Science.gov

Sample records for lifting facial mini-invasivo

  1. [Lifting procedures in cosmetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Vissink, A

    2014-10-01

    A prominent characteristic of the aging face is the descent of skin and subcutaneous tissues. In order to reduce this and create a more youthful appearance, several lifting procedures can be employed. In the forehead and eyebrow region the transblepharoplastic brow lift, the direct brow lift, the temporal brow lift, the coronal brow lift and the endoscopic brow lift can be distinguished. For the mid-face, the facelift is known to be an effective treatment for aging characteristics. Classic facelifts can be divided into the one layer-, two layer- and the deep plane facelift. Nowadays the minimal access cranial suspension lift is popular. The lifting capacity of this lift may be less, but the risk of complications is lower and the result is often more natural. A neck lift improves the chin-neck angle and a submental liposuction/lipectomy can contribute to this. Complications in lifting procedures are rare. Hematoma is the most frequent complication. Skin necrosis of the wound edges and laceration of the end branches of the facial nerve can also occur. There is a tendency towards minimally invasive procedures with smaller risk of complications and shorter recovery periods.

  2. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  3. Development of Facial Rejuvenation Procedures: Thirty Years of Clinical Experience with Face Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Jun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation procedures can be roughly divided into face lift surgery and nonoperative, less invasive procedures, such as fat grafts, fillers, botulinum toxin injections, thread lifts, or laserbrasion. Face lift surgery or rhytidectomy is the procedure most directly associated with rejuvenation, due to its fundamental ability to restore the anatomical changes caused by aging. Various methods of face lift surgery have been developed over the last hundred years, thanks to advances in the understanding of facial anatomy and the mechanisms of aging, as well as the dedication of innovative surgeons. However, no generally applicable standard method exists, because the condition of each patient is different, and each operative method has advantages and disadvantages. Specific characteristics of the skin of Asians and their skeletal anatomy should be considered when determining the operative method to be used on Asian patients. Plastic surgeons should improve their ability to analyze the original aesthetic properties and problem areas of each patient, drawing on scientific knowledge about the aging process, and they should develop the skills necessary to perform various rejuvenative techniques. In the present article, we reviewed various face lift procedures and the current methods of modified double plane face lift, based on our clinical experience of over 30 years. PMID:26430622

  4. Deep-planes lift associated with free flap surgery for facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Frigerio, Alice; Autelitano, Luca; Colletti, Giacomo; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Brusati, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Between April 1999 and April 2008, 37 patients with long-standing facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with neuromuscular free flaps: 28 patients (group A) underwent flap transposition only; 9 patients (group B) underwent a deep-planes lift (DPL) composed of the superficial muscoloaponeurotic system + parotid fascia at the time of facial reanimation. The postoperative and final results were compared between groups A and B, following the classification of Terzis and Noah (1997). Before the onset of contraction, only group B patients (100%) showed good or moderate symmetry at rest, while none of the patients of group A had a symmetric face. The respective final results for patients in groups A and B who already showed the onset of flap contraction were excellent in 28.6% and 44.5%, good in 42.9% and 33.3%, moderate in 10.7% and 22.2%, and fair or poor and fair in 17.8% and 0% of patients, respectively. The DPL allows immediate symmetry of the face at rest and contributes to upgrading the final static and dynamic results in facial reanimation with free muscular flaps.

  5. Long-term Efficacy of Micro-focused Ultrasound with Visualization for Lifting and Tightening Lax Facial and Neck Skin Using a Customized Vectoring Treatment Method

    PubMed Central

    Werschler, Pam Schell

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micro-focused ultrasound with visualization has been cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration to noninvasively lift the eyebrow, lift submental and neck tissue, and improve lines and wrinkles of the décolleté. Objective: The objective of this prospective, open-label pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patient-specific, customized micro-focused ultrasound with visualization treatment with vertical vectoring to lift and tighten facial and neck tissue. Methods and materials: Subjects 25 to 60 years of age (N=20) with areas of skin laxity on the face and neck were enrolled and treated. A dual depth treatment was administered using a vectored pattern. Subjects were evaluated after 90 days, 180 days, and one year. Results: Overall improvements in Subject Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale and Physician Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were reported by 90 and 100 percent of subjects at 90 and 180 days, respectively, and 95 percent for both measures at one year. Six of 14 evaluable subjects were rated as improved by blinded assessment at one year. Self-reported improvements maintained for up to one year included less sagging (79%), fewer lines and wrinkles (58%), and smoother skin texture (47%). Conclusion: Based on these results, treatment with micro-focused ultrasound with visualization with vertical vectoring demonstrated appreciable lifting and tightening of facial and neck tissue resulting in improved Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores and a high degree of patient satisfaction for up to one year. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01708512. PMID:27047630

  6. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  7. Facial Ringworm (Tinea Faciale)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Ringworm, Facial (Tinea Faciei) Information for adults A A A A ... with scaling along the edge is typical of tinea faciale. Overview Tinea infections are commonly called ringworm ...

  8. The PAVE (peeling-assisted volume-enhancing) lift: A retrospective 6-year clinical analysis of a combined approach for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Kai Oliver; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Jaminet, Patrick; Gonser, Phillipp

    2016-08-01

    The peeling-assisted volume-enhancing (PAVE) lift is a single-stage approach that combines superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication techniques with fat grafting and different peeling agents. To evaluate the safety of this approach, we analyzed the records of 159 patients who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2014. The percentage of complications observed was not higher than values reported in the literature for each treatment entity: surgical facelift: n=3 haematomas (1.89 %), n=2; temporary apraxia of the mandibular branch (1.26%); fat transfer: minor asymmetry in n = 5 cases (3.14%); peeling: temporary hyperpigmentation in trichloroacetic acid (n = 5; 3.8%) and phenol peels (n = 4; 3.1%), permanent hypopigmentation (n = 6; 5.6%), formation of skin miliae persisting longer than 2 to 3 months (n = 5; 4.6%) and prolonged erythema (n = 3; 0.28%) in phenol peels. The single-stage use of chemical peels, autologous fat transfer, and surgical rhytidectomy was safe. PMID:27320171

  9. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means.

  10. Multiplane face lift with the subperiosteal dissection for orientals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Hong, J J

    1999-07-01

    A subperiosteal face lift rejuvenates the midface and periorbital region by restoring facial muscle tone. Since 1993, the authors have performed this procedure on Oriental patients who have their own distinct facial contours: the brachycephalic cranium and a prominent zygoma and mandibular angle. Although it was thought that these protuberances might disturb the subperiosteal procedure, especially in the anterior midface, the procedure could be performed easily by adopting the ancillary upper buccovestibular and subciliary incisions; the authors found that the protuberances actually act as fulcrums to keep up the lifting vectors reliably. For older patients, the procedure was combined with a deep subcutaneous dissection. A simple lift of the periosteum would not improve a severe nasolabial fold deformity and prominent wrinkles adequately because of "lag-lifting" of the superficial layer. It was concluded that the multiplane face lift, consisting of the subperiosteal and the deep subcutaneous approaches, achieves a natural-appearing rejuvenation of the Oriental aging face.

  11. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  12. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  13. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  14. Cosmetic face, neck, and brow lifts with local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Huq, Nasim S; Nakhooda, Tariq I

    2013-10-01

    The sections on the face, neck, and brow include descriptions of facelift, neck lift, and open brow lift techniques, anesthesia, treatment goals, procedural approaches, complications, management, preoperative and postoperative care, rehabilitation, recovery, and outcomes. The approach to facial rejuvenation the midface and periorbital area is detailed. These operations are often and easily performed entirely with the use of local anesthesia and mild oral sedation. There are very high satisfaction rates. PMID:24093659

  15. Facial Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Jack E; Genden, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of severe facial deformities poses a unique surgical challenge: restoring the aesthetic form and function of the face. Facial transplantation has emerged over the last decade as an option for reconstruction of these defects in carefully selected patients. As the world experience with facial transplantation grows, debate remains regarding whether such a highly technical, resource-intensive procedure is warranted, all to improve quality of life but not necessarily prolong it. This article reviews the current state of facial transplantation with focus on the current controversies and challenges, with particular attention to issues of technique, immunology, and ethics. PMID:27400850

  16. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  17. Surgical Adhesives in Facial Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, Dean M; Chung, Victor K; Cappelle, Quintin M

    2016-06-01

    In facial plastic surgery, attaining hemostasis may require adjuncts to traditional surgical techniques. Fibrin tissue adhesives have broad applications in surgery and are particularly useful when addressing the soft tissue encountered in facial plastic surgery. Beyond hemostasis, tissue adhesion and enhanced wound healing are reported benefits associated with a decrease in operating time, necessity for drains and pressure dressings, and incidence of wound healing complications. These products are clinically accessible to most physicians who perform facial plastic surgery, including skin grafts, flaps, rhytidectomy, and endoscopic forehead lift. PMID:27267012

  18. Facial fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

  19. Facial trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . ... Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and ...

  20. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  1. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches, seizures, or hearing loss. In newborns, facial paralysis may be caused by trauma during birth. Other causes include: Infection of the brain or surrounding tissues Lyme disease Sarcoidosis Tumor that ...

  2. Facial tics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2010;33:641-655. Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Malhotra R. Review and update of involuntary facial movement disorders presenting in the ophthalmological setting. Surv Ophthalmol. Ryan ...

  3. 30526 artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the four major methods of artificial lift: sucker-rod pumping, gas lift, electrical submersible pumping (ESP) and hydraulic pumping. Though more than 80% of artificially lifted wells worldwide are rod-pumped, the large majority of these wells are low-volume, stripper-type producers. For this reason, sucker-rod pumping papers comprise less than 40% of the 26 SPE papers selected.

  4. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  5. Replacing facial hair.

    PubMed

    Straub, Paul M

    2008-11-01

    The face is the second most common area for hair transplantation after the scalp. Areas that are transplanted include eyebrows, eyelashes, moustaches, beards, temples and temporal points, as well as scars either traumatic or the side effect of cosmetic procedures such as rhytidectomies or brow lifts. The hair is harvested from the same area as the hair that is transplanted to the head. For this reason, it grows longer than nongrafted facial hair and must be trimmed regularly. Occasionally, hair lower in the neck region is harvested, which is finer than occipital hair; however, because of movement in the neck area, the scars are often larger. Body hair has been suggested as donor hair but is not recommended because it spends as much as 85% of its time in the telogen phase.

  6. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26308869

  7. View south; detail of top of lift span and lifting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; detail of top of lift span and lifting cables. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. The adjustable vector deep plane midface lift.

    PubMed

    Niamtu, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    Midface lifting is valuable rejuvenative options for many patients and can provide a more youthful and balanced face. This procedure is well suited for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon because of familiarity with the intraoral and temporal surgical approaches, and it does not require any specialized equipment. This procedure has minimal postoperative recovery and a low complication rate. The results of this procedure have remained stable in the author's cohort of patients approaching 2 years. Contraindications include atrophic or minimal malar fat, in which case there is nothing to elevate. The midface lift can be performed as an isolated procedure or as part of multiple facial procedures. The astute surgeon considers midface rejuvenation in all cosmetic cases.

  9. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  10. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  11. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  12. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  13. High lift aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, John; Schneider, Steve; Campbell, Bryan; Bucci, Greg; Boone, Rod; Torgerson, Shad; Erausquin, Rick; Knauer, Chad

    1994-01-01

    The current program is aimed at providing a physical picture of the flow physics and quantitative turbulence data of the interaction of a high Reynolds number wake with a flap element. The impact of high lift on aircraft performance is studied for a 150 passenger transport aircraft with the goal of designing optimum high lift systems with minimum complexity.

  14. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Facial blindsight

    PubMed Central

    Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  16. Facial blindsight.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people's categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  17. Postural control during lifting.

    PubMed

    Kollmitzer, Josef; Oddsson, L; Ebenbichler, G R; Giphart, J E; DeLuca, C J

    2002-05-01

    Any voluntary motion of the body causes an internal perturbation of balance. Load transfer during manual material handling may increase these perturbations. This study investigates effects of stance condition on postural control during lifting. Nineteen healthy subjects repeatedly lifted and lowered a load between a desk and a shelf. The base of support was varied between parallel and step stance. Ground reaction force and segmental kinematics were measured. Load transfer during lifting perturbed balance. In parallel stance postural response consisted of axial movements in the sagittal plane. Such strategy was accompanied by increased posterior shear forces after lift-off. Lifting in step stance provided extended support in anterior/posterior direction. The postural control mechanisms in the sagittal plane are less complex as compared to parallel stance. However, lifting in step stance was asymmetrical and thus accompanied by distinct lateral transfer of the body. Lateral shear forces were larger as compared to parallel stance. Both lifting techniques exhibit positive and negative aspects. We cannot recommend either one as being better in terms of postural control.

  18. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  19. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  20. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  1. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  2. Theory of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl , L

    1920-01-01

    The general basis of the theory of lifting surfaces is discussed. The problem of the flow of a fluid about a lifting surface of infinite span is examined in terms of the existence of vortexes in the current. A general theory of permanent flow is discussed. Formulas for determining the influence of aspect ratio that may be applied to all wings, whatever their plane form, are given.

  3. High-rate artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

  4. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Thornhill; Gangestad

    1999-12-01

    Humans in societies around the world discriminate between potential mates on the basis of attractiveness in ways that can dramatically affect their lives. From an evolutionary perspective, a reasonable working hypothesis is that the psychological mechanisms underlying attractiveness judgments are adaptations that have evolved in the service of choosing a mate so as to increase gene propagation throughout evolutionary history. The main hypothesis that has directed evolutionary psychology research into facial attractiveness is that these judgments reflect information about what can be broadly defined as an individual's health. This has been investigated by examining whether attractiveness judgments show special design for detecting cues that allow us to make assessments of overall phenotypic condition. This review examines the three major lines of research that have been pursued in order to answer the question of whether attractiveness reflects non-obvious indicators of phenotypic condition. These are studies that have examined facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sex characteristics as hormone markers. PMID:10562724

  5. [Facial erythrosis].

    PubMed

    Coget, J M; Merlen, J F

    1979-01-01

    At the borders of two sister disciplines, facial erythrosis is a fairly disabling microvascular phenomenon, since it appears most frequently in women. From several rather special cases, the authors review the aetiology and differential diagnosis of these manifestations. An attempt is made to explain the pathogenesis of these phenomena. The authors stress the absence of treatment, but base their hopes on certain dimers or tetramers of hyaluronic acid, provided for their use by Dr CURRI. PMID:545362

  6. Use of triple-convergence polypropylene thread for the aesthetic correction of partial facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Citarella, Enzo Rivera; Sterodimas, Aris; Green, Alexandra Conde; Sinder, Ramil; Pitanguy, Ivo

    2008-07-01

    Rehabilitation and reanimation of the paralyzed face remains a challenge. A variety of autografts and allografts have been used for static facial suspension. We report two cases of long-standing partial facial paralysis treated with 3C triple-convergence polypropylene thread. A 39-year-old woman with right-sided partial facial paralysis underwent an endoscopy-assisted facial suspension using the 3C threads and a 60-year-old woman with right-sided partial facial paralysis underwent a round face-lifting combined with endoscopic brow lift and placement of 3C triple-convergence polypropylene threads. Its use for partial facial paralysis has not been previously described. The 1-year follow-up shows effective preservation of the surgical result and patient satisfaction.

  7. Pediatric facial nerve rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-11-01

    Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement.

  8. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  9. Facial restoration.

    PubMed

    Diner, J

    1975-07-01

    Medical science has demonstrated that fiction can be turned into fact. It is prophesied that man will be able to liver longer due to the development of synthetic organs. Sophisticated facial prostheses will be included in this progressive field. Perhaps the next century will make synthetic substitutes past history with the transplantation of organs as established practice. Or, perhaps some of the latest developments of growing skin or the use of carbonated teflon inserts will replace currently used plastics. In the meantime, we must continue to work within the limitations of our present technology. PMID:1228185

  10. Facial restoration.

    PubMed

    Diner, J

    1975-07-01

    Medical science has demonstrated that fiction can be turned into fact. It is prophesied that man will be able to liver longer due to the development of synthetic organs. Sophisticated facial prostheses will be included in this progressive field. Perhaps the next century will make synthetic substitutes past history with the transplantation of organs as established practice. Or, perhaps some of the latest developments of growing skin or the use of carbonated teflon inserts will replace currently used plastics. In the meantime, we must continue to work within the limitations of our present technology.

  11. 4. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN SHOWING CONCRETE PIERS, LIFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN SHOWING CONCRETE PIERS, LIFT TOWERS, AND THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  12. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. [Surgical facial reanimation after persisting facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Pasche, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Facial reanimation following persistent facial paralysis can be managed with surgical procedures of varying complexity. The choice of the technique is mainly determined by the cause of facial paralysis, the age and desires of the patient. The techniques most commonly used are the nerve grafts (VII-VII, XII-VII, cross facial graft), dynamic muscle transfers (temporal myoplasty, free muscle transfert) and static suspensions. An intensive rehabilitation through specific exercises after all procedures is essential to archieve good results.

  15. Person Authentication Using Learned Parameters of Lifting Wavelet Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niijima, Koichi

    2006-10-01

    This paper proposes a method for identifying persons by the use of the lifting wavelet parameters learned by kurtosis-minimization. Our learning method uses desirable properties of kurtosis and wavelet coefficients of a facial image. Exploiting these properties, the lifting parameters are trained so as to minimize the kurtosis of lifting wavelet coefficients computed for the facial image. Since this minimization problem is an ill-posed problem, it is solved by the aid of Tikhonov's regularization method. Our learning algorithm is applied to each of the faces to be identified to generate its feature vector whose components consist of the learned parameters. The constructed feature vectors are memorized together with the corresponding faces in a feature vectors database. Person authentication is performed by comparing the feature vector of a query face with those stored in the database. In numerical experiments, the lifting parameters are trained for each of the neutral faces of 132 persons (74 males and 58 females) in the AR face database. Person authentication is executed by using the smile and anger faces of the same persons in the database.

  16. [Treatment of facial nerve paralysis using static suspension methods].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Roncević, R; Colić, M; Stojicić, M; Rasulić, L

    2003-01-01

    After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspension methods were used in our study. All patients had unilateral complete facial nerve palsy but one female patient who experienced the palsy of frontal branch of n.facialis. This method was successfully used to lift the eyebrow, the lid and to improve lagophthalmus on the paralytic side, then the angle and paralytic part of the lip, to reinforce buccal wall of oral cavity as well as to reconstruct new nasolabial fold. The results were satisfactory and permanent. PMID:14619718

  17. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  18. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  19. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  20. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  2. Lift performance and lumbar loading in standing and seated lifts.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of posture on lifting performance. Twenty-three male soldiers lifted a loaded box onto a platform in standing and seated postures to determine their maximum lift capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Lift performance, trunk kinematics, lumbar loads, anthropometric and strength data were recorded. There was a significant main effect for lift effort but not for posture or the interaction. Effect sizes showed that lumbar compression forces did not differ between postures at lift initiation (Standing 5566.2 ± 627.8 N; Seated 5584.0 ± 16.0) but were higher in the standing posture (4045.7 ± 408.3 N) when compared with the seated posture (3655.8 ± 225.7 N) at lift completion. Anterior shear forces were higher in the standing posture at both lift initiation (Standing 519.4 ± 104.4 N; Seated 224.2 ± 9.4 N) and completion (Standing 183.3 ± 62.5 N; Seated 71.0 ± 24.2 N) and may have been a result of increased trunk flexion and a larger horizontal distance of the mass from the L5-S1 joint. Practitioner Summary: Differences between lift performance and lumbar forces in standing and seated lifts are unclear. Using a with-in subjects repeated measures design, we found no difference in lifted mass or lumbar compression force at lift initiation between standing and seated lifts.

  3. Armature lift windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Willmouth, R. W.

    1985-04-02

    Airfoils are secured to the frame of a vertical axis windmill to provide vertical lift to a rotatable vertical shaft and to armatures of electrical generators, thereby eliminating friction between each armature and its end bearing as well as between the vertical shaft and its end bearing. An indicator provides an indication that the generators of the windmill are generating an alternating electrical current having at least a predetermined voltage magnitude.

  4. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  5. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  6. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  7. Plunger lift comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.; Lea, J.F.; Bishop, B.

    1995-11-01

    In the never-ending search to cut production costs while maintaining output and maximizing profits, operators are giving plunger lift a closer look. This is particularly true for marginal wells that might otherwise be shut in. Plunger lift is a cost-efficient method of artificially lifting low-liquid-volume oil wells that increase their profits. Some wells would have to be shut in if they remained on beam lit, due to high costs. With the plunger lift system, they are profitable. Field studies show plunger lift to be a cost-efficient, low-maintenance method of sustaining or improving output from low-volume wells. Not all wells are good candidates, so proper evaluation is essential. This paper reviews the optimal well environment for plunger lifts, their design, and cost benefit analysis.

  8. Midface lifting: current standards.

    PubMed

    DeFatta, Robert J; Williams, Edwin F

    2011-02-01

    The most significant factor contributing to the overall change in the appearance of an individual's facial features over time is age. This process of gradual structural weakening of the face begins during the third decade and continues to worsen during the remainder of an individual's lifetime. Here, we discuss how the approach to midface rejuvenation has evolved over time owing to our increased understanding of the aging process. In addition, we discuss specific techniques that we use that have helped us achieve more natural and lasting results.

  9. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  10. Selection of artificial lift method

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, B.; Gipson, F.; Clegg, J.; Capps, B.; Wilson, P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the opening remarks of the panel members on a panel discussion of 'Selection of Artificial Lift Method' held at the 56th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME in San Antonio, Texas, October 5-7, 1981. The topics discussed include: (1) reservoir and well considerations involved in artificial lift design; (2) sucker rod pumping; (3) gas lift; (4) submersible pumping; and, (5) hydraulic pumping. Advantages and limitations of each lift method are considered.

  11. Facial paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  12. What is a safe lift?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  13. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  14. What's happening in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. ); Winkler, H.W.

    1991-05-01

    New developments reported this year are primarily in the areas of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), beam pumps, and gas lift. The available information includes new products, techniques for extending run life, controllers, monitors and various other products. Specific topics in this article include: ESP turn key leases for temporary lifting; Horizontal pumps; Gas diffusion coatings for ESP bushings and sleeves; ESP variable rate current-voltage recording monitor; Power tubing ESP status; Low volume, high efficiency ESP stage; ESP improvements for horizontal and abrasive conditions; ESP computer design program effort; Well analyzer; Beam pump controller with variable frequency drive; Hydraulic pumping units; Mobile swab unit for marginal wells; Device for unseating downhole pumps; Gas lift valve test stand; Plunger lift controllers; Resettable ESP packer; Power generation from wellhead gas; and Artificial lift PC design program.

  15. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  16. Surgical treatment of facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ritvik P

    2009-03-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (<3 weeks duration), intermediate duration facial paralysis (3 weeks to 2 yr) and chronic facial paralysis (>2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgical therapies are facial nerve decompression and facial nerve repair. For facial paralysis of intermediate duration, nerve transfer procedures are appropriate. For chronic facial paralysis, treatment typically requires regional or free muscle transfer. Static techniques of facial reanimation can be used for acute, intermediate, or chronic facial paralysis as these techniques are often important adjuncts to the overall management strategy.

  17. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  18. Contemporary facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-01

    The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period.

  19. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  20. [Facial tics and spasms].

    PubMed

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  1. Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M J; Babyak, J W; Kartush, J M

    1987-02-01

    Neurogenic neoplasms of the intraparotid facial nerve are uncommon and are usually diagnosed intraoperatively by tissue biopsy. Fifty-six cases of primary neurogenic neoplasms involving the facial nerve have been reported. The majority of these have been schwannomas. A case of a solitary neurofibroma involving the main trunk of the facial nerve is presented. Schwannomas and neurofibromas have distinct histological features which must be considered prior to the management of these tumors. The management of neurogenic tumors associated with normal facial function is a particularly difficult problem. A new approach for the diagnosis and management of neurogenic neoplasms is described utilizing electroneurography. PMID:3807626

  2. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature.

  3. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  4. Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

    2009-10-01

    Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

  5. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  6. Lift enhancement in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Barba, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. We present a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, which show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, for Reynolds numbers 2000 and above. Previous experiments on physical models also demonstrated an increased lift and at the same angle of attack. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift. In physical experiments, the flow is inherently 3-D due to fluid instabilities, and it is intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations.

  7. Tick induced facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Patil, M M; Walikar, B N; Kalyanshettar, S S; Patil, S V

    2012-01-01

    We report a 3-year old boy with acute onset of left sided facial palsy secondary to tick infestation in the left ear. On 7th day of follow-up, following tick removal, the facial palsy had resolved. PMID:22318101

  8. [Facial recognition and autism].

    PubMed

    Assumpçäo Júnior, F B; Sprovieri, M H; Kuczynski, E; Farinha, V

    1999-12-01

    Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic children recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, showing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

  9. Nonsurgical facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D

    2014-08-01

    Facial rejuvenation has evolved from purely surgical to the use of nonsurgical techniques such as lasers and injectable fillers and toxins. This has occurred as a product of consumer demand for less down time and risk, as well as a new scientific knowledge of facial aging. A review of patient consultation evaluation and use of injectable products will be discussed in this chapter.

  10. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  11. Lifted turbulent jet flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jay A.

    Experiments were conducted on lifted, turbulent jet diffusion flames. An automated technique using a linear photodiode array was implemented to measure the temporal history of the liftoff height h. The measurements enabled accurate determination of the mean liftoff height [...] under a wide range of flow conditions, including several fuels, nozzle diameters, and exit velocities [...]. The results showed an approximately linear relationship between [...] and [...], with a slight dependence on Reynolds number. A strain-rate model for liftoff, based on far-field scaling of turbulent jets, provides an explanation for the linear dependence of [...] on [...]. Measurements were also made in which the nozzle fluid contained varying amounts of air, where it was found that the slope of the [...] vs. [...] line increases faster than predicted by far-field scaling of turbulent jets. The discrepancy is attributed to near-field effects.The amplitudes of the fluctuations in h were found to be of the order of the local large scale of the jet. There is a slight increase in normalized fluctuation level [...] with [...], and there is some variation of [...] with fuel type. The time scales of the fluctuations of h were found to be considerably longer than the local large-scale time of the turbulence [...]. By using fuels of different chemical times to vary [...], the measured correlation time [...] normalized by [...] was found to collapse with Richardson number [...]. Experiments in which the nozzles were oriented horizontally showed no change in [...], however. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate alternative explanations for the variation of [...] with [...]. These experiments included measuring the flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I simultaneously with h. L(t) was found to be nearly uncorrelated with h(t), dismissing the possibility that a feedback mechanism from L to h controls the fluctuations of h. Although I(t) is highly

  12. Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Tommaso

    2013-10-01

    The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps.

  13. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Peter C.; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other facial reconstructive options were considered. These three cases illustrate some of the major controversies in facial nerve neuroma management. We discuss our decision-making plan and report our results. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171043

  14. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  15. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  16. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L) to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2), where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2). This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  17. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  18. Slug bucket lifting yoke analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, A.J.

    1994-11-14

    There are baskets of fuel in the storage pools in the Purex facility (202-A). These baskets (called slug buckets) need to be removed from Purex and taken to the K-Basins. The current slug bucket lifting yoke is of sufficient age to be in question structurally. Therefore new yokes need to be fabricated. Prior to fabricating new yokes, the slug bucket lifting yoke DWG needs to be updated for fabrication. However, the design needs to be refined so that the yoke will be easier to fabricate. These calculations are prepared to demonstrate the adequacy of the new design. The objective of these calculations is to select appropriately sized structural members and weld sizes to serve as components in the slug bucket lifting yoke.

  19. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  20. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  1. PCA facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  2. Neurogenic facial pain.

    PubMed

    Schott, G D

    1980-07-01

    Neurogenic facial pain can be classified as either paroxysmal or persistent. Trigeminal neuralgia is the commonest example of the former, and postherpetic neuralgia, atypical facial pain, and tension head and facial pains are examples of the latter. The cause of many of these pains is poorly understood, the complex neuroanatomy of the head and neck being a contributory factor. Even when the aetiology is known, the mechanism whereby pain is produced is usually obscure. While treatment with drugs and surgical measures for trigeminal neuralgia are often satisfactory, and acupuncture for pain due to "muscle tension" may be beneficial, there is often little effective treatment for a considerable proportion of patients with neurogenic facial pain. PMID:6943844

  3. Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities.

  4. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  5. Facial Filler Complications.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julie; Khan, Tanya; Martin, John

    2015-11-01

    The use of facial fillers has greatly expanded over the past several years. Along with increased use comes a rise in documented complications, ranging from poor cosmetic result to nodules, granulomas, necrosis, and blindness. Awareness of the potential types of complications and options for management, in addition to the underlying facial anatomy, are imperative to delivering the best patient care. This article defines the complications and how to treat them and provides suggestions to avoid serious adverse outcomes.

  6. Pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:18650717

  7. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  8. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  9. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  10. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  11. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  13. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  15. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  16. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  17. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  20. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  1. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are operative... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section...

  2. The Side Effects of Facial Implants.

    PubMed

    Uta, Adela Ioana; Uta, Claudia Elena; Anguelova Valentinova, Lia; Isanta Pomar, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This case report is about a 64-year-old woman who presented at the Emergency Walk-in Center with palpebral edema as well as various erythematous plaques in supraciliary and malar areas that have been gradually worsening a couple of days prior to presentation. While talking about history, the patient mentioned she was attending, for about four months, an Esthetic Private Clinic, where she was injected in various sessions with Metacrill®, as a facial lift, for beauty purpose. Due to suspecting an allergic reaction to the Metacrill and the failure of the initial treatments, she was referred to the dermatologist. After failed attempts to treat the patient with corticosteroids and antibiotics, the patient was sent for autoimmunity consultation at the hospital where she received an immunosuppressive treatment with Tacrolimus and was not presenting new symptoms ever since. PMID:27212949

  3. The Side Effects of Facial Implants

    PubMed Central

    Uta, Adela Ioana; Uta, Claudia Elena; Anguelova Valentinova, Lia; Isanta Pomar, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This case report is about a 64-year-old woman who presented at the Emergency Walk-in Center with palpebral edema as well as various erythematous plaques in supraciliary and malar areas that have been gradually worsening a couple of days prior to presentation. While talking about history, the patient mentioned she was attending, for about four months, an Esthetic Private Clinic, where she was injected in various sessions with Metacrill®, as a facial lift, for beauty purpose. Due to suspecting an allergic reaction to the Metacrill and the failure of the initial treatments, she was referred to the dermatologist. After failed attempts to treat the patient with corticosteroids and antibiotics, the patient was sent for autoimmunity consultation at the hospital where she received an immunosuppressive treatment with Tacrolimus and was not presenting new symptoms ever since. PMID:27212949

  4. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed.

  5. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.

  6. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  7. Numerical simulation of lifting mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebel, E. S.; Zhursenbaev, B. I.; Solomin, V. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    The article presents a method of kinematical synthesis of planar multilink linkage with adjustable closed loop, which is designed for a plane-parallel motion of the output lever and can be used as an actuator for lifting mechanism. Methods of kinematical synthesis and analysis are developed in this paper allow to design the scheme of mechanism that performs the given function of displacement of the output link, and to evaluate the kinematical characteristics of the designed layout.

  8. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  9. Allometry of hummingbird lifting performance

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, D. L.; Dudley, R.; Heredia, S. M.; McGuire, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical lifting performance in 67 hummingbird species was studied across a 4000 m elevational gradient. We used the technique of asymptotic load-lifting to elicit maximum sustained muscle power output during loaded hovering flight. Our analysis incorporated direct measurements of maximum sustained load and simultaneous wingbeat kinematics, together with aerodynamic estimates of mass-specific mechanical power output, all within a robust phylogenetic framework for the Trochilidae. We evaluated key statistical factors relevant to estimating slopes for allometric relationships by performing analyses with and without phylogenetic information, and incorporating species-specific measurement error. We further examined allometric relationships at different elevations because this gradient represents a natural experiment for studying physical challenges to animal flight mechanics. Maximum lifting capacity (i.e. vertical force production) declined with elevation, but was either isometric or negatively allometric with respect to both body and muscle mass, depending on elevational occurrence of the corresponding taxa. Maximum relative muscle power output exhibited a negative allometry with respect to muscle mass, supporting theoretical predictions from muscle mechanics. PMID:20154187

  10. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  11. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight.

  12. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  13. Descended Mouth Corner: An Ignored but Needed Feature of Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Juan Enrique; Castillo, Pablo; Rochefort, Günther; Loubies, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    For years, the gold standard in facial rejuvenation has been the face lift. However, exploring new, less complex procedures for achieving the same goal is currently drawing interest. Rejuvenation of the perioral area is a difficult task for plastic surgeons because of the minimal effect that face lift procedures have over this region and the lack of published material on the subject. In this article, the descended mouth corner anguloplasty technique is presented. It is a 20-minutes lift technique that can correct this typical feature of the ageing mouth. The authors have treated 71 patients using the technique with consistently good results, with just one requiring revision. They conclude that this procedure by itself and in combination with other small operations or even a full face lift can rejuvenate the ageing face. PMID:24286055

  14. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests.

  15. [Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadère, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankéré, Frédéric; Lamas, Georges

    2011-10-01

    Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF.

  16. Building the Composite Face Lift: A Personal Odyssey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: This article is a 42-year history of the development of a comprehensive face-lift technique by the author. It describes how the composite rhytidectomy has been constructed, anatomical area by anatomical area, over the author’s lifetime career as a plastic surgeon. Over the course of these years, beginning with Skoog’s 1973 description of using the platysma muscle of the lower face, it describes how progressively the other significant structures of anatomy necessary to be used in achieving significant rejuvenation have been analyzed by the author and in turn surgically repositioned. The theory was based on creating a composite flap of the face, keeping the orbicularis oculi muscle, facial platysma muscle, and cheek fat in their normal anatomical and intimate relationship with each other by using the skin as the carriage. In addition, differences of vectors between the composite rhytidectomy and traditional techniques are demonstrated. The gradual and persistent pursuit of periorbital rejuvenation using the lower eyelid fat and the septal orbitale is described. Each of the anatomical structures involved and the description of their importance and surgical execution have been published over the surgical career of the author, including use of the same principles for reversing suboptimal face-lift results. PMID:26986987

  17. Intermittent facial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Charlie; Gopala Pillai, Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent facial swelling is an unusual presentation in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis may range from a variety of causes. Most common differential diagnosis is angio-oedema. However, more serious presentations such as superior venacaval obstruction must not be ignored. This case report presents a patient who was investigated in the hospital for 2 weeks (2 admissions) with intermittent facial swelling. He presented to the emergency department (3rd admission) and was diagnosed to have superior venacaval obstruction secondary to metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma. He underwent emergency endovascular stenting; however, he died within a few weeks. PMID:25326556

  18. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  19. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong

    2003-01-01

    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  20. Facial flap complications.

    PubMed

    Zoumalan, Richard A; Murakami, Craig S

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of fundamental concepts can help decrease the chance of complications in plastic surgery. Local flap reconstruction for facial defects has many pitfalls. This article describes common complications in local flap reconstruction of the face and describes strategies that prevent problems.

  1. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.

  2. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  3. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  4. Dynamic analysis of plunger lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Plunger lift is a method of artificial lift that uses a free piston traveling up and down inside the tubing in a cyclic manner. The piston serves to increase the efficiency of lifting liquids in gas/liquid production by reducing liquid fallback through the gas. Presented here is a description of a dynamic model of plunger lift operations that, as opposed to previous methods of analysis, includes calculation of the plunger velocity as the plunger and liquid slug travel up the tubing. Also, an analysis of plunger cycles in a high gas/liquid ratio (GLR) well is presented to indicate the maximum rate of slug buildup and the maximum casing pressure necessary to lift the plunger and accumulated liquids. The information presented allows a more detailed engineering approach to analyzing the performance of a plunger-lifted well.

  5. Optimizing production with artificial lift systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, L.D. )

    1989-07-01

    There are four basic artificial lift systems in use today; gas-lift (GL), sucker rod pumping (SRP), electric subsurface centrifugal pumps (ESP), and subsurface hydraulic (SSHP). All of these systems are time proven and will satisfactorily perform the task for which they were designed. Once the factors that will influence the operation of a lift system have been defined, the design engineer must consider the advantages of the basic systems. The more common oil field problems which affect artificial lift are listed. The {ital relative} merits of each system with these problems are noted; however, the severity of any one of the adverse conditions may dictate the optimum system.

  6. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  7. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

  8. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  9. Computation of aerodynamic interference between lifting surfaces and lift- and cruise-fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sequence of three computer programs predicts aerodynamic interference on lifting surfaces of transport-type aircraft which are equipped with lift and cruise fans; for example, high-bypass-ratio engine and wing-pylon tail configuration or fuselage-mounted lift-fan and wing-tail configuration.

  10. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  11. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  12. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  13. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van lift. In the…

  14. Management of traumatic facial nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Greywoode, Jewel D; Ho, Hao H; Artz, Gregory J; Heffelfinger, Ryan N

    2010-12-01

    Management of facial nerve injuries requires knowledge and skills that should be in every facial plastic surgeon's armamentarium. This article will briefly review the anatomy of the facial nerve, discuss the assessment of facial nerve injury, and describe the management of facial nerve injury after soft tissue trauma. PMID:21086238

  15. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  16. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

  17. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  18. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  19. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  2. Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

  3. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  4. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  5. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  6. What's new in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winker, H.W.

    1989-05-01

    New developments might be expected to decline as oil, and thus equipment and service, prices decrease. However, there is no indication that this is occurring. In fact, several new and innovative developments are covered in this article. Of the more unique are a new geometry pumping unit and a hydraulic powered sucker and rod system. Other items described in this article include: New pump-off controller; Automatic balancing for air balanced pumping units; New rod couplings; New pump plunger; Sucker rod pulsation dampener; Stripper type BOP; Rod coupling tool; ESP cable protectors; New ESP motor; VSD communications interface; ESP gas separator; Portable hydraulic production test unit; Casing gas lift plunger; Production shut-of valve; Ceramic material for pump parts; Pressure transmitter; and New versatile packer.

  7. High-lift aerodynamics: Prospects and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    The emergence of high-lift aerodynamics is reviewed as one of the key technologies to the development of future subsonic transport aircraft. Airport congestion, community noise, economic competitiveness, and safety - the drivers that make high-lift an important technology - are discussed. Attention is given to the potentially synergistic integration of high-lift aerodynamics with two other advanced technologies: ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engines and hybrid laminar flow control. A brief review of the ongoing high-lift research program at Ames Research Center is presented. Suggestions for future research directions are made with particular emphasis on the development and validation of computational codes and design methods. It is concluded that the technology of high-lift aerodynamics analysis and design should move boldly into the realm of high Reynolds number, three-dimensional flows.

  8. [Facial plastic surgery as preventive measures for psychic lesions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stellmach, R

    1981-06-26

    Facial plastic surgery offers numerous possibilities of removing disfigurements and deformities of the face and thus preventing or curing psychic lesions. The causes of such disturbances are pointed out. In selected examples the relevant aspects in childhood, in adults and in advanced age are emphasized. Up-to-date advances in microsurgical grafting methods and a more aggressive technique in neck-lifting show that successful plastic surgery of the face always has preventive or curative effects on psychic lesions. PMID:6789178

  9. Method for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Neely, Robert H

    1947-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data. Material from various sources is combined with some original work into the single complete method described. Multhopp's systems of multipliers are employed to obtain the induced angle of attack directly from the spanwise lift distribution. Equations are developed for obtaining these multipliers for any even number of spanwise stations, and values are tabulated for 10 stations along the semispan for asymmetrical, symmetrical, and antisymmetrical lift distributions. In order to minimize the computing time and to illustrate the procedures involved, simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for symmetrical lift distributions. Similar forms for asymmetrical and antisymmetrical lift distributions, although not shown, can be readily constructed in the same manner as those given. The adaptation of the method for use with linear section lift data is also illustrated. The adaptation has been found to require less computing time than most existing methods.

  10. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  11. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. View north; detail of lifting points at south end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north; detail of lifting points at south end of lift span. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING TOP OF LIFT SPAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING TOP OF LIFT SPAN AND MACHINERY HOUSE; ADJACENT RAILROAD LIFT-BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Carter Road Lift Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River at Carter Road, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Rehabilitation of long-standing facial nerve paralysis with percutaneous suture-based slings.

    PubMed

    Alam, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing facial paralysis creates significant functional and aesthetic problems for patients affected by this deficit. Traditional approaches to correct this problem have involved aggressive open procedures such as unilateral face-lifts and sling procedures using fascia and implantable materials. Unfortunately, our results with these techniques over the last 5 years have been suboptimal. The traditional face-lift techniques did not address the nasolabial fold to our satisfaction, and suture-based techniques alone, while offering excellent short-term results, failed to provide a long-term solution. This led to the development of a novel percutaneous technique combining the minimally invasive approach of suture-based lifts with the long-term efficacy of Gore-Tex-based slings. We report our results with this technique for static facial suspension in patients with long-standing facial nerve paralysis and our surgical outcomes in 13 patients. The procedure offers re-creation of the nasolabial crease and suspension of the oral commissure to its normal anatomic relationships. The recovery time is minimal, and the operation is performed as a short outpatient procedure. Long-term 2-year follow-up has shown effective preservation of the surgical results.

  15. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  16. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  17. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  18. Rotating cylinder design as a lifting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Halim Ahmad, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The airfoil shape of a wing has always been the design to generate lift. But few realized that a simple rotating cylinder can also create lift. However, the explanation and study of how a rotating cylinder creates lift are still complex. In remote area where it is difficult for air vehicle to access, the exploration and discovery of different configuration for design concept is rather important. Due to this reason, there is a need to think of a lift generator that can produce better lift (few fold better than conventional airfoil) at lower speed to take off in a short distance of time. This paper will explain the conditions and the design of such a wing using the rotating cylinder concept that will take off in a short time and requires little takeoff and landing strip. Spokes will be attached to the cylinder to force the surrounding air to rotate along with the cylinder. This will create a vortex that hastens the speed of the air on top of the cylinder and at the same time retarding the speed of air below the cylinder. From the results, the rougher surface cylinder produces more lift when rotating and also, higher speed rotation of the cylinder greatly changes the speed of the surrounding air, thus better lift.

  19. Imaging of facial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Mukherji, S K

    1995-01-01

    Anomalies of the face may occur in its lower or middle segments. Anomalies of the lower face generally involve the derivatives of the branchial apparatus and therefore manifest as defects in the mandible, pinnae, external auditory canals, and portions of the middle ears. These anomalies are occasionally isolated, but most of them occur in combination with systemic syndromes. These anomalies generally do not occur with respiratory compromise. Anomalies of the midface may extend from the upper lip to the forehead, reflecting the complex embryology of this region. Most of these deformities are isolated, but some patients with facial clefts, notably the midline cleft syndrome and holoprosencephaly, have anomalies in other sites. This is important because these patients will require detailed imaging of the face and brain. Anomalies of the midface tend to involve the nose and its air-conducting passages. We prefer to divide these anomalies into those with and without respiratory obstruction. The most common anomalies that result in airway compromise include posterior choanal stenoses and atresias, bilateral cysts (mucoceles) of the distal lacrimal ducts, and stenosis of the pyriform (anterior) nasal aperture. These may be optimally evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and generally require immediate treatment to ensure adequate ventilation. Rare nasal anomalies that also result in airway obstruction are agenesis of the pharynx, agenesis of the nose, and hypoplasia of the nasal alae. Agenesis of the nasopharynx and nose are complex anomalies that require both CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnosis of hypoplasia of the nasal alae is a clinical one; these anomalies do not require imaging studies. Besides facial clefts, anomalies of the nose without respiratory obstruction tend to be centered around the nasofrontal region. This is the site of the most common sincipital encephaloceles. Patients with frontonasal and nasoethmoidal encephaloceles require both

  20. Facial pain: trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H

    1993-03-01

    Atypical facial pain is a loose term used to encompass a wide range of facial pain syndromes including those of dental and ear, nose and throat (ENT) aetiology. Often, it is associated with psychiatric conditions like depression and psychosomatic illnesses. This facial pain typically does not follow anatomical boundaries or its explainable by present day neurophysiological understanding. The pain is often constant with no remission and is aggravated by stress. Treatment is difficult and often directed to the psychiatric cause. Surgical treatment is contraindicated. Trigeminal neuralgia on the other hand, can be effectively treated. Pain in the trigeminal distribution is paroxysmal, precipitated by trigger factors and there is no pain in between attacks. The aetiology of trigeminal neuralgia is still unknown though current thinking is that there is a peripheral disturbance or damage with cerebral brainstem disinhibition of the trigeminal apparatus. This results in a paroxysmal discharge and reverberation of pain impulses when a trigger point is elicited. Therefore, anti-epileptic drugs like tegretol can be effective in controlling trigeminal neuralgia in the majority of patients, at least in the initial stages. For unknown reasons however, medical treatment either is not effective at all from the very beginning or fails after a few years. Surgery then becomes the only available therapeutic option. If the peripheral disturbance is due to an organic cause like a tumour, surgical approaches should be directed towards its removal. Often the pain will also resolve. If the trigeminal neuralgia is of the idiopathic variety, then the surgeon has a choice of either peripheral percutaneous retrogasserian ganglionectomies or central approaches like microvascular decompression and trigeminal tractotomy. PMID:8363331

  1. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  2. Facial perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Volkmar, F R; Sparrow, S S; Rende, R D; Cohen, D J

    1989-07-01

    Disturbances in gaze and patterns of facial interaction are prominent aspects of social dysfunction in autism; the nature of this disturbance has up to the present been unclear. This study examined the ability of autistic subjects to use the human face as a source of information. Autistic and age- and MA-matched retarded control subjects assembled a series of puzzles displaying photographs of human faces; puzzles differed in complexity, familiarity of the faces and configuration (normal vs scrambled faces). Significant effects of all three factors, but not of diagnostic group, were observed. The autistic subjects did not exhibit specific deficits in perception of faces. PMID:2768360

  3. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  4. Dynamic analysis of plunger lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is a description of a dynamic model of plunger lift operations which, as opposed to previous methods of analysis. includes calculation of the plunger velocity as the plunger and liquid slug travel up the tubing. Also an analysis of plunger cycles in a high gas-liquid ratio well is presented to indicate the maximum rate of slug buildup, and the maximum casing pressure necessary to lift the plunger and accumulated liquids. The information presented allows a more detailed engineering approach to analyzing the performance of a plunger lifted well. Refs.

  5. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  6. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  7. Facial asymmetry in ocular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Khorrami Nejad, Masoud; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh; Ranjbar Pazooki, Mahsa; Moeinitabar, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Torticollis can arise from nonocular (usually musculoskeletal) and ocular conditions. Some facial asymmetries are correlated with a history of early onset ocular torticollis supported by the presence of torticollis on reviewing childhood photographs. When present in an adult, this type of facial asymmetry with an origin of ocular torticollis should help to confirm the chronicity of the defect and prevent unnecessary neurologic evaluation in patients with an uncertain history. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging and facial morphometry are helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the facial asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. The facial asymmetry in congenital superior oblique palsy is typically manifested by midfacial hemihypoplasia on the side opposite the palsied muscle, with deviation of the nose and mouth toward the hypoplastic side. Correcting torticollis through strabismus surgery before a critical developmental age may prevent the development of irreversible facial asymmetry. Mild facial asymmetry associated with congenital torticollis has been reported to resolve with continued growth after early surgery, but if asymmetry is severe or is not treated in the appropriate time, it might remain even with continued growth after surgery.

  8. Facial injuries in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Guyette, R F

    1993-04-01

    As the popularity of basketball increases and the style of the game becomes more physical, there is an increasing number of basketball-related injuries. Although most facial injuries sustained while playing basketball are relatively minor, severe and permanent injuries do occur. This article reviews the most common facial injuries incurred by basketball players with emphasis on diagnosis, early treatment, and prevention.

  9. Experimental determination of baseball spin and lift.

    PubMed

    Alaways, L W; Hubbard, M

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of lift on spinning baseballs. Inertial trajectories of (a) ball surface markers during the first metre of flight and (b) the centre of mass trajectory near home-plate were measured in a pitch using high-speed video. A theoretical model was developed, incorporating aerodynamic Magnus-Robins lift, drag and cross forces, which predicts the centre of mass and marker trajectories. Parameters including initial conditions and aerodynamic coefficients were estimated iteratively by minimizing the error between predicted and measured trajectories. We compare the resulting lift coefficients and spin parameter values with those of previous studies. Lift on four-seam pitches can be as much as three times that of two-seam pitches, although this disparity is reduced for spin parameters greater than 0.4.

  10. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  11. Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.

  12. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  13. Novice lifters exhibit a more kyphotic lifting posture than experienced lifters in straight-leg lifting.

    PubMed

    Riley, A E; Craig, T D; Sharma, N K; Billinger, S A; Wilson, S E

    2015-07-16

    As torso flexion and repetitive lifting are known risk factors for low back pain and injury, it is important to investigate lifting techniques that might reduce injury during repetitive lifting. By normalizing lumbar posture to a subject's range of motion (ROM), as a function of torso flexion, this research examined when subjects approached their range of motion limits during dynamic lifting tasks. For this study, it was hypothesized that experienced lifters would maintain a more neutral lumbar angle relative to their range of motion, while novice lifters would approach the limits of their lumbar ROM during the extension phase of a straight-leg lift. The results show a statistically significant difference in lifting patterns for these two groups supporting this hypothesis. The novice group maintained a much more kyphotic lumbar angle for both the flexion (74% of the lumbar angle ROM) and extension phases (86% of the lumbar angle ROM) of the lifting cycle, while the experienced group retained a more neutral curvature throughout the entire lifting cycle (37% of lumbar angle ROM in flexion and 48% of lumbar angle ROM in extension). By approaching the limits of their range of motion, the novice lifters could be at greater risk of injury by placing greater loads on the supporting soft tissues of the spine. Future research should examine whether training subjects to assume more neutral postures during lifting could indeed lower injury risks.

  14. Numerical modeling of the gas lift process in gas lift wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, N. M.; Turarov, A. K.; Baigereyev, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric motion of gas, liquid and a gas-liquid mixture in a gas-lift well is studied. Numerical simulation of the one-dimensional model of gas-lift process is considered where the movement in a gas-lift well is described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. Difference schemes for the gas-lift model of the process are developed on a nonuniform grid condensing in subdomains with big gradients of the solution. The results of the proposed algorithm are illustrated on the example of a real well.

  15. Novice Lifters Exhibit A More Kyphotic Lifting Posture Than Experienced Lifters In Straight-Leg Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Riley, A.E.; Craig, T.D.; Sharma, N.K.; Billinger, S.A.; Wilson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    As torso flexion and repetitive lifting are known risk factors for low back pain and injury, it is important to investigate lifting techniques that might reduce injury during repetitive lifting. By normalizing lumbar posture to a subject’s range of motion (ROM), as a function of torso flexion, this research examined when subjects approached their range of motion limits during dynamic lifting tasks. For this study, it was hypothesized that experienced lifters would maintain a more neutral lumbar angle relative to their range of motion, while novice lifters would approach the limits of their lumbar ROM during the extension phase of a straight-leg lift. The results show a statistically significant difference in lifting patterns for these two groups supporting this hypothesis. The novice group maintained a much more kyphotic lumbar angle for both the flexion (74% of the lumbar angle ROM) and extension phases (86% of the lumbar angle ROM) of the lifting cycle, while the experienced group retained a more neutral curvature throughout the entire lifting cycle (37% of lumbar angle ROM in flexion and 48% of lumbar angle ROM in extension). By approaching the limits of their range of motion, the novice lifters could be at greater risk of injury by placing greater loads on the supporting soft tissues of the spine. Future research should examine whether training subjects to assume more neutral postures during lifting could indeed lower injury risks. PMID:26077846

  16. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L.; Christopher, Kenneth W.

    1959-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 30 deg.

  17. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

  18. The Facial Profile in the Context of Facial Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way.

  19. The Facial Profile in the Context of Facial Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way. PMID:26579858

  20. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  1. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  2. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  3. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  4. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC... preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design types must be loaded...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  6. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of... the side. (b) Special preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal and rigid plastic Large...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  9. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of... the side. (b) Special preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal and rigid plastic Large...

  10. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of... the side. (b) Special preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal and rigid plastic Large...

  11. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC... preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design types must be loaded...

  12. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification... for the top lift test. Flexible Bulk Container design types must be filled to six times the...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  14. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC... preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design types must be loaded...

  15. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. (1) A Large Packaging must be lifted in the manner for... opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically for a period of five minutes; and (ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices so that the hoisting forces...

  16. Project Plan for Vertical Lift Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, G F

    2002-08-05

    This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a Vertical Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the Vertical Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The Vertical Lift Machine is a single linear axis positioning device capable of lifting objects vertically at controlled rates and positioning them repeatedly at predetermined heights, in relation to other objects suspended from above, for high neutron multiplication experiments. Operation of the machine during the experiments is done remotely. The lift mechanism shall accommodate various platforms (tables) that support the objects to be raised. A frame will support additional subassemblies from above such that the lower subassembly can be raised close to and/or interface with those above. The structure must be stiff and motion of the table linear such that radial alignment is maintained (e.g. concentricity). The safe position for the Vertical Lift Machine is the lift mechanism fully retracted with the subassemblies fully separated. The machine shall reside in this position when not in use. It must return to this safe condition from any position upon failure of power sources, open safety interlocks, or operator initiated SCRAM. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have the capability of return to the safe position with no externally applied power. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have dual operator interfaces, one near the machine and another located in a remote control room. Conventional single key, key-lock switching shall be implemented to lock out the control interface not in use. The interface at the machine will be used for testing and ''dry running'' experimental setup(s) with inert subassemblies (i.e. Setup Mode). The remote interface shall provide full control and data recording capability (i.e. Assembly Mode). The control system

  17. Sleep Wrinkles: Facial Aging and Facial Distortion During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Anson, Goesel; Kane, Michael A C; Lambros, Val

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion. PMID:27329660

  18. Facial infiltrating lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Padwa, B L; Mulliken, J B

    2001-11-01

    Facial infiltrating lipomatosis is a rare congenital disorder in which mature lipocytes invade adjacent tissue. The phenotypic features include soft-tissue and skeletal hypertrophy, premature dental eruption, and regional macrodontia. There is a high risk for regrowth after resection that is, perforce, subtotal. The etiology, natural history, optimal management, and relationship to other disorders of fatty overgrowth are unclear. In this study, the clinical features, radiographic findings, histopathology, and postoperative results were analyzed in 13 patients with facial infiltrating lipomatosis. The condition was diagnosed in infancy (eight male subjects, five female subjects) and characterized by enlargement of the cheek (n = 12) or chin (n = 1). Other findings included cutaneous capillary blush (n = 9), ipsilateral macroglossia (n = 8), and mucosal neuromas (n = 6). Most patients had early eruption of ipsilateral deciduous and permanent teeth (n = 12). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an infiltrated soft-tissue mass of fatty density (n = 13) and skeletal overgrowth (n = 9). Multiple resection was performed on six patients (mean number of operations per patient, 2.5; range, one to six operations); regrowth and/or worsening of the capillary stain occurred in all six patients. Because surgical removal of the mass is usually unsuccessful, specific management of this condition will require insight into its etiopathogenesis. Given the presence of mucosal neuromas and lipomatosis, this study included testing for the known mutations in three entities that are associated with these soft-tissue findings (Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcava syndrome, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B). Results of DNA analyses for these germline mutations were negative. It is more likely that this disorder is caused by a somatic mutation involving a local increase in growth factor(s).

  19. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  20. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  1. Measuring facial expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.

  2. Facial asymmetry: a current review

    PubMed Central

    Thiesen, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The term "asymmetry" is used to make reference to dissimilarity between homologous elements, altering the balance between structures. Facial asymmetry is common in the overall population and is often presented subclinically. Nevertheless, on occasion, significant facial asymmetry results not only in functional, but also esthetic issues. Under these conditions, its etiology should be carefully investigated in order to achieve an adequate treatment plan. Facial asymmetry assessment comprises patient's first interview, extra- as well as intraoral clinical examination, and supplementary imaging examination. Subsequent asymmetry treatment depends on patient's age, the etiology of the condition and on the degree of disharmony, and might include from asymmetrical orthodontic mechanics to orthognathic surgery. Thus, the present study aims at addressing important aspects to be considered by the orthodontist reaching an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan of facial asymmetry, in addition to reporting treatment of some patients carriers of such challenging disharmony. PMID:26691977

  3. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  4. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology.

  5. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  6. Measuring facial expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress. PMID:26869846

  7. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  8. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  9. Video based lifting technique coding system.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, S M; Brogmus, G E; Martin, S E; Bezverkhny, I B

    1998-03-01

    Despite automation and improved working conditions, many materials in industry are still handled manually. Among the basic activities involved in manual materials handling, lifting is the one most frequently associated with low-back pain (LBP). Biomechanical analysis techniques have been used to better understand the risk factors associated with manual handling, but because these techniques require specialized equipment, highly trained personnel, and interfere with normal business operations, they are limited in their usefulness. A video based lifting technique analysis system (the VidLiTeCTM System) is presented that provides for quantifiable non-invasive biomechanical analysis of the dynamic features of lifting with high inter-coder reliability and low sensitivity to absolute errors. Analysis of results from a laboratory experiment and from field-collected videotape are described that support the reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy claims of the VidLiTeCTM System. The VidLiTeCTM System allows technicians with minimal training and low-tech equipment (a camcorder) to collect large sets of lifting data without interfering with normal business operations. A reasonably accurate estimate of the peak compressive force on the L5/S1 joint can be made from the data collected. Such a system can be used to collect quantified data on lifting techniques that can be related to LBP reporting.

  10. Developmental facial paralysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers.

  11. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential.

  12. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

  13. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  14. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  15. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D C

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs.

  16. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  17. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  18. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  19. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

    2010-11-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  20. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

    2010-11-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed.

  1. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  2. Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-11-01

    Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics.

  3. Five-year Experience with Perma Facial Implant

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Peter; Harris, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Augmentation cheiloplasty is becoming an increasingly popular aesthetic procedure despite current methodologies having met with disappointment among surgeons and patients. The goal of this study was to examine the benefits and drawbacks of 1 device in particular—Perma Facial Implant (PFI). The senior authors (P.R. and S.W.H.) performed 832 consecutive PFI lip augmentations with excellent results based on photographic documentation, patient satisfaction surveys, unbiased surgeon ratings, and low complication rates. In addition to augmenting thin lips, PFIs hide excess dentition and improve vermilion rhytids and pout. Contrary to alternatives, they are both permanent and reversible. However, they do not level out asymmetries or benefit razor-thin lips without prior lifting or mucosal advancement. PMID:25289346

  4. Observing object lifting errors modulates cortico-spinal excitability and improves object lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Gavin; Wong, Jeremy D; Tang, Minnie; Gribble, Paul L; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2014-01-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to modulate cortico-spinal excitability and affect behaviour. However, the sensorimotor consequences of observing errors are not well understood. Here, participants watched actors lift identically weighted large and small cubes which typically elicit expectation-based fingertip force errors. One group of participants observed the standard overestimation and underestimation-style errors that characterise early lifts with these cubes (Error video--EV). Another group watched the same actors performing the well-adapted error-free lifts that characterise later, well-practiced lifts with these cubes (No error video--NEV). We then examined actual object lifting performance in the subjects who watched the EV and NEV. Despite having similar cognitive expectations and perceptions of heaviness, the group that watched novice lifters making errors themselves made fewer overestimation-style errors than those who watched the expert lifts. To determine how the observation of errors alters cortico-spinal excitability, we measured motor evoked potentials in separate group of participants while they passively observed these EV and NEV. Here, we noted a novel size-based modulation of cortico-spinal excitability when observing the expert lifts, which was eradicated when watching errors. Together, these findings suggest that individuals' sensorimotor systems are sensitive to the subtle visual differences between observing novice and expert performance.

  5. Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

    2014-10-01

    Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion.

  6. A Contemporary Approach to Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults.

  7. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  8. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  9. [The history of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. PMID:26088742

  10. Cortical control of facial expression.

    PubMed

    Müri, René M

    2016-06-01

    The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system. PMID:26418049

  11. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  12. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  13. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  14. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  15. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) Aerial ladders; (iii) Articulating boom platforms; (iv... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such... when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) Aerial ladders; (iii) Articulating boom platforms; (iv... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such... when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall...

  17. Overview of facial paralysis: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Limb, Charles J

    2008-05-01

    Facial paralysis represents the end result of a wide array of disorders and heterogeneous etiologies, including congenital, traumatic, infectious, neoplastic, and metabolic causes. Thus, facial palsy has a diverse range of presentations, from transient unilateral paresis to devastating permanent bilateral paralysis. Although not life-threatening, facial paralysis remains relatively common and can have truly severe effects on one's quality of life, with important ramifications in terms of psychological impact and physiologic burden. Prognosis and outcomes for patients with facial paralysis are highly dependent on the etiologic nature of the weakness as well as the treatment offered to the patient. Facial plastic surgeons are often asked to manage the sequelae of long-standing facial paralysis. It is important, however, for any practitioner who assists this population to have a sophisticated understanding of the common etiologies and initial management of facial paralysis. This article reviews the more common causes of facial paralysis and discusses relevant early treatment strategies.

  18. Facial feedback effects on impression formation.

    PubMed

    Ohira, H; Kurono, K

    1993-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine effects of facial expressions upon social cognitive processes in which the impression of another person is formed. In each experiment, 30 female college students were induced to display or conceal their facial reactions to a hypothetical target person whose behaviors were mildly hostile (Exp. 1) or mildly friendly (Exp. 2), or their facial expressions were not manipulated. Displaying the facial expressions shifted the impression into the congruent directions with hedonic values corresponding to the facial expressions. Concealing the facial expressions, however, did not influence impression formation. Also, the positive-negative asymmetry was observed in the facial feedback effects, that is, the negative facial expression had a stronger effect on social cognition than the positive one. PMID:8170774

  19. Facial coloration tracks changes in women's estradiol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wincenciak, Joanna; Kandrik, Michal; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Red facial coloration is an important social cue in many primate species, including humans. In such species, the vasodilatory effects of estradiol may cause red facial coloration to change systematically during females' ovarian cycle. Although increased red facial coloration during estrus has been observed in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), evidence linking primate facial color changes directly to changes in measured estradiol is lacking. Addressing this issue, we used a longitudinal design to demonstrate that red facial coloration tracks within-subject changes in women's estradiol, but not within-subject changes in women's progesterone or estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. Moreover, the relationship between estradiol and facial redness was observed in two independent samples of women (N = 50 and N = 65). Our results suggest that changes in facial coloration may provide cues of women's fertility and present the first evidence for a direct link between estradiol and female facial redness in a primate species. PMID:25796069

  20. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northwest. Showing rope connectors and deflector sheaves. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  1. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  2. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN BACKGROUND. SOUTH STATION VISIBLE AT TOP LEFT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  5. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  8. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES AND BEARINGS WITH HOUSING AND SHEAVE HOODS REMOVED - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  9. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  10. 1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lift Station, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  12. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  13. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  14. Facial hair policy in a respirator program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, P.R. )

    1989-10-01

    In this paper the prohibition against facial hair for respirator users is explored. Reasons for the prohibition are given, along with suggestions for establishing or reviewing a policy. Recommendations are given for properly wording a facial hair policy, and the issue of facial hair on female workers is also addressed.

  15. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  16. Calcium hydroxylapatite for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Alexander; Cohen, Joel L; Goldberg, David J

    2006-09-01

    Porous calcium hydroxylapatite has been used in otolaryngology, dentistry and radiology for many years. Currently, calcium hydroxylapatite is gaining popularity for facial esthetics in the form of the product Radiesse (San Mateo, CA). Although Radiesse is not yet approved in the United States for cosmetic use, it is being used off-label by an increasing number of dermatologists and plastic surgeons for facial soft-tissue augmentation. Preliminary clinical and histologic studies have shown safety, efficacy and durability in various esthetic applications including the nasolabial folds and HIV lipoatrophy.

  17. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  18. On lifting line analysis of horizontal axis windturbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politis, G. K.; Loukakis, T. A.

    A convergent iteration scheme for lifting line performance analysis of horizontal axis windturbines is presented. Lifting line correction factors are introduced and compared with those of Prandtl and Goldstein. Lifting line and strip theory formulations are applied for the calculation of performance for two windturbines. Differences of engineering importance are shown to exist in the prediction of the Power coefficient.

  19. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  20. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  1. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  2. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  3. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  4. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  5. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be used for takeoff, approach or...

  6. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  7. 14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High lift devices. 25.345 Section 25.345... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.345 High lift...) A head-on gust of 25 feet per second velocity (EAS). (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are...

  8. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be used for takeoff, approach or...

  9. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be used for takeoff, approach or...

  10. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  11. 14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High lift devices. 25.345 Section 25.345... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.345 High lift...) A head-on gust of 25 feet per second velocity (EAS). (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are...

  12. 14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High lift devices. 25.345 Section 25.345... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.345 High lift...) A head-on gust of 25 feet per second velocity (EAS). (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are...

  13. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be used for takeoff, approach or...

  14. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... distributed. (c) Test method. (1) A metal or flexible IBC must be lifted in the manner for which it is... devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically, for a period of five minutes; and (ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied...

  15. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 38 refer, the entity must carry the wheelchair and occupant if the lift and vehicle can... shall assist individuals with disabilities with the use of securement systems, ramps and lifts. If it is... a vehicle's lift or ramp to enter the vehicle. Provided, that an entity is not required to...

  16. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  17. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... notice that it had issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an overhead... determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered to the U.S....

  18. Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic. PMID:23482994

  19. Method for the determination of the spanwise lift distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, A

    1935-01-01

    The method for determination of the spanwise lift distribution is based on the Fourier series for the representation of the lift distribution. The lift distribution, as well as the angle of attack, is split up in four elementary distributions. The insertion of the angle-of-attack distribution in the Fourier series for the lift distribution gives a compound third series which is of particular advantage for the determination of the lift distribution. The method is illustrated in an example and supplemented by a graphical method. Lastly, the results of several comparative calculations with other methods are reported.

  20. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  1. Facial three-dimensional morphometry.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of landmarks' x, y, z coordinates. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements, and four linear distance ratios were computed and averaged for sex. For all angular values, both samples showed a narrow variability and no significant gender differences were demonstrated. Conversely, all the linear measurements were significantly higher in men than in women. The highest intersample variability was observed for the measurements of facial height (prevalent vertical dimension), and the lowest for the measurements of facial depth (prevalent horizontal dimension). The proportions of upper and lower face height relative to the anterior face height showed a significant sex difference. Mean values were in good agreement with literature data collected with traditional methods. The described method allowed the direct and noninvasive calculation of three-dimensional linear and angular measurements that would be usefully applied in clinics as a supplement to the classic x-ray cephalometric analyses. PMID:8540488

  2. Volume restoration and facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark J; Glasgold, Robert A; Lam, Samuel M

    2008-11-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the use of volume restoration to restore natural, youthful contours to an aging face. Topics discussed include the discrepancy that can exist between patients' stated wishes and optimal results and the concepts of framing the eye, creating highlights, and restoring facial shape and volume.

  3. Facial filler and neurotoxin complications.

    PubMed

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Botulinum neuromodulators and injectable dermal fillers have become part of the armamentarium in the treatment of facial aging. Their successful use requires a fundamental knowledge of anatomy and physiology and a sound understanding of their risks and complications. Although neuromodulators and fillers continue to demonstrate a strong record of safety, several notable risks exist.

  4. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  5. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-10-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  6. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  7. What's new in artificial lift; Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. ); Winkler, H.W. , Lubbock, TX )

    1994-04-01

    In the first article of this two-part series, new developments were presented for electrical submersible pumps and accessories, gas lift, and controls and measurement. This concluding article extends the review of artificial lift innovations to include beam pumping and progressive cavity (PC) pumps. Described here are improvements in beam pumping which include advanced sucker rods and pumping units, fluid level instruments, pump-off control (POC) and efficiency monitoring/management systems, pump sand control, surface pollution containment and a shared-motor for multiple wells. For progressive cavity pump improvements, three companies have introduced new rod guides, a modified tubing anchor catcher, round continuous rods, a PC variable frequency drive and a multilobe pump system. And status of a 20-company sponsored project for PC pump improvement is outlined.

  8. Lifted tensors and Hamilton-Jacobi separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeyaert, G.; Sarlet, W.

    2014-12-01

    Starting from a bundle τ : E → R, the bundle π :J1τ∗ → E, which is the dual of the first jet bundle J1 τ and a sub-bundle of T∗ E, is the appropriate manifold for the geometric description of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Based on previous work, we recall properties of the complete lifts of a type (1 , 1) tensor R on E to both T∗ E and J1τ∗. We discuss how an interplay between both lifted tensors leads to the identification of related distributions on both manifolds. The integrability of these distributions, a coordinate free condition, is shown to produce exactly Forbat's conditions for separability of the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in appropriate coordinates.

  9. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  10. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  11. Closed, nonendoscopic, small-incision forehead lift.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    As endoscopic techniques made inroads into surgery, one of the first procedures they were adapted to by plastic surgeons was the forehead lift. The "closed" forehead lift procedure has since achieved wide acceptance and exists as a viable alternative to open procedures for many patients. Experience has shown, however, that it is not necessary to use an endoscope to mobilize and release the forehead and modify the corrugator supercilii muscles in "closed" procedures if the anatomy is understood, the operation is appropriately planned, and the corrugator muscles are modified using a transpalpebral approach. In addition, transpalpebral corrugator myectomy, when used in conjunction with closed mobilization and resuspension of the forehead, provides not only a scheme for the performance of closed foreheadplasty without the need for an endoscope, but a method by which medial brow elevation can be minimized or avoided. This may, indeed, be one the procedure's most important advantages over the endoscopic technique.

  12. Induction factor optimization through variable lift control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, John; Corke, Thomas; Nelson, Robert; Williams, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Due to practical design limitations coupled with the detrimental effects posed by complex wind regimes, modern wind turbines struggle to maintain or even reach ideal operational states. With additional gains through traditional approaches becoming more difficult and costly, active lift control represents a more attractive option for future designs. Here, plasma actuators have been explored experimentally in trailing edge applications for use in attached flow regimes. This authority would be used to drive the axial induction factor toward the ideal given by the Betz limit through distributed lift control thereby enhancing energy capture. Predictions of power improvement achievable by this methodology are made with blade - element momentum theory but will eventually be demonstrated in the field at the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design, currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame.

  13. Heating Analysis of the Lockheed Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Henline, Bill; Olynick, Dave; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed on the Lockheed Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit vehicle to determine the heat transfer to the vehicle during its descent trajectory. Seven species, chemical nonequilibriurn computations using the GASP code will be completed at several trajectory points to assess the thermal protection requirements of the vehicle. Sophisticated surface boundary conditions including in-depth conduction, catalycity, and a variable temperature wall have been incorporated into the flow solver.

  14. Pressure Roller For Tape-Lift Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve

    1991-01-01

    Rolling device applies nearly constant, uniform pressure to surface. Simple tool exerts nearly constant pressure via compression of sheath by fixed amount. Pins hold wheels on cylinder and cylinder on tangs of handle. Cylinder and handle made of metal or plastic. Sheath press-fit or glued to cylinder. End pins attached to cylinder by adhesive or screw threads. Device intended for use in taking tape-lift samples of particulate contamination on surface.

  15. Lift production in the hovering hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

    2009-11-01

    Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing. PMID:19656789

  16. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  17. Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A

    2007-01-01

    Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

  18. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904

  19. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.

    2002-09-01

    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  20. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  1. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  2. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  3. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  4. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000lift coefficients along with changes to separation point at high angles of attack are observed when the hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  5. Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.

    1993-01-01

    The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

  6. The subperiosteal, drill hole, midface lift.

    PubMed

    Perry, C Blake; Allen, Richard C

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using drill holes through the inferior orbital rim and fixation with permanent sutures as a functional subperiosteal midface lift and compares it to other standard midface elevation techniques. This was a retrospective, comparative, non-randomized study. Charts of all patients undergoing midface elevation between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. Pre- and post-operative photos were graded on a scale 0 to 3 with 0 representing normal lower lid position and lid/cheek junction and 3 representing the most severe malposition. Twenty-seven patients (35 sides) underwent midface lift. Twelve sides had the subperiosteal drill hole midface lift; 9 preperiosteal with Vicryl suture fixation to periosteum; 14 subperiosteal with Endotine midface B device. All groups had similar demographics and indications for surgery. Average follow-up time was greater than 4 months in all groups. No significant complications were seen in any of the patients. The average post-operative grade of the drill hole group was 0.65 compared to 0.75 of the preperiosteal Vicryl group and 0.7 of the Endotine group. The drill hole group had the most severe pre-operative malposition. Overall, the drill hole group demonstrated the largest improvement score. The subperiosteal drill hole technique proved to be an effective method for functional midface elevation. This technique achieves adequate and durable vertical elevation without relying on the strength of the periosteum or use of a commercial device.

  7. The subperiosteal, drill hole, midface lift.

    PubMed

    Perry, C Blake; Allen, Richard C

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using drill holes through the inferior orbital rim and fixation with permanent sutures as a functional subperiosteal midface lift and compares it to other standard midface elevation techniques. This was a retrospective, comparative, non-randomized study. Charts of all patients undergoing midface elevation between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. Pre- and post-operative photos were graded on a scale 0 to 3 with 0 representing normal lower lid position and lid/cheek junction and 3 representing the most severe malposition. Twenty-seven patients (35 sides) underwent midface lift. Twelve sides had the subperiosteal drill hole midface lift; 9 preperiosteal with Vicryl suture fixation to periosteum; 14 subperiosteal with Endotine midface B device. All groups had similar demographics and indications for surgery. Average follow-up time was greater than 4 months in all groups. No significant complications were seen in any of the patients. The average post-operative grade of the drill hole group was 0.65 compared to 0.75 of the preperiosteal Vicryl group and 0.7 of the Endotine group. The drill hole group had the most severe pre-operative malposition. Overall, the drill hole group demonstrated the largest improvement score. The subperiosteal drill hole technique proved to be an effective method for functional midface elevation. This technique achieves adequate and durable vertical elevation without relying on the strength of the periosteum or use of a commercial device. PMID:27486865

  8. Dragonfly flight. III. Lift and power requirements.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, JM; Ellington, CP

    1997-02-01

    A mean lift coefficient quasi-steady analysis has been applied to the free flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. The analysis accommodated the yaw and accelerations involved in free flight. For any given velocity or resultant aerodynamic force (thrust), the damselfly mean lift coefficient was higher than that for the dragonfly because of its clap and fling. For both species, the maximum mean lift coefficient L was higher than the steady CL,max. Both species aligned their strokes planes to be nearly normal to the thrust, a strategy that reduces the L required for flight and which is different from the previously published hovering and slow dragonfly flights with stroke planes steeply inclined to the horizontal. Owing to the relatively low costs of accelerating the wing, the aerodynamic power required for flight represents the mechanical power output from the muscles. The maximum muscle mass-specific power was estimated at 156 and 166 W kg-1 for S. sanguineum and C. splendens, respectively. Measurements of heat production immediately after flight resulted in mechanical efficiency estimates of 13 % and 9 % for S. sanguineum and C. splendens muscles, respectively.

  9. Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

  10. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.

  11. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  12. The 'Nefertiti lift': a new technique for specific re-contouring of the jawline.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip M

    2007-12-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) is now used extensively for rejuvenation of the forehead, glabellar and periocular regions and there is increasing focus on treatment of the lower face. Although there is well-documented evidence for the efficacy of botulinum toxin in the correction of platysmal bands, little work has been done to explore its potential role in rejuvenation of the jawline. To date, effects in this area have been reported as a consequence of platysmal banding treatment and are inconsistent. Hesitancy to explore treatment may be due to evidence of a greater, more durable response to the toxin in the lower facial muscles as well as reports of increased potential migration and subsequent side effects. This paper describes a new technique using BoNTA (Vistabel); Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) to drape the skin of the jawline contour and provide the visual effect of a 'mini lift'. Experience with 130 patients with doses of BoNTA up to 20 U is described. Patient satisfaction is extremely high and the specificity of dosing and technique has led to a low incidence of adverse effects. The 'Nefertiti lift' is a minimally invasive, effective and acceptable alternative for those patients seeking an effective way to push back surgery.

  13. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  14. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate.

    PubMed

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate.

  15. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  16. Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971

  17. [Facial paralysis surgery. Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Robla-Costales, David; Robla-Costales, Javier; Socolovsky, Mariano; di Masi, Gilda; Fernández, Javier; Campero, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Facial palsy is a relatively common condition, from which most cases recover spontaneously. However, each year, there are 127,000 new cases of irreversible facial paralysis. This condition causes aesthetic, functional and psychologically devastating effects in the patients who suffer it. Various reconstructive techniques have been described, but there is no consensus regarding their indication. While these techniques provide results that are not perfect, many of them give a very good aesthetic and functional result, promoting the psychological, social and labour reintegration of these patients. The aim of this article is to describe the indications for which each technique is used, their results and the ideal time when each one should be applied.

  18. Molecular control of facial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B.; Rooker, S.M.; Helms, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a developmental perspective on the concept of phylotypic and phenotypic stages of craniofacial development. Within Orders of avians and mammals, a phylotypic period exists when the morphology of the facial prominences is minimally divergent. We postulate that species-specific facial variations arise as a result of subtle shifts in the timing and the duration of molecular pathway activity (e.g., heterochrony), and present evidence demonstrating a critical role for Wnt and FGF signaling in this process. The same molecular pathways that shape the vertebrate face are also implicated in craniofacial deformities, indicating that comparisons between and among animal species may represent a novel method for the identification of human craniofacial disease genes. PMID:19747977

  19. Mapping and manipulating facial expression.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R; Brick, Timothy R; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Boker, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of nonverbal visual behavior during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  20. External facial features modify the representation of internal facial features in the fusiform face area.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2010-08-15

    Most studies of face identity have excluded external facial features by either removing them or covering them with a hat. However, external facial features may modify the representation of internal facial features. Here we assessed whether the representation of face identity in the fusiform face area (FFA), which has been primarily studied for internal facial features, is modified by differences in external facial features. We presented faces in which external and internal facial features were manipulated independently. Our findings show that the FFA was sensitive to differences in external facial features, but this effect was significantly larger when the external and internal features were aligned than misaligned. We conclude that the FFA generates a holistic representation in which the internal and the external facial features are integrated. These results indicate that to better understand real-life face recognition both external and internal features should be included.

  1. Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

  2. The biology of facial fillers.

    PubMed

    Bentkover, Stuart H

    2009-05-01

    The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently.

  3. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  4. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  5. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  6. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  7. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects. PMID:26236734

  8. Facial baroparesis caused by scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

  9. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

  11. Facial Asymmetry in Young Adults with Condylar Hyperplasia-Unusual Changes in the Facial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; JK, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  12. Facial asymmetry in young adults with condylar hyperplasia-unusual changes in the facial bones.

    PubMed

    Gn, Suma; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Jk, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  13. Facial trauma in a softball player.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brian L; Anan, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Facial trauma frequently results in fracture of the facial bones. A blowout fracture involves the eye orbit and usually transpires when the object hitting the eye (eg, baseball, softball, fist, elbow) is larger than the orbit itself. The mechanism of injury will provide the physician with a clue to the diagnosis. Prompt recognition of any significant complications, proper imaging, and referral to an ophthalmology specialist are usually required. Facial reconstruction by a plastic surgeon may also be necessary. PMID:20086450

  14. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  15. Emergency Care of Maxillo-Facial Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Douglas

    1967-01-01

    Maxillo-facial injuries require immediate first-aid treatment such as the establishment of a free airway, control of hemorrhage and treatment of shock. Support of the facial structures and positioning of the patient face-downwards are essential life-saving measures. Anxiety concerning facial appearance has an adverse influence on the patient's recovery. Early evacuation to an Advanced Treatment Centre for medical and dental care is of prime importance. PMID:5297208

  16. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    PubMed Central

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A.; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the “like attracts like” principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex. PMID:26578940

  17. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    PubMed

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  18. Facial trauma in a softball player.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brian L; Anan, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Facial trauma frequently results in fracture of the facial bones. A blowout fracture involves the eye orbit and usually transpires when the object hitting the eye (eg, baseball, softball, fist, elbow) is larger than the orbit itself. The mechanism of injury will provide the physician with a clue to the diagnosis. Prompt recognition of any significant complications, proper imaging, and referral to an ophthalmology specialist are usually required. Facial reconstruction by a plastic surgeon may also be necessary.

  19. A history of facial and ocular prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Reisberg, D J; Habakuk, S W

    1990-01-01

    This article traces the history of facial and ocular prosthetics. Creative individuals who have made significant contributions are highlighted and the evolution of techniques and materials is presented. In view of the significance placed upon facial beauty in today's society, it becomes incumbent upon us to recognize the ingenuity and skill of those in the past to gain appreciation for the present state of the art and to provide incentive for improving facial and ocular prosthetic restorations in the future.

  20. Lift Fan Nozzle for Joint Strike Fighter Tested in NASA Lewis' Powered Lift Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Under a nonreimbursable space act agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Allison Advanced Development Company, Allison tested a lift fan nozzle in Lewis' Powered Lift Rig. This test was in support of the Joint Strike Fighter program (formerly the Joint Advanced Strike Technology) sponsored by the Department of Defense, which will develop and field an affordable, multirole, next-generation, strike fighter aircraft for the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and foreign allies. Allison, along with Pratt & Whitney Company, is part of the Lockheed Martin Corporation team that is scheduled to build a concept demonstrator aircraft by fiscal year 2001. The test was initiated in April and successfully completed in mid-July of 1997. Allison supplied a one-third-scale model of the lift fan nozzle, and Lewis provided the facility and the necessary support team. Various configurations, including pitching vectored angles ranging from 15deg forward to 60deg backward, were tested over a range of nozzle pressure ratios. Nozzle flow rates, thrust, and static pressures were measured for each of the configurations. Results from the test met the design requirements for the Joint Strike Fighter program and were in agreement with Allison's internal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. Data obtained from this test will also be used in the full-scale design of the lift fan system.

  1. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1997-04-01

    Part 1 overviewed 14 new developments for sucker rod and progressing cavity pumping, and gas lift. Described here are several recently announced and/or applied innovations from three major suppliers of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs). Also presented are four other new developments related directly to artificial lift operations. The latter include: coiled tubing plunger lift equipment, an AC motor power controller, a new acoustic liquid level instrument and performance analyzer, and a gearmotor surface drive for PCPs.

  2. HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

  3. The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

  4. Allometry of facial mobility in anthropoid primates: implications for the evolution of facial expression.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Seth D

    2009-01-01

    Body size may be an important factor influencing the evolution of facial expression in anthropoid primates due to allometric constraints on the perception of facial movements. Given this hypothesis, I tested the prediction that observed facial mobility is positively correlated with body size in a comparative sample of nonhuman anthropoids. Facial mobility, or the variety of facial movements a species can produce, was estimated using a novel application of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). I used FACS to estimate facial mobility in 12 nonhuman anthropoid species, based on video recordings of facial activity in zoo animals. Body mass data were taken from the literature. I used phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) to perform a multiple regression analysis with facial mobility as the dependent variable and two independent variables: log body mass and dummy-coded infraorder. Together, body mass and infraorder explain 92% of the variance in facial mobility. However, the partial effect of body mass is much stronger than for infraorder. The results of my study suggest that allometry is an important constraint on the evolution of facial mobility, which may limit the complexity of facial expression in smaller species. More work is needed to clarify the perceptual bases of this allometric pattern.

  5. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K. P.; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions. PMID:27779211

  6. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids.

    PubMed

    Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M; Liebal, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely 'responded to' by the partner's facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics.

  7. Facial expression recognition using thermal image.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guotai; Song, Xuemin; Zheng, Fuhui; Wang, Peipei; Omer, Ashgan

    2005-01-01

    Facial expression recognition will be studied in this paper using mathematics morphology, through drawing and analyzing the whole geometry characteristics and some geometry characteristics of the interesting area of Infrared Thermal Imaging (IRTI). The results show that geometry characteristic in the interesting region of different expression are obviously different; Facial temperature changes almost with the expression at the same time. Studies have shown feasibility of facial expression recognition on the basis of IRTI. This method can be used to monitor the facial expression in real time, which can be used in auxiliary diagnosis and medical on disease.

  8. Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink.

  9. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids

    PubMed Central

    Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M.; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M.; Liebal, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely ‘responded to’ by the partner’s facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics. PMID:26978660

  10. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions.

  11. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions. PMID:27073904

  12. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doria, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

  14. High-lift aerodynamics: Trends, trades, and options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, R. J.; Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The trend toward the utilization of higher maximum lift coefficient with increased aircraft size and cruise velocities is discussed. The impact of this trend on the need for tradeoffs between cruise performance and takeoff, climb, and landing performance is examined. Theoretical methods for the analysis of the two-dimensional characteristics of flap systems are described and compared with experimental data. Four powered-lift concepts are described to outline some of the options currently being developed. Two jet-flap theories are described which provide analytical methods for estimation of the three-dimensional aerodynamic high-lift performance characteristics of powered lift systems.

  15. Adaptation of lift forces in object manipulation through action observation.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Andreas F; Ash, Alyssa M; Baugh, Lee A; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall

    2013-07-01

    The ability to predict accurately the weights of objects is essential for skilled and dexterous manipulation. A potentially important source of information about object weight is through the observation of other people lifting objects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that when watching an actor lift an object, people naturally learn the object's weight and use this information to scale forces when they subsequently lift the object themselves. Participants repeatedly lifted an object in turn with an actor. Object weight unpredictably changed between 2 and 7 N every 5th to 9th of the actor's lifts, and the weight lifted by the participant always matched that previously lifted by the actor. Even though the participants were uninformed about the structure of the experiment, they appropriately adapted their lifting force in the first trial after a weight change. Thus, participants updated their internal representation about the object's weight, for use in action, when watching a single lift performed by the actor. This ability presumably involves the comparison of predicted and actual sensory information related to actor's actions, a comparison process that is also fundamental in action.

  16. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Shahbazian, Honeyeh; Behniafard, Nasim; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention. Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction. Conclusion: A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies. PMID:26877998

  18. The Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swingarm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until lift-off. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

  19. Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

  20. Wellhead monitors automate Lake Maracaibo gas lift

    SciTech Connect

    Adjunta, J.C. ); Majek, A. )

    1994-11-28

    High-performance personal computer (PC) and intelligent remote terminal unit (IRTU) technology have optimized the remote control of gas lift injection and surveillance of over 1,000 offshore production wells at Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. In its 3-year program, Maraven expects a 27,000 b/d increase in oil production by reducing deferred production and optimizing gas lift injection by as much as 20%. In addition, real time data on well performance will enhance production management as well as allocation of operational and maintenance resources. The remote control system consists of a solar-powered wellhead monitor (WHM) installed on each well platform. At each flow gathering station within a 2-mile range of a family of wells, a host terminal unit polls and stores the well data with low power, 250-mw radios. From a remote location, 60 miles onshore, an operator interface polls the host units for real time data with 5-watt radios operating in the 900-megahertz band. The paper describes the design, optimization, telemetry management, and selection of a single vendor for this system. The economic impact of this system to Maraven is also discussed.

  1. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  2. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  3. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  4. Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

  5. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  6. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  7. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting.

    PubMed

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber's law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner.

  8. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  9. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  10. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  11. [Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae].

    PubMed

    Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Boulos, J P; Bichet, J C; Jacquin, F

    2001-06-01

    The deep burns of the face can lead to horrible scars functionally and aesthetically. Treatment of these scars need several surgical interventions frequently and during many years. In our region we deal with this type of wounds as team work, multidisciplinary approach carrying out many process starting by emergency treatment of acute burns till the social rehabilitation. The expansion technique was great help in improving the shape of scars, by using the expanding skin as full thickness grafts. Reconstruction of the anatomical units and application of aesthetic techniques (like rhinoplasty, lifting, tattooing and autologous fat injections) participate equally in improving the quality of results. Many examples of treatments of burns scars are shown.

  12. Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

  13. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people's emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such. PMID:27467393

  14. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people's emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such.

  15. Facial nerve dissection by use of acoustic (loudspeaker) facial EMG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kinney, S E; Prass, R

    1986-11-01

    The development of the surgical microscope in 1953, and the subsequent development of microsurgical instrumentation, signaled the beginning of modern-day acoustic neuroma surgery. Preservation of facial nerve function and total tumor removal is the goal of all acoustic neuroma surgery. The refinement of the translabyrinthine removal of acoustic neuromas by Dr. William House significantly improved preservation of facial nerve function. This is made possible by the anatomic identification of the facial nerve at the lateral end of the internal auditory canal. When the surgery is accomplished from a suboccipital or retrosigmoid approach, the facial nerve may be identified at the brain stem or within the internal auditory canal. Identifying the facial nerve from the posterior approach is not as anatomically precise as from the lateral approach through the labyrinth. The use of a facial nerve stimulator can greatly facilitate identification of the facial nerve in these procedures.

  16. An amplification of feedback from facial muscles strengthened sympathetic activations to emotional facial cues.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seon; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Soon-Ho; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-12-01

    The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that feedback from cutaneous and muscular afferents influences our emotions during the control of facial expressions. Enhancing facial expressiveness produces an increase in autonomic arousal and self-reported emotional experience, whereas limiting facial expression attenuates these responses. The present study investigated differences in autonomic responses during imitated versus observed facial expressions. Thus, we obtained the facial electromyogram (EMG) of the corrugator muscle, and measured the skin conductance response (SCR) and pupil size (PS) of participants while they were either imitating or simply observing emotional expressions of anger. We found that participants produced significantly greater responses across all three measures (EMG, SCR, and PS) during active imitation than during passive observation. These results show that amplified feedback from facial muscles during imitation strengthens sympathetic activation in response to negative emotional cues. Our findings suggest that manipulations of muscular feedback could be used to modulate the bodily expression of emotion, including autonomic responses to the emotional cues.

  17. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    PubMed

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  18. A novel, multistep, combination facial rejuvenation procedure for treatment of the whole face with incobotulinumtoxinA, and two dermal fillers- calcium hydroxylapatite and a monophasic, polydensified hyaluronic acid filler.

    PubMed

    Pavicic, Tatjana; Few, Julius W; Huber-Vorländer, Jurgen

    2013-09-01

    Facial aging is a three-dimensional process, and facial rejuvenation procedures intended to reverse the effects of aging need to address this by combining products that relax hyperkinetic musculature, volumize/fill, and recontour/lift the whole face. In line with the desire of patients to achieve an overall youthful facial appearance, we report for the first time three cases where patients have been successfully treated across the whole face with a novel, three-step approach, layering incobotulinumtoxinA and two dermal fillers (calcium hydroxylapatite and a monophasic hyaluronic acid filler with CPM Technology) injected at three separate treatment visits. The results suggest that this layering approach based on an understanding of the underlying causes of facial aging, where different products are used in combination to treat the entire face, can enable patients to achieve the desired outcome of a return to the characteristics of a more youthful face.

  19. Early Observations on Facial Palsy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2015-01-01

    Before Charles Bell's eponymous account of facial palsy, physicians of the Graeco-Roman era had chronicled the condition. The later neglected accounts of the Persian physicians Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi ("Rhazes") and Avicenna in the first millennium are presented here as major descriptive works preceding the later description by Stalpart van der Wiel in the seventeenth century and those of Friedreich and Bell at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. PMID:25513852

  20. Complex Traumatic Facial Degloving Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav N, Chandan; Ramdas, Sharad; Lingam, P P; Sateesh, Suhas

    2016-06-01

    By definition, degloving is detachment of skin and subcutaneous tissue, most often affecting the limbs and extremities and occasionally the scalp. Degloving generally occurs from high-energy trauma. This paper describes a patient of traumatic facial degloving injury. This is an extremely rare condition, as the patient survived despite the risk of imminent death. This patient report addresses the decisions made regarding the emergency management, prevention of necrosis and infection by surgical debridement, and timely repair of the vital soft tissue structures that guided the management. PMID:27171962

  1. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  2. The computer-aided facial reconstruction system.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, S; Yoshino, M; Imaizumi, K; Seta, S

    1995-06-30

    A computer imaging system was introduced into the facial reconstruction process. The system, which consists of the image processing unit for skull morphometry and the image editing unit for compositing facial components on the skull images, was an original construction. The image processor generates the framework for building a face onto the digitized skull image. For reconstructing a facial image on the framework, several possible data sets of facial components suitable for the skull morphology are selected from the database by operating our original application software. The most suitable cutout samples of facial components are pasted up over the framework in accordance with the anatomical criteria. The database of facial components consists of 24 contours, 18 eyes, 9 eyebrows, 27 noses, 9 lips and 16 hairstyles. After provisional reconstruction, the facial image is retouched by correcting skin colors and shades with an 'electronic painting device'. The resulting image is a great improvement on images made by the conventional clay and drawing method, both in the operational aspect and in the flexibility of creating multiple versions. The present system facilitates a rather objective and rapid approach and allows us easily to generate a range of possible faces. The computer-aided facial reconstruction will lead to an increase in chances of positive identification in practical cases.

  3. Facial nerve palsy associated with underwater barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Whelan, T R

    1990-06-01

    This report describes a case of facial nerve palsy following barotitis media sustained at shallow depth. The neuropraxia is likely to have been due to the direct effect of pressure, facilitated by a congenital hiatus in the bony canal protecting the facial nerve in the middle ear.

  4. Facial rejuvenation and volumization using implants.

    PubMed

    Binder, William J

    2011-02-01

    Whereas traditional concepts of facial aging focus on the descent of soft tissue secondary to gravitational effects, it is now well established that volumetric changes involving different levels of soft tissue loss reveal craniofacial skeletal deficiencies that, together, contribute to the changes evident in the aging face. Thus, effective facial rejuvenation requires a comprehensive paradigm that identifies and addresses all anatomic elements involved in the aging process. Contemporary practices in facial rejuvenation have expanded far beyond the rhytidectomy procedure to involve deeper and more fundamental levels of dissection for the purpose of elevating and replacing volume. Alloplastic implants offer a long-term, multidimensional solution to facial rejuvenation by concomitantly augmenting skeletal deficiency, restoring lost soft tissue volume, and smoothing irregularities in the facial contour. Facial augmentation using implants represents a straightforward, simple procedure with minimal risks and long-lasting benefits. By applying accurate and judicious techniques for preoperative analysis, selecting the appropriate implant, and with correct surgical placement of the implants, the facial plastic surgeon can achieve successful facial volumization and restore the youthful appearance of the aging patient.

  5. Facial mimicry in its social setting

    PubMed Central

    Seibt, Beate; Mühlberger, Andreas; Likowski, Katja U.; Weyers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting. PMID:26321970

  6. The history and development of facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Valauri, A J

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes the historical development of the modern-day facial prosthesis, the various materials used from the early days to the present, and the historical input of various people and their contributions towards the development of the qualities in fabricating a lifelike facial prosthesis.

  7. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  8. Facial mimicry in its social setting.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Beate; Mühlberger, Andreas; Likowski, Katja U; Weyers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting.

  9. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  10. A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

  11. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing operator's ladder and platform, diagonals and posts, looking southwest - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf

    2011-01-15

    An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

  13. Obesity-related changes in prolonged repetitive lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Ghesmaty Sangachin, Mahboobeh; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising prevalence of obesity, little is known about its moderating effects on injury risk factors, such as fatigue, in occupational settings. This study investigated the effect of obesity, prolonged repetitive lifting and their interaction on lifting performance of 14 participants, 7 obese (mean body mass index (BMI): 33.2 kg m(-2)) and 7 non-obese (mean BMI: 22.2 kg m(-2)) subjects. To present a physically challenging task, subjects performed repetitive lifting for 1 h at 120% of their maximum acceptable weight of lift. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to posture and acceleration data. The obese group bent to a ∼10° lower peak trunk sagittal flexion angle, had 17% lower root mean square (RMS) jerk and took 0.8 s longer per lift. Over time, the obese group increased their trunk transverse and sagittal posterior accelerations while the non-obese maintained theirs. Although the majority of lifting variables were unaffected by BMI or its interaction with prolonged lifting duration, the observed differences, combined with a greater upper body mass, necessitate a more cautious use of existing psychophysical lifting limits for individuals who are obese, particularly when fatigued.

  14. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  15. 662-E solid waste silo-plug lifting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1993-03-01

    The Intermediate Level Tritium Vault No. 1, 662-E, Cell No. 1 contains 140 waste silos. Each silo is approximately 25 feet deep, 30 inches in diameter at the top and covered by a reinforced concrete plug. Two No. 4 reinforcing bars project from the top of each plug for lifting. During lifting operations, the 1.5 inch concrete cover over the lifting bars spelled off 16% of the silo plugs. The No. 4 reinforcing bars were also distorted on many of the silo plugs. Thirteen of the plugs have been repaired to date. The existing silo plug lifting bars have a safe working load of 480 pounds per plug, which is less than 1/3 of the dead weight of the silo plug. The safe working load was calculated using the minimum design factor of 3 based on the yield strength or 5 based on the ultimate strength of the material, as per the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. The existing design calculations were reviewed, and the following items are noted: (1) Adequate concrete cover was not provided over the horizontal portion of the lifting bars. (2) The lifting bars were allowed to yield in bending, which violates the requirements of the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. (3) The ultimate strain of the lifting bars would be exceeded before the calculated ultimate strength was achieved. Alternative lifting devices are also identified.

  16. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is open for navigation, and by one red light on each side for all other positions of the lift span.... Each red light shall show through a horizontal arc of 180°, and shall be securely mounted just below... lift span, or each end of every protection pier when provided, will be marked by a red light. Each...

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is open for navigation, and by one red light on each side for all other positions of the lift span.... Each red light shall show through a horizontal arc of 180°, and shall be securely mounted just below... lift span, or each end of every protection pier when provided, will be marked by a red light. Each...

  19. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  20. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hortel, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  1. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- This closeup shows the workers, standing on lifts, who are checking the bolts on the apparatus holding the orbiter Atlantis. The orbiter will be rotated and lifted into high bay 1 where it will be stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  2. A modified lifting line theory for wing-propeller interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, R. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    An inviscid incompressible model for the interaction of a wing with a single propeller slipstream is presented. The model allows the perturbation quantities to be potential even though the undisturbed flow is rotational. The governing equations for the spanwise lift distribution are derived and a simple method of solving these is indicated. Spanwise lift and induced drag distribution for two cases are computed.

  3. Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

  4. Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.

    PubMed

    Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift. PMID:22181612

  5. Theoretical investigations of high lift aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G.; Thompson, J.

    1983-01-01

    A program which generates a coordinate system for a two element airfoil with the mesh points concentrated in areas of significant vorticity, i.e., boundary layer and wake is operational. The 'imbedded' grid method developed allows a transition from the scale of the main airfoil to the scale of the flap. This requirement is essential for the modeling of viscous flows over the flap and slat of a multielement airfoil. An airfoil mounted in a 2-D wind tunnel was formulated. The program is ready for a fine grid and a large number of planes to explore the characteristics of a Navier-Stokes solver in a quasi-3D case. The program was converted to a form suitable for the STAR computer. Runs were made to map a three dimensional flow field for a wall airfoil intersection with and without lift.

  6. Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.

    PubMed

    Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift.

  7. Localization of facial region in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

    2011-06-01

    We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

  8. Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Matuszewski, Bogdan J.; Shark, Lik-Kwan; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV) of the statistical shape model (SSM) built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

  9. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  10. Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Tate H; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff-orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness.

  11. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  12. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  13. Advancements and Refinement in Facial Neuromodulators.

    PubMed

    Kordestani, Reza; Small, Kevin H; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-10-01

    The use of neuromodulators has increased by approximately 748 percent from 2000 to 2014 and has become an integral adjunct for facial rejuvenation. Knowledge of facial anatomy, accurate facial analysis, and familiarity with neurotoxin characteristics will minimize complications and optimize results. Current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved neurotoxins in the United States include onabotulinumtoxin A (Botox), abobotulinumtoxin A (Dysport), and incobotulinumtoxin A (Xeomin). The dosage and effect of these products are not interchangeable, so practitioners should master the utility and response of one product before trying the other products. All products have equivalent success in appropriately trained hands; the senior author (R.J.R.) favors no particular neurotoxin. This article provides a stepwise approach to treat dynamic facial rhytides with neuromodulators, including indications, facial analysis, preparation and injection technique, post-procedure care, and complications. PMID:27673516

  14. Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  15. Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

  16. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  17. An Ultrasonic Circulation Measurement Technique for Spatial Lift Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiankun; Olinger, David J.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation of the mean spanwise lift distribution for flow over inclined flat plates with sinusoidal trailing edges has been conducted. The stationary plates were vertically aligned in a low-speed wind tunnel with Reynolds number based on chord length of about 30,000. Three distinct flow patterns; streamlined flow, stalled flow and bluff body flow, were studied by varying plate angle of attack between 6 and 45 degrees. A novel ultrasonic technique based on determining the fluid circulation around a path enclosing the flat plate was utilized to measure the lift distribution. In order to correlate the measured lift distribution with wake structures, smoke-wire flow visualization was also performed. The lift distributions for the sinusoidal trailing edge case varied significantly from the nominal 2-D distributions based on local chord length. Preliminary extensions of the ultrasonic method to measure instantaneous lift distributions during an entire shedding cycle on vibrating plates and flexible cables are also discussed.

  18. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  19. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  20. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  1. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  2. 7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN AND THE ABUTMENT AND LIFT TOWER OF RAILROAD BRIDGE ADJACENT TO CARTER ROAD BRIDGE. - Carter Road Lift Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River at Carter Road, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2011-09-15

    Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity.

  4. Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation

    PubMed Central

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

  5. [Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy in children].

    PubMed

    Tabarki, B

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy may (secondary) or may not have a detectable cause (idiopathic facial palsy or Bell's palsy). Idiopathic facial palsy is the common form of facial palsy. It remains diagnosis by exclusion. The prognosis is more favourable in children than in adults. We present current diagnostic procedures and recommendations regarding treatment in children.

  6. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration.

  7. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  8. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Jovana

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  9. Cerebral regulation of facial expressions of pain.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Miriam; Chen, Jen-I; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Rainville, Pierre

    2011-06-15

    Facial expression of affective states plays a key role in social interactions. Interestingly, however, individuals differ substantially in their level of expressiveness, ranging from high expressive to stoic individuals. Here, we investigate which brain mechanisms underlie the regulation of facial expressiveness to acute pain. Facial responses, pain ratings, and brain activity (BOLD-fMRI) evoked by noxious heat and warm (control) stimuli were recorded in 34 human volunteers with different degrees of facial expressiveness. Within-subject and between-subject variations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses were examined specifically in relation to facial responses. Pain expression was inversely related to frontostriatal activity, consistent with a role in downregulating facial displays. More detailed analyses of the peak activity in medial prefrontal cortex revealed negative BOLD responses to thermal stimuli, an effect generally associated with the default mode network. Given that this negative BOLD response was weaker in low expressive individuals during pain, it could reflect stronger engagement in, or reduced disengagement from, self-reflective processes in stoic individuals. The occurrence of facial expressions during pain was coupled with stronger primary motor activity in the face area and-interestingly-in areas involved in pain processing. In conclusion, these results indicate that spontaneous pain expression reflects activity within nociceptive pathways while stoicism involves the active suppression of expression, a manifestation of learned display rules governing emotional communication and possibly related to an increased self-reflective or introspective focus. PMID:21677157

  10. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

  11. Modeling 3D facial shape from DNA.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E; Pearson, Laurel N; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S; Absher, Devin M; Puts, David A; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K; Boster, James S; Shriver, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

  12. Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

  13. Proper design hikes gas-lift system efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T.C.

    1986-06-30

    Proper design of gas-lift pumping systems, used for pumping corrosive or erosive fluids, involves the correct selection of submergence ratio, flow regime, pipe diameter, and physical properties of the fluid. Correlations for maximum lifting efficiency on a friction-free basis vs. submergence ratio have been developed based on experimental data. The Oshinowo and Charles flow map for vertical upward flow has been chosen for determining the two-phase flow regimes. For large-diameter gas-lifting systems, the effects of fluid physical properties on the maximum lifting efficiency become diminished. Gas-lift pumping systems are widely used in the process industry as well as in oil and gas production. In an ethylene dichloride/vinyl chloride monomer (EDC/VCM) plant, quench column bottoms are recirculated back to the column by gas lift of the EDC/VCM stream from the EDC pyrolysis furnace. Gas lift is utilized instead of pumps to alleviate the plugging and erosion problems caused by the presence of coke/tar particulates. Other process applications include those where pumps suffer severe corrosion from the fluids pumped.

  14. Facial Dysmorphism Across the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Suttie, Michael; Foroud, Tatiana; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Khaole, Nathaniel; Robinson, Luther K.; Riley, Edward P.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Classic facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are shortened palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum, and thin upper vermillion. We aim to help pediatricians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum, especially among nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE) individuals without classic facial characteristics. METHODS: Of 192 Cape Coloured children recruited, 69 were born to women who reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. According to multifaceted criteria, the remainder were allocated clinically to the FAS (n = 22), partial FAS (n = 26) or nonsyndromal HE (n = 75) categories. We used dense surface modeling and signature analyses of 3-dimensional facial photographs to determine agreement between clinical categorization and classifications induced from face shape alone, to visualize facial differences, and to consider predictive links between face shape and neurobehavior. RESULTS: Face classification achieved significant agreement with clinical categories for discrimination of nonexposed from FAS alone (face: 0.97–1.00; profile: 0.92) or with the addition of partial FAS (face: 0.90; profile: 0.92). Visualizations of face signatures delineated dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum and in half of the nonsyndromal HE category face signature graphs detected facial characteristics consistent with prenatal alcohol exposure. This subgroup performed less well on IQ and learning tests than did nonsyndromal subjects without classic facial characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Heat maps and morphing visualizations of face signatures may help clinicians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum. Face signature graphs show potential for identifying nonsyndromal heavily exposed children who lack the classic facial phenotype but have cognitive impairment. PMID:23439907

  15. The Liquid Lift: Looking Natural Without Lumps

    PubMed Central

    de Felipe, Iñigo; Redondo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most common filler used to rejuvenate. Today, a three-dimensional approach prevails over previous techniques in which this material was used in specific areas of the face such as the nasolabial fold, the marionette line, and the eye trough giving a strange appearance that does not look natural. Even with a volumizing purpose, the injection of HA can sometimes produce clinically detectable nodules or lumps where the filler is deposited. Aims: To develop a new technique of injecting HA that can provide more natural results and avoid the lumpiness and nodular appearance that sometimes occurs with the injection of HA. To detect whether mixing HA with diluted anesthetic agent modifies its behavior. Settings and Design: Prospective, case control, single-center study on a private clinic setting. Materials and Methods: Eighty six patients were enrolled in this study. All of them had a previous treatment with nondiluted HA using a needle at least a year before. Patients were injected with 8 mL of reticulated HA (RHA) mixed with 6 mL of saline and 2 mL of anesthetic agent. The mixture was administered through a cannula inserted in the face, one at mid-cheek and another at frontal-temporal point of entry. Owing to the lifting effect of this mixture we called this procedure liquid lift (LL). Patients were evaluated 1 month, 6 months, and a year later and asked to compare the LL with previous experiences in terms of natural look, pain, and appearance of nodules. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: One month after the treatment, 83 out of 86 patients (96.5%) thought LL produced a more natural look than the previous treatment with the needle. Sixty two (72%) considered LL less painful than the previous treatment and only eight (9.3%) could detect lumps or nodules 1 month after LL was performed compared with 46 (53.5%) that described this problem with previous needle injections. The incidence of bruising was also clearly lower

  16. Computer-aided forensic facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Evenhouse, R; Rasmussen, M; Sadler, L

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of facial features on the human skull for identification purposes has, in the past, utilized either two-dimensional drafting or three-dimensional sculpting techniques. We have developed two- and three-dimensional computer-aided routines to minimize errors introduced by limits of artistic ability or by inconsistencies in the application of techniques. These routines allow generalized facial features to be manipulated to conform to the size and shape of a specific skull. Subtle alterations of the surface form, texture, and color, based on age, sex, and race, enhance the individuality of the generated facial form. PMID:1624477

  17. Bullous leukemia cutis mimicking facial cellulitis*

    PubMed Central

    Caldato, Luciana de Sales; Britto, Juliana de Sousa; Niero-Melo, Ligia; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    Bullous leukemia cutis is an uncommon clinical manifestation of cutaneous infiltration by leukemic cells, from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present the case of a 67-year-old, female, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient. She was taking chlorambucil and developed facial edema with erythema and warmth, misjudged as facial cellulitis. Two days later, she developed bullous lesions in the arms, legs, neck and face. The histopathology of facial and bullous lesions confirmed leukemia cutis. All lesions disappeared following the administration of rituximab combined with cycles of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Although soft tissue infections are common complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy, leukemia cutis can also resemble cellulitis. PMID:27192532

  18. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  19. Facial Nerve Laceration and its Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shafaiee, Yousef; Shahbazzadegan, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Facial paralysis is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic and psychosocial consequences. Tumors within or outside the skull, Bell’s palsy and trauma are the most common causes of facial paralysis in adults. Case Presentation Our patient was a 35-year-old man with deep laceration wounds. The patient was taken to the operating room and the nerves were repaired. We observed gradual improvement of muscle performance except branches of the frontal nerve. Conclusions Complete rupture of the facial nerve is challenging and the treatment is surgery, which requires careful planning. PMID:27626005

  20. Facial Nerve Laceration and its Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shafaiee, Yousef; Shahbazzadegan, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Facial paralysis is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic and psychosocial consequences. Tumors within or outside the skull, Bell’s palsy and trauma are the most common causes of facial paralysis in adults. Case Presentation Our patient was a 35-year-old man with deep laceration wounds. The patient was taken to the operating room and the nerves were repaired. We observed gradual improvement of muscle performance except branches of the frontal nerve. Conclusions Complete rupture of the facial nerve is challenging and the treatment is surgery, which requires careful planning.

  1. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies. PMID:27529707

  2. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  3. Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

  4. Facial recognition at the CIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gragg, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

  5. Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vashi, N A; Kundu, R V

    2013-10-01

    By midcentury, the U.S.A. will be more ethnically and racially diverse. Skin of colour will soon constitute nearly one-half of the U.S. population, and a full understanding of skin conditions that affect this group is of great importance. Structural and functional differences in the skin, as well as the influence of cultural practices, produce variances in skin disease and presentation based on skin type. In the skin of colour population, dyschromia is a growing concern, and a top chief complaint when patients present to the physician. A thorough understanding of the aetiology and management strategies of facial hyperpigmentation is of importance in caring for those afflicted and also in the development of new therapies. PMID:24098900

  6. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  7. Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible.

  8. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

  9. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  10. Lifting surface theory for a helicopter rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Runyan, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    A lifting surface theory was developed for a helicopter rotor in forward flight for compressible and incompressible flow. The method utilizes the concept of the linearized acceleration potential and makes use of the vortex lattice procedure. Calculations demonstrating the application of the method are given in terms of the lift distribution on a single rotor, a two-bladed rotor, and a rotor with swept-forward and swept-back tips. In addition, the lift on a rotor which is vibrating in a pitching mode at 4/rev is given. Compressibility effects and interference effects for a two-bladed rotor are discussed.

  11. Lifting surface theory for a helicopter rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Runyan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A lifting surface theory was developed for a helicopter rotor in forward flight for compressible and incompressible flow. The method utilizes the concept of the linearized acceleration potential and makes use of the vortex lattice procedure. Calculations demonstrating the application of the method are given in terms of the lift distribution on a single rotor, a two-bladed rotor, and a rotor with swept-forward and swept-back tips. In addition, the lift on a rotor which is vibrating in a pitching mode at 4/rev is given. Compressibility effects and interference effects for a two-bladed rotor are discussed.

  12. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  13. Hydrofoils: optimum lift-off speed for sailboats.

    PubMed

    Baker, R M

    1968-12-13

    For a hydrofoil sailboat there is a unique optimum lift-off speed. Before this speed is reached, if there are no parasitic vertical hydrofoil appendages, the submerged or partially submerged hydrofoils increase drag and degrade performance. As soon as this speed is reached and the hydrofoils are fully and promptly deployed, the performance of a hydrofoil-borne craft is significantly improved. At speeds exceeding optimum lift-off speed, partially submerged hydrofoils impair performance if there is no significant effect of loading on the hydrofoil lift-to-drag ratio.

  14. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  15. Neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting and bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Busche, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Weight lifting and other forms of strength training are becoming more common because of an increased awareness of the need to maintain individual physical fitness. Emergency room data indicate that injuries caused by weight training have become more universal over time, likely because of increased participation rates. Neurologic injuries can result from weight lifting and related practices. Although predominantly peripheral nervous system injuries have been described, central nervous system disease may also occur. This article illustrates the types of neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting.

  16. Neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting and bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Busche, Kevin

    2008-02-01

    Weight lifting and other forms of strength training are becoming more common because of an increased awareness of the need to maintain individual physical fitness. Emergency room data indicate that injuries caused by weight training have become more universal over time, likely because of increased participation rates. Neurologic injuries can result from weight lifting and related practices. Although predominantly peripheral nervous system injuries have been described, central nervous system disease may also occur. This article illustrates the types of neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting.

  17. Nonlinear Stability and Response of Lifting Surfaces Via Volterra Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation concerns the time and frequency formulations of non-linear two-dimensional lifting surfaces exposed to an incompressible flow field and subjected to an external pressure pulse. In order to address this problem, Volterra series approach in conjunction with the multidimensional Laplace transform is used. This methodology enabling one to solve the aeroelastic governing equations of lifting surfaces opens the way to connect this methodology with that based on neural networks and NARMAX/NARX networks models. Moreover, this extended way to address this problem constitutes a good basis for treatment of the theory of 3D lifting surfaces.

  18. Propulsion integration for a hybrid propulsive-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. K.; Renshaw, J. H.; Sweet, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    In a discussion of STOL vehicles with conventional high-lift devices, the need for efficient power-augmented lift systems is presented, and the implications of quiet operation are noted. The underlying philosophy of a promising hybrid lift system with major interactions between aerodynamic, thermodynamic, acoustic, and configuration design technologies is derived. The technique by which engine and airframe-related characteristics for this application may be matched in an optimum manner is described and illustrated by describing the features of a particular short-haul commercial STOL vehicle.

  19. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.

  20. The role of facial skeletal augmentation and dental restoration in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Bains, J W; Elia, J P

    1994-01-01

    Facial aging is almost exclusively a result of soft tissue changes in patients with full dentition. Loss of teeth can hasten facial aging and make aging more pronounced as a result of bony erosion of the alveolar ridges. This article describes these changes and demonstrates that properly selected oral implants and precisely placed hydroxyapatite implants can integrate with facelifts to produce superior facial rejuvenation in edentulous patients.

  1. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  2. Analysis of Stabilization Mechanisms in Lifted Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Martinez, S.; Kronenburg, A.

    2009-12-01

    Flame stabilization and the mechanisms that govern the dynamics at the flame base have been subject to numerous studies in recent years. Recent results using a combined Large Eddy Simulation-Conditional Moment Closure (LES-CMC) approach to model the turbulent flow field and the turbulence-chemistry interactions has been successful in predicting flame ignition and stabilization by auto-ignition, but LES-CMCs capability of the accurate modelling of the competition between turbulent quenching and laminar and turbulent flame propagation at the anchor point has not been resolved. This paper will consolidate LES-CMC results by analysing a wide range of lifted flame geometries with different prevailing stabilization mechanisms. The simulations allow a clear distinction of the prevailing stabilization mechanisms for the different flames, LES-CMC accurately predicts the competition between turbulence and chemistry during the auto-ignition process, however, the dynamics of the extinction process and turbulent flame propagation are not well captured. The averaging process inherent in the CMC methods does not allow for an instant response of the transported conditionally averaged reactive species to the changes in the flow conditions and any response of the scalars will therefore be delayed. Stationary or quasi-stationary conditions, however, can be well predicted for all flame configurations.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Lifts Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    At 7:43 a.m. EDT an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, lifts off the pad on Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  4. Moderate lift-to-drag aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.; Fischer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant performance benefits are realized via aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezvous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted OTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The aeroassisted OTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screening was conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya (12 hours x 63.4 deg) orbits with return and recovery of the aeroassist orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission (6K up and 2K return) and a manned GEO mission (14K roundtrip).

  5. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  6. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Vanswearingen, Jessie

    2008-05-01

    Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return of intended facial movement patterns and eliminating unwanted patterns of facial movement and expression, may provide patients with disorders of facial paralysis or facial movement control opportunity for the recovery of facial movement and function. We provide a brief overview of the scientific rationale for facial neuromuscular reeducation in the structure and function of the facial neuromotor system, the neuropsychology of facial expression, and relations among expressions, movement, and emotion. The primary purpose is to describe principles of neuromuscular reeducation, assessment and outcome measures, approach to treatment, the process, including surface-electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to reeducation, and the goal of enhancing the recovery of facial expression and function in a patient-centered approach to facial rehabilitation.

  7. Developing psychological services following facial trauma.

    PubMed

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  8. Bilateral traumatic facial paralysis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Undabeitia, Jose; Liu, Brian; Pendleton, Courtney; Nogues, Pere; Noboa, Roberto; Undabeitia, Jose Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Although traumatic injury of the facial nerve is a relatively common condition in neurosurgical practice, bilateral lesions related to fracture of temporal bones are seldom seen. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit after severe head trauma requiring ventilatory support (Glasgow Coma Scale of 7 on admission). A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a longitudinal fracture of the right temporal bone and a transversal fracture of the left. After successful weaning from respirator, bilateral facial paralysis was observed. The possible aetiologies for facial diplegia differ from those of unilateral injury. Due to the lack of facial asymmetry, it can be easily missed in critically ill patients, and both the high resolution CT scan and electromyographic studies can be helpful for correct diagnosis.

  9. Developing psychological services following facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  10. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    PubMed

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions.

  11. [Facial paralysis: functional and aesthetic rehabilitation techniques].

    PubMed

    Deveze, A; Paris, J

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a permanent facial paralysis can be devastating to a patient, because of the cosmetic, functional and psychological disorders. Our society places on physical appearance and leads to isolation of patients who are embarrassed with their paralyzed face. The objectives of the facial rehabilitation is to correct the functional and cosmetic losses of the patient. The main functional goals are to protect the eye and reestablish oral competence. The primary cosmetic goals are to create balance and symmetry of the face at rest and to reestablish the coordinated movement of the facial musculature. The surgeon should be familiar with the variety of options available so that an individual plan can be developed based on each patient's clinical picture. History of the facial paralysis, its etiology and the duration of the paralysis are of particular interest as they orientate the rehabilitation plan strategy.

  12. MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found a non-significant tendency for women to rate MHC-similar faces as more attractive, suggesting a preference for cues to a self-similar MHC in faces. Further analysis revealed that male faces received higher attractiveness scores when rated by women who were MHC-similar than by MHC-dissimilar women. Although unexpected, this MHC-similar facial preference is consistent with other studies documenting assortative preferences in humans, including for facial phenotype. PMID:17148217

  13. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    PubMed

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions. PMID:25638935

  14. Facial clefts and facial dysplasia: revisiting the classification.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2014-01-01

    Most craniofacial malformations are identified by their appearance. The majority of the classification systems are mainly clinical or anatomical, not related to the different levels of development of the malformation, and underlying pathology is usually not taken into consideration. In 1976, Tessier first emphasized the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying bone stating that "a fissure of the soft tissue corresponds, as a general rule, with a cleft of the bony structure". He introduced a cleft numbering system around the orbit from 0 to 14 depending on its relationship to the zero line (ie, the vertical midline cleft of the face). The classification, easy to understand, became widely accepted because the recording of the malformations was simple and communication between observers facilitated. It represented a great breakthrough in identifying craniofacial malformations, named clefts by him. In the present paper, the embryological-based classification of craniofacial malformations, proposed in 1983 and in 1990 by us, has been revisited. Its aim was to clarify some unanswered questions regarding apparently atypical or bizarre anomalies and to establish as much as possible the moment when this event occurred. In our opinion, this classification system may well integrate the one proposed by Tessier and tries at the same time to find a correlation between clinical observation and morphogenesis.Terminology is important. The overused term cleft should be reserved to true clefts only, developed from disturbances in the union of the embryonic facial processes, between the lateronasal and maxillary process (or oro-naso-ocular cleft); between the medionasal and maxillary process (or cleft of the lip); between the maxillary processes (or cleft of the palate); and between the maxillary and mandibular process (or macrostomia).For the other types of defects, derived from alteration of bone production centers, the word dysplasia should be used instead. Facial

  15. Low cost lift-off process optimization for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shilpi; Bansal, Deepak; Panwar, Deepak; Shukla, Neha; Kumar, Arvind; Kothari, Prateek; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    The patterning of thin films play major role in the performance of MEMS devices. The wet etching gives an isotropic profile and etch rate depends on the temperature, size of the microstructures and repetitive use of the solution. Even with the use of selective etchants, it significantly attacks the underlying layer. On the other side, dry etching is expensive process. In this paper, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process. Double layer lift-off technique offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift-off or bilayer lift-off with LOR. The problem of retention and flagging is resolved. The thickness of double coat photoresist is increased by 2.3 times to single coat photo resist.

  16. PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1330. Unknown Photographer, 1/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE CRANE USED TO LIFT DOMED LIDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE CRANE USED TO LIFT DOMED LIDS OF THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ATTACHMENT BOOKS, LOOKING EAST - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  19. Interior detail of monitor and lift in north portion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of monitor and lift in north portion of attic; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Equipment & Recruitment Storehouse, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC