However, both HIIT and MICT significantly (i) decreased blood senescent lymphocyte counts, (ii) enhanced the mitochondrial OCR with increased citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities, (iii) increased mitochondrial MP and decreased MOB and (iv) increased the ratio of mitofusin to DRP-1 in lymphocytes after HE. Thus, we concluded that either HIIT or MICT effectively improves lymphocyte mitochondrial functionality by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and suppressing oxidative damage under hypoxic conditions.

  4. Exercise Training Alleviates Hypoxia-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Lymphocytes of Sedentary Males

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Chang, Shao-Chiang; Chou, Cheng-Hsien; Weng, Tzu-Pin; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-01-01

    This study elucidates how interval and continuous exercise regimens affect the mitochondrial functionality of lymphocytes under hypoxic stress. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomly assigned to engage in either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 3 min intervals at 80% and 40% VO2max, n = 20) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, sustained 60% VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks or were assigned to a control group that did not receive exercise intervention (n = 20). Lymphocyte phenotypes/mitochondrial functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2) were determined before and after the various interventions. Before the intervention, HE (i) increased the mobilization of senescent (CD57+/CD28−) lymphocytes into the blood, (ii) decreased the ATP-linked O2 consumption rate (OCR), the reserve capacity of OCR, and the citrate synthase activity in the mitochondria, and (iii) lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential (MP) and elevated the matrix oxidant burden (MOB) of lymphocytes. However, both HIIT and MICT significantly (i) decreased blood senescent lymphocyte counts, (ii) enhanced the mitochondrial OCR with increased citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities, (iii) increased mitochondrial MP and decreased MOB and (iv) increased the ratio of mitofusin to DRP-1 in lymphocytes after HE. Thus, we concluded that either HIIT or MICT effectively improves lymphocyte mitochondrial functionality by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and suppressing oxidative damage under hypoxic conditions. PMID:27731374

  5. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  6. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Beck, Johannes

    2013-03-04

    Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743.

  7. Short-Term Performance Effects of Three Different Low-Volume Strength-Training Programmes in College Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.3±1.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2–24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1–39.6%), and knee extension (0.5–22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9–13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6–6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players. PMID:25031680

  8. Social media for lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Kind, Terry; Evans, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Learning is ongoing, and can be considered a social activity. In this paper we aim to provide a review of the use of social media for lifelong learning. We start by defining lifelong learning, drawing upon principles of continuous professional development and adult learning theory. We searched Embase and MEDLINE from 2004-2014 for search terms relevant to social media and learning. We describe examples of lifelong learners using social media in medical education and healthcare that have been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Medical or other health professions students may have qualities consistent with being a lifelong learner, yet once individuals move beyond structured learning environments they will need to recognize their own gaps in knowledge and skills over time and be motivated to fill them, thereby incorporating lifelong learning principles into their day-to-day practice. Engagement with social media can parallel engagement in the learning process over time, to the extent that online social networking fosters feedback and collaboration. The use of social media and online networking platforms are a key way to continuously learn in today's information sharing society. Additional research is needed, particularly rigorous studies that extend beyond learner satisfaction to knowledge, behaviour change, and outcomes.

  9. The Effect of Astaxanthin and Regular Training on Dynamic Pattern of Oxidative Stress on Male under Strenuous Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylviana, N.; Gunawan, H.; Lesmana, R.; Purba, A.; Akbar, I. B.

    2017-03-01

    Strenuous physical activity will induced higher Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level in human body that can be measured by serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Malondialdehyde is product of lipid peroxidation process that define as oxidative damage of lipid biomolecule by reactivity of reactive oxygen species. Still, the dynamic pattern of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level under strenuous exercise is not fully understood. Potent antioxidant such as Astaxanthin and training may be altered the level of MDA. Thus, purpose of this study is to understand effect of astaxanthin to MDA dynamic pattern on training male after strenuous physical activity. It was a double blind, experimental study, conducted on thirty young male age, divided into untrained and trained groups. Supplement Astaxanthin was given to 15 subject as well as placebo for one week after supplementation, Subjects were tested with anaerobic strenuous physical activity. The values were analyzed with ANOVA test followed by Duncan test showed that in every groups, mean of MDA before test was similar, start increase significantly after tested, begin decrease at 6th hour post test and back to baseline at 24th hour post-test ( p<0.05), except for group of untrained male with placebo still increase twice from baseline. The lowest mean of MDA was found on group of trained male with Astaxanthin supplementation and the highest was found on group of untrained male with placebo (p<0.05). These findings support that Astaxanthin and training might has positive effect to oxidative stress condition without altered its dynamic pattern in male after strenuous physical activity

  10. Effects of continuous and interval running training on serum growth and cortisol hormones in junior male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Büyükyazi, G; Karamizrak, S O; Islegen, C

    2003-01-01

    Effects of two different eight-week aerobic training programs consisting of continuous (CR) or extensive interval running (IR) on serum growth (GH) and cortisol hormones in 33 male basketball players aged 15-16 were assessed. The CR group ran 4.8 km and the IR group ran 4 x 1.2 km, using equal work-to-rest ratio, three times per week. Aerobic power scores of all subjects and anaerobic power marks of the training subjects increased (p<0.01). Upon exertion, though serum GH levels increased in both exercise groups (p<0.01) prior to and following training; cortisol levels increased only in the IR group prior to training, and in both exercise groups following training (p<0.05). Following the eight week period, resting cortisol levels rose in the training (p<0.05) and control (p<0.01) groups. To conclude, an 8-week training program consisting of continuous or extensive interval running has been effective on acute GH and cortisol secretion in 15-16 year-old male athletes.

  11. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    PubMed

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  12. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  13. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  14. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  15. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  16. Lifelong sedentary behaviour and femur structure.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, H; Gonçalves, D; Figueiredo, P; Mota, M P; Duarte, J A

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the lifelong differences of femur structure in sedentary and physically active animal models. Thirty male C57BL/6 mice, 2 months old, were either: i) housed in cages with running wheel (AA; n=10), ii) housed in cages without running wheel (AS; n=10), iii) or sacrificed without intervention (Y; n=10). AA and AS animals were sacrificed after 23 months of housing. Right femur structure was analyzed in all animals by histomorphometry. Significant differences in several microarchitectural parameters of cancellous and cortical bone were identified between Y mice and both groups of aged mice, as well as between AA and AS groups. Lifelong physically active mice had significantly higher cancellous bone surface (Cn.BS) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and decreased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) at both epiphyses when compared to AS animals. No differences were observed between Y and AA groups regarding osteocyte number (N.Ot) despite its significant reduction in AS animals, suggesting that age alone was not a cause for decreases in N.Ot. Our results suggest that the reduced bone quality observed in the elderly is not only a consequence of age but also of lack of physical activity since sedentary behaviour significantly aggravated the degenerative age-related bone differences.

  17. How to Choose a Lifelong Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regin, Chuck

    1983-01-01

    Stresses the benefits of lifelong sports including self-expression, wholeness, relaxation, and physical health. Suggests methods of determining physical fitness status, setting goals, and selecting appropriate activities. Internal and external motivation for pursuing lifelong sports are discussed. (JAC)

  18. Heavy resistance training increases muscle size, strength and physical function in elderly male COPD-patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kongsgaard, M; Backer, V; Jørgensen, K; Kjaer, M; Beyer, N

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of heavy resistance training in elderly males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 18 Home-dwelling male patients (age range: 65-80 years), with a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 46 +/- 3.4% of predicted value, were recruited. Baseline and post-training assessments included: Cross-sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps assessed by MRI, isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, isometric trunk strength, leg extension power, normal and maximal gait-speed on a 30 m track, stair climbing time, number of chair stands in 30 s, lung function (FEV1) and self-reported health. Subjects were randomized to a resistance training group (RE, n = 9) or a control group conducting breathing exercises (CON, n = 9). RE performed heavy progressive resistance training twice a week for 12 weeks. 6 RE and 7 CON completed the study. In RE the following improved (P < 0.05): Quadriceps CSA: 4%, isometric knee extension strength: 14%, isokinetic knee extension strength at 60 degrees /s.: 18%, leg extension power: 19%, maximal gait speed: 14%, stair climbing time: 17%, isometric trunk flexion: 5% and self-reported health. In CON no changes were found. In conclusion, 12 weeks of heavy resistance training twice a week resulted in significant improvements in muscle size, knee extension strength, leg extension power, functional performance and self-reported health in elderly male COPD patients.

  19. An eight week school-based intervention with circuit training improves physical fitness and reduces body fat in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Tsouloupas, Costas N; Ioannou, Yiannakis; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-01-01

    School-based intervention programs have been found to effectively improve various fitness and health parameters. However, only few studies so far examined the effect of circuit training in school environment during physical education (PE) classes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of an eight-week circuit training on physical fitness and body fat in male adolescents. Thirty nine, 16-year old male high-school students participated in the current study. The students were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention period lasted eight weeks and consisted of two circuit training sessions per week performed during regular PE classes. Total body fat was calculated by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, jumping ability and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Finally, resting heart rate and blood pressure levels were assessed with an automatic monitor. By the end of the intervention period, total body fat and resting systolic blood pressure were significantly lower while cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly improved in the circuit training group only (P<0.05). In the control group Body Mass Index and total body fat percentage were significantly increased when compared pre- and post-intervention period (P<0.05). Eight weeks of circuit training during PE classes appeared to be effective in improving various physical fitness parameters and reducing fatness in male adolescents.

  20. Expanding the frontiers of national qualifications frameworks through lifelong learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw

    2017-10-01

    The adoption of a national qualifications framework (NQF) by some governments in all world regions has shown some success in the area of formal learning. However, while NQFs continue to enhance formal learning in many countries, the same cannot be said for the recognition, validation and accreditation (RVA) of non-formal and informal learning. Focusing on competency-based technical and vocational education and training (TVET) within its NQF, Ghana introduced the National Technical and Vocational Education and Training Qualifications Framework (NTVETQF) as a sub-framework in 2012. In the wake of the NTVETQF's limited success, the author of this article reasons that a lifelong learning approach could enhance its effectiveness considerably. Comparing national and international policies, he argues that the NTVETQF should be able to properly address the issues of progression from informal and non-formal to formal modes of lifelong learning within the country's broad context of education. In addition, the study conceptualises the integration of lifelong learning within a broad NQF in four key domains: (1) individual; (2) institutional; (3) industry; and (4) state. The author concludes that, for the NTVETQF to achieve its goal of facilitating access to further education and training while also promoting lifelong learning for all (including workers in the informal economy), effective integration of all modes of lifelong learning is required. Although this entails some challenges, such as recognition of prior learning and validation of all modes of learning, it will help to widen access to education as well as providing individuals with a pathway for achieving their educational aspirations.

  1. Expanding the frontiers of national qualifications frameworks through lifelong learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw

    2017-09-01

    The adoption of a national qualifications framework (NQF) by some governments in all world regions has shown some success in the area of formal learning. However, while NQFs continue to enhance formal learning in many countries, the same cannot be said for the recognition, validation and accreditation (RVA) of non-formal and informal learning. Focusing on competency-based technical and vocational education and training (TVET) within its NQF, Ghana introduced the National Technical and Vocational Education and Training Qualifications Framework (NTVETQF) as a sub-framework in 2012. In the wake of the NTVETQF's limited success, the author of this article reasons that a lifelong learning approach could enhance its effectiveness considerably. Comparing national and international policies, he argues that the NTVETQF should be able to properly address the issues of progression from informal and non-formal to formal modes of lifelong learning within the country's broad context of education. In addition, the study conceptualises the integration of lifelong learning within a broad NQF in four key domains: (1) individual; (2) institutional; (3) industry; and (4) state. The author concludes that, for the NTVETQF to achieve its goal of facilitating access to further education and training while also promoting lifelong learning for all (including workers in the informal economy), effective integration of all modes of lifelong learning is required. Although this entails some challenges, such as recognition of prior learning and validation of all modes of learning, it will help to widen access to education as well as providing individuals with a pathway for achieving their educational aspirations.

  2. Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of…

  3. Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of…

  4. Sustainable Assessment for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tham T. H.; Walker, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the alignment of assessment practices in universities and lifelong learning as a key process and outcome for expansive student development. It outlines Boud's approach to assessment, operationalises this to analyse practices in two contrasting national contexts: the sociology departments of the Midlands University in the UK and…

  5. Self directed and lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sylvia; Kernohan, George; McCullagh, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Given the many changes that occur in medicine, health care and information technologies we need to prepare all our students to engage in self directed and life long learning. There is considerable opportunity for self-directed and lifelong learning in health informatics bringing together students in exciting global learning environments, where they have much greater freedom and flexibility in their studies and potentially a wider variety of resources available to them. Self-directed learning focuses on the process by which adults take control of their own learning, in particular how they set their own learning goals, locate appropriate resources, decide on which learning methods to use and evaluate their progress. Lifelong learning happens in a variety of formal and informal settings building on both intentional and incidental learning experiences. In a lifelong learning situation the tutor must relinquish the role of expert and assume the role of facilitator, guiding learners to uncover their own knowledge. Against a back drop of rapid advances in technology which can be used to both deliver course materials and provide enhanced learning opportunities, this chapter outlines the pedagogic principles and practices which underpin self-directed and lifelong learning.

  6. The Promise of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Peter Jarvis's work offers a comprehensive grounding in many of the key principles and insights offered through the field of adult education. His work directs us to the different factors--psychological, social, economic and political required for understanding lifelong learning contexts. As scholars and educators, he…

  7. What's Become of Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    The author's father left school aged 13 at the start of the Great Depression. When he finally found work the wealth of educational opportunity he encountered inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. He signed up for evening classes and loved anything and everything to do with what he proudly called self-improvement. As a novice to retirement…

  8. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  9. Re-Thinking Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    The current dominant concept of lifelong learning has arisen from the pressures of globalisation, economic change and the needs of the "knowledge economy". Its importance is not disputed in this paper. However, its proponents often advocate it in a form which places unrealistic demands on the individual without at the same time addressing their…

  10. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  11. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  12. Fiction, Empathy and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to demonstrate that the impact of fiction on adult learning could be illuminated by a deeper engagement with research into empathy. It recognises that the lifelong learning literature acknowledges the importance of empathy in adult learning and that discussions of the role of fiction in adult learning often refer to fiction's…

  13. Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glastra, Folke J.; Hake, Barry J.; Schedler, Petra E.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization and individualization have radically changed both the economic system and the personal life world in industrial or postindustrial nation-states. To survive hypercompetition and volatile consumer choice, learning organizations and a workforce engaged in lifelong learning are needed. Constructing "the good life" has become an…

  14. Fiction, Empathy and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to demonstrate that the impact of fiction on adult learning could be illuminated by a deeper engagement with research into empathy. It recognises that the lifelong learning literature acknowledges the importance of empathy in adult learning and that discussions of the role of fiction in adult learning often refer to fiction's…

  15. What's Become of Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    The author's father left school aged 13 at the start of the Great Depression. When he finally found work the wealth of educational opportunity he encountered inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. He signed up for evening classes and loved anything and everything to do with what he proudly called self-improvement. As a novice to retirement…

  16. Toward Life-Long Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Raymond J.

    Developing life-long reading habits is a process that should begin in elementary school. Children should be encouraged not only to read what has been approved for classroom use but also to look beyond classroom walls to read for interest and enjoyment. "Looking beyond the walls" is a parable that suggests that school curriculum go beyond the…

  17. Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Grace O. M.

    Despite recent attempts at implementation, the government must play a more active role in promoting lifelong learning in Hong Kong. They did little until 1989, when the Open Learning Institute (OLI) was established. The OLI was innovative because it provided degree level courses for adults, without concern for prerequisite academic qualifications.…

  18. A Look at Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donnie

    Adults must continue to learn. The accelerating pace of cultural change has made today's knowledge and skills tomorrow's obsolescence. A society that makes its educational investment almost entirely in children and youth is on the way to becoming obsolete and is reducing its survival chances. To promote the cause of lifelong learning, we need to…

  19. Sustainable Assessment for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tham T. H.; Walker, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the alignment of assessment practices in universities and lifelong learning as a key process and outcome for expansive student development. It outlines Boud's approach to assessment, operationalises this to analyse practices in two contrasting national contexts: the sociology departments of the Midlands University in the UK and…

  20. International Concepts and Agendas of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations were the main proponents of Lifelong Learning when the concept was first developed in the early 1970s. Although different organisations used different labels--Lifelong Learning, recurrent education, education permanente--they all emphasised that learning is a lifelong process and that all education should be organised…

  1. Lifelong Education: A Stocktaking. UIE Monographs, 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, A. J., Ed.; And Others

    Seven internationally known educators were asked to assess lifelong learning especially in relation to lifelong education and (1) revision of educational thinking and (2) educational practice. The authors addressed several key questions on lifelong education: For and by whom? Of and for what? How can it be achieved? The editor's overview and…

  2. The Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As lifelong learning grows in popularity, few comprehensive pictures of the phenomenon have emerged. The "Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning" provides a disciplined and complete overview of lifelong learning internationally. The theoretical structure puts the learner at the centre and the book emanates from there,…

  3. The Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As lifelong learning grows in popularity, few comprehensive pictures of the phenomenon have emerged. The "Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning" provides a disciplined and complete overview of lifelong learning internationally. The theoretical structure puts the learner at the centre and the book emanates from there,…

  4. Lifelong Learning--A Public Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlert, Maureen

    This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the…

  5. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…

  6. Lifelong Learning Policies, Paradoxes and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that there are many ways of conceptualising lifelong learning and examines EU and Scottish lifelong learning policies in order to identify their underlying assumptions. Through an analysis of these policies, it is demonstrated that they draw on a number of inter-related fallacies that prioritise lifelong learning mainly in…

  7. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  8. Towards a Conceptual Understanding of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCannon, Roger S.

    Despite the lengthy existence of the concept of lifelong learning, there is still no one generally accepted theory of education as a lifelong process. More than an extension of adult education, lifelong learning rests on the belief that learning occurs throughout life, in different ways and through different processes. The key notion in lifelong…

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  10. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…

  11. Multiple Employment Training Programs. Major Overhaul Needed To Create a More Efficient, Customer-Driven System. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Lifelong Learning, Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Clarence C.

    Today, 163 federal programs scattered across 15 federal agencies provide employment training assistance. Although they frequently target the same clients, share the same goals, compete for funds, and provide similar services, agencies maintain separate administrative structures that devote staff and other resources to administer, monitor, and…

  12. The Challenges of Lifelong Learning: Report of a Seminar Involving the New Independent States and Mongolia, February 2002. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    To help the New Independent States and Mongolia address central issues related to lifelong learning, the European Training Foundation organized a project on lifelong learning that involved the following countries: Armenia; Belarus; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; the Russian Federation; Ukraine; and Uzbekistan. The project's principal…

  13. Effects of leg contrast strength training on sprint, agility and repeated change of direction performance in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2017-11-01

    Contrast training is a popular technique among individuals who are involved in dynamic sports, having as its goal an increase in dynamic muscular performance. It is characterized by the use of high and low loads in the same strength training session. The present investigation aimed to determine the effects of adding 8 weeks of contrast strength training (CSTP) to regular soccer practice in U-17 male soccer players during the competitive season. We hypothesized that CSTP would enhance their performance. Subjects were divided randomly between a control group (CG, N.=12) and a contrast strength group (CSG, N.=19). The 2 groups trained together; controls followed the regular soccer program, which was replaced by a contrast strength training program for the experimental group. Performance was assessed before and after training, using 10 measures: 5-10-, 20- 30-, and 40-m sprints, a 4x5 m sprint (S4x5), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with 180° turns (S180), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running (SBF), a Repeated-Shuttle-Sprint Ability Test (RSSA), and a Repeated Change of Direction Test (RCOD). CSG showed gains relative to controls in 5-m (P<0.000), 10-m (P<0.001), 20-m (P<0.001), 30-m (P<0.05) and 40-m (P<0.05) sprints. There were also significant gains in S180°, SBF, and S4 x 5 agility tests (P<0.01), and all RCOD parameters (P<0.05) except RCOD-FI (P=0.055) but no significant change in any RSSA parameters. We conclude that biweekly contrast strength training can be commended to U-17 male soccer players as a means of improving many important components of athletic performance relative to standard in-season training.

  14. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  15. Effects of a carbohydrate and caffeine gel on intermittent sprint performance in recreationally trained males.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Allgrove, Judith; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ingesting carbohydrate gels with and without caffeine on a ~90-minute, four blocks intermittent sprint test (IST), in 12 recreationally trained male athletes. Using a cross-over design, one 70 ml dose of gel containing either 25 g of carbohydrate with (CHOCAF) or without (CHO) 100 mg of caffeine, or a non-caloric placebo (PL) was ingested on three occasions: one hour before, immediately prior to and during the IST. Blood glucose, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and fatigue index (FI) were analysed. Glucose showed significantly higher values for both CHOCAF and CHO at the first (p=0.005 and p=0.000, respectively), second (p=0.009 and 0.008, respectively) and third (p=0.003 and 0.001, respectively) blocks when compared with PL, while only CHOCAF was significantly different to PL (p=0.002) at the fourth block. CHOCAF showed an improved FI (mean 5.0, s =1.7) compared with CHO (mean 7.6, s =2.6; p=0.006) and PL (mean 7.4, s =2.4; p=0.005), a significantly lower RPE (mean 14.2, s =2) compared with PL (mean 15.3, s =2; p=0.003) and a trend in respect of CHO (mean 14.9, s =2.3; p=0.056) after the third block. In conclusion, ingesting CHOCAF one hour before, prior to and during an IST is effective at transiently reducing fatigue and RPE whilst maintaining higher glucose levels at the final stages of the exercise.

  16. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, M.; Christensen, N.J.; Sonne, B.; Richter, E.A.; Galbo, H.

    1985-10-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of TH-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min at 160 W, 40 min at 200 W, and 240 W to the end). Work time was 154 +/- 13 (SE) (T) and 75 +/- 6 (C) min. At rest, epinephrine clearance was identical (28.4 +/- 1.3 (T) vs. 29.2 +/- 1.8 (C) ml . kg-1 . min-1), but plasma concentration (1.42 +/- 0.27 (T) vs. 0.71 +/- 0.16 (C) nmol . l-1) and, accordingly, secretion (2.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.4 nmol . min-1) were higher (P less than 0.05) in T than C subjects. Epinephrine clearance was closely related to relative work load, decreasing from 15% above the basal level at 30% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) to 22% below at 76% of VO2 max. Epinephrine concentrations increased much more with work intensity than could be accounted for by changes in clearance and were, at exhaustion, higher (P less than 0.05) in T (7.2 +/- 1.6) than in C (2.5 +/- 0.7 nmol . l-1) subjects despite similar glucose, heart rate, and hematocrit values. At a given load, epinephrine clearance rapidly became constant, whereas concentration increased continuously. Forearm extraction of epinephrine invalidated use of blood from a cubital vein or a hand vein arterialized by hot water in turnover measurements. During exercise, changes in epinephrine concentrations reflect changes in secretion rather than in clearance. Training may increase adrenal medullary secretory capacity.

  17. Atrial functional and geometrical remodeling in highly trained male athletes: for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Luigi; Bijnens, Bart H; Butakoff, Constantine; Duchateau, Nicolas; Montserrat, Silvia; Merino, Beatriz; Gutierrez, Josep; Paré, Carles; Mont, Lluis; Brugada, Josep; Sitges, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Highly trained athletes have an increased risk of atrial arrhythmias. Atrial geometrical and functional remodeling may be the underlying substrate. We analyze and relate atrial size, deformation and performance in professional handball players compared with non-sportive subjects. 24 Professional handball players and 20 non-sportive males were compared. All subjects underwent an echocardiographic study with evaluation of left (LA), right atrial (RA) dimensions and deformation by strain (Sa) and strain rate (SRa). Atrial performance was assessed from the atrial stroke volume (SV). With computational geometrical models, we studied the relation between atrial volumes, strains and SV and compared atrial working conditions. We estimated the functional reserve and a resulting average wall stress. LA and RA volumes were larger in athletes than in controls (35.2 ± 8.8 vs. 24.8 ± 4.3 ml/m(2), p < 0.01 and 29.0 ± 8.4 vs. 19.0 ± 5.1 ml/m(2), p < 0.01 respectively). LASa and RASa during active atrial contraction were decreased in athletes (-12.2 ± 2.0 vs. -14.5 ± 2.1%, p < 0.01 and -12.1 ± 1.8 vs. -14.2 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01 respectively). LASV was similar between groups (6.6 ± 1.4 vs. 7.3 ± 1.1 ml, p = 0.19) and RASV was lower in athletes (6.2 ± 1.3 vs. 7.2 ± 1.1 ml, p < 0.01). Computational models showed that this different operational mode potentially increases performance reserve, but at the cost of higher atrial wall stress. A proportion of athletes with enlarged LA and RA showed different atrial contractile performance, likely resulting in atria working at higher wall stress.

  18. A Comparison of Anthropometric and Training Characteristics between Female and Male Half-Marathoners and the Relationship to Race Time

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Miriam; Rüst, Christoph A.; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lower limb skin-fold thicknesses have been differentially associated with sex in elite runners. Front thigh and medial calf skin-fold appear to be related to 1,500m and 10,000m time in men but 400m time in women. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric and training characteristics in recreational female and male half-marathoners. Methods The association between both anthropometry and training characteristics and race time was investigated in 83 female and 147 male recreational half marathoners using bi- and multi-variate analyses. Results In men, body fat percentage (β=0.6), running speed during training (β=-3.7), and body mass index (β=1.9) were related to half-marathon race time after multi-variate analysis. After exclusion of body mass index, r2 decreased from 0.51 to 0.49, but body fat percentage (β=0.8) and running speed during training (β=-4.1) remained predictive. In women, body fat percentage (β=0.75) and speed during training (β=-6.5) were related to race time (r2=0.73). For women, the exclusion of body mass index had no consequence on the predictive variables for half-marathon race time. Conclusion To summarize, in both female and male recreational half-marathoners, both body fat percentage and running speed during training sessions were related to half-marathon race times when corrected with co-variates after multi-variate regression analyses. PMID:24868427

  19. Weightlifting Training and Hormonal Responses in Adolescent Males: Implications for Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Andrew C.; Schilling, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses monitoring of the training tolerance of junior- aged weightlifters, focusing on: whether the hormonal system can be used to monitor training status; puberty and the hormonal environment; whether training stresses can be monitored by the hormonal environment; adolescent weightlifters' hormonal response during a lifting session; whether…

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ISOMETRIC TRAINING ON THE PHYSICAL FITNESS OF MALE YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REDEMER, MERRILL

    THE VALIDATION OF AN INEXPENSIVE, SIMPLE ISOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM WAS REPORTED. THE COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENT CONSISTED OF 107 JUNIOR HIGH FRESHMAN SAMPLES. COMPARISON GROUPS CONSISTED OF 62 SUBJECTS IN A WEIGHT TRAINING PROGRAM AND 45 IN AN ISOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM. THE YOUTH FITNESS TEST WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES OF PHYSICAL…

  1. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  2. Short-term high intensity plyometric training program improves strength, power and agility in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.

  3. Short-Term High Intensity Plyometric Training Program Improves Strength, Power and Agility in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351

  4. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  5. Effects of dry-land vs. in-water specific strength training on professional male water polo players' performance.

    PubMed

    de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Ramos-Veliz, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    We compared the effects of 6-week dry-land and in-water specific strength training combined with a water polo (WP) program on 7 sport-specific performance parameters. Nineteen professional players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: in-water strength group (WSG) (in-water training only) and dry-land strength group (LSG). The program included 3 weekly strength training sessions and 5 days of WP training per week for 6 weeks during the preseason. Ten-meter T-agility test, 20-m maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum), bench press (BP) and full squat (FS), in-water boost, countermovement jump (CMJ), and WP throwing speed were measured. Significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) were found in the experimental groups in some variables: CMJ in the LSG and WSG (2.35 cm, 9.07%, effect size [ES] = 0.89; and 2.6 cm, 7.6%, ES = 0.83, respectively), in-water boost increased in the WSG group (4.1 cm; 11.48%; ES = 0.70), and FS and BP increased (p ≤ 0.05) only in the LSG group (12.1 kg; 11.27%; ES = 1.15 and 8.3 kg; 9.55%; ES = 1.30, respectively). There was a decrease of performance in agility test (-0.55 seconds; 5.60%; ES = 0.74). Both dry-land and in-water specific strength training and high-intensity training in these male WP players produced medial to large effects on most WP-specific performance parameters. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for WP players in preseason to include both the training programs (dry-land and in-water specific strength training and high-intensity training) for athlete preparation in this sport.

  6. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  7. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  8. No neuropsychological consequence in male and female soccer players after a short heading training.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Cornelia; Jansen, Petra

    2011-11-01

    The impact of heading on neuropsychological performance is a subject of controversy. In this experimental study, a controlled group design was used to investigate the possible effects of a short heading training session on neuropsychological performance. Ninety-one participants matched by age, sex, and intelligence were assigned to one of the following groups: A heading-training group, a placebo control group, and a waiting control group. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery for attention and working memory (D2 Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task Test). After 1 week, they received heading training, football (e.g., soccer) training without heading, or no training. Immediately after this training, the neuropsychological tests were conducted again. There was no neuropsychological deficit which could only be attributed to the heading training. However, within the heading group, women complained more about headache than men.

  9. Variations in stride length and running economy in male novice runners subsequent to a seven-week training program.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S P; Messier, S P

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to document the changes in stride length of college-age male novice runners (n = 13) who were allowed of freely choose their stride length throughout a 7-week training period (FCSL), and to compare subsequent changes in running economy to those observed in a similar group of runners (n = 13) that ran for 7 weeks with constant stride lengths equivalent to their initially chosen stride lengths (CSL). Subjects trained 3 days per week for approximately 7 weeks (22 training bouts). Each training bout consisted of a minute warmup (60% VO2max) and a 15-minute run at a speed equivalent to 80% of the subjects' initial VO2max. Absolute stride length (ASL), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the 12th and 20th minute of exercise. Relative and absolute submaximal VO2 were measured during the 4th and 22nd training bout. No significant differences in percent change in ASL were found between the groups or across the weeks of training at the 12th or 20th minute of exercise; however, there was a significant difference (p less than or equal to .05) between the groups during the 4th week of training. No significant differences were found between the groups in relative or absolute submaximal VO2. Relative submaximal VO2 at the 12th minute of exercise decreased significantly following the training period in both the FCSL (-3.38%) and CSL (-4.32%) groups. Absolute submaximal VO2 did not change significantly following the training period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Silsirivanit, Atit; Wang, Yingying; Xie, Dongbei; Yang, Jinsheng; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters. PMID:26120346

  11. Lifelong learning in nursing: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Taylor, Heidi; Reyes, Helen

    2014-03-01

    In order to foster a culture of lifelong learning in nursing, it is important to identify what the concept means in the nursing profession as well as the characteristics of a lifelong learner. The purpose of this Delphi study was to conceptualize lifelong learning from the perspective of nursing, and to identify characteristics and essential elements of lifelong learning. A Delphi Study technique in three phases was completed using an online survey tool. Data were analyzed for conceptual description, ratings of characteristics and attributes, and expert consensus in these three phases. An online survey tool was used in this study. Recognized experts in nursing education, administration and public policy participated in this study. Lifelong learning in nursing is defined as a dynamic process, which encompasses both personal and professional life. This learning process is also both formal and informal. Lifelong learning involves seeking and appreciating new worlds or ideas in order to gain a new perspective as well as questioning one's environment, knowledge, skills and interactions. The most essential characteristics of a lifelong learner are reflection, questioning, enjoying learning, understanding the dynamic nature of knowledge, and engaging in learning by actively seeking learning opportunities. Keeping the mind active is essential to both lifelong learning and being able to translate knowledge into the capacity to deliver high quality nursing care. It is hoped that a clearer understanding of lifelong learning in nursing will foster more discussion and research about intentional, active inclusion of lifelong learning behaviors in nursing curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological and functional differences in the elbow extensor muscle between highly trained male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Y; Kanehisa, H; Ito, M; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle between highly trained male and female athletes who were members of the 1996 Japanese Olympic teams in each of three different events: soccer, gymnastics and judo. The thickness (TBmt) and fibre pennation angle (TBpen) of the triceps brachii muscle and force output during elbow extensions were determined using a B-mode ultrasound apparatus and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. The TBmt and its value relative to upper arm length (TBmt/l(ua)) were significantly larger in the men than in the women in all the events except judo. In all the subjects, a significant correlation was found between TBmt/l(ua)) and TBpen (r = 0.721, P < 0.05). The existence of the sex difference in TBpen within the same event was in agreement with that observed in TBmt/l(ua) except for the soccer players. The TBpen of the soccer players were similar in both sexes although a significant sex differences was found in TBmt/l(ua). The isokinetic forces measured using the two velocities 60 degrees x s(-1) (F60) and 180 degrees x s(-1) (F180) were significantly correlated to the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps brachii muscle estimated from TBmt (r = 0.702, P < 0.05 for F60, and r = 0.776, P < 0.05 for F180). No significant sex differences were found in either F60/CSA or F180/CSA in any of the events. From these results, it could be assumed, at least in the Olympic athletes tested in this study, that the fibre angulation of the triceps brachii muscle was almost the same in the two sexes if allowance was made for the difference in the muscle size, and the sex difference in force generation capability of the triceps brachii muscle could in the main be attributed to the difference in CSA rather than in the architectural characteristics.

  13. Effects of training on time-varying spectral energy and sound pressure level in nine male classical singers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sam; Kenny, Dianna T; Cabrera, Densil

    2010-01-01

    The male classical singing voice is a musical instrument that is very important in western culture. It has many acoustic features which should change and improve over the period in which the singer trains. In this study we compare nine singers in different stages of training, from university level students through to international soloists. Typically, Energy Ratio (ER; a measure of mean spectral slope) and mean sound pressure level (SPL) may be calculated to summarize an entire singing sample. We investigate an alternative approach, by calculating the time-varying ER and SPL. The inspection of the distribution of these descriptors over an aria's time period yields a more detailed picture of the strategies for high-frequency energy production used by singers with different levels of training. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Working hour preferences of female and male residents : Developments over 4 years of postgraduate medical training in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Stine; Krause-Solberg, Lea; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2017-08-15

    This article addresses developments regarding working hours and working hour preferences of residents undergoing postgraduate training in Germany and analyses if, and for what reasons, full-time or part-time working models are preferred. The source of data is the KarMed study, which is based on yearly postal surveys carried out among graduates of the year 2008/2009 from seven medical faculties in Germany. The interviews took place during the entire postgraduate training period. Response rates were 48% in the first year, with subsequent rates of above 85%. For analysis, descriptive statistics and regression models were applied. There is a considerable discrepancy between the actual and the preferred working hours of residents undergoing postgraduate training. Postgraduate training is mostly linked to full-time contracts, usually with additional overtime, even though a considerable proportion of doctors prefer a part-time position. More female residents want to work part-time than male doctors. The same applies for the period after medical specialism: in particular, female doctors with children, female doctors trained in former Western Germany states, and those seeking an occupation in outpatient care request part-time contracts for their professional future. A similar trend has been increasingly observed over the years for male doctors. Despite the huge number of residents requesting part-time contracts - during postgraduate training and afterward - the reality is still far behind this model. It is apparent that measures should be taken for both genders. Those measures should facilitate the implementation of the favored working-time model.

  15. Lifelong learning: skills and online resources.

    PubMed

    Lim, Russell F; Hsiung, Bob C; Hales, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Advances in information technology enable the practicing psychiatrist's quest to keep up-to-date with new discoveries in psychiatry, as well as to meet recertification requirements. However, physicians' computer skills do not always keep up with technology, nor do they take advantage of online search and continuing education services. This article describes the rationale for using electronic databases and training, as well as basic computer skills, computer equipment, and important online resources for psychiatrists to meet their continuing education and recertification needs quickly, easily, and conveniently. A literature review was performed using PUBMED and Google to find articles related to recertification, physician's technology adoption and computer skills, evidence-based medicine, and basic approaches to lifelong learning using computers and the Internet, and resources for lifelong learning. Psychiatrists are required to master a discrete set of information for board certification, and to maintain that knowledge for recertification. Surveys have shown that although most physicians use computers, the majority use them for personal or business purposes, and not for accessing Continuing Medical Education (CME) programs (1). The Council on Graduate Medical Education requires the acquisition of medical informatics skills for the Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) curriculum project (2). There is a growing body of literature outlining basic computer skills and competencies for physicians to access online textbooks, databases, journals, and CME programs. Psychiatrists can benefit from learning how to use computers and the Internet to keep current with the advances in the field. Skills now being taught in medical school and residency are equally important for practicing psychiatrists to learn and master.

  16. Training increases anabolic response and reduces inflammatory response to a single practice in elite male adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Dan; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Pilz-Burstein, Rutie; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Fourteen male, elite, national team-level, Israeli volleyball players (age, 16.3±1.1 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60-min volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phases of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and testosterone; the catabolic hormone cortisol; the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of both anaerobic and aerobic properties. Before the training intervention, the typical volleyball practice was associated with a significant increase of GH and testosterone and also with a significant increase of IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly greater GH response (ΔGH, 2.5±2.4 vs. 4.7±3.0 ng/mL, before and after training, respectively; p<0.02) and reduced IL-6 response (ΔIL-6, 2.0±1.6 vs. 0.6±0.7 pg/mL, before and after training, respectively; p<0.01) to the same relative intensity volleyball practice. The results suggest that, along with the improvement of anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training leads to a greater anabolic and reduced inflammatory response to exercise.

  17. Comparison of peripheral sudomotor sensitivity to acetylcholine in endurance and non-endurance trained male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effect of endurance and non-endurance training on peripheral sudomotor sensitivity. The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) was performed. Endurance-trained subjects (ET, long-distance runners) had a significantly shorter onset time of sweating, greater sweat volume, increased density of activated sweat glands and sweat gland output per single activated gland, greater volume of transepidermal water loss, and higher skin temperature compared with those in the other 2 groups [non-endurance-trained group (NET), sedentary control group (CT)]. NET subjects (baseball players) had a tendency to increase in these variables; thus, some values were greater than control subjects. These results suggest that endurance training much more effectively modifies sudomotor sensitivity than non-endurance training. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Costs and Benefits of Lifelong Learning: The Case of the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Marko J.; van Praag, Bernard M. S.

    2002-01-01

    A model for calculating on-the-job training costs and benefits was developed and applied to Dutch employer/employee data. The model was used to generate scenarios for policy measures to stimulate lifelong learning, depicting costs and benefits for those in the market for training as well as macroeconomic consequences. (SK)

  19. Community Capacity Building in Regional VET: Small Business and Developing an Integrated Lifelong Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plane, Karen

    In a competitive market training economy, vocational education and training (VET) and small business in Australia face a number of challenges. They need to qualify the extent of lifelong learning skills being used in the small firm workplace, define the range of learning partnerships both within VET and the wider informal learning community in…

  20. Mentoring is a Lifelong Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    One of the greatest personal benefits of mentoring and working with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows is the life-long journey together. Having graduate students who keep up with you, ask advice and sometimes get it when they haven't asked for it, being able to help them find a job, and in some cases, continuing to do research together for over 50 years is a real gift. Seeing the success of your students in their own research programs, or as Professors, or in industry, makes me feel proud like I do in my children, and when we gather at conferences, it does seem like a family.

  1. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects' 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue.

  2. Inflammation marker, damage marker and anabolic hormone responses to resistance training with vascular restriction in older males.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Murat; Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine anabolic hormone, muscle damage marker and inflammation marker responses to two types of resistance training protocols in older men. Thirty-six healthy older males (mean age = 56.6 ± 0.6 years) completed 6 weeks of high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT), low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction (LI-BFR) or no exercise control group (CON) three times per week. Three upper body exercises were performed by both exercise groups at the same intensity (at 80% 1-RM), but lower body exercises were performed by the HI-RT group at 80% 1-RM and by the LI-BFR group at 20% 1-RM with vascular restriction. Resting serum creatine kinase (CK), interleukin 6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and testosterone (T) were measured before and after training. No significant group differences in resting CK, IL-6, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and T were detected following training (P>0.05). In addition, there were no significant changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), but a trend for significant decreases in the percent changes in thigh subcutaneous fat (P = 0.051). Although training-induced anabolic hormone response did not reach statistical significance, our findings on CK and IL-6 indicated that the LI-BFR training protocol was safe and well tolerated for older men to perform to improve muscular strength. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance.

  4. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess water and salt balance in young football players in training during Ramadan. Measurements were made in 92 young male football players before and during the month of Ramadan. Fifty-five participants were observing Ramadan fasting, while the other 37 participants were eating and drinking without restriction. In week 3 of Ramadan, water and salt balance measures were made during a training session of 60-70 min duration that was performed at an ambient temperature of 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50-53%. Body mass was recorded before and after training. Fluid intake was assessed in non-fasting players by weighing drink bottles before and after training, and the volume of any urine output was recorded. Sweat composition was estimated from absorbent patches applied to four skin sites for the duration of training. Mean sweat loss of players amounted to 1.41 litres (s = 0.36) in fasting players and 1.61 litres (s = 0.51) in non-fasting players (P = 0.038). Mean fluid intake during training in non-fasting players was 1.92 litres (s = 0.66). Sweat sodium concentration was 20 mmol . l(-1) (s = 8) in fasting players and 17 mmol . l(-1) (s = 7) in non-fasting players, and total sweat sodium loss during training was 0.67 g (s = 0.41) and 0.65 g (s = 0.37) [corresponding to a salt loss of 1.7 g (s = 1.1) and 1.7 g (s = 0.9)] respectively, with no difference between fasting and non-fasting players. Sweat sodium loss was not related to estimated dietary sodium intake (r = -0.07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals.

  5. Early Adaptations to Six Weeks of Non-Periodized and Periodized Strength Training Regimens in Recreational Males

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Eduardo O.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Lowery, Ryan P.; Aihara, André Y.; Leão, Alberto R.S.; Wilson, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength (1RM) after three different short-term strength training (ST) regimens (i.e. non-periodized [NP], traditional-periodization [TP], and undulating-periodization [UP]) matched for volume load in previously untrained individuals. Thirty-one recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 9; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 5. Experimental groups underwent a 6-week program consisting of two training sessions per week. Muscle strength was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Dominant leg quadriceps CSA was obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 48h after the last training session. Results The 1RM increased from pre to post only in the NP and UP groups (NP = 17.0 %, p = 0.002; UP = 12.9 %, p = 0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences in 1RM for LP and C groups after 6 weeks (TP = 7.7 %, p = 0.58, C = 1.2 %, p = 1.00). The CSA increased from pre to post in all of the experimental groups (NP = 5.1 %, p = 0.0001; TP = 4.6 %, p = 0.001; UP = 5.2 %, p = 0.0001), with no changes observed in the C group (p = 0.93). Conclusion Our results suggest that different ST periodization regimens over a short-term (i.e. 6 weeks), volume load equated conditions seem to induce similar hypertrophic responses regardless of the loading scheme employed. In addition, for those recreational males who need to develop muscle strength in the short-term, the training regimen should be designed properly. Key points Muscle hypertrophy occurs within six weeks in recreationally active men regardless the ST training regimen employed. When the total volume is similar, training at greater intensities will demonstrate superior gains in the 1RM performance. Some caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings since long-term periodized regimens could produce different training-induced responses. PMID:25177188

  6. Physiological Changes in Elite Male Distance Runners Training for Olympic Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Nine elite male distance runners were evaluated by comprehensive periodic monitoring of selected blood chemistry variables, percent body fat and lean body mass, and cardiopulmonary performance as they prepared for the 1984 Olympic Summer Games. Results are discussed. (MT)

  7. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Márk; Nagy, Szilvia A; Kőszegi, Tamás; Ambrus, Míra; Bogner, Péter; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Tóth, Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2014-10-01

    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy old males age 60-70. Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%]) (p<0.05). The rate of torque development increased 30% only after SSC exercise (p<0.05). Resting testosterone and cortisol levels were unchanged but after each program the acute exercise-induced cortisol levels were 12-15% lower (p<0.05). Both programs increased quadriceps size 2.5% (p<0.05). It is concluded that both ECC and SSC exercise training produces favorable adaptations in healthy old males' quadriceps muscle. Although the rate of muscle tension during the SSC vs. ECC contractions was about 4-fold greater, the total mechanical work seems to regulate the hypetrophic, hormonal, and most of the mechanical adaptations. However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly.

  8. Anti-fatigue effects of troxerutin on exercise endurance capacity, oxidative stress and MMP-9 levels in trained male rats.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, Mohammad; Hajizadeh, Mohammad R; Nadimi, Ali Esmaeili; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad

    2017-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of troxerutin (TRX) on endurance capacity, oxidative stress and MMP-9 levels in trained male rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The control (Vehicle) and exercise training (5 days/week) with vehicle treatment (Exercise), exercise training with TRX treatment at 75 (Ex-TRX75), 150 (Ex-TRX150), and 300 mg/kg (Ex-TRX300). The treated groups received TRX by gavage every day while the other groups received water for 30 days. On the 30(th) day, rats were sacrificed immediately after exhaustive swimming test, and some biochemical parameters were measured. Exhaustion swimming time in the Ex-TRX75, Ex-TRX150 and Ex-TRX300 groups significantly increased 1.2, 1.93 and 2.1-fold compared to the Vehicle group, respectively. TRX significantly increased glucose level (P ˂ 0.05) and reduced CK activity (P ˂ 0.001) compared to the Vehicle and exercise groups. TRX300 significantly reduced ALP and LDH activities (P ˂ 0.05) and BUN (P ˂ 0.05) and MMP-9 levels (P ˂ 0.05) compared to the Vehicle and Exercise groups. Additionally, TRX300 and TRX150 significantly increased SOD activity compared to the Vehicle group (P ˂ 0.05). Our results provide experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of TRX as an effective agent against fatigue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Bauer, Timm; Kinscherf, Ralf; Vorwald, Silke; Klute, Konstanze; Bischoff, Dirk; Müller, Helmut; Weber, Marc-André; Metz, Jürgen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Billeter, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    In classic concentric/eccentric exercise, the same absolute load is applied in concentric and eccentric actions, which infers a smaller relative eccentric load. We compared the effects of 6 weeks of classic concentric/eccentric quadriceps strength training (CON/ECC, 11 subjects) to eccentric overload training (CON/ECC+, 14 subjects) in athletes accustomed to regular strength training. The parameters determined included functional tests, quadriceps and fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre type distribution by ATPase staining, localisation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform mRNAs by situ hybridization and the steady-state levels of 48 marker mRNAs (RT-PCR) in vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and after training. Both training forms had anabolic effects with significant increases in quadriceps CSA, maximal strength, ribosomal RNA content and the levels of mRNAs involved in growth and regeneration. Only the CON/ECC+ training led to significantly increased height in a squat jump test. This was accompanied by significant increases in IIX fibre CSA, in the percentage of type IIA fibres expressing MHC IIx mRNA, in the level of mRNAs preferentially expressed in fast, glycolytic fibres, and in post-exercise capillary lactate. The enhanced eccentric load apparently led to a subtly faster gene expression pattern and induced a shift towards a faster muscle phenotype plus associated adaptations that make a muscle better suited for fast, explosive movements.

  10. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.

  11. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A…

  12. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A…

  13. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05). Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key Points Power endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period. Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power

  14. Effects of ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement with and without synephrine for 8 weeks on training adaptations in resistance-trained males.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y Peter; Earnest, Conrad P; Koozehchian, Majid; Cho, Minye; Barringer, Nick; Walker, Dillon; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Murano, Peter S; Kreider, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training. Participants donated a fasting blood sample and had body composition (DXA), resting heart rate and blood pressure, cognitive function (Stroop Test), readiness to perform, bench and leg press 1 RM, and Wingate anaerobic capacity assessments determined a 0, 4, and 8-weeks of standardized training. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Performance and cognitive function data were analyzed using baseline values as covariates as well as mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Blood chemistry data were also analyzed using Chi-square analysis. Although significant time effects were seen, no statistically significant overall MANOVA Wilks' Lambda interactions were observed among groups for body composition, resting heart and blood pressure, readiness to perform questions, 1RM strength, anaerobic sprint capacity, or blood chemistry panels. MANOVA univariate analysis and analysis of changes from baseline with 95% CI revealed some evidence that cognitive function and 1RM strength were increased to a greater degree in the PWS and/or PWS + S groups after 4- and/or 8-weeks compared to PLA responses. However

  15. The combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males.

    PubMed

    Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-03-31

    This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo. Fat oxidation was also significantly increased post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.01). During and after exercise the plasma glycerol levels significantly increased in both groups after green tea consumption and were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group (p < 0.05). Compared with the placebo, the plasma epinephrine levels were significantly higher for both groups in the green tea condition during and after exercise, however, norepinephrine levels were only significantly greater, p < 0.05, during and after exercise in the untrained group. Green tea significantly increased resting and post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group.

  16. The combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males

    PubMed Central

    Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. [Methods] Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. [Results] Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo. Fat oxidation was also significantly increased post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.01). During and after exercise the plasma glycerol levels significantly increased in both groups after green tea consumption and were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group (p < 0.05). Compared with the placebo, the plasma epinephrine levels were significantly higher for both groups in the green tea condition during and after exercise, however, norepinephrine levels were only significantly greater, p < 0.05, during and after exercise in the untrained group. [Conclusion] Green tea significantly increased resting and post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group. PMID:27298806

  17. Candlestick and Faces: Aspects of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Government policies view lifelong learning in terms of economic development. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the environment of British community education councils revealed other views of lifelong learning: it takes time and political expediency and national policy can adversely affect what and how people learn.…

  18. Social Software for Life-Long Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klamma, Ralf; Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Duval, Erik; Hummel, Hans; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Kravcik, Milos; Law, Effie; Naeve, Ambjorn; Scott, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Life-long learning is a key issue for our knowledge society. With social software systems new heterogeneous kinds of technology enhanced informal learning are now available to the life-long learner. Learners outside of learning institutions now have access to powerful social communities of experts and peers who are together forging a new web 2.0.…

  19. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  20. Economics and Finance of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verry, Donald

    This book represents one result of the international conference on "Lifelong Learning as an Affordable Investment," held December 6-8, 2000 in Ottawa, Canada. It examines the economic and financial issues that arise in implementing lifelong learning and considers how the public and private sectors are actually addressing or might address…

  1. WTO and Lifelong Education Strategies for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhi-guo; Zheng, Yu

    2006-01-01

    After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), teachers have been confronted with many opportunities and challenges. Lifelong education strategies are problems we should take into account carefully. This article expounds the objective demands, ideas, content, measures and functions of lifelong education.

  2. Where's the Learning in Lifelong Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a retrospective review and analysis of New Labour's policies in relation to lifelong learning. New Labour's plans to promote social inclusion through lifelong learning resulted in a focus upon participation in terms of increasing the numbers of students involved in formal learning and increasing their participation in…

  3. A Design Model for Lifelong Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koper, Rob; Giesbers, Bas; van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; van Bruggen, Jan; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Brouns, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The provision of lifelong learning facilities is considered to be a major new direction for higher and distance teaching educational institutes catering for the demands of industry and society. ICT networks will in future support seamless, ubiquitous access to lifelong learning facilities at home, at work, in schools and universities. This implies…

  4. A Critical Look at Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, H. Eylem

    2014-01-01

    Education, which is a fundamental right of human being, has been transformed into a kind of lifelong prisoning by marketing step by step under the name of lifelong learning. Adult education as one of the most crucial parts of the educational system has also been affected by the global trend of an international actor, the European Union through its…

  5. A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    The first paper of this set of 12 conference papers, "Nine Learning Fallacies and Their Replacement by a National Strategy for Lifelong Learning," by Frank Coffield, synthesizes the opinions of other participants, and goes beyond them to set forth an outline of a strategy for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom. Following this…

  6. Lifelong Learning and the Absence of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies that (with very few exceptions) in most of current literature on lifelong learning, gender issues are ignored or overlooked. An extensive review of the literature demonstrates this neglect. Some reasons are given for this, including the fact that most analyses of lifelong learning tend to stress the individual learning…

  7. Lifelong Career Development for Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolin, Donn E.; Carver, James T.

    Designed for individuals interested in implementing career development programs for disabled adults, this report presents information on the Lifelong Career Development (LCD) project and its potential for implementation in the community college. Chapter 1 examines lifelong learning and the career development needs of disabled individuals, presents…

  8. Lifelong Learning: A Pacification of "Know How"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Katherine; Fejes, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A tendency of previous studies of lifelong learning to focus on learning and learning subjectivities may have led to an underestimation of potential effects in terms of a system of knowledge constitutive processes that operates powerfully to shape our societies. In this paper we explore lifelong learning and practices in the construction of…

  9. Social Software for Life-Long Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klamma, Ralf; Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Duval, Erik; Hummel, Hans; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Kravcik, Milos; Law, Effie; Naeve, Ambjorn; Scott, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Life-long learning is a key issue for our knowledge society. With social software systems new heterogeneous kinds of technology enhanced informal learning are now available to the life-long learner. Learners outside of learning institutions now have access to powerful social communities of experts and peers who are together forging a new web 2.0.…

  10. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  11. A Critical Look at Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, H. Eylem

    2014-01-01

    Education, which is a fundamental right of human being, has been transformed into a kind of lifelong prisoning by marketing step by step under the name of lifelong learning. Adult education as one of the most crucial parts of the educational system has also been affected by the global trend of an international actor, the European Union through its…

  12. Supporting Lifelong Learning in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…

  13. Lifelong Learning: A Pacification of "Know How"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Katherine; Fejes, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A tendency of previous studies of lifelong learning to focus on learning and learning subjectivities may have led to an underestimation of potential effects in terms of a system of knowledge constitutive processes that operates powerfully to shape our societies. In this paper we explore lifelong learning and practices in the construction of…

  14. Researching the Rhetoric of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine

    2001-01-01

    In the analysis of lifelong-learning policies, the gap between rhetoric and reality has been avidly debated. Such critiques are misguided; an "exemplary" rhetorical analysis of lifelong-learning policy is possible. UK government publications suggest that rhetorical analysis helps identify the politics of discourse involved in…

  15. Lifelong Learning and Demographics: A Japanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Seiko

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…

  16. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  17. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  18. Policy on Lifelong Learning in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith; Gaff, Janet; Toomey, Ron; Aspin, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the extent to which the concept of lifelong learning has been incorporated into the education policies of the Australian Commonwealth and State Governments and the Catholic and Independent schooling sectors, taking particular note of the application of lifelong learning to policies pertaining to teacher education.

  19. Recent Developments in Japan's Lifelong Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makino, Atsushi

    In the wake of economic and social change in Japan, several lifelong learning initiatives have been implemented. Structural changes such as internationalization, the coming of the information age, and the maturation of Japanese society caused the formerly homogeneous society to become more flexible, paving the way for lifelong learning. Additional…

  20. Toward a Model of Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.

    Some of the criticisms that have been leveled at the educational establishment by social analysts are discussed. It is suggested that one of the new realities is that education must be a lifelong process in order to avoid the catastrophe of human obsolescence. The assumptions and elements for a new model of education as a lifelong process are…

  1. Lifelong Learning and Demographics: A Japanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Seiko

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…

  2. Differential Effects of Continuous and Interval Exercise Training on the Atherogenic Index of Plasma in the Non-Obese Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Ezeukwu, Antoninus O; Agwubike, Elias O; Uadia, Patrick O

    2015-01-01

    Background The process of atherogenicity is known to be influenced by exercise. However, appropriate exercise stimulus necessary to generate the response and adaptation in sedentary non-obese individuals has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week continuous training and corresponding interval training on the atherogenic index of plasma in sedentary Nigerian males. Methods Overall, there were 54 male university students that participated in our study, which used a pretest- posttest control group design. Participants (18 males per group) were assigned into continuous, interval and control groups respectively. During the first two weeks, training was done 3 times weekly for 30 minutes each day, and was increased by 5 minutes every 2 weeks. Continuous training was done at 70-84% of heart rate reserve. Interval training was done at 70-84%/30-39% heart rate reserve in 1:2 minutes work/rest intervals, respectively. The control group did not participate in the training. Data collected were analysed using descriptive, paired t-test, analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. Results Young sedentary non-obese males were at high risk (atherogenic index of plasma > 0.24) of cardiovascular diseases/conditions. However, continuous training led to significant reductions (p = 0.002) in the atherogenic index of plasma. In contrast, non-significant increase (p = 0.084) followed interval training. After controlling for baseline values, only continuous training still had significant effects on atherogenic index of plasma when compared with other groups. Conclusions Continuous training of vigorous intensity is better than a corresponding interval training protocol as a natural anti-atherogenic method of reducing risk of cardiovascular event in sedentary non-obese males. PMID:27122890

  3. Choosing Teaching as a Career: Perspectives of Male and Female Malaysian Student Teachers in Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azman, Norzaini

    2013-01-01

    This paper is motivated by concern about the decline in the numbers of males entering the teaching profession in Malaysia. It seeks to explore first year student teachers' views of teaching as a career choice and to determine the factors that influenced their decision to enter the teaching profession. A total of 425 student teachers completed a…

  4. Depression and PTSD in Survivors of Male Violence: Research and Training Initiatives to Facilitate Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Yuan, Nicole P.; Herrera, Veronica M.; Lichter, Erika L.

    2003-01-01

    Male violence is an enduring feature of women's lives from childhood through old age. The review covers child sexual abuse, rape, and partner violence with emphasis on the prevalence of violence, its mental health consequences, the course of recovery, and mediators and moderators of traumatic impact. The primary focus is depression and…

  5. Pre-Employment Skills Training Module for Adult Male Inmates at Riker's Island Correctional Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice K.

    An instructional program called "Passport to a Job" provided prerelease training for inmates at Riker's Island Correctional Facility. The inmates were taught the important steps in preparing for employment; how to identify and cope with discriminatory employment; and how to demonstrate the interview techniques of opening the interview…

  6. Lifelong learning of Chinese rural physicians: preliminary psychometrics and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghe; Wang, Ziwei; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2015-10-30

    There are more than 4.9 million rural health workers undertaking the health care need of rural population of over 629 million in China. The lifelong learning of physicians is vital in maintaining up-to-date and qualified health care, but rural physicians in many developing countries lack adequate medical professional developments. There has also been no empirical research focused on the lifelong learning of rural physician populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the primary levels of lifelong learning of the rural physicians and to analyze group differences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 1197 rural physicians using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JSPLL). Cronbach's α coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test were performed to analyze the data. For Chinese rural physicians, the JSPLL was reliable (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.872) and valid, with exploratory factor analysis fitting a 3-factor model and accounting for a total of 60.46 % of the variance. The mean lifelong learning score was 45.56. Rural physicians generally performed worse in the technical skills in seeking information domain. Rural physicians with 21-30 working years have a lower score of lifelong learning (P < 0.05) than other phases of working years. Career satisfaction and professional titles had a significantly positive influence on physicians' orientation towards lifelong learning (P < 0.05). The overall lifelong learning scores of physicians who received more training after completion of medical school were higher than those with less additional post-medical school training (P <0.05). The JSPLL is effective for the Chinese rural physician population. In order to cope with impacting factors on rural physicians' lifelong learning, the results of the study reinforced the importance of continuing medical education and career satisfaction for lifelong

  7. Avoidable iatrogenic complications of male urethral catheterisation and inadequate intern training: a 4-year follow-up post implementation of an intern training programme.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J F; Forde, J C; Thomas, A Z; Creagh, T A

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of a structured training programme in urethral catheterisation (UC) targeted at newly qualified junior doctors on rates of iatrogenic catheter morbidity within a tertiary care referral centre. Male UC-related morbidities were retrospectively identified from our computerised inpatient urology consultation system over a 1-year period from July 2010 to June 2011. Relevant medical records were also reviewed. Results were compared with an initial study performed between July 2006 and June 2007, prior the introduction of a structured training programme in our institution. An anonymous questionnaire was used for the subjective assessment of interns about confidence in catheterising post introduction of the programme. Of 725 urological consultations, 29 (4%) were related to complications arising from male UC during the 1 year period. This reflected a statistically significant decrease when compared to our 2007 figures, 51/864 (6%) (p < 0.05). Again, the most common indication for UC was monitoring urinary output for acute medical illness (19/29, 66%). The most common complication was urethral trauma (16/29, 55%). Of the 29 cases of UC-related morbidity, 18 (62%) resulted from interns performing UC, a decrease of 12% from our original paper. A drop of 27% was seen in the rates of UC related morbidity attributable to interns during the first 6 months of internship (July-December). Overall, 70% (vs 40% original study) of interns felt that their practical training was adequate since introduction of the programme (p < 0.01) with 53% considering theoretical training adequate (vs 16% original study (p < 0.01). When asked were they confident in performing UC, 63% said they were compared to 35% before introduction of the programme (p < 0.05). UC-related iatrogenic morbidity is not uncommon even in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Implementation of a structured training programme in UC prior to the commencement of intern year has been shown to result

  8. The motivation of lifelong mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah

    2013-04-01

    As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.

  9. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Patrick L; Goldstein, Erica R; Blackburn, Will; Orem, Ihsan; Hughes, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years) participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL), in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP) and mean values (MP) of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC) were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LAC) were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p < 0.001) were observed for sprint bout order in values of PP, MP, DEC, and HR. There were significant main effects detected for condition in PP and MP (p < 0.05), with values across the five sprint bouts 2.6 – 15% greater with GPLC. Significant statistical interactions were detected between bout order and condition for both PP and MP (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect of condition for LAC, LAC values 15.7% lower 4 min post-exercise with GPLC (p = 0.09) and with GPLC resulting in 16.2% less LAC at 14 min post-exercise (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with

  10. The impact of football training on motor development in male children.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marko; Zagorac, Nebojsa; Katić, Ratko

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of football school program and physical education curriculum on changes in the motor abilities of 7- and 8-year-old boys. The study included a sample of 180 boys divided into group 1 (7-year-old boys), subdivided to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 50) groups, and group 2 (8-year-old boys), subdivided to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 50) groups. Experimental groups included children attending three training units of football training over a 9-month period, in addition to the conventional physical education curriculum. Control groups included children attending only conventional physical education curriculum. All study subjects underwent testing with a battery of 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the study. Results obtained by discriminative canonic analysis showed no statistically significant between-group difference in motor abilities at the beginning of the study. However, significant differences in favor of experimental groups were recorded at the end of the study. Favorable changes in all motor variables were observed in both experimental and control groups of children from the initial through the final state. These changes were more pronounced in experimental groups. Analysis of variance for difference variables (final to initial measurement) indicated programmed education in the form of football training in addition to regular physical education curriculum to predominantly influence the development of aerobic endurance, agility, speed and flexibility in 7-year-old boys, and of explosive strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility and speed in 8-year-old boys. In the latter, football training led to the formation of a motor complex integrating explosiveness, speed, coordination, endurance and flexibility as a general motor factor determining future quality development in football.

  11. Bone mineral density and serum testosterone in chronically trained, high mileage 40–55 year old male runners

    PubMed Central

    MacKelvie, K; Taunton, J; McKay, H; Khan, K

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To identify physical activity that is beneficial for the maintenance of bone strength with increasing age by examining the relation between bone mineral density (BMD) and chronic endurance training in men. BMD at the proximal femur, its subregions, and the lumbar spine, and serum testosterone were compared between two groups of long distance runners with more than 20 years of training experience and non-athletic controls. Methods—Runners (n = 12) were divided into (a) high volume runners (n = 7), running 64–80 km a week, and (b) very high volume runners (n = 5), running more than 95 km a week, and compared with non-athletic male controls, exercising in non-endurance oriented activities two to four times a week. BMD (g/cm2) at the total proximal femur, femoral neck, trochanteric region, and lumbar spine was measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. Total testosterone (nmol/l) and free testosterone (pmol/l) in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay from single fasting blood samples. Results—Height, weight, and age (range = 40–55 years) were not significantly different between groups. The high volume runners had significantly higher BMD at the total proximal femur (1.09 (0.17) v 0.94 (0.056)), femoral neck (0.91 (0.16) v 0.78 (0.071)), and trochanteric region (0.85 (0.14) v 0.73 (0.053)) than controls (p<0.05). The differences in BMD for the proximal femur between the very high volume runners and the other two groups were not significant. There was no difference in lumbar spine BMD, total testosterone, or free testosterone between groups. However, there was a significant negative correlation between total testosterone (r = -0.73, p<0.01) and free testosterone (r = -0.79, p<0.005) and running volume in the distance runners. Conclusions—Long term distance running with training volumes less than 80 km a week had a positive effect on BMD of the proximal femur. With running volumes greater than 64 km a week, training was inversely related to

  12. Effects of Early Training and Nicotine Treatment on the Performance of Male NMRI Mice in the Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Vicens, Paloma; Carrasco, M. Carmen; Redolat, Rosa

    2003-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effect of nicotine treatment and prior training on a spatial learning task in differently aged NMRI male mice. In a longitudinal study, mice were randomly assigned to one of 14 experimental groups receiving different combinations of chronically injected nicotine (0.35 mg/kg) administered for 10 days (5 days before and during 5 days acquisition of task) or control treatments and training in the water maze at different ages. The mice displayed shorter escape latencies when evaluated at 6 and 10 months than when tested in this task at 2 months for the first time, demonstrating that early training preserves performance in the water maze up to 8 months after the initial experience. Nicotine treatment did not significantly change performance in the water maze at any age tested. Early practice in a spatial reference memory task appears to have lasting consequences and can potentially contribute to preventing some age-related spatial learning deficits. PMID:15152984

  13. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, F; Çolak, R

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8) and untrained (N=8) men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE) and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP) significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p<0.05); the POST-24 h LHP level was lower than PRE-LHP. Protein carbonyl (PCO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased (p<0.05); however, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and glutathione (GSH) were not affected by the RE (p > 0.05). The results indicated that there was no significant training status x intensity interaction for examined variables (p > 0.05). Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50%) is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80%) is required to evoke protein oxidation. PMID:26681835

  14. Lifelong learning: fostering a culture of curiosity.

    PubMed

    Eason, Toni

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong learning contributes to the development of knowledge and skill in nursing. A focus on continuous learning is necessary to remain current on trends, practices, and the newest treatments in the field of nursing. Creation of a culture where educational growth is supported and promoted is vital to advancement of the nursing profession. Nurses' satisfaction with their professional role can be further enhanced by demonstrated expertise through lifelong learning. Expertise in nursing is solidly founded on evidence-based practice. Research, education, and experience in nursing practice are linked to evidence-based practice and lifelong learning; both are essential to remaining well versed in health care service delivery.

  15. Exercise training manages cardiopulmonary function and fatigue during and following cancer treatment in male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Carole M; Hsieh, City C; Sprod, Lisa K; Carter, Susan D; Hayward, Reid

    2007-09-01

    This investigation determined the cardiopulmonary function and fatigue alterations in male cancer survivors during treatment as well as following treatment utilizing similar exercise assessment protocols and individualized, prescriptive exercise interventions. The study included 45 male cancer survivors that were referred by local oncologists. Following a comprehensive screening and physical examination, cardiovascular endurance, pulmonary function, and fatigue were assessed leading to the development of 12-week individualized exercise prescriptions and exercise interventions. The cancer survivors were divided into during treatment (DTm) and following treatment (FTm) groups. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and analyses of covariance were used to compare pre- versus postintervention and between groups. Cardiopulmonary function was maintained in the DTm, whereas the FTm showed significant reductions in resting heart rate (P < .05) with concurrent increases in predicted VO2max and time on treadmill ( P < .05) postexercise intervention. Fatigue levels did not increase in the DTm group, whereas the FTm group showed significant reductions in behavioral fatigue, affective fatigue, sensory fatigue, cognitive/mood fatigue, and total fatigue (P < .05) after the exercise intervention. The results of the current study suggest that moderate intensity, individualized, prescriptive exercise intervention maintains or improves cardiovascular and pulmonary function with concomitant reductions in fatigue in cancer survivors during and following cancer treatment. Exercise appears to be a safe, efficacious strategy for improving physical fitness in cancer survivors during and following treatment.

  16. Sperm DNA fragmentation as a result of ultra-endurance exercise training in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Algar-Santacruz, C; Abbasi, A; García-Manso, J M

    2017-03-15

    Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption and training characteristics were also assessed. Hormonal values and physical semen parameters were within normal ranges. DNA fragmentation showed high values (20.4 ± 6.1%). Round cells in semen were higher than normal (2.8 ± 1.5 million/ml), with the presence of macrophages. Correlations were found for several parameters: concentration of round cells positively correlated with progressive sperm motility (p = .01) and sperm morphology (p = .02); contrarily, the correlation found with DNA fragmentation was negative (p = .04). Sperm DNA fragmentation and the T/C ratio, however, were correlated in a positive manner (p = .03). As evidenced by the observed results, sperm DNA fragmentation is affected by high-level sports practice; therefore, high loads of endurance training could potentially interfere with the athlete's fertility potential. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Development of a Noncontact Kickboxing Circuit Training Protocol That Simulates Elite Male Kickboxing Competition.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Davis, Philip; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the specific kickboxing circuit training protocol (SKCTP) could reproduce kickboxing combat's hormonal, physiological, and physical responses. Twenty athletes of regional and national level volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD, age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; height: 170 ± 0.5 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 13.9 kg). After familiarization, SKCTP was conducted 1 week before a kickboxing competition. Cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as the Wingate upper-body test and countermovement jump (CMJ) performances were measured before and after SKCTP and combat. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured throughout rounds (R) R1, R2, and R3. Testosterone, GH, glucose, [La], HR, RPE, and CMJ did not differ among the 2 conditions (p > 0.05). However, Cortisol was higher for competition (p = 0.038), whereas both peak (p = 0.003) and mean power (p < 0.001) were higher in SKCTP. The study suggests that SKCTP replicates the hormonal, physiological, and physical aspects of competition. It is therefore suggested as a good form of specific kickboxing training, as well as a specific assessment tool to be used by kickboxing coaches to quantify kickboxers' fitness levels, when physiological parameters responses to the test are measured.

  18. Effects of Sprint Training With and Without Weighted Vest on Speed and Repeated Sprint Ability in Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Rey, Ezequiel; Padrón-Cabo, Alexis; Fernández-Penedo, Diego

    2016-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect resisted sprint training using weighted vests (WV) compared with unresisted sprint training (US) on physical fitness (countermovement jump, 10 m sprint, 30 m sprint and repeated sprint ability (RSA)) in amateur male soccer players. 19 soccer players (age: 23.7±4.5 years; height: 178.3±5.8 cm; body mass: 72.9±5.2 kg) were randomly assigned to a WV (n= 10) or a US (n= 9) group. The intervention program had to be carried out 2 times a week over 6 weeks. The only difference between the two interventions was that the WV group performed all the sprints with an additional weight of 18.9% ± 2.1% of body mass. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements (p<0.001) in 10 m and 30 m sprint performance from pretest to post-test in WB (+9.42% and +6.04%) and CTU (+10.87% and +5.10%). Players in both WV and US also showed significant enhancements in RSA average time, fastest time, and total time from pretest to posttest. Percentage changes in 30 m sprint performance, for both groups combined, had a very large correlation with percentage changes in average time of RSA. In the between-groups analysis, there were no differences between the sprint training groups (WV vs US) in any variable. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that both sprint training methods used seem to be effective to improve soccer related performance measures, and could be beneficial to players and coaches in field settings.

  19. The Effects of Ketogenic Dieting on Body Composition, Strength, Power, and Hormonal Profiles in Resistance Training Males.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Roberts, Michael D; Sharp, Matthew H; Joy, Jordan M; Shields, Kevin A; Partl, Jeremy; Volek, Jeff S; D'Agostino, Dominic

    2017-04-07

    This study investigated the impact of an isocaloric and isonitrogenous ketogenic diet (KD) versus a traditional western diet (WD) on changes in body composition, performance, blood lipids, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained athletes. Twenty-five college aged men were divided into a KD or traditional WD from weeks 1-10, with a reintroduction of carbohydrates from weeks 10-11, while participating in a resistance-training program. Body composition, strength, power, and blood lipid profiles were determined at week 0, 10 and 11. A comprehensive metabolic panel and testosterone levels were also measured at weeks 0 and 11. Lean body mass (LBM) increased in both KD and WD groups (2.4% and 4.4%, p<0.01) at week 10. However, only the KD group showed an increase in LBM between weeks 10-11 (4.8%, p<0.0001). Finally, fat mass decreased in both the KD group (-2.2 kg ± 1.2 kg) and WD groups (- 1.5 ± 1.6 kg). Strength and power increased to the same extent in the WD and KD conditions from weeks 1-11. No changes in any serum lipid measures occurred from weeks 1-10, however a rapid reintroduction of carbohydrate from weeks 10-11 raised plasma TG levels in the KD group. Total testosterone increased significantly from Weeks 0-11 in the KD diet (118 ng/dl) as compared to the WD (-36 ng/dl) from pre to post while insulin did not change. The KD can be used in combination with resistance training to cause favorable changes in body composition, performance and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males.

  20. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  1. The response of circulating omentin-1 concentration to 16-week exercise training in male children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Zehsaz, Farzad; Farhangi, Negin; Ghahramani, Mehri

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the 16-week exercise training program on serum omentin-1 in relation to change in insulin resistance in obese male children. Thirty-two obese male children, aged 9-12 years, were randomly assigned into Exercise Group (ExG; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 16). ExG participated in a 16-week exercise training program which combined various forms of aerobic activities and resistance training. Body composition, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), blood lipids and serum omentin-1 were assessed before and after 16 weeks of training. Exercise training significantly decreased body mass (7.5%), BMI (7.6%), WC (4.3%), body fat % (15%), fasting insulin (18.5%), total cholesterol (TC) (5.4%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (17%) and triglyceride (TG) (7.4%) compared to CG. Between-groups comparison showed a considerable exercise-induced upregulation in omentin-1 (ES = 89; P < 0.05) levels. Furthermore, in ExG serum omentin-1 levels were significantly increased from 24.5 ± 8.4 to 35.9 ± 9.3 ng/ml (45%; P < 0.001) after the training program, which was accompanied with significantly decreased fasting insulin (P < 0.001). The changes in omentin-1 concentrations correlated with the changes in BMI (r = -0.67, P < 0.001), WC (r = -0.62, P = 0.002), body fat % (r = -0.50, P = 0.004), insulin (r = -0.65, P = 0.001), HOMA2-IR (r = -0.60, P = 0.004), TC (r = -0.53, P = 0.004) and LDL-C (r = -0.51, P = 0.004) in ExG. BMI (β = -0.50, P = 0.009) and fasting insulin (β = -0.54, P = 0.006) changes were found to be independent predictors of omentin-1 increment in multiple regression analysis. Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum omentin-1 concentrations in children with obesity. The findings suggest that exercise

  2. Reading Policy Texts: Lifelong Leaning as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Katherine; Edwards, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Argues the necessity of a discursive approach to policy analysis. Emphasizes the importance of metaphor to the analysis. Explores the metaphorical role of lifelong learning in educational policy. (SK)

  3. Lifelong Learning and Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom; Woods, Davinia

    2004-01-01

    Discussion about Australia's ageing population has focused on the importance of increasing labour force participation rates of older people. This paper examines the influence of education and training on the participation of older people in the labour market, and the pay-off of undertaking education and training as an older-person compared to…

  4. Intramyocellular lipids form an important substrate source during moderate intensity exercise in endurance-trained males in a fasted state.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Koopman, Rene; Stegen, Jos H C H; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Keizer, Hans A; Saris, Wim H M

    2003-12-01

    Both stable isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy were applied to define the use of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) stores as a substrate source during exercise on a whole-body as well as on a fibre type-specific intramyocellular level in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast, eight subjects were studied at rest, during 120 min of moderate intensity exercise (60 % maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2,max)) and 120 min of post-exercise recovery. Continuous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate and [6,6-2H2]glucose were administered at rest and during subsequent exercise to quantify whole-body plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates and the contribution of other fat sources (sum of muscle- plus lipoprotein-derived TG) and muscle glycogen to total energy expenditure. Fibre type-specific intramyocellular lipid content was determined in muscle biopsy samples collected before, immediately after and 2 h after exercise. At rest, fat oxidation provided 66 +/- 5 % of total energy expenditure, with FFA and other fat sources contributing 48 +/- 6 and 17 +/- 3 %, respectively. FFA oxidation rates increased during exercise, and correlated well with the change in plasma FFA concentrations. Both the use of other fat sources and muscle glycogen declined with the duration of exercise, whereas plasma glucose production and utilisation increased (P < 0.001). On average, FFA, other fat sources, plasma glucose and muscle glycogen contributed 28 +/- 3, 15 +/- 2, 12 +/- 1 and 45 +/- 4 % to total energy expenditure during exercise, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a 62 +/- 7 % net decline in muscle lipid content following exercise in the type I fibres only, with no subsequent change during recovery. We conclude that IMTG stores form an important substrate source during moderate intensity exercise in endurance-trained male athletes following an overnight fast, with the oxidation rate of muscle- plus lipoprotein-derived TG being decreased with

  5. Effects of Supplemental Citrulline-Malate Ingestion on Blood Lactate, Cardiovascular Dynamics, and Resistance Exercise Performance in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Luckett, William

    2016-01-01

    Citrulline-malate (CM) has been proposed to provide an ergogenic effect during resistance exercise; however, there is a paucity of research investigating these claims. Therefore, we investigated the impact that CM supplementation would have on repeated bouts of resistance exercise. Fourteen resistance-trained males participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind study. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo (PL) or CM (8 g) and performed three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups to failure. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the same protocol. Blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were measured preexercise, with BLa measured a second time immediately following the last set, while HR and BP were measured 5 and 10 min postexercise. Citrulline-malate ingestion significantly increased the amount of repetitions performed for each exercise (chin-ups: PL = 28.4 ± 7.1, CM = 32.2 ± 5.6, p = .003; reverse chin-ups: PL = 26.6 ± 5.6, CM = 32.1 ± 7.1, p = .017; push-ups: PL = 89.1 ± 37.4, CM = 97.7 ± 36.1, p < .001). Blood lactate data indicated a time effect (p < .001), but no treatment differences (p = .935). Systolic BP data did not show differences for time (p = .078) or treatment (p = .119). Diastolic BP data did not show differences for time (p = .069), but indicated treatment differences (p = .014) for subjects ingesting CM. Collectively, these findings suggests that CM increased upper-body resistance performance in trained college-age males.

  6. Investigation of the Relationships between Lifelong Learning and Social Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcaalan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The current research aims to investigate the relationship between lifelong learning and social emotional learning. Study group consists of 590 university students (390 females, 200 males) studying in different undergraduate programs in University of Sakarya, Faculty of Education in the Fall Term of 2015. In this research, relationships between the…

  7. Quality of Faculty Life and Lifelong Learning Tendencies of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beytekin, Osman Ferda; Kadi, Aysegül

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the university students' opinions about quality of faculty life and their lifelong learning tendencies. Research was conducted with 375 university students. According to the findings: the quality of faculty life of students differ according to gender. Male students have lower quality of faculty life than…

  8. Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy: Challenges for Developing Countries. Directions in Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    This report is an attempt to layout an analytical framework for understanding the challenges of developing a lifelong learning system in developing countries. Chapter 1, "The Knowledge Economy and the Changing Needs of the Labor Market" focuses on the role of education and training in helping build an educated and skilled populace to…

  9. A Correlational Study of the Factors that Influence Lifelong Learning in the Army Civilian Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinez, Eileen U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, correlational study was to determine if a relationship existed between employee value for learning, supervisor support for training, education, and leader development, perceived access to learning opportunities, demographic characteristics, and pursuit of lifelong learning. A researcher-generated survey was used to…

  10. Competence-Related Metadata for Educational Resources that Support Lifelong Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the emerging paradigm of Lifelong Learning, competence-based learning is gradually attracting the attention of the Technology-Enhanced Learning community, since it appears to meet the 21st Century learning and training expectations of both individuals and organisations. On the other hand, the paradigm of Learning Objects--as a…

  11. Competence-Related Metadata for Educational Resources that Support Lifelong Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the emerging paradigm of Lifelong Learning, competence-based learning is gradually attracting the attention of the Technology-Enhanced Learning community, since it appears to meet the 21st Century learning and training expectations of both individuals and organisations. On the other hand, the paradigm of Learning Objects--as a…

  12. Recognising and Certifying Lifelong Skills: Impact on Labour Market Integration of the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Pedro Afonso

    2009-01-01

    The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…

  13. The effect of 4-week training period on plasma neuropeptide Y, leptin and ghrelin responses in male rowers.

    PubMed

    Rämson, R; Jürimäe, J; Jürimäe, T; Mäestu, J

    2012-05-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of high-volume low intensity resistance training protocol combined with endurance training on plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentration in rowers. Additionally, leptin and ghrelin, as markers for body energy balance concentrations, were monitored. 12 highly trained national and international level male rowers participated in this study. The participants were tested three times--after reference week (T1), after 2 weeks of high-volume training (T2) and after a recovery week (T3) for aerobic performance, energy intake and expenditure, and blood biochemical parameters. The submaximal rowing performance decreased significantly (P = 0.019) at T2. Fasting leptin decreased significantly (from 2.05 ± 0.88 to 1.28 ± 0.53 ng/mL; P = 0.009) at T2 and increased significantly (from 1.28 ± 0.53 to 1.79 ± 0.79 ng/mL; P = 0.002) at T3. Fasting ghrelin decreased significantly (from 980 ± 300.2 to 873.35 ± 198.6 pg/mL; P = 0.036) at T3 compared to T2, while no changes were found in fasting NPY. Significant decreases in exercise-induced leptin were observed at T2 (from 1.13 ± 0.5 to 1.08 ± 0.5 ng/mL; P = 0.012), PRE and POST test leptin values at T2 were significantly decreased compared to T1(1.40 ± 0.9 to 1.13 ± 0.5 and 1.44 ± 0.8 to 1.08 ± 0.5, respectively). Acute exercise-induced increases in NPY were found at T2 (from 128.1 ± 23.2 to 155.1 ± 28.9 pmol/L; P = 0.002) and at T3 (from 131.3 ± 20.5 to 159.7 ± 32.8 pmol/L, P = 0.004). In conclusion, the combination of high-volume training protocol and energy imbalance induces significant post-exercise changes in NPY, leptin, and ghrelin concentrations and decreases fasting leptin.

  14. Modulation of inflammatory response arising from high-intensity intermittent and concurrent strength training in physically active males.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; de Oliveira, Flaviane Poleto; Peres, Fernando Pierin; Rosa-Neto, José Cesar; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2017-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (i) the extent of an acute session of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) followed by a concurrent strength session (Conc) on the increase of systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and (ii) whether eight weeks of high intensity interval training plus concurrent strength training alters the acute inflammatory response and immune status. Ten recreationally active males (aged 26.9±4.3years) performed two experimental exercise sessions interspersed by eight weeks of HIIT plus concurrent strength training. The experimental exercise session was composed of a 5-km run on a treadmill (1:1 at 100% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS)), and after 10min of passive recovery, back squat exercises were performed (80% 1RM, four sets until exhaustion). Serum samples were collected after fasting, pre-HIIE, post-HIIE, Pre-Conc, Post-Conc, and 30 and 60min post-exercise session. The comparison between both concurrent exercise sessions was performed using repeated measure ANOVA, with the Bonferroni Post-hoc when necessary. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) presented a moment effect (F=6.72; p<0.05), with Post-Conc significantly higher than pre-HIIE, Post-HIIE, and 60min, only a tendency was found between pre-HIIE and post-HIIE (difference=-5.99; p=0.09). MCP-1 and IL-1ra did not present effects for condition, moment, or interaction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) presented both moment and interaction effects (F=5.31 and 2.50; p=0.005 and 0.036). Pre-Conc and Post-Conc were significantly higher than Pre-HIIE. The interaction between before and after eight weeks of concurrent training probably occurred at Post-Conc (11.42±3.09pgmL(-1) and 8.88±1.29pgmL(-1)). In addition, maintenance of immune function was observed. Therefore, HIIE and concurrent strength exercise lead to an increase in cytokines response, but eight weeks of training program promoted anti-inflammatory response after an acute session of concurrent exercise.

  15. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  16. Effect of Aerobic Training on Glucose Control and Blood Pressure in T2DDM East African Males

    PubMed Central

    Prista, Antonio; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Damasceno, Albertino; Caupers, Paula; Kanaley, Jill A.; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Exercise training intervention is underused in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in East Africa. Methods. 41 physically-active males with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Mozambique were recruited and randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised exercise of low intensity exercise (LEX), vigorous intensity exercise (VEX), or to a control group (CON). Since there were no differences for any outcome variables between the exercise groups, VEX and LEX were combined into one exercise group (EX). Results. Age and baseline body weight were similar between EX and CON. Plasma glucose at 120 min following glucose load (Glu 120) was significantly reduced in the EX group after training (Glu 120 : 17.3 mmol/L to 15.0 mmol/L, P < 0.05), whereas Glu 120 remained unchanged in the CON (Glu 120 : 16.6 mmol/L to 18.7 mmol/L). After controlling for baseline blood pressure (BP), posttraining systolic BP and diastolic BP were lower in the EX group than in the CON group (EX: 129/77 mm Hg, CON: 152/83 mm Hg, P < 0.05). Conclusion. Adding exercise to already active African men with type 2 diabetes improved glucose control and BP levels without concomitant changes in weight. PMID:24729886

  17. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest.

  18. Impact of a Long Run on Injury-Related Biomechanics with Relation to Weekly Mileage in Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Max R; Melcher, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare selected biomechanical variables before and after a long run, and to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and changes in lower limb biomechanics after the run. Twelve trained habitual rearfoot strike male runners ran overground before and after a treadmill long run while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables before and after the run. Loading rate was 6% higher after the run (p < .05) but this difference had a small effect size (d = .32). Moderate effects were found for a 25% increase in peak ankle eversion (d = 0.62) and a 10% increase in hip adduction (d = 0.60) after the run. These findings suggest that the completion of a submaximal long run does not yield potentially injurious lower limb biomechanics in uninjured rearfoot strike runners. Weekly running mileage was not correlated to biomechanical changes observed before and after the long run. Since biomechanical responses to the long run varied among runners, differences in other factors such as specific training regimens and neuromuscular control should be considered in future studies.

  19. Effects of high-phosphorus and/or low-calcium diets on bone tissue in trained male rats.

    PubMed

    Bégot, Laurent; Collombet, Jean-marc; Renault, Sylvie; Butigieg, Xavier; Andre, Catherine; Zerath, Erik; Holy, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if wheel running exercise could offset the detrimental influences of independent or combined high-phosphorus and low-calcium diets on bone tissue in rats. Forty male dark Agouti rats were randomly assigned to eight groups of five animals. Four sedentary groups (SED) and four voluntary trained groups (TR) were fed over 6 wk of either a standard food or a modified diet, namely, high phosphorus (HP), low calcium (LCa), or high phosphorus combined with low calcium (HP/LCa). After sacrifice, blood samples were collected to determine parathyroid hormone, Ca(2+), and Pi levels. Both tibiae were removed for bone mass determination and extended histomorphometric analyses. In SED rats, all unbalanced diets induced a sizeable bone volume decrease, up to 56%. Interestingly, steady training partially compensates for this bone volume loss, regardless of the considered modified diets. At the cellular level, only independent LCa diet induced a 38% decrease in osteoblastic surface in both SED and TR rat groups, generating thereby a reduction in bone neosynthesis. In terms of osteoclastic surface, an increase in this parameter was evidenced only in HP diets (both HP and HP-LCa), implying heightened bone resorption. The major effects of unbalanced diets are mainly observed on bone tissue because serum parameters (parathyroid hormone, Ca(2+), and Pi levels) remained only slightly modified. Training induced a positive effect on unbalanced diet-altered bone tissue formation but remained inadequate to reach standard bone mass measured in SED rats fed with balanced food. Further, we suggest that the nature of the diet influences the balance between bone formation and resorption: LCa diet decreases bone formation, whereas HP and HP-LCa increase bone resorption.

  20. Combined effects of modafinil and d-amphetamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate d-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Quisenberry, Amanda J; Prisinzano, Thomas; Baker, Lisa E

    2013-09-01

    Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting drug with FDA approval for the treatment of sleep-related disorders that has recently been investigated as a potential agonist replacement therapy for psychostimulant dependence. Previous research in animals and humans indicates modafinil has a lower abuse liability than traditional psychostimulants, although few studies have carefully assessed modafinil's stimulus properties in combination with other psychostimulants. The current study trained male Sprague-Dawley rats to discriminate subcutaneous injections of 0.3 mg/kg (n=8) or 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine (n=8) from saline under an FR 20 schedule of food reinforcement and substitution tests were administered with d-amphetamine (0.03-1.0 mg/kg, s.c.), modafinil (32-256 mg/kg, i.g.), and a low modafinil dose (32 mg/kg, i.g.) in combination with d-amphetamine (0.03-1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) to determine if these drugs have additive effects. The selective D2 dopamine agonist, PNU-91356A, was also tested as a positive control and ethanol and morphine were tested as negative controls. Results indicate that modafinil produced dose-dependent and statistically significant d-amphetamine-lever responding in both groups and nearly complete substitution in animals trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine. Modafinil pretreatment slightly increased the discrimination of low d-amphetamine doses in animals trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg d-amphetamine. These results support previous findings that modafinil and d-amphetamine may have additive effects. In consideration of recent interests in modafinil as an agonist treatment for psychostimulant dependence, additional preclinical investigations utilizing other methodologies to examine modafinil in combination with other stimulants, such as behavioral sensitization paradigms or drug self-administration, may be of interest.

  1. Attenuated incubation of cocaine seeking in male rats trained to self-administer cocaine during periadolescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2009-07-01

    Although onset of drug use during adolescence appears to increase long-term vulnerability to drug dependence in humans, relatively little is known about extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking after periadolescent onset of drug self-administration in laboratory animals. Furthermore, although cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking increases progressively during abstinence from cocaine self-administration in adult subjects, this "incubation of cocaine craving" remains unexplored after adolescent drug intake in animal models. We allowed periadolescent (postnatal day (PND) 35 at start) and adult (PND 83-95 at start) male Wistar rats to self-administer cocaine (0.36 mg/kg/infusion) in 2-h daily sessions on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement over 14 days. Then, we compared extinction and cue-induced or cocaine priming-induced reinstatement (10 mg/kg cocaine, intraperitoneal) of cocaine seeking in both age groups after 30 days of abstinence in home cages. In separate cohorts, we tested for time-dependent increases in cue-induced reinstatement over approximately 1, 14, 30, or 60 days of abstinence in both age groups. Adolescent and adult rats self-administered similar amounts of cocaine. Subsequent cue-induced reinstatement was lower in the adolescent-onset group after a 30-day abstinence period, but cocaine priming-induced reinstatement did not differ across ages. Also, extinction responding and time-dependent increases in cue-induced reinstatement (incubation) were less pronounced in rats that took cocaine as adolescents compared with adults. Surprisingly, these results may reflect resistance among adolescent subjects to some enduring effects of drug self-administration, such as reward learning.

  2. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-06-28

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GMAT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GMAT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, P<.05 for both), and a trend toward such significance was observed at 16 km/h (r=-.360, P=.050). In contrast, there was no correlation between AT CSA and running performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GMAT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The influence of training status on oxidative stress in young male handball players.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Dusica; Cubrilo, Dejan; Macura, Marija; Barudzic, Nevena; Djuric, Dragan; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2011-05-01

    Although exercise-induced oxidative stress receives considerable scientific attention, there is still little information available regarding exercise-induced adaptations of the antioxidant defence system in adolescent and child athletes. The aim of our study was to establish the effects of long-term exercise training on the redox state of adolescents, and to find correlations between elements of redox homeostasis and aerobic power. Thirty-three handball players and 14 non-athletes, 16-19-years old, were subjected to blood sampling to measure levels of nitric oxide (NO; estimated through nitrites (NO₂⁻), superoxide anion radical (O₂⁻), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), lipid peroxidation (estimated through TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Subjects were also subjected to maximal progressive exercise test to estimate their maximal oxygen consumption (VO₂max). Athletes had significantly (P < 0.05) higher SOD activity and lower CAT activity compared with non-athletes (SOD: 2175.52 ± 362.07 compared with 1172.16 ± 747.40 U/g of hemoglobin x 10³, and CAT: 2.19 ± 0.31 compared with 3.08 ± 0.47 U/g of hemoglobin x 10³). These differences were the most obvious when comparing non-athletes and athletes with poor/average aerobic power. H₂O₂ and TBARS levels differed among subjects with poor, average or good aerobic power (P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively). Sports engagement and aerobic capacity are important factors in inducing changes in redox status.

  4. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    PubMed

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  5. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  6. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  7. Effects of short-term moderate exercise training on sexual function in male patients with chronic stable heart failure.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Romualdo; Lacalaprice, Francesca; Faccenda, Ernesto; Purcaro, Augusto; Perna, GianPiero

    2005-05-11

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have sexual dysfunction that impairs quality of life. Recent trials have demonstrated that exercise training (ET) improves quality of life (QOL) of CHF patients, but it is not established whether this benefit may be associated with an improvement in sexual dysfunction. To determine whether ET can improve sexual dysfunction in patients with CHF. We prospectively studied 59 male patients (57+/-9 years) with stable CHF in sinus rhythm and without prostatic disease. Patients were randomized into two groups. A group (T, n = 30) underwent supervised cycle ergometer ET at 60% of peak VO2, three times a week, 60 min each session, for 8 weeks. A group (NT, n = 29) was not exercised. Medications were not changed during the study. On study entry and at 8 weeks all patients underwent a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing, brachial artery endothelium-dependent (ED) and endothelium-independent (EI) vasomotor responses, QOL and sexual activity profile assessment (SAP) by questionnaire. At 8 weeks, no changes were observed in control patients. In trained patients, however, peak VO2 improved by 18% (P < 0.005) and was correlated with QOL (r = 0.80; P < 0.001). Flow-mediated dilation improved in trained patients (from 2.29+/-1.13% to 5.04+/-1.7%, P = 0.0001), while EI dilation (after 0.3 mg sublingual NTG) did not. In group T, all three domains (i.e. Domain 1=relationship with the partner; Domain 2 = quality of penile erection; Domain 3 = personal wellness) were significantly improved from baseline (total score patients: from 3.49+/-3.4 to 6.17+/-3.2, P < 0.001; partners: from 2.47+/-2.7 to 4.87+/-2.5, P < 0.001). Pre-post training change in SAP total score was correlated with changes in coronary risk profile (r = -0.49; P = 0.01), peak VO2 (r = 0.67; P < 0.001) and QOL (r = 0.73; P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis selected the improvement in ED-vasomotor response as the strongest independent predictor of SAP improvement (r = 0

  8. Strategic Issues for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Includes 21 short articles on a variety of subjects: Internet for management development, lifelong learning in virtual universities, high performance organizations, National Vocational Qualifications, cost effectiveness and training effectiveness, mind maps, Generation X training, Japanese vocational training, management development in Libya, and…

  9. Strategic Issues for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Includes 21 short articles on a variety of subjects: Internet for management development, lifelong learning in virtual universities, high performance organizations, National Vocational Qualifications, cost effectiveness and training effectiveness, mind maps, Generation X training, Japanese vocational training, management development in Libya, and…

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  11. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  12. Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Athletes After 6 Days of Intensified Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Simola, Rauno Álvaro De Paula; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Raeder, C, Wiewelhove, T, Simola, RÁDP, Kellmann, M, Meyer, T, Pfeiffer, M, and Ferrauti, A. Assessment of fatigue and recovery in male and female athletes after 6 days of intensified strength training. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3412-3427, 2016-This study aimed to analyze changes of neuromuscular, physiological, and perceptual markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in high-resistance strength training. Fourteen male and 9 female athletes participated in a 6-day intensified strength training microcycle (STM) designed to purposefully overreach. Maximal dynamic strength (estimated 1 repetition maximum [1RMest]; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery); maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC); countermovement jump (CMJ) height; multiple rebound jump (MRJ) height; jump efficiency (reactive strength index, RSI); muscle contractile properties using tensiomyography including muscle displacement (Dm), delay time (Td), contraction time (Tc), and contraction velocity (V90); serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK); perceived muscle soreness (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS) and perceived recovery (physical performance capability, PPC); and stress (MS) were measured before and after the STM and after 3 days of recovery. After completing the STM, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) performance decreases in 1RMest (%[INCREMENT] ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; -7.5 ± 3.5, ES = -0.21), MVIC (-8.2 ± 4.9, ES = -0.24), CMJ (-6.4 ± 2.1, ES = -0.34), MRJ (-10.5 ± 3.3, ES = -0.66), and RSI (-11.2 ± 3.8, ES = -0.73), as well as significantly reduced muscle contractile properties (Dm, -14.5 ± 5.3, ES = -0.60; V90, -15.5 ± 4.9, ES = -0.62). After days of recovery, a significant return to baseline values could be observed in 1RMest (4.3 ± 2.8, ES = 0.12), CMJ (5.2 ± 2.2, ES = 0.28), and MRJ (4.9 ± 3.8, ES = 0.32), whereas RSI (-7.9 ± 4.5, ES = -0.50), Dm (-14.7 ± 4.8, ES = -0.61), and V90 (-15.3 ± 4.7, ES = -0.66) remained

  13. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    PubMed

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  14. Trans-Nationalization of Educational Policy Making: From European Innovation Projects in Adult Education to an Emerging European Space for Lifelong Learning: What Model for the European Vocational Education and Training Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnafous, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This article is drawn from broader qualitative research on innovation in the field of professional adult training within the framework of European pilot projects such as the LEONARDO projects. This research aims at contributing to a general understanding of the phenomenon of innovation, in the context of European calls for projects, as an…

  15. Trans-Nationalization of Educational Policy Making: From European Innovation Projects in Adult Education to an Emerging European Space for Lifelong Learning: What Model for the European Vocational Education and Training Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnafous, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This article is drawn from broader qualitative research on innovation in the field of professional adult training within the framework of European pilot projects such as the LEONARDO projects. This research aims at contributing to a general understanding of the phenomenon of innovation, in the context of European calls for projects, as an…

  16. International trends in lifelong learning for pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Driesen, Annelies; Verbeke, Koen; Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert

    2007-06-15

    Lifelong learning for community pharmacists is shifting from continuing education (CE) towards continuing professional development (CPD) in some countries. The objectives of this report were to compare lifelong learning frameworks for community pharmacists in different countries, and determine to what extent the concept of CPD has been implemented. A literature search was conducted as well as an Internet search on the web sites of professional pharmacy associations and authorities in 8 countries. The results of this review show that the concept of CPD has been implemented primarily in countries that have a long tradition in lifelong learning, such as Great Britain. However, most countries have opted for the CE approach, eg, France, or for a combination of CE and CPD, eg, New Zealand. This approach combines the controllability by regulatory organizations that CE requires with the advantage of sustained behavior change seen in successful CPD programs.

  17. Effects of chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A; Tranchita, E; Duranti, G; Ciminelli, E; Quaranta, F; Ceci, R; Cerulli, C; Borrione, P; Sabatini, S

    2010-03-01

    Rhodiola Rosea, is an adaptogen plant which has been reported to promote fatty acids utilisation, to ameliorate antioxidant function, and to improve body resistance to physical strenuous efforts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects on physical performance as well as on the redox status of a chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation in a group of competitive athletes during endurance exercise. Following a chronic supplementation with Rhodiola Rosea for 4 weeks, 14 trained male athletes underwent a cardio-pulmonary exhaustion test and blood samples to evaluate their antioxidant status and other biochemical parameters. These data were compared with those coming from the same athletes after an intake of placebo. The evaluation of physical performance parameters showed that HR Max, Borg Scale level, VO(2) max and duration of the test were essentially unaffected by Rhodiola Rosea assumption. On the contrary, Rhodiola Rosea intake reduced, in a statistically significative manner, plasma free fatty acids levels. No effect on blood glucose was found. Blood antioxidant status and inflammatory parameters resulted unaffected by Rhodiola Rosea supplementation. Blood lactate and plasma creatine kinase levels were found significantly lower (P<0.05) in Rhodiola Rosea treated subjects when compared to the placebo treated group. Chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation is able to reduce both lactate levels and parameters of skeletal muscle damage after an exhaustive exercise session. Moreover this supplementation seems to ameliorate fatty acid consumption. Taken together those observation confirm that Rhodiola Rosea may increase the adaptogen ability to physical exercise.

  18. Developing a culture of lifelong learning in a library environment.

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, N B; Kafantaris, S R; Huber, J T; Lynch, F; Epelbaum, M; Pfeiffer, J

    1999-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1996, the Annette and Irwin Eskind Biomedical Library (EBL) at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) radically revised the model of service it provides to the VUMC community. An in-depth training program was developed for librarians, who began to migrate to clinical settings and establish clinical librarianship and information brokerage services beyond the library's walls. To ensure that excellent service would continue within the library, EBL's training program was adapted for library assistants, providing them with access to information about a wide variety of work roles and processes over a four to eight-month training period. Concurrently, customer service areas were reorganized so that any question--whether reference or circulation--could be answered at any of four service points, eliminating the practice of passing customers from person to person between the reference and circulation desks. To provide an incentive for highly trained library assistants to remain at EBL, management and library assistants worked together to redesign the career pathway based on defined stages of achievement, self-directed participation in library-wide projects, and demonstrated commitment to lifelong learning. Education and training were the fundamental principles at the center of all this activity. Images PMID:9934526

  19. Developing a culture of lifelong learning in a library environment.

    PubMed

    Giuse, N B; Kafantaris, S R; Huber, J T; Lynch, F; Epelbaum, M; Pfeiffer, J

    1999-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1996, the Annette and Irwin Eskind Biomedical Library (EBL) at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) radically revised the model of service it provides to the VUMC community. An in-depth training program was developed for librarians, who began to migrate to clinical settings and establish clinical librarianship and information brokerage services beyond the library's walls. To ensure that excellent service would continue within the library, EBL's training program was adapted for library assistants, providing them with access to information about a wide variety of work roles and processes over a four to eight-month training period. Concurrently, customer service areas were reorganized so that any question--whether reference or circulation--could be answered at any of four service points, eliminating the practice of passing customers from person to person between the reference and circulation desks. To provide an incentive for highly trained library assistants to remain at EBL, management and library assistants worked together to redesign the career pathway based on defined stages of achievement, self-directed participation in library-wide projects, and demonstrated commitment to lifelong learning. Education and training were the fundamental principles at the center of all this activity.

  20. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists.

  1. The Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Long-Term Aerobic Training on Heart Function, Biochemical Alterations and Lipid Profile Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Results: Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (P<0.05). Both regular training and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, pre-treatment with cinnamon extract and/or regular training significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (P<0.01). Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile. PMID:25671183

  2. Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawachi, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

  3. Lifelong Learning in Nepal: Contexts and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Learning is a lifelong process. Many countries in the world, basically the European and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, have adopted it as an important vehicle for human development. They have also made it a policy agenda for meeting the human capital need for twenty first century for economic prosperity.…

  4. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  5. Lifelong Learning and the Limits of Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong education or learning theory is presented by its apologists as a universal normative ethic. That ethic may be understood as an aretaic ethic, embracing a number of ethical values or informed commitments and a teleology of optimising universal human flourishing through learning. In an effort to examine possible barriers to the universality…

  6. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  7. Flexible Querying of Lifelong Learner Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulovassilis, A.; Selmer, P.; Wood, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of flexible querying facilities over heterogeneous data arising from lifelong learners' educational and work experiences. A key aim of such querying facilities is to allow learners to identify possible choices for their future learning and professional development by seeing what others have done. We motivate and…

  8. The Philosophical Roots of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rosa B.

    The philosophical roots of the concept of lifelong learning are considered in relation to the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They pioneered in their analyses of intellectual development and in the importance of the use of the mind throughout the life span. Plato and Aristotle added metaphysical arguments to support their systems of…

  9. Designing Instruction to Improve Lifelong Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rafferty, Anna; Vitale, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Citizens need the capability to conduct their own inquiry projects so that they can make sense of claims about new energy policies, health remedies, or financial opportunities. To develop the lifelong capability to grapple with these dilemmas, we report on ways to design precollege units that engage students in realistic, personally relevant…

  10. The Waikiki Lifelong Learning Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Noelani; Mahuka, Ruth

    The Waikiki Lifelong Learning Center (WLLC) project was undertaken to establish a literacy consortium of visitor industry businesses and the University of Hawaii at Manoa and to develop/implement an instructional program that included bilingual/English-as-a-second language (ESL) and General Educational Development (GED)/pre-GED components. After…

  11. Students' Plans for Lifelong Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavšic, Marlena; Dikovic, Marina

    2015-01-01

    One of the roles of higher education is to prepare and encourage students for lifelong learning. However, no evidence can be found about students' plans for further learning and teaching related to formal, non-formal and informal context. The purpose of this study was to explore these students' plans in relation to their study group, level of…

  12. Promoting Lifelong Learning through Education Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, John

    1998-01-01

    The Rover Group, a British auto manufacturer, supports work-related curriculum through partnership centers at its major plants and school-based facilities, annual awards, and learning agreements for students in work experience programs. Quality, long-term commitment, and promotion of lifelong learning remain relevant but elusive goals. (SK)

  13. Credit for Lifelong Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Carolyn M.

    This guide to developing a prior learning portfolio was prepared to assist students in the Credit for Lifelong Learning Program (CLLP) at Sinclair Community College (SCC) in Dayton, Ohio, through the process of identifying college-level prior learning, matching their learning to specific courses, and articulating and documenting their learning.…

  14. European Year of Lifelong Learning 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This publication provides glimpses of how different individuals and organizations have responded to the spirit of lifelong learning during the European Year. Each case study consists of the project's location, name, and objective and brief description. They include the following: Chapito Project, Lisbon, Portugal; Ligerius Project, a…

  15. Visual Imagery, Lifecourse Structure and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Imagery could add an extra dimension to analyses of lifelong learning, which need to draw on diverse sources and techniques. This article has two principal components. First I suggest that the use of images might be divided into three categories: as illustration; as evidence; and as heuristic. I go on to explore the latter two categories, first by…

  16. Life-Long Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaron, Kalman, Ed.

    The essays in this collection describe some of the main aspects--theories, programs and practices--of adult education in Israel. The 22 essays are: "Problems and Objectives of Adult Education," by Elad Peled; "The Principle of Dialogue in Education," by Martin Buber; "The Jewish Tradition of Life-long Learning," by…

  17. Life-Long Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaron, Kalman, Ed.

    The essays in this collection describe some of the main aspects--theories, programs and practices--of adult education in Israel. The 22 essays are: "Problems and Objectives of Adult Education," by Elad Peled; "The Principle of Dialogue in Education," by Martin Buber; "The Jewish Tradition of Life-long Learning," by…

  18. Designing Instruction to Improve Lifelong Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rafferty, Anna; Vitale, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Citizens need the capability to conduct their own inquiry projects so that they can make sense of claims about new energy policies, health remedies, or financial opportunities. To develop the lifelong capability to grapple with these dilemmas, we report on ways to design precollege units that engage students in realistic, personally relevant…

  19. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  20. Visual Imagery, Lifecourse Structure and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Imagery could add an extra dimension to analyses of lifelong learning, which need to draw on diverse sources and techniques. This article has two principal components. First I suggest that the use of images might be divided into three categories: as illustration; as evidence; and as heuristic. I go on to explore the latter two categories, first by…

  1. The Double-Dialectic and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper was provoked by Ted Bailey's article, 'Analogy, dialectics and lifelong learning' which appeared in the March-April 2003 edition of this journal. Dr. Bailey argued that students can be enabled to learn the key concepts of the subjects they are studying through the dialectical operation of analogy which makes new knowledge accessible by…

  2. Lifelong Learning and the Limits of Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong education or learning theory is presented by its apologists as a universal normative ethic. That ethic may be understood as an aretaic ethic, embracing a number of ethical values or informed commitments and a teleology of optimising universal human flourishing through learning. In an effort to examine possible barriers to the universality…

  3. Lifelong Learning in Higher Education. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.; Cropley, Arthur J.

    This book, which is intended for academics, educators, educational managers, and policymakers concerned with higher education, examines how universities and colleges can prepare their students for lifelong learning through continuing education, specialized courses for adults, and mainstream teaching programs geared toward traditional students. The…

  4. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative…

  5. The Cognitive Constraints of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    1996-01-01

    Acquisition of linguistic and perceptual abilities takes place at a very early age, and later learning involves knowledge and information processing strategies. Aging has greater impact on retention of the latter. Lifelong learning must accommodate the constraints of aging on cognitive abilities. (SK)

  6. Lifelong Learning as Being: The Heideggerian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2011-01-01

    This article contends that the development of lifelong learning needs to be grounded within the framework of "being," a concept inspired by Heidegger, rather than within the framework of "having." This article also describes the problems of the adult education literature, which favors the pragmatic sense of being and, thus, may undertheorize the…

  7. European Year of Lifelong Learning 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This publication provides glimpses of how different individuals and organizations have responded to the spirit of lifelong learning during the European Year. Each case study consists of the project's location, name, and objective and brief description. They include the following: Chapito Project, Lisbon, Portugal; Ligerius Project, a…

  8. Lifelong Learning as Being: The Heideggerian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2011-01-01

    This article contends that the development of lifelong learning needs to be grounded within the framework of "being," a concept inspired by Heidegger, rather than within the framework of "having." This article also describes the problems of the adult education literature, which favors the pragmatic sense of being and, thus, may undertheorize the…

  9. Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawachi, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

  10. Assessing physicians' orientation toward lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Veloski, Jon; Nasca, Thomas J; Erdmann, James B; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2006-09-01

    Despite the importance of lifelong learning as an element of professionalism, no psychometrically sound instrument is available for its assessment among physicians. To assess the validity and reliability of an instrument developed to measure physicians' orientation toward lifelong learning. Mail survey. Seven hundred and twenty-one physicians, of whom 444 (62%) responded. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JSPLL), which includes 19 items answered on a 4-point Likert scale, was used with additional questions about respondents' professional activities related to continuous learning. Factor analysis of the JSPLL yielded 4 subscales entitled: "professional learning beliefs and motivation,"scholarly activities,"attention to learning opportunities," and "technical skills in seeking information," which are consistent with widely recognized features of lifelong learning. The validity of the scale and its subscales was supported by significant correlations with a set of criterion measures that presumably require continuous learning. The internal consistency reliability (coefficient alpha) of the JSPLL was 0.89, and the test-retest reliability was 0.91. Empirical evidence supports the validity and reliability of the JSPLL.

  11. Assessing Physicians' Orientation Toward Lifelong Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Veloski, Jon; Nasca, Thomas J; Erdmann, James B; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite the importance of lifelong learning as an element of professionalism, no psychometrically sound instrument is available for its assessment among physicians. OBJECTIVE To assess the validity and reliability of an instrument developed to measure physicians' orientation toward lifelong learning. DESIGN Mail survey. PARTICIPANTS Seven hundred and twenty-one physicians, of whom 444 (62%) responded. MEASUREMENT The Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JSPLL), which includes 19 items answered on a 4-point Likert scale, was used with additional questions about respondents' professional activities related to continuous learning. RESULTS Factor analysis of the JSPLL yielded 4 subscales entitled: “professional learning beliefs and motivation,”“scholarly activities,”“attention to learning opportunities,” and “technical skills in seeking information,” which are consistent with widely recognized features of lifelong learning. The validity of the scale and its subscales was supported by significant correlations with a set of criterion measures that presumably require continuous learning. The internal consistency reliability (coefficient α) of the JSPLL was 0.89, and the test-retest reliability was 0.91. CONCLUSIONS Empirical evidence supports the validity and reliability of the JSPLL. PMID:16918737

  12. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  13. Wise Up. The Challenge of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy

    This book on lifelong learning has two overarching themes: the three Rs of learning power (resilience, resourcefulness, and reflectiveness) and a good learner's toolkit of learning strategies. An introduction previews the main conclusions. Chapter 1 explains how different communities can hold different beliefs about learning. Chapter 2 explores…

  14. Lifelong Learning: Thematic Bibliography. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This seventh publication in the Eurydice European Unit series of thematic bibliographies draws attention to a selection of publications on the topic of lifelong learning. This annotated bibliography lists 268 books, articles, publications, and reports that have appeared since 1994. Some earlier items of published literature of special historical…

  15. Flexible Studies as Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugge, Liv Susanne; Wikan, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Many countries face a challenge in recruiting teachers. At the same time, the labour market is changing and the demand for re-education is increasing. In this situation, lifelong learning is seen as relevant and higher education institutions are asked to offer flexible and decentralised study programmes in order to accommodate the need for formal…

  16. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  17. Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Allen

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

  18. The Anabolic 500 survey: characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids for strength training.

    PubMed

    Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Perry, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    To contrast the characteristics of two groups of men who participated in strength-training exercise-those who reported anabolicandrogenic steroid (AAS) use versus those who reported no AAS use. Analysis of data from the Anabolic 500, a cross-sectional survey. Five hundred six male self-reported AAS users (mean age 29.3 yrs) and 771 male self-reported nonusers of AAS (mean age 25.2 yrs) who completed an online survey between February 19 and June 30, 2009. Respondents were recruited from Internet discussion boards of 38 fitness, bodybuilding, weightlifting, and steroid Web sites. The respondents provided online informed consent and completed the Anabolic 500, a 99-item Web-based survey. Data were collected on demographics, use of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents, alcohol and illicit drug use, substance dependence disorder, other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses, and history of sexual and/or physical abuse. Most (70.4%) of the AAS users were recreational exercisers who reported using an average of 11.1 performance-enhancing agents in their routine. Compared with nonusers, the AAS users were more likely to meet criteria for substance dependence disorder (23.4% vs 11.2%, p<0.001), report a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (10.1% vs 6.1%, p=0.010), use cocaine within the past 12 months (11.3% vs 4.7%, p<0.001), and report a history of sexual abuse (6.1% vs 2.7%, p=0.005). Most of the AAS users in this study were recreational exercisers who practiced polypharmacy. The AAS users were more likely than nonusers to meet criteria for substance dependence disorder, report a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, report recent cocaine use, and have a history of sexual abuse. The information uncovered in this study may help clinicians and researchers develop appropriate intervention strategies for AAS abuse.

  19. The influence of resistance training experience on the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes.

    PubMed

    Weakley, Jonathon; Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Jones, Ben

    2017-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes, while considering resistance training experience. Data were collected on 25 male athletes over two testing sessions, with 72 hours rest between, for the 3RM front squat, chin up and bench press. Subjects were initially categorized by resistance training experience (inexperienced; 6-12 months, experienced; >2 years). The assessment of the between-day reliability (coefficient of variation [CV%]) showed the front squat (experienced: 2.90%; inexperienced: 1.90%), chin up (experienced: 1.70%; inexperienced: 1.90%), and bench press (experienced: 4.50%; inexperienced: 2.40%) were all reliable measures of strength in both groups. Comparison between groups for the error of measurement for each exercise showed trivial differences. When both groups were combined, the CV% for the front squat, bench press, and chin up were 2.50%, 1.80%, and 3.70%, respectively. This study provides scientists and practitioners with the between-day reliability reference data to determine real and practical changes for strength in male youth athletes with different resistance training experience. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that 3RM front squat, chin up and bench press are reliable exercises to quantify strength in male youth athletes.

  20. Lifelong Learning Strategies and Practice in Latvia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Ineta; Sungsri, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning has been recognized for many years and consequently many countries, disregarding their geographical location, differences in education systems and traditions, have adopted their lifelong learning policies to develop the lifelong learning system. The goal of the present comparative research is to study the…

  1. Towards an Integrated Approach for Research on Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred; Sloep, Peter B.; J. Caniels, Marjolein C.

    2009-01-01

    There is little dispute that lifelong learning is essential to the further development of the knowledge society. Nonetheless, lifelong learning is not reaching its full potential because the currently used approaches to lifelong learning are too fragmented and, often, formal approaches to education and learning are simply "translated" from initial…

  2. Lifelong Learning: An Instrument for Improving School Education in Japan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawano, Yukiko

    Although Japanese society has long valued and practiced lifelong learning, it has not yet been successful in building an ethic that prizes learning, teaches creativity, and includes everyone. Bureaucratic and legal mechanisms undertaken in Japan to promote lifelong learning have included the establishment of Lifelong Learning Councils, a system…

  3. Lifelong Learning Strategies and Practice in Latvia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Ineta; Sungsri, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning has been recognized for many years and consequently many countries, disregarding their geographical location, differences in education systems and traditions, have adopted their lifelong learning policies to develop the lifelong learning system. The goal of the present comparative research is to study the…

  4. Articulation and Transfer: Critical Contributions to Lifelong Learning -- Discussion Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    This document is a discussion supplement to Frederick Kintzer's paper in the book: "Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices and Programs." It is designed as a contribution to the third discussion session: Participation Issues and Lifelong Learning. The introduction provides definitions and a description of the rise of lifelong learning…

  5. Temporal dynamics of the circadian heart rate following low and high volume exercise training in sedentary male subjects.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Karmakar, C; Kiviniemi, A M; Hautala, A J; Tulppo, M P; Mäkikallio, T H; Huikuri, H V; Khandoker, A H; Palaniswami, M

    2015-10-01

    Increased risk of arrhythmic events occurs at certain times during the circadian cycle with the highest risk being in the second and fourth quarter of the day. Exercise improves treatment outcome in individuals with cardiovascular disease. How different exercise protocols affect the circadian rhythm and the associated decrease in adverse cardiovascular risk over the circadian cycle has not been shown. Fifty sedentary male participants were randomized into an 8-week high volume and moderate volume training and a control group. Heart rate was recorded using Polar Electronics and investigated with Cosinor analysis and by Poincaré plot derived features of SD1, SD2 and the complex correlation measure (CCM) at 1-h intervals over the 24-h period. Moderate exercise significantly increased vagal modulation and the temporal dynamics of the heart rate in the second quarter of the circadian cycle (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007 respectively). High volume exercise had a similar effect on vagal output (p = 0.003) and temporal dynamics (p = 0.003). Cosinor analysis confirms that the circadian heart rate displays a shift in the acrophage following moderate and high volume exercise from before waking (1st quarter) to after waking (2nd quarter of day). Our results suggest that exercise shifts vagal influence and increases temporal dynamics of the heart rate to the 2nd quarter of the day and suggest that this may be the underlying physiological change leading to a decrease in adverse arrhythmic events during this otherwise high-risk period.

  6. Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs Principles of Lifelong Learning in Pediatric Medicine.

    PubMed

    Opipari, Valerie P; Daniels, Stephen R; Wilmott, Robert W; Jacobs, Richard F

    2016-11-01

    Pediatric general and subspecialty care requires continuous effort to maintain knowledge and competencies in clinical practice. Equally important are efforts by investigators and educators to maintain knowledge and competencies in the conduct of research and training. The Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs initiated a survey in July 2015 to define principles of lifelong learning in pediatric medicine and determine the approaches and strategies used by chairs to assess knowledge and competence across the care, research, and teaching missions. A total of 101 of 142 chairs (71%) completed the survey. Six of 7 proposed principles were endorsed by 84% to 96% of Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs members. The focus areas included individual accountability, individually relevant activities, use of evidence-based guidelines/national standards, gaining cognitive expertise, learning as a continuous effort, affordability, and focus on individual understanding. The chairs endorsed a requirement for evidence of lifelong learning, competence, and compliance by all faculty members in clinical (n = 89 [88%]), research (n = 63 [62%]), and educational (n = 85 [84%]) practice. The survey identified the strategies to assess lifelong learning and faculty competence and compliance in clinical, research, and educational roles. Across missions, chairs endorsed an expectation for individual responsibility supplemented by formal evaluation practices and institutional and regulatory office oversight. While chairs endorsed an important role for the American Board of Pediatrics in assessing and verifying lifelong learning, knowledge, and competence in general and specialty certification, most (n = 91 [90%]) endorsed a need to revise current board requirements to better emphasize closing gaps in knowledge and using approaches that are evidence-based. This study provides the perspectives of pediatric department chairs on principles

  7. Acute Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Function of High-Intensity Interval Training in Collegiate Male Soccer Players with Different Chronotype: A Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Matteo; Agnello, Luca; Galasso, Letizia; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Vitale, Jacopo A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8 2 hours), or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours) training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympatho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete’s chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high-intensity interval training

  8. The Effect of a Combined High-Intensity Plyometric and Speed Training Program on the Running and Jumping Ability of Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Monsef; Said, Mohamed; Chaatani, Sana; Nejlaoui, Olfa; Gomri, Daghbaji; Abdallah, Aouidet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program including sprint repetitions and drop jump training in the same session on male handball players. Methods Twenty-two male handball players aged more than 20 years were assigned into 2 groups: experimental group (n=11) and control group (n=11). Selection was based on variables “axis” and “lines”, goalkeepers were not included. The experimental group was subjected to 2 testing periods (test and retest) separated by 12 weeks of an additional combined plyometric and running speed training program. The control group performed the usual handball training. The testing period comprised, at the first day, a medical checking, anthropometric measurements and an incremental exercise test called yo-yo intermittent recovery test. 2 days later, participants performed the Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA), and performed the Jumping Performance using 3 different events: Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA), and Drop jump (DJ). At the end of the training period, participants performed again the repeated sprint ability test, and the jumping performance. Results The conventional combined program improved the explosive force ability of handball players in CMJ (P=0.01), CMJA (P=0.01) and DJR (P=0.03). The change was 2.78, 2.42 and 2.62% respectively. No significant changes were noted in performances of the experimental group at the squat jump test and the drop jump with the left leg test. The training intervention also improved the running speed ability of the experimental group (P=0.003). No statistical differences were observed between lines or axes. Conclusion Additional combined training program between sprint repetition and vertical jump in the same training session positively influence the jumping ability and the sprint ability of handball players. PMID:22461962

  9. Health service provider education and/or training in infant male circumcision to improve short- and long-term morbidity outcomes: protocol for systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Thomas; Strobel, Natalie; McAuley, Kimberley; Shannon, Caitlin; Newton, Sam; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Forbes, David; Edmond, Karen

    2016-03-01

    There has been an expansion of circumcision services in Africa as part of a long-term HIV prevention strategy. However, the effect of infant male circumcision on morbidity and mortality still remains unclear. Acute morbidities associated with circumcision include pain, bleeding, swelling, infection, tetanus or inadequate skin removal. Scale-up of circumcision services could lead to a rise in these associated morbidities that could have significant impact on health service delivery and the safety of infants. Multidisciplinary training programmes have been developed to improve skills of health service providers, but very little is known about the effectiveness of health service provider education and/or training for infant male circumcision on short- and long-term morbidity outcomes. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of health service provider education and/or training for infant male circumcision on short- and long-term morbidity outcomes. The review will include studies comparing health service providers who have received education and/or training to improve their skills for infant male circumcision with those who have not received education and/or training. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs will be included. The outcomes of interest are short-term morbidities of the male infant including pain, infection, tetanus, bleeding, excess skin removal, glans amputation and fistula. Long-term morbidities include urinary tract infection (UTI), HIV infection and abnormalities of urination. Databases such as MEDLINE (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL, Cochrane Library (including CENTRAL and DARE), WHO databases and reference list of papers will be searched for relevant articles. Study selection, data extraction and synthesis and risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool will be conducted. We will calculate the pooled estimates of the difference in means and risk ratios using random effects models. If

  10. Sports-specific adaptation of left ventricular muscle mass in athlete's heart. I. An echocardiographic study with combined isometric and dynamic exercise trained athletes (male and female rowers).

    PubMed

    Urhausen, A; Monz, T; Kindermann, W

    1996-11-01

    The differentiation of the physiological left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy of the athlete's heart in opposition to a pathological finding may be problematic especially in both strength and endurance trained athletes with simultaneously large body dimensions: 64 male and 71 female rowers of regional up to national level were examined by (Doppler) echocardiography. In addition, the rowers were compared by matched-pair procedures both with 32 male and 30 female non-endurance trained (pairwise similar body surface area) and with 28 male endurance athletes (pairwise similar absolute heart volume). The so-called critical heart weight of 500 g was exceeded by 63% of the male and 11% of the female rowers. 9% of the male rowers showed even an LV muscle mass above the limit of 3.5 g.kg-1 body mass. The individual maximal body surface area-related values were 170 g.m-2 (men) and 133 g.m-2 (women). The LV enddiastolic internal diameter was measured to be above the upper clinical limit of 55 mm in 69% or 23% of the male and female rowers, although a maximal LV wall thickness of 14 or 13 mm, respectively, was never exceeded. The systolic LV function as well as ECG and blood pressure did not reveal any pathological findings, the diastolic LV function was measured within the (supra) normal range. The LV wall thicknesses, internal diameter and hypertrophic index (relation between wall thickness and internal diameter) were significantly higher in rowers than in non-endurance trained subjects, but similar if compared to the endurance athletes. The clinical limits, however, keep their validity until a body mass of about 70 kg. In conclusion, some upper absolute clinical limits, especially those referring to volume measurements, so far considered critical (LV internal diameter, heart weight and LV mass), may be clearly exceeded by healthy strength endurance trained athletes presenting high body dimensions. The LV wall thickness, however, rather exceptionally exceeded the clinical

  11. The Physiological and Health Response Elicited in 10,701 Females and Males Following a Nine Week Fast Fitness Circuit Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    This study sought to determine the changes elicited following 9 weeks of fast fitness circuit training 4 days a week. Data were gathered for a 3-year time period on 5,993 female and 4,708 male volunteer subjects with a mean age of 27.6. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. The independent variable consisted of 24 exercise stations equally…

  12. Effects of swim training on liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats fed a low-fat or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aguiar e Silva, Marco Aurélio; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan José; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Azevedo, Luciana; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of swim training on the promotion-progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were submitted to chemically induced liver carcinogenesis and allocated into 4 major groups, according their dietary regimen (16 weeks) and swim training of 5 days per week (8 weeks): 2 groups were fed low-fat diet (LFD, 6% fat) and trained or not trained and 2 groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) and trained or not trained. At week 20, the animals were killed and liver samples were processed for histological analyses; immunohistochemical detection of persistent or remodeling preneoplastic lesions (pPNL and rPNL) expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) enzyme; or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein levels by Western blotting or malonaldehyde (MDA) and total glutathione detection by HPLC. Overall analysis indicated that swim training reduced the body weight and body fat in both LFD and HFD groups, normalized total cholesterol levels in the HFD group while decreased the MDA levels, increased glutathione levels and both number of GST-P-positive pPNL and hepatocellular adenomas in LFD group. Also, a favorable balance in PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 levels was detected in the liver from the LFD-trained group in relation to LFD-untrained group. The findings of this study indicate that the swim training protocol as a result of exercise postconditioning may attenuate liver carcinogenesis under an adequate dietary regimen with lowered fat intake.

  13. Contingency-based emotional resilience: effort-based reward training and flexible coping lead to adaptive responses to uncertainty in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kelly G.; Hyer, Molly M.; Rzucidlo, Amanda A.; Bergeron, Timothy; Landis, Timothy; Bardi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Emotional resilience enhances an animal's ability to maintain physiological allostasis and adaptive responses in the midst of challenges ranging from cognitive uncertainty to chronic stress. In the current study, neurobiological factors related to strategic responses to uncertainty produced by prediction errors were investigated by initially profiling male rats as passive, active or flexible copers (n = 12 each group) and assigning to either a contingency-trained or non-contingency trained group. Animals were subsequently trained in a spatial learning task so that problem solving strategies in the final probe task, as well-various biomarkers of brain activation and plasticity in brain areas associated with cognition and emotional regulation, could be assessed. Additionally, fecal samples were collected to further determine markers of stress responsivity and emotional resilience. Results indicated that contingency-trained rats exhibited more adaptive responses in the probe trial (e.g., fewer interrupted grooming sequences and more targeted search strategies) than the noncontingent-trained rats; additionally, increased DHEA/CORT ratios were observed in the contingent-trained animals. Diminished activation of the habenula (i.e., fos-immunoreactivity) was correlated with resilience factors such as increased levels of DHEA metabolites during cognitive training. Of the three coping profiles, flexible copers exhibited enhanced neuroplasticity (i.e., increased dentate gyrus doublecortin-immunoreactivity) compared to the more consistently responding active and passive copers. Thus, in the current study, contingency training via effort-based reward (EBR) training, enhanced by a flexible coping style, provided neurobiological resilience and adaptive responses to prediction errors in the final probe trial. These findings have implications for psychiatric illnesses that are influenced by altered stress responses and decision-making abilities (e.g., depression). PMID:24808837

  14. The effects of periodized concurrent and aerobic training on oxidative stress parameters, endothelial function and immune response in sedentary male individuals of middle age.

    PubMed

    Schaun, Maximiliano Isoppo; Dipp, Thiago; Rossato, Juliane da Silva; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei; Rech, Anderson; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2011-10-01

    The vascular endothelium plays a key role in arterial wall homeostasis by preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation. A primary causal factor of endothelial dysfunction is the reactive oxygen species. Aerobic exercise is ascribed as an important adjuvant therapy in endothelium-dependent cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of concurrent (aerobic + strength) training on that. For a comparison of the effects of aerobic and concurrent physical training on endothelial function, oxidative stress parameters and the immunoinflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages, 20 adult male volunteers of middle age were divided into a concurrent training (CT) programme group and an aerobic training group. The glutathione disulphide to glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH) and plasma lipoperoxide (LPO) levels, as well as flow-mediated dilation (FMD), monocyte/macrophage functional activity (zymosan phagocytosis), body lipid profiles, aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake) and strength parameters (one-repetition maximum test), were measured before and after the exercise training programmes. The CT exhibited reduced acute effects of exercise on the GSSG/GSH ratio, plasma LPO levels and zymosan phagocytosis. The CT also displayed improved lipid profiles, glycaemic control, maximal oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum test values. In both the aerobic training and the CT, training improved the acute responses to exercise, as inferred from a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratios. The aerobic sessions did not alter basal levels of plasma LPO or macrophage phagocytic activity but improved FMD values as well as lipid profiles and glycaemic control. In summary, both training programmes improve systemic redox status and antioxidant defences. However, the aerobic training was more efficient in improving FMD in the individuals studied.

  15. Lifelong literacy: Some trends and issues in conceptualising and operationalising literacy from a lifelong learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire basic competencies through formal schooling. Within a lifelong learning framework, literacy and numeracy are viewed as foundation skills which are the core of basic education and indispensable to full participation in society. This article discusses recent developments in conceptualising literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. Starting from the evolving notions of adult literacy, the author identifies some current trends, the most important being that literacy is now perceived as a learning continuum of different proficiency levels. Dichotomous states of being either "literate" or "illiterate" no longer apply. She analyses (1) findings extracted from UNESCO Member States' national reports submitted to the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) for the 2nd Global Report on Adult Learning and Education; (2) a desk study of national literacy campaigns and programmes as well as (3) some recent developments in formal education. Her suggested three-dimensional analytical framework considers literacy as a lifelong and life-wide learning process and as part of lifelong learning systems. She draws a number of conclusions for policy and practice of literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. These conclusions are a timely contribution to the ongoing post-2015 education debate, in particular to the challenge of how to mainstream youth and adult literacy into the implementation of the sustainable development agenda for 2015-2030.

  16. The Effect of Standard Strength vs. Contrast Strength Training on the Development of Sprint, Agility, Repeated Change of Direction, and Jump in Junior Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2017-04-01

    Hammami, M, Negra, Y, Shephard, RJ, and Chelly, MS. The effect of standard strength vs. contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 901-912, 2017-The aim was to compare the impact of 2 differing strength training (ST) programs on the athletic performance of junior male soccer players at a critical phase during their competitive season. Participants aged 16.0 ± 0.5 years were randomly assigned between control (C, n = 12), standard ST (n = 16), and contrast strength training (CST, n = 16), each performed twice a week. Athletic performance was assessed before and after the intervention using 8 tests: 40-m sprint, 4 × 5-m sprint (S4 × 5), 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with 180° turns (S180°), 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running (SBF), repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSSA), repeated change of direction (RCOD), squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ). The control group's (CG) performance tended to improve in some tests and decrease in others, but these changes were not statistically significant. Both training programs enhanced all sprint performances relative to controls (p ≤ 0.05). The strength training group (SG) and the CST group (CSG) increased significantly in S180°, SBF, and S4 × 5 relative to CG, although the S4 × 5 also increased in CSG relative to SG (p ≤ 0.05). No intergroup difference of RSSA performance was observed. The RCOD parameters increased significantly in CSG relative to both SG and CG (p ≤ 0.05). The SJ and CMJ height increased significantly in both experimental groups (p < 0.000). We conclude that during the competitive season, some measures of athletic performance in male soccer players were increased more by 8 weeks of CST than by ST.

  17. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  18. Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Wesam Saleh A; Soomro, Najeebullah; Pappas, Evangelos; Sinclair, Peter J; Sanders, Ross H

    2017-09-20

    Does adding a post-training Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduce injury rates among male amateur soccer players? Cluster-randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation. Twenty-one teams of male amateur soccer players aged 14 to 35 years were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=10 teams, 160 players) or the control group (n=11 teams, 184 players). Both groups performed pre-training FIFA 11+ exercises for 20minutes. The experimental group also performed post-training FIFA 11+ exercises for 10minutes. The primary outcomes measures were incidence of overall injury, incidence of initial and recurrent injury, and injury severity. The secondary outcome measure was compliance to the experimental intervention (pre and post FIFA 11+ program) and the control intervention (pre FIFA 11+ program). During one season, 26 injuries (team mean=0.081 injuries/1000 exposure hours, SD=0.064) were reported in the experimental group, and 82 injuries were reported in the control group (team mean=0.324 injuries/1000hours, SD=0.084). Generalised Estimating Equations were applied with an intention-to-treat analysis. The pre and post FIFA 11+ program reduced the total number of injuries (χ(2) (1)=11.549, p=0.001) and the incidence of initial injury (χ(2) (2)=8.987, p=0.003) significantly more than the pre FIFA 11+ program alone. However, the odds of suffering a recurrent injury were not different between the two groups (χ(2) (1)=2.350, p=0.125). Moreover, the severity level of injuries was not dependent upon whether or not the pre and post FIFA 11+ program was implemented (χ(2) (1)=0.016, p=0.898). Implementation of the FIFA 11+ program pre-training and post-training reduced overall injury rates in male amateur soccer players more than the pre FIFA 11+ program alone. ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017) Adding a post-training

  19. Can resistance training change the strength, body composition and self-concept of overweight and obese adolescent males? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Parletta, Natalie; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is an exercise modality at which overweight and obese adolescents can excel and which can therefore positively affect their psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 6-month resistance training intervention on the self-concept strength and body composition of overweight and obese adolescent males. 56 overweight and obese males aged 13-17 years were randomly allocated to an Intervention (n=30) or Control (n=26) group. Primary (psychological) and secondary (strength and body composition) outcomes were assessed at baseline as well as at 3 (halfway through the intervention), 6 (immediately postintervention) and 12 months follow-up. Random effects mixed modelling was used to determine the effects of the intervention. Statistically significant differences between the Intervention and Control groups were observed at 3-month and 6-month assessments for exercise self-efficacy, resistance training confidence and self-esteem. Large increases in strength for the Intervention group, relative to Controls, were also observed with no substantial changes in body composition shown for either group. Values for all variables returned to baseline following completion of the programme. A 6-month resistance training intervention can positively affect the self-concept and strength of overweight and obese adolescent boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Measurement and correlates of physicians' lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Veloski, J Jon; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2009-08-01

    To examine the psychometric properties and correlates of an instrument to measure physicians' orientation toward lifelong learning with attention to differences between full-time and academic clinicians. The authors mailed a survey in 2006 to a national sample of 5,349 alumni of Jefferson Medical College who graduated between 1975 and 2000; 3,195 (60%) responded. The respondents were classified as full-time clinicians (n = 1,127) and academic clinicians (n = 1,612). The other 456 respondents were involved in administration or research. The revised Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JeffSPLL) was included in the survey. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and analysis of variance were used to examine the construct- and criterion-related validities of the scale. Factor analysis of the JeffSPLL items resulted in three factors designated as "learning beliefs and motivation," "attention to learning opportunities," and "skills in seeking information," which supported its construct validity. Alpha reliability coefficients were 0.85 and 0.86, and test-retest reliability coefficients were 0.72 and 0.77 for full-time clinicians and academic clinicians, respectively. For full-time clinicians and academic clinicians, scores on the JeffSPLL were significantly (P < .01) correlated with measures of learning motivation, professional accomplishments, career satisfaction, and commitment to lifelong learning, which supported the criterion-related validity of the scale. The findings indicate that the JeffSPLL is a psychometrically sound instrument that measures physicians' orientation toward lifelong learning among full-time clinicians and academic clinicians. The instrument can be used to monitor educational programs, assess educational outcomes, and examine group differences.

  1. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players

    PubMed Central

    Heke, TOL; Keogh, JWL

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength. PMID:27274103

  2. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Crewther, B T; Heke, Tol; Keogh, Jwl

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength.

  3. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3 supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Moatari, Maryam; Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Herein, we studied the effects of two different exercise protocols on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels along with the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) consumption along with two different types of physical activities on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels in trained male mice. Methods: A total of 130 adult male mice of Syrian race with the age of 2 months and the weight of 35±1 grams were selected. At the beginning, 10 mice were killed in order to determine the amounts of pre-test variables. The rest of the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group (n=20), supplement (n=20), aerobic exercise (n=20), anaerobic exercise (n=20), supplementaerobic exercise (n=20), and supplement-anaerobic exercise (n=20). Blood samples were withdrawn from the tail under intraperitoneal ketamine and xylasine anaesthesia. The anaerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 3 sessions per week; the aerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 5 sessions per week. At the end of the training program, the blood sample from each group was taken in order to measure the CRP and IL-17 levels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences among the groups. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in IL-17 and CRP plasma levels between the groups after 8 weeks (P<0.05). Conclusion: Following the two different training programs, both IL-17 and CRP plasma levels increased, although these observed increases were not same for two measured variables. The results might also show that the effect of the supplement depends on the type of training. PMID:26793627

  4. The Effect of Concurrent Plyometric Training Versus Submaximal Aerobic Cycling on Rowing Economy, Peak Power, and Performance in Male High School Rowers.

    PubMed

    Egan-Shuttler, Julian D; Edmonds, Rohan; Eddy, Cassandra; O'Neill, Veronica; Ives, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Plyometric training has been shown to increase muscle power, running economy, and performance in athletes. Despite its use by rowing coaches, it is unknown whether plyometrics might improve rowing economy or performance. The purpose was to determine if plyometric training, in conjunction with training on the water, would lead to improved rowing economy and performance. Eighteen male high school rowers were assigned to perform 4 weeks of either plyometric training (PLYO, n = 9) or steady-state cycling below ventilatory threshold (endurance, E, n = 9), for 30 min prior to practice on the water (matched for training volume) 3 days per week. Rowing performance was assessed through a 500-m rowing time trial (TT) and peak rowing power (RP), while rowing economy (RE) was assessed by measuring the oxygen cost over four work rates (90, 120, 150, and 180 W). Rowing economy was improved in both PLYO and E (p < 0.05). The 500-m TT performance improved significantly for PLYO (from 99.8 ± 9 s to 94.6 ± 2 s, p < 0.05) but not for E (from 98.8 ± 6 s to 98.7 ± 5 s, p > 0.05). Finally, RP was moderately higher in the PLYO group post-training (E 569 ± 75 W, PLYO 629 ± 51 W, ES = 0.66) CONCLUSIONS: In a season when the athletes performed no rowing sprint training, 4 weeks of plyometric training improved the 500-m rowing performance and moderately improved peak power. This increase in performance may have been mediated by moderate improvements in rowing power, but not economy, and warrants further investigation.

  5. Exercise training in late middle-aged male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1-hybrid rats improves skeletal muscle aerobic function.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Baker, David J; Krause, Daniel J; McConkey, Marina J; Hepple, Russell T

    2008-07-01

    The Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1-hybrid (F344BN) rat has become an increasingly popular and useful strain for studying age-related declines in skeletal muscle function because this strain lives long enough to experience significant declines in muscle mass. Since exercise is often considered a mechanism to combat age-related declines in muscle function, determining the utility of this strain of rat for studying the effects of exercise on the ageing process is necessary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasticity of skeletal muscle aerobic function in late middle-aged male rats following 7 weeks of treadmill exercise training. Training consisted of 60 min per day, 5 days per week with velocity gradually increasing over the training period according to the capabilities of individual rats. The final 3 weeks involved 2 min high-intensity intervals to increase the training stimulus. We used in situ skeletal muscle aerobic metabolic responses and in vitro assessment of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity to describe the adaptations of aerobic function from the training. Training increased running endurance from 11.3 +/- 0.6 to 15.5 +/- 0.8 min, an improvement of approximately 60%. Similarly, distal hindlimb muscles from trained rats exhibited a higher maximal oxygen consumption in situ (23.2 +/- 1.3 versus 19.7 +/- 0.8 mumol min(-1) for trained versus sedentary rats, respectively) and greater citrate synthase and complex IV enzyme activities in gastrocnemius (29 and 19%, respectively) and plantaris muscles (24 and 28%, respectively) compared with age-matched sedentary control animals. Our results demonstrate that skeletal muscles from late middle-aged rats adapt to treadmill exercise by improving skeletal muscle aerobic function and mitochondrial enzyme activities. This rat strain seems suitable for further investigations using exercise as an intervention to combat ageing-related declines of skeletal muscle aerobic function.

  6. Acute Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Function of High-Intensity Interval Training in Collegiate Male Soccer Players with Different Chronotype: A Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Matteo; Agnello, Luca; Galasso, Letizia; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Vitale, Jacopo A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8 2 hours), or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours) training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympatho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete's chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high-intensity interval training

  7. Vocational Education in Transition: A Seven-Country Study of Curricula for Lifelong Vocational Learning. UIE Case Studies 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loose, Gert; And Others

    This study compares vocational education programs in seven countries in order to evaluate the different elements of a comprehensive approach to education for work that reaches beyond isolated skill training. Despite their divergence in scope and intention, a common feature of these programs is that they endorse the approach of lifelong vocational…

  8. Swimming with the (Main) Stream? The Relationship of Adult Education and the Lifelong Learning Agenda in Post-Devolution UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowey, Maria

    2004-01-01

    For a decade or so the policy debate on post-school education and training across OECD countries has been shaped to a considerable extent by the associated, although distinct, concepts of lifelong learning and the learning society. Developments in the UK have both reflected this trend and contributed to pushing forward these notions. The plethora…

  9. The "Conveyor Belt Effect": A Re-Assessment of the Impact of National Targets for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil; Rees, Gareth

    Although the National Targets for Education and Training in England and Wales include indicators for lifelong learning, and the progress towards the targets set for these indicators has been lauded by politicians and other observers, much of this apparent progress is actually accounted for by changes in these same indicators. However, once the…

  10. Five-week sensory motor training program improves functional performance and postural control in young male soccer players - A blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Lucas Rafael; da Silva, Rubens A; Shigaki, Leonardo; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Coelho Candido, Cristiane Regina; Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Frisseli, Ariobaldo; Macedo, Christiane de S Guerino

    2016-11-01

    Sensory motor training programs are used in the rehabilitation and prevention of injuries among soccer players. Inconsistencies are found in the literature regarding the duration of the protocols and the exercises and equipment used. To evaluate the benefits of a five-week sensory motor training program on the functional performance and postural control of young soccer players. The study sample comprised 22 young male soccer players who were evaluated using: the Figure-of-Eight Test (F8), Side Hop Test (SHT), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and a force platform. The players were randomly divided into a control group (N = 10), who continued their soccer practice sessions and an intervention group (N = 12), who continued their soccer practice sessions and were also enrolled in a supervised five-week sensory motor training program. After the five-week training program, the intervention group obtained significant results in the F8, SHT and SEBT, as well as in the following parameters: area of pressure of sway center (COP), mean velocity and mean frequency of COP. The five-week sensory motor training program, carried out with easily available and low cost equipment, was effective at improving functional performance and postural control in young soccer players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of training judo in the competition period on the plasmatic levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in high-performance male athletes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Donizete Cicero Xavier; Rossano Procida, Izildinha; das Neves Borges-Silva, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose this study was to evaluate the effect of training judo in the competition period on the plasmatic levels of bioactive molecules in high-performance male athletes. The subjects were divided into two groups, a trained group with 11 judokas and a nontrained group also with 11 subjects. Blood samples obtained 60 h after training to measure plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and leptin levels. The trained group presented a significant reduction in the percentage of fat and fat mass and an increase in the lumbar and lower limbs traction forces and the maximum VO(2) when compared to the nontrained group. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6 between the two groups. The trained group presented a lower concentration of leptin, both as absolute values as well as relative to the percentage of fat, and a higher concentration of MCP-1, in relation to the nontrained group. Our results suggest an adaptation in the capacity of synthesizing and secreting leptin in response to chronic stress in judo, what suggests a neuro-hormonal adjustment that guarantees the efficiency of metabolism. The changes of MCP-1 indicated a possible inflammatory state.

  12. Endurance training upregulates the nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway in the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Chrapusta, Stanisław J; Lukačova, Nadežda; Langfort, Józef

    2015-08-27

    The nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/sGC/cGMP) brain pathway plays an important role in motor control. We studied the effects of 6-week endurance training (running) of moderate intensity on this pathway by comparing, between sedentary and endurance-trained young adult male Wistar rats, the expression of endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) NO synthases and of α1, α2 and β1 GC subunits, as well as cGMP levels, in the brain cortex, hippocampus, striatum, midbrain and cerebellum. Additionally, we compared the respective regional expressions of BDNF and the BDNF receptor TrkB. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, the endurance-trained rats showed 3-fold higher spontaneous locomotor activity than their sedentary counterparts in an open-field test. Forty-eight hours after the completion of the training, the trained rats showed significantly elevated BDNF and TrKB mRNAs in the hippocampus, midbrain and striatum, and significantly increased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Simultaneously, significant increases were found in mRNA and protein levels and activities of nNOS and eNOS as well as in mRNA and protein levels of GCα2 and GCβ1, but not GCα1, in the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum; no change in these variables was found in the cortex and hippocampus except for marked elevations in cortical GCβ1 mRNA and protein. Changes in regional cGMP levels paralleled those in eNOS, nNOS and GCα2 expression and NOSs' activities. These results suggest that favorable extrapyramidal motor effects of physical training are related to the enhanced activity of the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway in certain motor control-related subcortical brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PGC-1α transcriptional response and mitochondrial adaptation to acute exercise is maintained in skeletal muscle of sedentary elderly males.

    PubMed

    Cobley, J N; Bartlett, J D; Kayani, A; Murray, S W; Louhelainen, J; Donovan, T; Waldron, S; Gregson, W; Burniston, J G; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ageing and training status on (1) markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and (2) the ability to activate the acute signalling pathways associated with regulating exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of young untrained (24 ± 4 years, n = 6; YU), young trained (22 ± 3 years, n = 6; YT), old untrained (65 ± 6 years, n = 6; OU) and old trained (64 ± 3 years, n = 6; OT) healthy males before and after (3 h and 3 days post-exercise) completion of high-intensity interval cycling exercise. In resting muscle, lifelong training preserved mtDNA, PGC-1α and COXIV protein content such that muscles from OT individuals were comparable to muscles from both YU and YT individuals, whereas lifelong sedentary behaviour reduced such markers of mitochondrial content. Regardless of age or training status, acute exercise induced comparable increases in p38MAPK phosphorylation immediately post-exercise, PGC-1α and COXIV mRNA expression at 3 h post-exercise and COXIV protein at 3 days post-exercise. Data demonstrate that lifelong endurance training preserves skeletal muscle PGC-1α content and that despite the mitochondrial dysfunction typically observed with sedentary ageing, muscles from sedentary elderly individuals retain the capacity to activate the acute signalling pathways associated with regulating the early processes of mitochondrial biogenesis. We consider our data to have immediate translational potential as they highlight the potential therapeutic effects of exercise to induce skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis persist late in adulthood, even after a lifetime of physical inactivity.

  14. Measuring medical students' orientation toward lifelong learning: a psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Angela P; Mazmanian, Paul E; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Kreutzer, Kathleen O; Carrico, Robert J; Carr, Caroline; Veloski, Jon; Rafiq, Azhar

    2010-10-01

    The principle of lifelong learning is pervasive in regulations governing medical education and medical practice; yet, tools to measure lifelong learning are lagging in development. This study evaluates the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JeffSPLL) adapted for administration to medical students. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning-Medical Students (JeffSPLL-MS) was administered to 732 medical students in four classes. Factor analysis and t tests were performed to investigate its construct validity. Maximum likelihood factor analysis identified a three-factor solution explaining 46% of total variance. Mean scores of clinical and preclinical students were compared; clinical students scored significantly higher in orientation toward lifelong learning (P < .001). The JeffSPLL-MS presents findings consistent with key concepts of lifelong learning. Results from use of the JeffSPLL-MS may reliably inform curriculum design and education policy decisions that shape the careers of physicians.

  15. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  16. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content. PMID:25114739

  17. Androgen receptors in Purkinje neurons are modulated by systemic testosterone and sexual training in a region-specific manner in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Toledo, Rebeca; Garcia, Luis I; Perez-Estudillo, Cesar A; Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Carrillo, Porfirio; Manzo, Jorge

    2016-03-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a widely distributed molecule indicating the spread actions of its ligand steroid, and plays an important role underlying male sexual behavior. Nevertheless, the influence of steroid hormones and their receptors on cerebellar neurons, as foundation of sexual behavior, is largely unknown. We sought to determine the influence of peripheral hormones on the AR expression in Purkinje neurons across cerebellar lobules in the vermis of male rats. First, we found a basal AR expression in Purkinje neurons that was higher in the superficial region than the deep region only in cerebellar lobules 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. Moreover, only the cerebellar lobule 10 showed a significant difference between the coordinates 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Second, males with four sessions of sexual training showed a decreased AR density in cerebellar lobules 7, 8, 9 and 10, but not in lobules 2, 4 or 5 when compared to males with one session of sexual training. However, sexual training did not affect AR expression in Purkinje neurons according to their location in any of the cerebellar lobules studied. Third, castration decreased the AR density in the cerebellar lobules 1, 2, 5 and 9 in the superficial region, while in the deep region all cerebellar lobules, except lobule 6, showed a lower AR density after castration. Finally, testosterone replacement restored AR density to control levels in all cerebellar lobules in the superficial region that were affected by castration. Contrary, in the deep region hormonal replacement failed to restore the AR density to control level in the majority of the cerebellar lobules that were affected by castration. Altogether, our findings indicate that Purkinje neurons in the vermis are influenced by systemic testosterone in a region-dependent manner highlighting a link between the cerebellum and gonads in the male rat. The AR function in Purkinje neurons may be related to cerebellar plasticity since both estrogen and progesterone receptors

  18. Lifelong Exercise Patterns and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Martijn F H; Verbeek, André L M; Bakker, Esmée A; Thompson, Paul D; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2016-06-01

    To determine the relationship between lifelong exercise dose and the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity. From June 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014, 21,266 individuals completed an online questionnaire regarding their lifelong exercise patterns and cardiovascular health status. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) were defined as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or type 2 diabetes. Lifelong exercise patterns were measured over a median of 32 years for 405 patients with CVD, 1379 patients with CVRFs, and 10,656 controls. Participants were categorized into nonexercisers and quintiles (Q1-Q5) of exercise dose (metabolic equivalent task [MET] minutes per week). The CVD/CVRF prevalence was lower for each exercise quintile compared with nonexercisers (CVD: nonexercisers, 9.6% vs Q1: 4.4%, Q2: 2.8%, Q3: 2.4%, Q4: 3.6%, Q5: 3.9%; P<.001; CVRF: nonexercisers, 24.6% vs Q1: 13.8%, Q2: 10.2%, Q3: 9.0%, Q4: 9.4%, Q5: 12.0%; P<.001). The lowest exercise dose (Q1) significantly reduced CVD and CVRF prevalence, but the largest reductions were found at 764 to 1091 MET-min/wk for CVD (adjusted odds ratio=0.31; 95% CI, 0.20-0.48) and CVRFs (adjusted odds ratio=0.36; 95% CI, 0.28-0.47). The CVD/CVRF prevalence did not further decrease in higher exercise dose groups. Exercise intensity did not influence the relationship between exercise patterns and CVD or CVRFs. These findings demonstrate a curvilinear relationship between lifelong exercise patterns and cardiovascular morbidity. Low exercise doses can effectively reduce CVD/CVRF prevalence, but engagement in exercise for 764 to 1091 MET-min/wk is associated with the lowest CVD/CVRF prevalence. Higher exercise doses do not yield additional benefits. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifelong Learning for the Hand Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Hand surgeons are faced with the impossible task of mastering a rapidly expanding pool of knowledge and surgical techniques. Dedication to lifelong learning is, therefore, an essential component of delivering the best, most up-to-date care for patients. Board certification, participation in continuing medical education and maintenance of certification activities, and attendance at national meetings are essential mechanisms by which hand surgeons may foster the acquisition of essential knowledge and clinical skills, This article highlights the history, current status, and emerging needs in continuing medical education for the hand surgeon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by male and female footballers. Methods The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two‐season (August to December) prospective study involving American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all training injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Training exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. Results The overall incidence of training injuries for men was 3.34 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 3.01 on grass (incidence ratio 1.11; p = 0.21) and for women it was 2.60 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 2.79 on grass (incidence ratio 0.93; p = 0.46). For men, the mean severity of injuries that were not season ending injuries was 9.4 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 7.8 days (median 4) on grass and, for women, 10.5 days (median 4) on artificial turf and 10.0 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non‐bone)/ligament/cartilage and muscle/tendon injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most training injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 2.92, grass 2.63, p = 0.24; women: artificial turf 1.94, grass 2.23, p = 0.21) and resulted from player‐to‐player contact (men: artificial turf 1.08, grass 0.85, p = 0.10; women: artificial turf 0.47, grass 0.56; p = 0.45). Conclusions There were no major

  1. Lifelong Literacy: Some Trends and Issues in Conceptualising and Operationalising Literacy from a Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire…

  2. Confucian Educational Philosophy and Its Implication for Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, from historical and philosophical perspectives, presents Confucian education philosophy, a philosophy that is argued is a philosophy of lifelong learning. Examined and illustrated are the Confucian concepts of "Sage", a Confucian ideal human model, and "Jun Zi", a Confucian realistic educational result. Through "Sage", Confucius…

  3. Lifelong Literacy: Some Trends and Issues in Conceptualising and Operationalising Literacy from a Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire…

  4. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  5. Learning to Live: The Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which people with lifelong chronic illness engage with learning, and how learning impacts on the ways in which they learn to live with their illness. It considers their engagement with and changing focus of learning at different stages: prior to diagnosis, at about the time of diagnosis, and as their understanding…

  6. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  7. Learning to Live: The Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which people with lifelong chronic illness engage with learning, and how learning impacts on the ways in which they learn to live with their illness. It considers their engagement with and changing focus of learning at different stages: prior to diagnosis, at about the time of diagnosis, and as their understanding…

  8. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Darryn S.; Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG) axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC) or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p < 0.05). Criterion measures involved body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and gonadal hormone levels [free and total testosterone, luteininzing hormome (LH), gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), estradiol], and were assessed before (Day 0) and after (Day 29) resistance training and supplementation. No changes were noted for total body water and fat mass in response to resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p < 0.05), but were not affected by supplementation (p > 0.05). In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p < 0.05); however, supplementation had no effect (p > 0.05). All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin) were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. Key Points In response to 28 days of heavy resistance training and NMDA supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The

  9. Short-,moderate-, and long-term treadmill training protocols reduce plasma, fundus, but not small intestine ghrelin concentrations in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari-Niaki, A; Jafari, A; Moradi, M; Kraemer, R R

    2011-06-01

    It has been suggested that circulating ghrelin levels are upregulated by fasting, hypoglycemic status, and a physical exercise-induced energy deficit. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the timecourse adaptations of the plasma, fundus, and small intestine ghrelin concentrations as well as related hormones and liver ATP levels to 3, 6, and 12 weeks of treadmill endurance running. Thirty-nine male Wistar rats (12-14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 3 control (C3, no.=5; C6, no.=7 and C12, no.=7) and 3 training groups (E3, no.=6; E6, no.=7 and E12, no.=7). The rats in the 3 training groups were exercised on a motor-driven treadmill at 25 m/min (0% grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 3, 6, and 12 weeks, respectively. The animals were sacrificed 48 h after the last session of each training program and tissues were analyzed. Total ghrelin concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) lower in trained rat plasma and fundus tissue after all treadmill endurance running programs. Small intestine ghrelin concentrations remained unchanged. Plasma GH concentrations and liver ATP content were significantly higher in E6 and E12 groups. Data indicate that as little as 3 weeks of moderate treadmill exercise reduces plasma and fundus total ghrelin concentrations with elevated plasma GH and liver ATP content occurring after 6 and 12 weeks of training. Exercise training-induced improvement of energy source availability and negative feedback from increased GH levels may play a role in reducing plasma and fundus ghrelin levels.

  10. Body composition, muscle and fat pad changes following two levels of dietary restriction and/or exercise training in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ballor, D L; Tommerup, L J; Smith, D B; Thomas, D P

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the effects of exercise training on conservation of lean mass during moderate and severe dietary restriction in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Eight rats each (48 total) were assigned to one of three levels of dietary restriction (ad lib., AL; moderate, MR; severe, SR) and to one of two activity levels (cage-confined, CC; or treadmill exercised, E) for a 10-week period. Post-intervention, the AL-E (91 percent), MR-CC (84 percent), MR-E (86 percent), SR-CC (66 percent) and SR-E (68 percent) groups all weighed less than the AL-CC group (427 +/- 4.3 g). Exercise training resulted in conservation of lean mass (protein + water + ash) at the moderate but not severe levels of dietary restriction. Further examination showed that this was mostly water since no between-group differences existed at any given diet level for protein or ash mass. Exercise training did elicit conservation of left ventricular heart muscle mass at both the moderate and severe levels of dietary restriction. In contrast, gastrocnemius muscle mass was conserved or maintained only at the moderate dietary restriction level. Thus, the level of dietary restriction appears to affect the ability of exercise training to elicit conservation of both total lean mass and the mass of individual muscles during diet-induced body mass reduction.

  11. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  12. Diversity of endurance training effects on antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in different brain regions of adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, M; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krepa, E; Chrapusta, S J; Klapcinska, B; Langfort, J

    2015-08-01

    Studies on the effect of physical activity on brain oxidative stress, performed mostly in adult rats, have shown that moderate aerobic activity increases resistance to oxidative stress and reduces cellular damage. These effects can greatly differ between various brain regions. The postnatal period of the highest brain sensitivity to various stimuli is adolescence. We hypothesized that endurance training will modify brain antioxidant barrier differently in various regions, depending on their role in locomotion. Therefore, we studied the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase and catalase and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (the key index of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione in several brain regions with dissimilar relationship to locomotion, as well as in circulating blood. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the training on nitric oxide synthase activity that may be a major player in exercise-related oxidative stress in brain regions that are directly involved in the locomotion control and execution (the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum). The training significantly enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity only in the latter three regions. Surprisingly, it elevated the activities of all studied antioxidant enzymes (excepting gluthathione peroxidase) in the neocortex, while no appreciable change in these activities was found in either the cerebellum (except for elevated catalase activity), or the striatum, or the midbrain. The training also elevated total glutathione content (a key protector of brain proteins under the conditions of enhanced nitric oxide production) in the cerebellum and striatum, but not in the other regions. The observed brain changes greatly differed from those in circulating blood and did not prevent the training-related increases in oxidative damage as evidenced by elevations in cerebellar and striatal

  13. Effects of cognitive bias modification training on neural signatures of alcohol approach tendencies in male alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Corinde E; Ludwig, Vera U; Gladwin, Thomas E; Park, Soyoung Q; Heinz, Andreas; Wiers, Reinout W; Rinck, Mike; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Walter, Henrik; Bermpohl, Felix

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol-dependent patients have been shown to faster approach than avoid alcohol stimuli on the Approach Avoidance Task (AAT). This so-called alcohol approach bias has been associated with increased brain activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) has been used to retrain the approach bias with the clinically relevant effect of decreasing relapse rates one year later. The effects of CBM on neural signatures of approach/avoidance tendencies remain hitherto unknown. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 26 alcohol-dependent in-patients were assigned to a CBM or a placebo training group. Both groups performed the AAT for three weeks: in CBM training, patients pushed away 90 percent of alcohol cues; this rate was 50 percent in placebo training. Before and after training, patients performed the AAT offline, and in a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The relevant neuroimaging contrast for the alcohol approach bias was the difference between approaching versus avoiding alcohol cues relative to soft drink cues: [(alcohol pull > alcohol push)  > (soft drink pull > soft drink push)]. Before training, both groups showed significant alcohol approach bias-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex. After training, patients in the CBM group showed stronger reductions in medial prefrontal cortex activation compared with the placebo group. Moreover, these reductions correlated with reductions in approach bias scores in the CBM group only. This suggests that CBM affects neural mechanisms involved in the automatic alcohol approach bias, which may be important for the clinical effectiveness of CBM. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement.

  15. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Matthew D; McLoughlin, Terence F; Gallagher, Kieran R; Gatherer, Don; Parratt, Michael Tr; Perera, Jonathan R; Briggs, Tim Wr

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16-18-year-old male rugby players. Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in rugby training and receives the same focus of conditioning as other parts of the body.

  16. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Matthew D; McLoughlin, Terence F; Gallagher, Kieran R; Gatherer, Don; Parratt, Michael TR; Perera, Jonathan R; Briggs, Tim WR

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16–18-year-old male rugby players. Materials and methods Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. Results There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. Conclusion This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in rugby training and receives the same focus of conditioning as other parts of the body. PMID:25999771

  17. The Association of Self-Reported Measures With Poor Training Outcomes Among Male and Female U.S. Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    American Asian Other* Questionnaire Items Age at Menarche (Years)" Menstrual Cycles in Past Year" Months Since Last Pregnant (per 6 Months/ Gone >6...Months Without Menstrual Cycle in Past 12 Months" Used Birth Control in Past 12 Months Category ឃ 19-23 >23 គ.4 18.5-24.9 >25.0 ក >16 >10 1-9...training if they are required to repeat a training cycle before eventually graduating, U.S. Navy recruits who do not graduate on time negatively impact

  18. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values.

    PubMed

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-03-01

    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  19. Is celiac disease a lifelong disorder?

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    1996-10-01

    That celiac disease is a lifelong disorder was suggested by clinical case records and was considered to have been demonstrated through the widespread use of intestinal biopsies by the end of the 1950s. It was clear that the mucosal lesions observed in children and adults were identical and responded similarly to gluten withdrawal. In fact, in 1970 the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition instituted the practice of a challenge after diagnosis. A relapse of clinical symptoms and of the intestinal lesions after gluten was reintroduced into the diet demonstrated the "permanent" nature of sensitivity to gluten in children with celiac disease. Twenty-five years later, the permanence of the sensitivity of the intestinal mucosa to gluten is again a matter of debate. Several lines of evidence, gathered during recent years, show that celiac disease is not always a lifelong condition. First, the long-term follow-up of children with proven celiac disease shows that 10% to 20% of them become "tolerant" (defined on clinical, biological and histologic grounds) to gluten during adolescence. Second, it has also been shown, in individual cases, that the mucosal lesions typical of the disease may appear during adulthood. Our increasing knowledge of the long-term evolution of the disease suggests that celiac disease develops and, in some cases, fades in a predisposed group of people with intestinal sensitivity to gluten, which is probably a common condition. The factors leading to the appearance or disappearance of the disease, however, are still unknown.

  20. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Exercise in High / Low Temperatures on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) in Trained Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Mohsen; Habibi, Abdolhamid; Shakeryan, Saeed; Nikbakht, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes airway narrowing that occurs in association with exercise. Exercise in hot and cold environments has been reported to increase exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in subjects with asthma. However, to our knowledge, the effect of hot and cold environment on pulmonary function and EIB in trained males has not been previously studied. The main goal of this research was to examine the influence of environmental temperature and high intensity interval exercise on pulmonary function in trained teenage males. Also, this study sought to assess the influence of exercise and environmental temperature on EIB. Materials and Methods Thirty trained subjects (mean age 16.56±0.89 yrs, all males) underwent high intensity interval exercise testing (22 minutes) by running on a treadmill in hot and cold environments under standardized conditions (10 °C and 45 °C with almost 50% relative humidity in random order in winter and summer). Lung function (flow volume loops) was measured before and 1, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after the exercise by digital spirometer. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and P < 0.05 was considered significant. The diagnosis of EIB was made by 10% fall in FEV1 post-exercise. Results The post-exercise maximal reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and average forced expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the FVC (FEF25-75) increased significantly compared to pre-exercise at 10 °C with almost 50% relative humidity (cold air). The obtained values were: -15.93(15min post-exercise), -22.53 (1 min post-exercise) and -18.25%(5min post-exercise). Post-exercise maximal reduction in FEV1, PEF and FEF25-75 increased significantly compared to pre-exercise value at 45 °C with almost 50% relative humidity (hot air). Obtained values were: -10.35 (1 min post-exercise), -9.16 (1 min post-exercise) and -7.39 (5 min post-exercise). Changes in FEV1, PEF and FEF25

  1. An integrated approach to male-factor subfertility: bridging the gap between fertility specialists trained in urology and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Edward G; Grantmyre, John; Zini, Armand

    2015-03-01

    Subfertile men and women are usually cared for by different clinicians, namely urologists and gynaecologists. While these doctors share each other's goals, they may not always appreciate the content or implications of their opposite number's clinical decisions; to some degree they may practice in "silos." We address this problem by reviewing the effectiveness of medical treatments for male factor subfertility in the context of female factors. The effectiveness of treatments for couples with male factor subfertility, other than IVF with ICSI, appears modest. However, data from randomized controlled trials suggest benefits from some treatments: clomiphene and tamoxifen for the male (common odds ratio for pregnancy [COR] 2.42; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.94), antioxidants (COR 4.18; 95% CI 2.65 to 6.59) and surgical management of a clinical varicocele (COR 2.39; 95% CI 1.56 to 3.66). Nevertheless, close attention to female age and the duration of subfertility help to avoid lost opportunity through delays in treatment when IVF with ICSI is indicated. Making treatment decisions squarely in the context of the couple's overall prognosis is key for optimal outcomes. Future trials of male fertility treatments should focus on pregnancy as the primary outcome, rather than less important surrogates such as sperm quality.

  2. Merging Problem-Based Learning with Simulation-Based Learning in the Medical Undergraduate Curriculum: The PAIRED Framework for Enhancing Lifelong Learning

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jansen

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning is an essential trait that is expected of every physician. The CanMeds 2005 Physician Competency Framework emphasizes lifelong learning as a key competency that physicians must achieve in becoming better physicians. However, many physicians are not competent at engaging in lifelong learning. The current medical education system is deficient in preparing medical students to develop and carry out their own lifelong learning curriculum upon graduation. Despite understanding how physicians learn at work, medical students are not trained to learn while working. Similarly, although barriers to lifelong learning are known, medical students are not adequately skilled in overcoming these barriers. Learning to learn is just as important, if not more, as acquiring the skills and knowledge required of a physician. The medical undergraduate curriculum lacks a specific learning strategy to prepare medical students in becoming an adept lifelong learner. In this article, we propose a learning strategy for lifelong learning at the undergraduate level. In developing this novel strategy, we paid particular attention to two parameters. First, this strategy should be grounded on literature describing a physician’s lifelong learning process. Second, the framework for implementing this strategy must be based on existing undergraduate learning strategies to obviate the need for additional resources, learner burden, and faculty time. In this paper, we propose a Problem, Analysis, Independent Research Reporting, Experimentation Debriefing (PAIRED) framework that follows the learning process of a physician and serves to synergize the components of problem-based learning and simulation-based learning in specifically targeting the barriers to lifelong learning. PMID:27446767

  3. Merging Problem-Based Learning with Simulation-Based Learning in the Medical Undergraduate Curriculum: The PAIRED Framework for Enhancing Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jansen; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-06-19

    Lifelong learning is an essential trait that is expected of every physician. The CanMeds 2005 Physician Competency Framework emphasizes lifelong learning as a key competency that physicians must achieve in becoming better physicians. However, many physicians are not competent at engaging in lifelong learning. The current medical education system is deficient in preparing medical students to develop and carry out their own lifelong learning curriculum upon graduation. Despite understanding how physicians learn at work, medical students are not trained to learn while working. Similarly, although barriers to lifelong learning are known, medical students are not adequately skilled in overcoming these barriers. Learning to learn is just as important, if not more, as acquiring the skills and knowledge required of a physician. The medical undergraduate curriculum lacks a specific learning strategy to prepare medical students in becoming an adept lifelong learner. In this article, we propose a learning strategy for lifelong learning at the undergraduate level. In developing this novel strategy, we paid particular attention to two parameters. First, this strategy should be grounded on literature describing a physician's lifelong learning process. Second, the framework for implementing this strategy must be based on existing undergraduate learning strategies to obviate the need for additional resources, learner burden, and faculty time. In this paper, we propose a Problem, Analysis, Independent Research Reporting, Experimentation Debriefing (PAIRED) framework that follows the learning process of a physician and serves to synergize the components of problem-based learning and simulation-based learning in specifically targeting the barriers to lifelong learning.

  4. A comparison of dicarbonyl stress and advanced glycation endproducts in lifelong endurance athletes vs. sedentary controls.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Martijn F H; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Verheggen, Rebecca J H M; Aengevaeren, Vincent L; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2017-10-01

    Dicarbonyl stress and high concentrations of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) relate to an elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Exercise training lowers the risk for future CVD. We tested the hypothesis that lifelong endurance athletes have lower dicarbonyl stress and AGEs compared to sedentary controls and that these differences relate to a better cardiovascular health profile. Cross-sectional study. We included 18 lifelong endurance athletes (ATH, 61±7years) and 18 sedentary controls (SED, 58±7years) and measured circulating glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG) as markers of dicarbonyl stress. Furthermore, we measured serum levels of protein-bound AGEs N(Ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N(Ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 (MG-H1), and pentosidine. Additionally, we measured cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular health markers. ATH had lower concentrations of MGO (196 [180-246] vs. 242 [207-292] nmol/mmol lysine, p=0.043) and 3DG (927 [868-972] vs. 1061 [982-1114] nmol/mmol lysine, p<0.01), but no GO compared to SED. ATH demonstrated higher concentrations CML and CEL compared to SED. Pentosidine did not differ across groups and MG-H1 was significantly lower in ATH compared to SED. Concentrations of MGO en 3DG were inversely correlated with cardiovascular health markers, whereas CML and CEL were positively correlated with VO2peak and cardiovascular health markers. Lifelong exercise training relates to lower dicarbonyl stress (MGO and 3DG) and the AGE MG-H1. The underlying mechanism and (clinical) relevance of higher CML and CEL concentrations among lifelong athletes warrants future research, since it conflicts with the idea that higher AGE concentrations relate to poor cardiovascular health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  6. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  7. The effect of heavy- vs. moderate-load training on the development of strength, power, and throwing ball velocity in male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fathloun, Mourad; Shephard, Roy J

    2010-09-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of 2 differing 10-week resistance training programs on the peak power (PP) output, muscle volume, strength, and throwing velocity of the upper limbs in handball players during the competitive season. The subjects were 26 men (age 20.0 +/- 0.6 years, body mass 85.0 +/- 13.2 kg, height 1.86 +/- 0.06 m, and body fat 13.7 +/- 2.4%). They were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control (C; n = 8), heavy resistance (n = 9), or moderate resistance (MR; n = 9) training, performed twice a week. A force-velocity test on an appropriately modified Monark cycle ergometer determined PP. Muscle volumes were estimated using a standard anthropometric kit. One-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (1RMBP) and 1RM pull-over (1RMPO) scores assessed arm strength. Handball throwing velocity was measured with (TR) and without run-up (TW). Both training programs enhanced absolute PP relative to controls (p < 0.05), although differences disappeared if PP was expressed per unit of muscle volume. Heavy resistance-enhanced 1RMBP and 1RMPO compared to both MR (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and C (p < 0.001 for both tests). Heavy resistance also increased TR and TW compared to C (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Moderate resistance increased only TR compared to C (p < 0.01). Thus, during the competitive season, the PP, 1RMBP, 1RMPO, and TW of male handball players were increased more by 10 weeks of bench press and pull-over training with suitably adapted heavy loads than with moderate loads. It would seem advantageous to add such resistance exercise before customary technical and tactical handball training sessions.

  8. Short-term lower-body plyometric training improves whole body BMC, bone metabolic markers, and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (Δ%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

  9. Learners or Participants? The Pros and Cons of "Lifelong Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…

  10. Lifelong Learning in Singapore: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The term lifelong learning has been used in different contexts and in policy application for a wide variety of purposes and initiatives. Singapore's approach to lifelong learning is pragmatic and rational. It is one of the economic drivers used by policy makers to enhance Singapore's competitiveness and is viewed as an antidote against…

  11. Inequalities in Lifelong Learning and Adult University Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmas, Aristotelis; Sipitanou, Athina A.

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, the views of the European Union (E.U.) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (O.E.C.D.) are examined in relation to the issue of lifelong learning, as well as the challenges that render the reconstruction of the national educational systems essential. Following, it is pointed out that access to lifelong learning…

  12. Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Adult Education in the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…

  13. Researching Lifelong Learning Participation through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interdisciplinary nature of studies in the field of lifelong learning participation. Until recently, participation studies have been presented in a rather fragmented way, often drawing on insights from separate disciplines such as sociology or psychology. The complex nature of lifelong learning participation, however, urges…

  14. Legal Educators' Perceptions of Lifelong Learning: Conceptualisation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Sara Jeanne; Chardon, Toni; Collins, Pauline; Hart, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Lifelong learning appears frequently on university statements of desirable graduate outcomes. It is also referred to as a desirable outcome for Australian law graduates. This paper examines academic staff perceptions of lifelong learning as part of a broader study about assessment practices in a recently established Australian law school. Findings…

  15. Purpose of Lifelong Learning: Analysis from a Single Participant Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    What should be goal of education in general? What type of education are we practicing in the name of lifelong learning? What perspective of lifelong learning is becoming more dominant? Should the education system of a nation fulfill the demand of the market or the demand of the society? In this short single participant interview research I have…

  16. Development of a Scale to Measure Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Knapper, Christopher; Lamon, Patrick; Egnatoff, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary objective: to develop a scale to measure students' disposition to engage in lifelong learning. Research design, methods and procedures: using items that reflected the components of lifelong learning, we constructed a 14-item scale that was completed by 309 university and vocational college students, who also completed a measure of deep and…

  17. Lifelong Learning: Foundational Models, Underlying Assumptions and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive.…

  18. Africa and International Policy Making for Lifelong Learning: Textual Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…

  19. The Planner and Lifelong Education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning, 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furter, Pierre

    The three sections making up the main body of this publication look at lifelong education from three successive approaches at different levels. An introduction briefly reviews factors influencing the rapid spread of lifelong education--anthropological, socioeconomic, and political. Through a series of questions emerges the idea that lifelong…

  20. Lifelong Learning--Is It Just for the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a powerful concept and perspective for transforming education systems and enabling learning societies. Developed in the advanced industrialised North, it is now being considered in poor countries where Education for All is a main educational preoccupation. The meaning of lifelong learning is confused and contested, caught up…