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Sample records for ligament reconstruction surgical

  1. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal-Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo E; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical indication or inappropriate surgical technique/patient selection; (2) a technical error; and (3) an incorrect assessment of the concomitant risk factors for instability. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the MPFL and cautiousness with the imaging techniques while favoring clinical over radiological findings and the use of common sense to determine the adequate surgical technique for each particular case, are critical to minimizing MPFL surgery failure. Additionally, our approach to dealing with failure after primary MPFL reconstruction is also presented. PMID:28251062

  2. Ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  3. Postural stability and responses to vibrations in patients after anterior cruciate ligament surgical reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hirjaková, Z; Šingliarová, H; Bzdúšková, D; Kimijanová, J; Bučková, K; Valkovič, P; Hlavačka, F

    2016-10-24

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of surgical reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on postural stability and responses to lower limb (LL) muscles vibrations. Centre of pressure (CoP) was measured in 17 subjects during stance on firm/foam surface with eyes open/closed and during unilateral vibrations of LL muscles (m. triceps surae - TS, m. quadriceps femoris - Q, m. quadriceps femoris and hamstrings simultaneously - QH). The measurements were performed: 1) preoperatively, 2) six weeks and 3) three months after the reconstruction. Decreased postural stability was documented six weeks after the reconstruction compared to preoperative measurement. Three months after the reconstruction significant improvement was observed during stance on foam surface with eyes closed. Preoperatively, altered reactions of LL with ACL lesion compared to intact LL were manifested by slower response in first 3 s of TS vibration and by increased CoP shift in last 5 s of QH vibration. After the reconstruction, we observed slower CoP reaction and decreased CoP shift during TS vibration of LL with ACL lesion compared to preoperative level. Posturography during quiet stance and during TS vibration reliably detect postural changes due to ACL reconstruction and can be potentially useful in clinical practice.

  4. The anterior talo-fibular ligament reconstruction in surgical treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Trc, Tomás; Handl, Milan; Havlas, Vojtech

    2010-10-01

    Chronic lateral ankle instability causes significant problems in physical activity and accelerates development of osteoarthritic changes. The results of treatment for chronic ankle instability are often meets controversial. A surgical reconstruction of ATFL as described in this paper was performed during the period 1997-2005 on 47 patients (26 male, 21 female), with a mean age of 29.3 years. The average follow-up period was 46.2 months. All patients had clinical examination, X-ray and MRI. The mean values of the Good score improved from an average 3.32 prior to surgery to 1.19 one year after the operation. Paired t-tests showed improvements of great significance (p < 10(-28)). The Good score prior to surgery ranged from 2-4, whereas the scores one year after surgery were either 1 or 2, with a score of 1 being recorded in 38 cases (81%). In the postoperative follow-up, MRI showed a newly-formed ligament structure in all cases. The authors describe their own technique for a reconstruction of lateral ankle instability using remnants of the former ATFL. The scar tissue seems to be sufficient to form a new duplicated structure providing good stability. MRI proved to be a sensitive and specific method for identifying the extent of talo-fibular ligament injury.

  5. Causes of Failure of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Revision Surgical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Paolo; Di Benedetto, Enrico; Fiocchi, Andrea; Beltrame, Alessandro; Causero, Araldo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Long-term outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are good or excellent; however, 0.7%–20% of patients suffer from recurrent instability due to graft failure. The purpose of this paper was to analyse failure aetiology and the possibilities of revision surgical strategies, with a description of our experience. We obtained optimal and good results in most of our patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 42 patients who underwent revision surgery (43 revisions) due to relapsing instability after ACL reconstruction between 2006 and 2015. We used allografts in 39 cases and autografts in 4 cases. Results The 85.7% of the patients obtained optimal results (normal knee; group A) and the 7.2% obtained good results (nearly normal knee; group B) according to the International Knee Documentation Committee score. The most frequent failure causes were traumatic events, non-anatomic tunnel placement, and lack of graft incorporation. Conclusions A correct revision surgery requires accurate patient evaluation and knee imaging. Preoperative planning starts with the identification of the cause of failure of the primary reconstruction. Then, the most suitable procedure should be determined for each case. It is also important to accurately inform the patient of all the complexity of an ACL revision surgery even if it is a procedure with high rates of excellent and good outcomes. PMID:27894180

  6. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, J.; Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Salinas, E. Álvarez; Autorino, CM; Escobar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in daily practice with 75 to 97% excellent long-term results. But in certain cases, some patients perceive rotational instability, for this reason the revision rate can be 10 to 15%. Objectives: evaluate functional outcome in revisions of ACL reconstruction associated with ALL. Methods: Between July 2015 and February 2016 (11 knees) Eleven Revision ACL reconstruction were performed with ALL with double incision technique performed by the same surgical team. Inclusion criteria were: ACL reconstruction failures with a grade 2 or 3 Lachman test, a grade 3 pivot-shift without other ligamentary injury lesions associated and complete range of motion. Results: The concept of rotational instability associated with ACL injury has been described more than a decade ago. However, there is no consensus on how to quantify rotational instability in ACL injuries; so when associating an extracapsular technique. Currently there is a lack of high-level evidence comparing isolated ACL repair and associated with the modified reconstruction of ALL that allows us to define therapeutic approaches. The ALL reconstruction associate an ACL reconstruction remains a matter of study. Conclusion: We obtain excellent results in antero – posterior and rotational stability after performing the procedure.

  7. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua D.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries lead to pain and loss of performance in the thrower’s elbow. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a reliable treatment option for the symptomatic, deficient UCL. Injury to the UCL usually occurs because of chronic accumulation of microtrauma, although acute ruptures occur and an acute-on-chronic presentation is also common. Evidence Acquisition: Computerized databases, references from pertinent articles, and research institutions were searched for all studies using the search terms ulnar collateral ligament from 1970 until 2015. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: All studies reporting outcomes for UCLR are level 4. Most modern fixation methodologies appear to be biomechanically and clinically equivalent. Viable graft choices include ipsilateral palmaris longus tendon autograft, gracilis or semitendinosus autograft, and allograft. Clinical studies report excellent outcomes of UCLR for both recreational and elite level athletes with regard to return to sport and postoperative performance. Complications, although rare, include graft rerupture or attenuation, ulnar nerve symptoms, stiffness, pain, and/or weakness leading to decreased performance. Conclusion: Injuries to the UCL have become commonplace among pitchers. Nonoperative treatment should be attempted, but the limited studies have not shown promising results. Operative treatment can be performed with several techniques, with retrospective studies showing promising results. Complications include ulnar neuropathy as well as failure to return to sport. Detailed preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and a comprehensive rehabilitation program are essential components to achieving a satisfactory result. PMID:26502444

  8. Dynamic medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in recurrent patellar instability: A surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Kopuri Ravi; Srikanth, I Muni; Chinnusamy, Lenin; Deepti, K

    2015-01-01

    The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the primary stabilizer of the patellofemoral joint; its reconstruction has been recommended in adults over the past decade after recurrent patellar instability. However, there has been no standardized technique for reconstruction, therefore, ideal graft and technique for reconstruction are yet undetermined. However, dynamic MPFL reconstruction studies claim to be superior to other procedures as it is more anatomical. This preliminary study aims at assessing the outcomes of MPFL reconstruction in a dynamic pattern using hamstring graft. We performed this procedure in four consecutive patients with chronic patellar instability following trauma. MPFL reconstruction was done with hamstring tendons detached distally and secured to patellar periosteum after being passed through a bony tunnel in the patella without an implant and using the medial collateral ligament as a pulley. In all 4 knees, the MPFL reconstruction was isolated and was not associated with any other realignment procedures. No recurrent episodes of dislocation or subluxation were reported at 24 months followup. PMID:26806970

  9. Effectiveness of surgical reconstruction to restore radiocarpal joint mechanics after scapholunate ligament injury: an in vivo modeling study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua E; Lee, Phil; McIff, Terence E; Toby, E Bruce; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2013-05-31

    Disruption of the scapholunate ligament can cause a loss of normal scapholunate mechanics and eventually lead to osteoarthritis. Surgical reconstruction attempts to restore scapholunate relationship show improvement in functional outcomes, but postoperative effectiveness in restoring normal radiocarpal mechanics still remains a question. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of surgical repair by observing changes in contact mechanics on the cartilage surface before and after surgical treatment. Six patients with unilateral scapholunate dissociation were enrolled in the study, and displacement driven magnetic resonance image-based surface contact modeling was used to investigate normal, injured and postoperative radiocarpal mechanics. Model geometry was acquired from images of wrists taken in a relaxed position. Kinematics were acquired from image registration between the relaxed images, and images taken during functional loading. Results showed a trend for increase in radiocarpal contact parameters with injury. Peak and mean contact pressures significantly decreased after surgery in the radiolunate articulation and there were no significant differences between normal and postoperative wrists. Results indicated that surgical repair improves contact mechanics after injury and that contact mechanics can be surgically restored to be similar to normal. This study provides novel contact mechanics data on the effects of surgical repair after scapholunate ligament injury. With further work, it may be possible to more effectively differentiate between treatments and degenerative changes based on in vivo contact mechanics data.

  10. 3D Printing Surgical Implants at the clinic: A Experimental Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Xue, Guang-huai; Sun, Miao; Shao, Hui-feng; Ma, Chi-yuan; Gao, Qing; Gou, Zhong-ru; Yan, Shi-gui; Liu, Yan-ming; He, Yong

    2016-02-15

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers (D3DPs) have become a popular tool for fabricating personalized consumer products, favored for low cost, easy operation, and other advantageous qualities. This study focused on the potential for using D3DPs to successfully, rapidly, and economically print customized implants at medical clinics. An experiment was conducted on a D3DP-printed anterior cruciate ligament surgical implant using a rabbit model. A well-defined, orthogonal, porous PLA screw-like scaffold was printed, then coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve its osteoconductivity. As an internal fixation as well as an ideal cell delivery system, the osteogenic scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated through both in vitro and in vivo tests to observe bone-ligament healing via cell therapy. The MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel on PLA/HA screw-like scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. In vivo assessment of rabbit anterior cruciate ligament models for 4 and 12 weeks showed that the PLA/HA screw-like scaffold loaded with MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel exhibited significant bone ingrowth and bone-graft interface formation within the bone tunnel. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that fabricating surgical implants at the clinic (fab@clinic) with D3DPs can be feasible, effective, and economical.

  11. 3D Printing Surgical Implants at the clinic: A Experimental Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An; Xue, Guang-huai; Sun, Miao; Shao, Hui-feng; Ma, Chi-yuan; Gao, Qing; Gou, Zhong-ru; Yan, Shi-gui; Liu, Yan-ming; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers (D3DPs) have become a popular tool for fabricating personalized consumer products, favored for low cost, easy operation, and other advantageous qualities. This study focused on the potential for using D3DPs to successfully, rapidly, and economically print customized implants at medical clinics. An experiment was conducted on a D3DP-printed anterior cruciate ligament surgical implant using a rabbit model. A well-defined, orthogonal, porous PLA screw-like scaffold was printed, then coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve its osteoconductivity. As an internal fixation as well as an ideal cell delivery system, the osteogenic scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated through both in vitro and in vivo tests to observe bone-ligament healing via cell therapy. The MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel on PLA/HA screw-like scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. In vivo assessment of rabbit anterior cruciate ligament models for 4 and 12 weeks showed that the PLA/HA screw-like scaffold loaded with MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel exhibited significant bone ingrowth and bone-graft interface formation within the bone tunnel. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that fabricating surgical implants at the clinic (fab@clinic) with D3DPs can be feasible, effective, and economical. PMID:26875826

  12. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Jose Antonio; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Oñativia, Jose I.; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent patellofemoral dislocation is usually a multifactorial pathology. Different surgical techniques have been described according to the etiology of dislocation. In absence of a severe malalignment or an anatomical patellofemoral dysplasia, reconstruction of Medial Patello-femoral Ligament (MPFL) can restore the normal tracking of the patella, avoiding lateral excursion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical results and complications in patients who underwent a MPFL reconstruction. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 19 patients who underwent an anatomic MPFL reconstruction using autologous semitendinosus graft between 2007 and 2012. Exclusion criteria were patients with less than three years of follow-up and those with an associated procedure such as distal realignment or trochleoplasty. Clinical outcomes were measured using Kujala score and return to sport rate. We registered the postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Results: Nine patients were men and 10 women with a mean age of 25 years. Average follow-up was 5.8 years. Nine patients (47.4%) returned to their previous sport level, 8 (42.1%) changed to another sport or decreased their level and 2 (10.5%) were unable to practice any sports at all. Kujala score improvement was from 62.8 preoperative to 88.8 postoperative. One patient decreased the Kujala score. Eighty-nine percent of patients were satisfied with their outcome. One patient had a patellar fracture and four developed an arthrofibrosis and required mobilization under anesthesia. No recurrences were registered. Conclusion: Isolated MPFL reconstruction for recurrent patellofemoral dislocation is an effective alternative in absence of severe malalignment or anatomical dysplasia. Although no recurrences where registered at minimum 3-year follow-up, almost half of the patients were not able to return to their previous sport level.

  13. Ligament Injury, Reconstruction and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Braden C.; Hulstyn, Michael J.; Oksendahl, Heidi L.; Fadale, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of Review The recent literature on the factors that initiate and accelerate the progression of osteoarthritis following ligament injuries and their treatment is reviewed. Recent Findings The ligament-injured joint is at high risk for osteoarthritis. Current conservative (e.g. rehabilitation) and surgical (e.g. reconstruction) treatment options appear not to reduce osteoarthritis following ligament injury. The extent of osteoarthritis does not appear dependent on which joint is affected, or the presence of damage to other tissues within the joint. Mechanical instability is the likely initiator of osteoarthritis in the ligament-injured patient. Summary The mechanism osteoarthritis begins with the injury rendering the joint unstable. The instability increases the sliding between the joint surfaces and reduces the efficiency of the muscles, factors that alter joint contact mechanics. The load distribution in the cartilage and underlying bone is disrupted, causing wear and increasing shear, which eventually leads to the osteochondral degeneration. The catalyst to the mechanical process is the inflammation response induced by the injury and sustained during healing. In contrast, the inflammation could be responsible for onset, while the mechanical factors accelerate progression. The mechanisms leading to osteoarthritis following ligament injury have not been fully established. A better understanding of these mechanisms should lead to alternative surgical, drug, and tissue-engineering treatment options, which could eliminate osteoarthritis in these patients. Progress is being made on all fronts. Considering that osteoarthritis is likely to occur despite current treatment options, the best solution may be prevention. PMID:17710194

  14. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  15. "The Superficial Quad Technique" for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: The Surgical Video Technique.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepak

    2015-10-01

    With the introduction of the superficial quad technique, there has been a recent revival of interest in the quadriceps tendon as a graft choice for medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. The superficial quad technique has many anatomic advantages because the length, breadth, and thickness of the graft are similar to those of the native MPFL; moreover, the graft provides a continuous patellar attachment at the superior half of the medial border of the patella. The technique requires neither a patellar bony procedure nor patellar hardware. Biomechanically, the mean strength and stiffness of the graft are very similar to those of the native MPFL. The anatomic and biomechanical advantages depend on correct identification of the anatomic superficial lamina of the quadriceps tendon; hence the correct harvesting technique for the superficial lamina is crucial. Various sub-techniques for harvesting the quadriceps graft have emerged recently, such as superficial strip, pedicled, or partial graft harvesting; these can create confusion for surgeons. Additional confusion related to the preparation and fixation of the graft should also be addressed to avoid any potential complications. A step-by-step video of the superficial quad technique is presented, covering the exact dissection of the graft material and its preparation, delivery, and fixation.

  16. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cohen, Mark S.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common surgery performed in professional, collegiate, and high school athletes. Purpose: To report patient demographics, surgical techniques, and outcomes of all UCLRs performed at a single institution from 2004 to 2014. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Data were collected prospectively, and patients were contacted via phone calls to obtain the return-to-sport rate, Conway-Jobe score, Andrews-Timmerman score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Continuous variable data were reported as weighted means, and categorical variable data were reported as frequencies with percentages. Results: A total of 187 patients (188 elbows) underwent UCLR during the study period (92% male; mean age, 19.6 ± 4.7 years; 78.2% right elbows). There were 165 baseball players (87.8% of all patients), 155 of whom were pitchers (82.5% of all patients). Ninety-seven (51.6%) were college athletes, 68 (36.2%) high school athletes, and 7 (3.7%) professional athletes at the time of surgery. The docking technique was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while the double-docking technique was used in 78 (41.5%). An ipsilateral palmaris longus graft was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while a hamstring autograft was used in 48 (25.5%) patients. The ulnar nerve was subcutaneously transposed in 79 (42%) patients. Clinical follow-up data were available on 85 patients. Mean follow-up was 60 ± 30.8 months. Overall, 94.1% of patients were able to return to sport and had a Conway-Jobe score of good/excellent while 4.3% had a score of fair. The mean KJOC score was 90.4 ± 6.7 and mean Andrews-Timmerman score was 92.5 ± 7

  17. Scapholunate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Mark; Loveridge, Jeremy; Cutbush, Kenneth; Couzens, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Background Scapholunate reconstruction poses a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Materials and Methods Prospective cohort. Description of Technique Our technique for scapholunate (SL) reconstruction involves ligament reconstruction utilizing a portion of the flexor carpi radialis tendon rerouted via transosseous tunnels across the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum (scapholunotriquetral tenodesis). The tendon graft is secured with interference screw fixation into the triquetrum. The philosophy of this new technique is to reduce subluxation and maintain the relationship between scaphoid and lunate by placing a graft through the center of the SL articulation. This graft is then tensioned by passing it centrally through the lunate and triquetrum and secured using an interference screw in the triquetrum. Secondary stabilizers, including the dorsal intercarpal ligament, are then augmented by passing the graft back to the scaphoid, crossing from the triquetrum over the proximal capitate. This further reinforces the translational relationship between the scaphoid and the triquetrum and, therefore, augments stability of the SL articulation. Results We have utilized this technique successfully in over 40 patients since 2009. We report on a prospective consecutive series of 11 patients with over 12 months follow-up (range 12 to 24 months) demonstrating good early radiological and clinical outcomes. Conclusions In developing this technique, we aimed to take the best features of previously described techniques and address the perceived shortcomings of each. We believe there are several benefits of our technique. Moreover, few other techniques address as many of the aspects of chronic SL instability as our technique does. PMID:24436802

  18. Imaging appearances of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chien, Alexander J; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Femino, John E; Hayes, Curtis W

    2004-01-01

    Six patients were retrospectively identified as having undergone lateral ligament reconstruction surgery. The surgical procedures were categorized into four groups: direct lateral ligament repair, peroneus brevis tendon rerouting, peroneus brevis tendon loop, and peroneus brevis tendon split and rerouting. At radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the presence of one or more suture anchors in the region of the anterior talofibular ligament indicates direct ligament repair, whereas a fibular tunnel indicates peroneus brevis tendon rerouting or loop. Both ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging demonstrate rerouted tendons as part of lateral ankle reconstruction; however, MR imaging can also depict the rerouted tendon within an osseous tunnel if present, especially if T1-weighted sequences are used. Artifact from suture material may obscure the tendon at MR imaging but not at US. With both modalities, the integrity of the rerouted peroneus brevis tendon is best evaluated by following the tendon proximally from its distal attachment site, which typically remains unchanged. The rerouted tendon or portion of the tendon can then be traced proximally to its reattachment site. Familiarity with the surgical procedures most commonly used for lateral ankle ligament reconstruction, and with the imaging features of these procedures, is essential for avoiding diagnostic pitfalls and ensuring accurate assessment of the ligament reconstruction.

  19. Tunnel widening prevention with the allo-Achilles tendon graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Surgical tips and short term followup

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Won; Han, Seung Beom; Yeo, Woo Jin; Lee, Won Hee; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kyung, Bong Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tunnel widening (TW) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be a serious complication, and there is controversy over how to prevent it. This study aimed to suggest surgical approaches to prevent TW using an allo-Achilles tendon graft, and then to evaluate TW after these surgical tips were applied. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients underwent ACL reconstruction with an allo-Achilles tendon graft. Four surgical approaches were used: Making a tibial tunnel by bone impaction, intraarticular reamer application, bone portion application for the femoral tunnel, and an additional bone plug application for the tibial tunnel. After more than 1-year, followup radiographs including anteroposterior and lateral views were taken in 29 patients encompassing thirty knees. The diameter of the tunnels at postoperation day 1 (POD1) and at followup was measured and compared. Results: In 18 knees (60%), there were no visible femoral tunnel margins on the radiographs at POD1 or followup. In the other 12 cases, which had visible femoral tunnel margins on followup radiographs, the mean femoral tunnel diameter was 8.6 mm. In the tibial tunnel, the mean diameters did not increase on all three levels (proximal, middle, and distal), and there was no statistically significant difference between the diameters at POD1 and followup. Conclusion: The suggested tips for surgery involving an allo-Achilles tendon graft can effectively prevent TW after ACL reconstruction according to this case series. These surgical tips can prevent TW.

  20. All-Epiphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Surgical Technique Using a Split Tibial Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Lykissas, Marios G.; Nathan, Senthil T.; Wall, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Many techniques have been described for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients, including extra-articular, complete or partial transphyseal, and physeal-sparing techniques. An all-epiphyseal technique places the tendon and its tunnels and fixation all within the child's epiphysis, leaving the growth plates untouched. We describe an all-epiphyseal quadruple-hamstring ACL reconstruction using a split tibial tunnel. The split tibial tunnels drop the tunnel size down to 4.5 to 5.5 mm from 7 to 8 mm because only half the total graft diameter passes through each of the split tunnels. This increases the safety margin for keeping the tunnel within the tibial epiphysis, in addition to avoiding damage into the growth plate. The bone bridge between the 2 tunnels serves as a solid low-profile fixation post. Femoral graft fixation is achieved with an interference screw, which allows precise tensioning and low-profile fixation entirely within the femoral tunnel. By placing the graft at the native ACL's anatomic attachment points without spanning or violating the growth plates at any step of the procedure, an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with a split tibial tunnel theoretically minimizes the risk of growth disturbance in an ACL-deficient child. PMID:23766968

  1. A minimally invasive surgical technique for augmented reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments with woven polyester tape.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex P; Sidhom, Sameh; Sefton, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Although stabilization of the lateral ankle ligament complex (LALC) with augmented techniques is known to be successful, it is associated with a number of complications. We hypothesize that successful stabilization of LALC can be achieved with a woven polyester tape implant via a minimally invasive procedure, as an alternative to tenodesis. Four men with chronic instability of the ankle underwent a minimally invasive surgical stabilization of LALC with a woven polyester tape. This tape was passed through the distal fibula to the base of the fifth metatarsal and then back to the fibula once more before being tied. The foot was immobilized in a neutral position for 2 weeks. Partial weightbearing with a walking stick began on the same day, and physiotherapy began for 10 weeks. Evaluation was performed at a mean follow-up of 24.5 months postoperatively. Preoperatively, all patients had a chronically unstable index ankle both functionally and clinically. At a mean of 24.5 months postoperatively, functional stability for all patients was normal (Sefton grade 1). Subjective ankle performance grades were normal in all cases, and all patients felt the outcome was excellent. Objective measurement with clinical stress testing showed anterior drawer and inversion tests to be the same as the contralateral ankle in all patients. However, each displayed limited inversion of the ankle. No complications such as wound dehiscence, infection, pain, or nerve injury were observed after the procedure. All were able to return to their preinjury activity level within 3 months. Stabilization of LALC may be simply and successfully achieved with a woven polyester graft as an alternative to tenodesis.

  2. Trends in Materials Science for Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sava, Oana Roxana; Sava, Daniel Florin; Radulescu, Marius; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Ficai, Denisa; Veloz-Castillo, Maria Fernanda; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Ficai, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The number of ligament injuries increases every year and concomitantly the need for materials or systems that can reconstruct the ligament. Limitations imposed by autografts and allografts in ligament reconstruction together with the advances in materials science and biology have attracted a lot of interest for developing systems and materials for ligament replacement or reconstruction. This review intends to synthesize the major steps taken in the development of polymer-based materials for anterior cruciate ligament, their advantages and drawbacks and the results of different in vitro and in vivo tests. Until present, there is no successful polymer system for ligament reconstruction implanted in humans. The developing field of synthetic polymers for ligament reconstruction still has a lot of potential. In addition, several nano-structured materials, made of nanofibers or in the form of ceramic/polymeric nanocomposites, are attracting the interest of several groups due to their potential use as engineered scaffolds that mimic the native environment of cells, increasing the chances for tissue regeneration. Here, we review the last 15 years of literature in order to obtain a better understanding on the state-of-the-art that includes the usage of nano- and poly-meric materials for ligament reconstruction, and to draw perspectives on the future development of the field.

  3. Lateral ligament reconstruction procedures for the ankle.

    PubMed

    Tourné, Y; Mabit, C

    2017-02-01

    Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options. Non-anatomic reconstructions using the peroneus brevis should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is increasingly being developed, but results need assessment on longer follow-up than presently available. Postoperative neuromuscular reprogramming is fundamental to optimal recovery. Finally, the concept of complex ankle instability is discussed from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. The various forms of ligament reconstruction failure and corresponding treatments are reported.

  4. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament using interlinked hamstrings - technical note.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation.

  5. Bone tunnel enlargement on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Adriano Barros de Aguiar; Duarte, Aires; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple graft of the flexor tendons and correlate the functional results in their presence. Methods: The studied lasted six months and included 25 patients, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years old. Assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the third and sixth month of follow up in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of ligaments was performed with tendon grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscle fixated in the femur with transverse metal screw and in the tibia with interference screws. Patients were evaluated objectively by tests ligament, graded from zero to four crosses and subjectively by the Lysholm method preoperative and after sixth month follow up. Results: Significant increase in the tunnels diameters were observed, 20.56% for radiographs in the anteroposterior view, 26.48% in profile view and 23.22% in computed tomography. Descriptive statistics showed significant improvement in subjective and objective clinical parameters. Conclusions: The bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and it has no implications on clinical outcomes in the short term. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study. PMID:25328430

  6. Anatomic Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Improves Postoperative Clinical Outcomes Combined with Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Man; Zhou, Aiguo; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-01-01

    A significant cohort of patients is plagued by postoperative rotational instability after the anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Anatomic anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction was performed in this study with the aim to assess the clinical role of ALL in knee’s stability and joint functions. Sixty patients were recruited and divided into three groups to perform the operations of anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction, and anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + anterolateral ligament reconstruction, respectively. And then postoperative knee’s stability and joint functions were evaluated to compare the clinical outcomes among the three different kind of operations. The postoperative knee’s stability and joint functions of the anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction group and the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group were better than the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction group. No significant difference was observed between the anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction group and the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group. The anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction could improve the clinical outcomes after patients performed the anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. This indicates that the anterolateral ligament plays a crucial role in knee’s stability and joint function, especially the rotational stability. Key points Anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction combined with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed to treat the patients with ACL rupture. Compared to the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction group, the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group achieve a better clinical outcomes. The results suggest that the anterolateral ligament plays a crucial role in knee’s stability and joint function

  7. Popliteal artery injury during posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cenni, Marcos Henrique Frauendorf; do Nascimento, Bruno Fajardo; Carneiro, Guilherme Galvão Barreto; de Andrade, Rodrigo Cristiano; Pinheiro Júnior, Lúcio Flávio Biondi; Nicolai, Oscar Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a case of popliteal artery injury during arthroscopic reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament. The evolution of the injury is described and comments are made regarding the anatomy of this artery and potential risks of this surgical technique. This study had the aims of alerting the medical community, especially knee surgeons, regarding a severe surgical complication and discussing the ways of preventing it.

  8. Do Clinical Results and Return-to-Sport Rates After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Differ Based on Graft Choice and Surgical Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Frank, Rachel M.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cohen, Mark S.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Cole, Brian J.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure performed in overhead-throwing athletes of many athletic levels. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical outcomes and return-to-sport (RTS) rates differ among patients undergoing UCLR based on graft choice, surgical technique, athletic competition level, handedness, and treatment of the ulnar nerve. We hypothesized that no differences would exist in clinical outcomes or RTS rates between technique, graft choice, or other variables. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2014 at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, handedness, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Patients were contacted via telephone to obtain the RTS rate, Conway-Jobe score, Timmerman-Andrews score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Results: Eighty-five patients (mean age at surgery, 19.3 ± 4.7 years; 92% male; 78% right hand–dominant) underwent UCLR between 2004 and 2014 and were available for follow-up. Overall, 87% were baseball pitchers, 49.4% were college athletes, and 41.2% were high school athletes. No significant difference existed between the docking and double-docking techniques, graft choice, handedness, sex, activity level, and treatment of the ulnar nerve with regard to clinical outcomes, RTS, or subsequent surgeries (all P > .05). More complications were seen in the docking technique compared with the double-docking technique (P = .036). Hamstring autograft was used more commonly with the docking technique (P = .023) while allograft was used more commonly with the double-docking technique (P = .0006). Conclusion: Both the docking and double-docking techniques produce excellent clinical outcomes in patients undergoing

  9. Single-Stage Reconstruction of Both Cruciate Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Mauro; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Isolated Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) and Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL), or central pivot lesions are rare. These are frequently associated with collateral ligaments injuries. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and functional outcomes of 4 patients with acute ACL and PCL injury who underwent a simultaneous single-stage arthroscopic reconstruction. Methods: The inclusion criteria were patients with isolated ACL and PCL injuries, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. We evaluated the type of graft used, the surgical technique and postoperative complications. The scales used for clinical evaluation were the Knee Society Score (KSS), IKDC, Lysholm and Tegner. Knee stability was assessed using the KT-1000 arthrometer. Results: Three men and one woman, with an average age of 48 years (45 to 56 years) were evaluated. Three presented a sport injury and one a car accident. Mean follow-up was 8 years. In all patients allograft was used for ligament reconstruction. Average postoperative results were: KSS 74-82, Lysholm 76, IKDC 63 and Tegner 6. KT-1000 arthrometer showed an average difference of 4mm compared to the contralateral knee. One patient underwent reintervention due to meniscal injury. Conclusion: ACL and PCL simultaneous single-stage reconstruction is a really demanding surgery. We achieved good results using allograft for both ligaments reconstruction. No clinical or functional postoperative complications were recorded.

  10. Surgical reconstruction of TMJ.

    PubMed

    Ramil Novo, V M; Garcìa, A G; Berini Aytès, L; Escoda, C G

    1999-01-01

    Certain situations and pathological processes that arise with temporomandibular joint destruction can only be resolved with surgical reconstructive procedures in order to attempt a functional and anatomical rehabilitation of this joint. Many of these situations can be surgically treated with the patient's own autologous tissues. However, in some patients reconstruction is complex and the use of autologous tissues is unadvisable whereas reconstruction utilizing alloplastic materials may be an appropriate alternative. The following report describes 4 clinical cases in which autologous grafts or Christensen joint prosthesis are employed in temporomandibular joint reconstruction.

  11. Current Concepts in Rehabilitation Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Wilk, Kevin E.; Altchek, David W.; Andrews, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in throwing athletes frequently occurs from the repetitive valgus loading of the elbow during the throwing motion, which often results in surgical reconstruction of the UCL requiring a structured postoperative rehabilitation program. Several methods are currently used and recommended for UCL reconstruction using autogenous grafts in an attempt to reproduce the stabilizing function of the native UCL. Rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of the UCL begins with range of motion and initial protection of the surgical reconstruction, along with resistive exercise for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain. Progressions for resistive exercise are followed that attempt to fully restore strength and local muscular endurance in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers, in addition to the distal upper extremity musculature, to allow for a return to throwing and overhead functional activities. Rehabilitation following UCL reconstruction has produced favorable outcomes, allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. PMID:23015887

  12. Cadaveric Scapholunate Reconstruction Using the Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Wagels, Michael; Tham, Stephen K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated scapholunate ligament disruption may lead to progressive wrist arthritis. Current techniques used to treat the disruption may not prevent arthritis because of attenuation of a reconstructive ligament substitute or failure to re-establish normal wrist kinematics. Questions/Purposes This study evaluates a combined synthetic-autologous technique for the treatment of scapholunate dissociation. Methods Scapholunate dissociation was created in six cadaveric wrists. The dorsal and volar components of the scapholunate ligament were reconstructed using the Ligament Augmentation & Reconstruction System (LARS; LARS, Arc-sur-Tille, France) and a modified Blatt capsulodesis performed. Reconstructed wrists were subjected to cyclic passive motion. Outcomes were measured radiologically and compared using Student's t-test. Results Carpal alignment was re-established following scapholunate ligament reconstruction. Carpal alignment was maintained after cyclic loading. Conclusions The technique described corrected the carpal malalignment associated with scapholunate dissociation. Corrected positions were maintained after one thousand cycles of flexion and extension without fraying or loosening of the LARS. Clinical Relevance Current popular techniques for scapholunate reconstruction do not address the important dorsal and palmar components of the ligament that control their intercarpal motion. Reconstruction of the dorsal and palmar components of the scapholunate ligament can be achieved through a dorsal approach to the wrist. PMID:25097813

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Nikolaos K

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a traumatic event that can lead to significant functional impairment and inability to participate in high-level sports-related activities. ACL reconstruction is considered the treatment of choice for symptomatic ACL-deficient patients and can assist in full functional recovery. Furthermore, ACL reconstruction restores ligamentous stability to normal, and, therefore, can potentially fully reinstate kinematics of the knee joint. As a consequence, the natural history of ACL injury could be potentially reversed via ACL reconstruction. Evidence from the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of ACL reconstruction in preventing the development of knee cartilage degeneration. This editorial aims to present recent high-level evidence in an attempt to answer whether ACL injury inevitably leads to osteoarthritis and whether ACL reconstruction can prevent this development or not. PMID:28361013

  14. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, L.M.; Gray, B.; Wright, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rigorous rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is necessary for a successful surgical outcome. A large number of clinical trials continue to assess aspects of this rehabilitation process. Prior systematic reviews evaluated fifty-four Level-I and II clinical trials published through 2005. Methods: Eighty-five articles from 2006 to 2010 were identified utilizing multiple search engines. Twenty-nine Level-I or II studies met inclusion criteria and were evaluated with use of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) criteria. Topics included in this review are postoperative bracing, accelerated strengthening, home-based rehabilitation, proprioception and neuromuscular training, and six miscellaneous topics investigated in single trials. Results: Bracing following ACL reconstruction remains neither necessary nor beneficial and adds to the cost of the procedure. Early return to sports needs further research. Home-based rehabilitation can be successful. Although neuromuscular interventions are not likely to be harmful to patients, they are also not likely to yield large improvements in outcomes or help patients return to sports faster. Thus, they should not be performed to the exclusion of strengthening and range-of-motion exercises. Vibration training may lead to faster and more complete proprioceptive recovery but further evidence is needed. Conclusions: Several new modalities for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction may be helpful but should not be performed to the exclusion of range-of-motion, strengthening, and functional exercises. Accelerated rehabilitation does not appear to be harmful but further investigation of rehabilitation timing is warranted. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23032584

  15. A Finite Element Analysis of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    DeVries Watson, Nicole A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Bollier, Matthew J.; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The medial patellofemoral ligament is the primary soft-tissue restraint to lateral patella translation. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction has become a viable surgical option to provide patellar stability in patients with recurrent instability. The primary goal of this study was to determine the effect of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction on the lateral force-displacement behavior of the patella using finite element analyses. Methods A finite element model of the knee was created using cadaveric image data. Experimental testing was performed to validate the computational model. After validation, the model was modified to study the effect of various medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction insertion sites, allowing comparison of patellofemoral contact force and pressure. Results For the intact anatomic model, the lateral restraining force was 80.0 N with a corresponding patellar contact area of 54.97 mm2. For the anatomic reconstructed medial patellofemoral ligament model, the lateral restraining force increased to 148.9 N with a contact area of 71.78 mm2. This compared favorably to the corresponding experimental study. The force required to laterally displace the patella increased when the femoral insertion site was moved anteriorly or distally. The lateral restraining force decreased when the femoral insertion site moved proximally and the patellar insertion site moved either proximal or distal by 5 mm. Conclusion The line of action was altered with insertion site position, which in turn changed the amount of force it took to displace the patella laterally. Considering the model constraints, an anterior femoral attachment may over constrain the patella and increase cartilage wear due to increase contact area and restraining force. Clinical Relevance A malpositioned femoral tunnel in MPFL reconstruction could increase restraining forces and PF contact pressure, thus it is suggested to use intra-operative fluoroscopy to confirm

  16. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph.; Bourlos, Dimitrios N.; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S.; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. Purpose: To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. Results: The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. Conclusion: The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI). PMID:27453894

  17. A review of ligament augmentation with the InternalBrace™: the surgical principle is described for the lateral ankle ligament and ACL repair in particular, and a comprehensive review of other surgical applications and techniques is presented.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Gordon M; Blyth, Mark J G; Anthony, Iain; Hopper, Graeme P; Ribbans, William J

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the surgical decision-making considerations when preparing to undertake an anatomic ligament repair with augmentation using the InternalBrace™. Lateral ankle ligament stabilization of the Broström variety and ACL repair in particular are used to illustrate its application. The InternalBrace™ supports early mobilization of the repaired ligament and allows the natural tissues to progressively strengthen. The principle established by this experience has resulted in its successful application to other distal extremity ligaments including the deltoid, spring, and syndesmosis complex. Knee ligament augmentation with the InternalBrace™ has been successfully applied to all knee ligaments including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), anterolateral ligament (ALL), and patellofemoral ligament (PFL). The surgical technique and early results will be reviewed including multi-ligament presentations. Upper limb experience with acromioclavicular (AC) joint augmentation and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) repair of the elbow with the InternalBrace™ will also be discussed. This article points to a change in orthopaedic practice positioning reconstruction as a salvage procedure that has additional surgical morbidity and should be indicated only if the tissues fail to heal adequately after augmentation and repair.

  18. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach.

    PubMed

    Gali, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP) and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP). The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-in technique is used) and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  19. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP) and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP). The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-in technique is used) and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction. PMID:26417571

  20. Posterior Wall Blowout in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Justin J.; Dean, Chase S.; Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J.; Cram, Tyler R.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Violation of the posterior femoral cortex, commonly referred to as posterior wall blowout, can be a devastating intraoperative complication in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and lead to loss of graft fixation or early graft failure. If cortical blowout occurs despite careful planning and adherence to proper surgical technique, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and alternative fixation techniques is imperative to ensure optimal patient outcomes. This article highlights anatomic considerations for femoral tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction and techniques for avoidance and salvage of a posterior wall blowout. PMID:27335885

  1. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common procedure in both professional and high-level athletes. Purpose: To determine the effect of technique and level of play with UCLR on return to sport (RTS). Hypothesis: When comparing different surgical techniques or preoperative level of sports participation, there is no difference in rate of RTS after UCLR. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting UCLR outcomes with level of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and 2-proportion 2-sample z-test calculators with α = .05 were used to compare RTS between level of play and technique. Results: Twenty studies (2019 patients/elbows; mean age, 22.13 ± 4 years; 97% male; mean follow-up, 39.9 ± 16.2 months) were included. The majority of patients were baseball players (94.5%), specifically pitchers (80%). The most common level of play was collegiate (44.6%). Palmaris longus (71.2%) and the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique (65.6%) were the most common graft choice and surgical technique, respectively. There was a pooled 86.2% RTS rate, and 90% of players scored excellent/good on the Conway-Jobe scale. RTS rates were higher among collegiate athletes (95.5%) than either high school (89.4%, P = .023) or professional athletes (86.4%, P < .0001). RTS rates were higher for the docking technique (97.0%, P = .001) and the ASMI technique (93.3%, P = .0034) than the Jobe technique (66.7%). Conclusion: UCLR is performed most commonly in collegiate athletes. Collegiate athletes have the highest RTS rate

  2. Surgical Adjustment of the Guide Pin to Perform a Correct Tibial Tunnel in Anatomical Anterior Cruciate Ligament Single-Bundle Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath S; Andrade, Renato; Leal, Ana; Sarmento, André; Pereira, Hélder; Sevivas, Nuno; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical positioning of the graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is important to restore normal knee kinematics and prevent early joint degeneration. Inadequate position of a first attempt to place the guide pin within the center of the tibial footprint may occur. Therefore, its adjustment is important to achieve the anatomical positioning of the graft within the tibial footprint. When the guide pin exits eccentrically in an inadequate position, it is possible to correct it to the center of the footprint. A small tunnel with a 4.5-mm reamer is made and the guide pin is shifted to the center of the footprint. The center of the tunnel can be corrected until 50% and in all direction in relation to the initial drilled tunnel, without additional associated morbidity. Once the correct position of the center is achieved, the guide pin is fixed in the femoral notch roof to guarantee the accurate correction of the axis, without toggling of the guide pin inside the tunnel and metal dusting. The final tunnel is then drilled with the same size of the graft. With this technique it is possible to adjust an eccentrically misplaced guide pin to the center of the footprint without additional morbidity.

  3. Infections in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stucken, Charlton; Garras, David N.; Shaner, Julie L.; Cohen, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a safe, common, and effective method of restoring stability to the knee after injury, but evolving techniques of reconstruction carry inherent risk. Infection after ACL reconstruction, while rare, carries a high morbidity, potentially resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December 2012) as well as from textbook chapters. Results: Treatment with culture-specific antibiotics and debridement with graft retention is recommended as initial treatment, but with persistent infection, consideration should be given to graft removal. Graft type likely has no effect on infection rates. Conclusion: The early diagnosis of infection and appropriate treatment are necessary to avoid the complications of articular cartilage damage and arthrofibrosis. PMID:24427432

  4. Ankle Arthroscopic Reconstruction of Lateral Ligaments (Ankle Anti-ROLL)

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Masato; Glazebrook, Mark; Stone, James; Guillo, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Ankle instability is a condition that often requires surgery to stabilize the ankle joint that will improve pain and function if nonoperative treatments fail. Ankle stabilization surgery may be performed as a repair in which the native existing anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both) is imbricated or reattached. Alternatively, when native ankle ligaments are insufficient for repair, a reconstruction of the ligaments may be performed in which an autologous or allograft tendon is used to reconstruct the anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both). Currently, ankle stabilization surgery is most commonly performed through an open incision, but arthroscopic ankle stabilization using repair techniques has been described and is being used more often. We present our technique for anatomic ankle arthroscopic reconstruction of the lateral ligaments (anti-ROLL) performed in an all–inside-out manner that is likely safe for patients and minimally invasive. PMID:26900560

  5. Ankle Arthroscopic Reconstruction of Lateral Ligaments (Ankle Anti-ROLL).

    PubMed

    Takao, Masato; Glazebrook, Mark; Stone, James; Guillo, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    Ankle instability is a condition that often requires surgery to stabilize the ankle joint that will improve pain and function if nonoperative treatments fail. Ankle stabilization surgery may be performed as a repair in which the native existing anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both) is imbricated or reattached. Alternatively, when native ankle ligaments are insufficient for repair, a reconstruction of the ligaments may be performed in which an autologous or allograft tendon is used to reconstruct the anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both). Currently, ankle stabilization surgery is most commonly performed through an open incision, but arthroscopic ankle stabilization using repair techniques has been described and is being used more often. We present our technique for anatomic ankle arthroscopic reconstruction of the lateral ligaments (anti-ROLL) performed in an all-inside-out manner that is likely safe for patients and minimally invasive.

  6. Clinical results in reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament

    PubMed Central

    Irigoitia, Nicolas Alejandro; Catan, Agustín Felipe; Arroquy, Damián; Guiñazu, Jorge; Vilaseca, Tomas; Nazur, Gabriel; Bisso, Martín Carboni

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the most suitable treatment for the patellar instability at the present in patients with two or more episodes of dislocation or only one with condral lesion. This is because it is the principal medial stabilizer of the patella. This process could be supplemented with an osseous correction as tibial tuberosity transference. Objectives: assess the clinical results of the reconstruction of the MPLF in patients with patellar instability. Study Design: Case series, level of evidence IV. Methods: We enroll all patients with this procedure between form April 2011 to February 2015, the sample has 27 reconstruction in 25 patients, who has two or more episodes of patellar dislocation. The graft used was gracilis tendon, set with suture anchor, and tibial tuberosity transfer in 9 patients who need an osseous procedure. Results: The average Kujala score was 90,1 points ( 64-100). Was necessary tibial tuberosity transference in one third of se sample. And in those patients there no difference compared with the isolated reconstruction.There was no episode of patellar dislocation or a second surgical time in the sample. Conclusion: The reconstruction of MPLF show excellent clinical outcomes in a short and medium terms , with 0% of dislocation and no second surgical time, in this kind of patients.

  7. Predictors of Revision Surgery After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yabroudi, Mohammad A.; Björnsson, Haukur; Lynch, Andrew D.; Muller, Bart; Samuelsson, Kristian; Tarabichi, Majd; Karlsson, Jón; Fu, Freddie H.; Harner, Christopher D.; Irrgang, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery occurs in 5% to 15% of individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction. Identifying predictors for revision ACL surgery is of essence in the pursuit of creating adequate prevention programs and to identify individuals at risk for reinjury and revision. Purpose: To determine predictors of revision ACL surgery after failed primary ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 251 participants (mean age ± SD, 26.1 ± 9.9 years) who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction 1 to 5 years earlier completed a comprehensive survey to determine predictors of revision ACL surgery at a mean 3.4 ± 1.3 years after the primary ACL reconstruction. Potential predictors that were assessed included subject characteristics (age at the time of surgery, time from injury to surgery, sex, body mass index, preinjury activity level, return to sport status), details of the initial injury (mechanism; concomitant injury to other ligaments, menisci, and cartilage), surgical details of the primary reconstruction (Lachman and pivot shift tests under anesthesia, graft type, femoral drilling technique, reconstruction technique), and postoperative course (length of rehabilitation, complications). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that predicted the need for revision ACL surgery. Results: Overall, 21 (8.4%) subjects underwent revision ACL surgery. Univariate analysis showed that younger age at the time of surgery (P = .003), participation in sports at a competitive level (P = .023), and double-bundle ACL reconstruction (P = .024) predicted increased risk of revision ACL surgery. Allograft reconstructions also demonstrated a trend toward greater risk of revision ACL surgery (P = .076). No other variables were significantly associated with revision ACL surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed that revision ACL surgery was

  8. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience☆

    PubMed Central

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. Method The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM), apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10) and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. Results Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07). Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. Conclusion Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament

  9. MRI of knee ligament injury and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Potter, Hollis G

    2013-10-01

    Knee ligament instability may lead to meniscal and chondral damage, resulting in early osteoarthritis. Due to its superior soft tissue contrast and avoidance of harmful ionizing radiation, MRI has become the most important imaging modality for early recognition of structural defects of the knee joint. This review aims to the understanding of MRI appearances of knee ligament structures associated with knee instability, and to review the common patterns of altered knee mechanics that lead to ligament failure. Normal anatomy of the knee ligaments, pathologic conditions, and postsurgical appearances of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and posterolateral corner are described.

  10. Ligament Tissue Engineering and Its Potential Role in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yates, E. W.; Rupani, A.; Foley, G. T.; Khan, W. S.; Cartmell, S.; Anand, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging discipline that combines the principle of science and engineering. It offers an unlimited source of natural tissue substitutes and by using appropriate cells, biomimetic scaffolds, and advanced bioreactors, it is possible that tissue engineering could be implemented in the repair and regeneration of tissue such as bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. Whilst repair and regeneration of ligament tissue has been demonstrated in animal studies, further research is needed to improve the biomechanical properties of the engineered ligament if it is to play an important part in the future of human ligament reconstruction surgery. We evaluate the current literature on ligament tissue engineering and its role in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:22253633

  11. Fracture of the proximal extremity of the tibia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Carneiro, Márcio; de Almeida Monteiro, Thiago; Zenovello Bueno, Marcos Renato; Augustin Júnior, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare condition that has been little described in the literature: a fracture of the proximal extremity of the tibia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an autologous patellar bone-tendon graft. In this report, we discuss the factors that predisposed toward this episode, the treatment and the evolution of the case after the surgical treatment.

  12. Dimensions and attachments of the ankle ligaments: evaluation for ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wenny, Raphael; Duscher, Dominik; Meytap, Emmy; Weninger, Patrick; Hirtler, Lena

    2015-06-01

    For operative reconstruction, precise anatomic information on the dimensions of the ankle ligaments is important and can help to optimize these procedures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the length and width dimensions of the ankle ligaments and to contrast the results with the published literature. Seventeen non-paired adult, formalin-fixed ankle specimen were dissected to expose the capsuloligamentous structures. The following ligaments were investigated: tibiofibular syndesmosis (anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligament/ATiFL and PTiFL), lateral ankle ligaments (anterior and posterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament/ATFL, PTFL and CFL), medial ankle ligaments (deltoid ligament, anterior and posterior tibiotalar ligament/ATTL and PTTL). After identification of the ligaments, the dimensions were measured with a ruler and a sliding caliper. Additionally, the attachment area and the center of insertion (COI) were evaluated. The dimensions of the ligaments were recorded. Measurements were calculated and discussed according to the existing literature. The tibial COI of the ATiFL was situated 8.35 ± 2.05 mm from the inferior articular surface of the tibia and 5.04 ± 1.32 mm from the fibular notch. Its fibular COI was situated 25.45 ± 5.84 mm from the tip of the lateral malleolus and 3.12 ± 1.01 mm from the malleolar articular surface. The calcaneal COI of the CFL was situated 20.63 ± 3.56 mm anterior and 5.73 ± 1.89 mm plantar to the superior edge of the calcaneal. Its fibular attachment of the CFL was directly at the tip of the lateral malleolus, dorsal to the fibular attachment of the ATFL. Studies of the therapeutic options in severe ankle ligament injuries have shown better results in anatomical reconstructions compared to other operative treatments. To optimize these procedures, exact anatomical information on the dimensions of the ankle ligaments should be beneficial.

  13. Postoperative Infection After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Alberto; Karnatzikos, Georgios; Chaurasia, Sanyam; Abhishek, Mudhigere; Bulgherhoni, Erica; Lane, John

    2015-01-01

    Context: Infection after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is uncommon; if it occurs, it can lead to disastrous complications. Objective: To analyze post-ACLR infections and identify related complications to provide the most effective treatment protocol. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Among approximately 1850 ACLRs performed by a single surgeon over the past 20 years, 7 cases of post-ACLR infection were identified (incidence, 0.37%). Five patients presenting with low-severity infection were successfully treated without any complication or residual functional disability. The remaining 2 patients, although successfully treated, presented with minor residual limitations. From a literature review, 16 studies including 246 cases of infection were reported among 35,795 ACLRs, making the rate of infection 0.68% (range, 0.14%-2.6%). Conclusion: With proper treatment protocols, post-ACLR infection is rare but can compromise outcomes. PMID:26603553

  14. Adaptation Strategies of Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Jaimie A.; Terza, Matthew J.; Tillman, Mark D.; Hass, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the strong implications for rehabilitation design, the capability of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to adapt and store novel gait patterns have not been well studied. Purpose: To investigate how reconstructive surgery may affect the ability to adapt and store novel gait patterns in persons with ACLR while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Gait adaptation was compared between 20 participants with ACLR and 20 healthy controls during split-belt treadmill walking. Gait adaptation was assessed in slow- and fast-adapting parameters by (1) the magnitude of symmetry during late adaptation and (2) the amount of the asymmetry during de-adaptation. Results: Healthy individuals adapted a new walking pattern and stored the new walking pattern equally in both the dominant and nondominant limbs. Conversely, individuals with ACLR displayed impairments in both slow-adapting and fast-adapting derived gait adaptation and significant differences in behavior between the reconstructed and uninjured limb. Conclusion: While surgical reconstruction and physical therapy are aimed at improving mechanical stability to the knee, the study data suggest that fundamental features of motor control remain altered. After ACLR, participants display an altered ability to learn and store functional gait patterns. PMID:26894200

  15. Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Ingole, Sachin; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-11-13

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an accepted and established surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and is now being practiced across the globe in increasing numbers. Although most patients get good to excellent results in the short-term after ACLR, its consequences in the long-term in prevention or acceleration of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are not yet well-defined. Still, there are many debatable issues related to ACLR, such as the appropriate timing of surgery, graft selection, fixation methods of the graft, operative techniques, rehabilitation after surgery, and healing augmentation techniques. Most surgeons prefer not to wait long after an ACL injury to do an ACLR, as delayed reconstruction is associated with secondary damages to the intra- and periarticular structures of the knee. Autografts are the preferred choice of graft in primary ACLR, and hamstring tendons are the most popular amongst surgeons. Single bundle ACLR is being practiced by the majority, but double bundle ACLR is getting popular due to its theoretical advantage of providing more anatomical reconstruction. A preferred construct is the interference fixation (Bio-screw) at the tibial site and the suspensory method of fixation at the femoral site. In a single bundle hamstring graft, a transportal approach for creating a femoral tunnel has recently become more popular than the trans-tibial technique. Various healing augmentation techniques, including the platelet rich plasma (PRP), have been tried after ACLR, but there is still no conclusive proof of their efficacy. Accelerated rehabilitation is seemingly more accepted immediately after ACLR.

  16. Pain Assessment After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Okoroha, Kelechi R.; Keller, Robert A.; Jung, Edward K.; Khalil, Lafi; Marshall, Nathan; Kolowich, Patricia A.; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common outpatient procedure that is accompanied by significant postoperative pain. Purpose: To determine differences in acute pain levels between patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with bone–patellar tendon–bone (BTB) versus hamstring tendon (HS) autograft. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 70 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction using either BTB or HS autografts consented to participate. The primary outcome of the study was postoperative pain levels (visual analog scale), which were collected immediately after surgery and for 3 days postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included opioid consumption (intravenous morphine equivalents), hours slept, patient satisfaction, reported breakthrough pain, and calls to the physician. Results: Patients treated with BTB had increased pain when compared with those treated with HS in the acute postoperative period (mean ± SD: day 0, 6.0 ± 1.7 vs 5.2 ± 2.0 [P = .066]; day 1, 5.9 ± 1.7 vs 4.9 ±1.7 [P = .024]; day 2, 5.2 ± 1.9 vs 4.1 ± 2.0 [P = .032]; day 3, 4.8 ± 2.1 vs 3.9 ± 2.3 [P = .151]). There were also significant increases in reported breakthrough pain (day 0, 76% vs 43% [P = .009]; day 1, 64% vs 35% [P = .003]) and calls to the physician due to pain (day 1, 19% vs 0% [P = .041]) in the BTB group. There were no significant differences in narcotic requirements or sleep disturbances. Overall, the BTB group reported significantly less satisfaction with pain management on days 0 and 1 (P = .024 and .027, respectively). Conclusion: A significant increase in acute postoperative pain was found when performing ACL reconstruction with BTB compared with HS. Patients treated with BTB were more likely to have breakthrough pain, decreased satisfaction with their pain management, and to contact their physician due to pain. These findings suggest a difference in early postoperative pain between the 2 most

  17. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Femoral Tunnel Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Laurie A.; Kerslake, Sarah; Lafave, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is a procedure aimed to reestablish the checkrein to lateral patellar translation in patients with symptomatic patellofemoral instability. Correct femoral tunnel position is thought to be crucial to successful MPFL reconstruction, but the accuracy of this statement in terms of patient outcomes has not been tested. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of femoral tunnel placement in an MPFL reconstruction cohort and to determine the correlation between tunnel accuracy and a validated disease-specific, patient-reported quality-of-life outcome measure. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Between June 2008 and February 2014, a total of 206 subjects underwent an MPFL reconstruction. Lateral radiographs were measured to determine the accuracy of the femoral tunnel by measuring the distance from the center of the femoral tunnel to the Schöttle point. Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII) scores were collected a mean 24 months postoperatively. Results: A total of 155 (79.5%) subjects had adequate postoperative lateral radiographs and complete BPII scores. The mean duration of follow-up (±SD) was 24.4 ± 8.2 months (range, 12-74 months). Measurement from the center of the femoral tunnel to the Schöttle point resulted in 143 (92.3%) tunnels being categorized as “good” or “ideal.” There were 8 failures in the cohort, none of which occurred in malpositioned tunnels. The mean distance from the center of the MPFL tunnel to the center of the Schöttle point was 5.9 ± 4.2 mm (range, 0.5-25.9 mm). The mean postoperative BPII score was 65.2 ± 22.5 (range, 9.2-100). Pearson r correlation demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between accuracy of femoral tunnel position and BPII score (r = –0.08; 95% CI, –0.24 to 0.08). Conclusion: There was no evidence of a correlation between the accuracy of MPFL reconstruction femoral tunnel in relation to the Schöttle point and

  18. REHABILITATION PROTOCOL AFTER ISOLATED POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Leite Cury, Ricardo; Kiyomoto, Henry Dan; Rosal, Gustavo Fogolin; Bryk, Flávio Fernandes; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; de Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix

    2015-01-01

    To create a rehabilitation protocol following reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), through a literature review. The literature review was conducted in the Medline and Embase databases, to search for data on biomechanical concepts and analyses relating to the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee. The search strategy was set up using the following rules: problem or injury in association with anatomical location terms; or surgical intervention procedure in association with rehabilitation terms. We began the process in this manner and subsequently introduced restrictions on certain terms to improve the search specificity. To design the protocol, a table was created for better data assessment, based on the time that elapsed between surgery and the start of physiotherapy. A rehabilitation protocol was created to improve weight-bearing control in the initial weeks after surgery, with the aid of a knee brace. Our aim was to achieve gains in total range of motion of the knee, which should be attained by the third month, thereby avoiding contractures resulting from the tissue healing process. Strengthening exercises and sensory-motor training were guided accordingly, thus avoiding overload on the graft and respecting the healing phases. The protocol proposed through this review was based on the current evidence relating to this subject. PMID:27047844

  19. Biomechanics of the anterior cruciate ligament: Physiology, rupture and reconstruction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Domnick, Christoph; Raschke, Michael J; Herbort, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    The influences and mechanisms of the physiology, rupture and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on kinematics and clinical outcomes have been investigated in many biomechanical and clinical studies over the last several decades. The knee is a complex joint with shifting contact points, pressures and axes that are affected when a ligament is injured. The ACL, as one of the intra-articular ligaments, has a strong influence on the resulting kinematics. Often, other meniscal or ligamentous injuries accompany ACL ruptures and further deteriorate the resulting kinematics and clinical outcomes. Knowing the surgical options, anatomic relations and current evidence to restore ACL function and considering the influence of concomitant injuries on resulting kinematics to restore full function can together help to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26925379

  20. Failure of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Marcano, Alejandro I.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Cugat, Ramon; Farmer, Kevin W; Moser, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The present review classifies and describes the multifactorial causes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery failure, concentrating on preventing and resolving such situations. The article particularly focuses on those causes that require ACL revision due to recurrent instability, without neglecting those that affect function or produce persistent pain. Although primary ACL reconstruction has satisfactory outcome rates as high as 97%, it is important to identify the causes of failure, because satisfactory outcomes in revision surgery can drop to as much as 76%. It is often possible to identify a primary or secondary cause of ACL surgery failure; even the most meticulous planning can give rise to unexpected findings during the intervention. The adopted protocol should therefore be sufficiently flexible to adapt to the course of surgery. Preoperative patient counseling is essential. The surgeon should limit the patient’s expectations for the outcome by explaining the complexity of this kind of procedure. With adequate preoperative planning, close attention to details and realistic patient expectations, ACL revision surgery may offer beneficial and satisfactory results for the patient. PMID:26550585

  1. An Ecological Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Timothy M.; Waddington, Gordon; Scarvell, Jennie M.; Ball, Nick; Creer, Rob; Woods, Kevin; Smith, Damian; Adams, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background: Additional high-quality prospective studies are needed to better define the objective criteria used in relation to return-to-sport decisions after synthetic (ligament advanced reinforcement system [LARS]) and autograft (hamstring tendon [2ST/2GR]) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in active populations. Purpose: To prospectively investigate and describe the recovery of objective clinical outcomes after autograft (2ST/2GR) and synthetic (LARS) ACL reconstructions, as well as to investigate the relationship between these clinimetric test outcomes and return-to-sport activity (Tegner activity scale [TAS] score) at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 64 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (32 LARS, 32 2ST/2GR autograft) and 32 healthy reference participants were assessed for joint laxity (KT-1000 arthrometer), clinical outcome (2000 International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] knee examination), and activity (TAS score) preoperatively and at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks and 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Results: There was no significant correlation observed between clinical results using the 2000 IKDC knee examination and TAS score at 24 months (r s = 0.188, P = .137), nor were results for side-to-side difference (r s = 0.030, P = .814) or absolute KT-1000 arthrometer laxity of the surgical leg at 24 months postoperatively (r s = 0.076, P = .553) correlated with return-to-sport activity. Nonetheless, return-to-sport rates within the surgical cohort were 81% at 12 months and 83% at 24 months, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between physiological laxity of the uninjured knee within the surgical group compared with healthy knees within the reference group (P = .522). Conclusion: The results indicate that although relatively high levels of return-to-sport outcomes were achieved at 24 months compared with those previously reported in

  2. Scapholunate ligament reconstruction using the palmaris longus tendon and suture anchor fixation in chronic scapholunate instability

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Maulik Jagdish; Knight, Timothy Paul; Ratcliffe, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple reconstruction techniques have been described in the management of chronic scapholunate (SL) instability, either based on the capsulodesis or tenodesis principle. It is uncertain which surgical method produces the best patient outcomes. We describe results of a technique using palmaris longus (PL) tendon for surgical reconstruction of the SL ligament and provide functional outcomes scores. Materials and Methods: We surgically reconstructed the SL ligament using a PL tendon graft secured with Mitek® bone anchors. Surgical technique with photographs is provided in the main text. Functional outcomes were measured using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand and Mayo wrist scores. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a simple measure. Results: Eleven patients attended mid-term followup (mean 45.8 months post-surgery) and had functional outcomes and satisfaction of this procedure that compared favorably to case series that used tenodesis for chronic SL ligament injuries. Almost all patients (n = 10) were able to return to regular employment. The majority of patients (n = 10) were satisfied with their primary reconstruction procedure. Conclusion: This technique avoids the use of drill holes to weave tendon through bone, uses an easy to access graft, and exploits the superior pullout strength of anchors while offering satisfactory functional outcomes that are comparable to alternative tenodesis techniques. PMID:27904216

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a look at prosthetics--past, present and possible future.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Randy; MacDonald, Peter B

    2008-01-01

    Biological tissue autograft reconstruction using the patellar tendon or quadrupled semitendinosus/gracilis tendons has become the most popular procedure in surgical treatment of a ruptured ACL. This article provides a review of the history of the use of prosthetics with respect to ACL reconstruction grafts including Carbon Fibre, Gore-Tex and Dacron prosthetics as well as the Leeds-Keio Artificial Ligament and the Kennedy Ligament Augmentation Device (LAD). Emphasis is placed on the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) as preliminary investigations of its use have been encouraging. Significant progress has been made recently with respect to the understanding of ACL anatomy, composition, biomechanics, and healing processes, leading to innovative techniques using approaches based in tissue engineering principles and computer - assisted surgery. While research into improved ACL treatment options continues, the synthesis of recent advancements provides a new optimism towards the regeneration of an ACL mirroring its original stability, function, and longevity.

  4. Anatomical reconstruction of the spring ligament complex: "internal brace" augmentation.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Jorge; Vora, Anand

    2013-12-01

    The calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament complex is a critical static support of the medial arch of the foot. Compromise of this structure has been implicated as a primary causative factor of talar derotation leading to the clinical deformity of peritalar subluxation. Few procedures have been described to address this deficiency. The technique we describe here is a simple yet effective method to reconstruct the spring ligament complex that can easily be used in conjunction with other more commonly used procedures for extra-articular reconstructions of this deformity. We believe this procedure allows for a more powerful deformity correction and may decrease dependency on other nonanatomic reconstructive procedures.

  5. Functional results from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the central third of the patellar ligament and flexor tendons☆

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Leao, Marcos George; Pampolha, Abelardo Gautama Moreira; Orlando Junior, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate knee function in patients undergoing reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using the central third of the patellar ligament or the medial flexor tendons of the knee, i.e. quadruple ligaments from the semitendinosus and gracilis (ST-G), by means of the Knee Society Score (KSS) and the Lysholm scale. Methods This was a randomized prospective longitudinal study on 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between September 2013 and August 2014. They comprised 37 males and three females, with ages ranging from 16 to 52 years. The patients were numbered randomly from 1 to 40: the even numbers underwent surgical correction using the ST-G tendons and the odd numbers, using the patellar tendon. Functional evaluations were made using the KSS and Lysholm scale, applied in the evening before the surgical procedure and six months after the operation. Results From the statistical analysis, it could be seen that the patients’ functional capacity was significantly greater after the operation than before the operation. There was strong evidence that the two forms of therapy had similar results (p = >0.05), in all the comparisons. Conclusions The results from the ACL reconstructions were similar with regard to functional recovery of the knee and improvement of quality of life, independent of the type of graft. It was not possible to identify the best method of surgical treatment. The surgeon's clinical and technical experience and the patient are the factors that determine the choice of graft type for use in ACL surgery. PMID:27218084

  6. Cable-Augmented, Quad Ligament Tenodesis Scapholunate Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Gregory I.; Watts, Adam C.; McLean, James; Lee, Yu C.; Eng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining reduction of the scapholunate interval after reconstruction can be difficult. The authors performed scapholunate reconstruction using tensionable suture anchors in 8 patients. The anchors provide a fixed cable that both fixes the graft, and reduces the scapholunate diastasis and maintains reduction. The flexor carpi radialis tendon graft stabilizes not only the volar scaphotrapezial ligament, and dorsal scapholunate ligament, but also the dorsal intercarpal and dorsal radiocarpal ligament. The Berger flap is closed using an ulnar advancement capsulodesis that further reinforces the dorsal intercarpal and dorsal radiocarpal ligament. The mean pain score improved from 5.8 to 2.1. Mean extension was 56° (91% of contralateral side), flexion 44° (70% of contralateral side), and grip strength was 41kg (95% of the contralateral side). The mean scapholunate angle was 71°, radiolunate angle 16° and scapholunate interval 3.0 mm. The cable augmented, quad ligament scapholunate ligament reconstruction offers theoretical advantages but long term follow up is required. PMID:26649256

  7. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Autologous Hamstring

    PubMed Central

    Grawe, Brian M.; Williams, Phillip N.; Burge, Alissa; Voigt, Marcia; Altchek, David W.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Allen, Answorth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent clinical investigations have identified inadequate autograft hamstring graft diameter (<8 mm) to be predictive of failure after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the utility of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables of the hamstring tendons for the prediction of graft diameter at the time of surgery. The hypothesis was that cross-sectional area (CSA) of the hamstring tendon measured on MRI could accurately predict graft diameter, and threshold measurements could be established to predict graft diameter at the time of surgery. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 84 consecutive skeletally mature patients prospectively enrolled in our ACL reconstruction patient registry were identified for study purposes. Patients were included if they underwent an MRI of the affected knee at our institution prior to ACL reconstruction with hamstring (HT) autograft. Graft preparation was performed via a standard quadrupled hamstring technique after harvesting both the gracilis and semitendinosus (4-GST). The smallest diameter end of the HT autograft was then utilized for measurement analysis. Total CSA was calculated for both hamstring tendons using the “region of interest tool” on the corresponding proton density–weighted axial image of the knee at the widest condylar dimension. Three independent reviewers measured the MRI scans so that intra- and interrater reliability of the measurements could be determined. A trend analysis was then undertaken to establish correlations between the MRI CSA and graft diameter. Predictive analysis was then performed to establish threshold MRI measurement values for specific graft diameters and determine whether any patient-specific factors would affect graft diameter (age, sex, and body mass index). Results: Mean patient age at the time of surgery was 36 years (range, 11

  8. Bone tunnel enlargement following hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Mateusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Binkowski, Marcin; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bone tunnel enlargement (BTE) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a well-known phenomenon. It has been identified, investigated and described by many authors during the last thirty years. Nevertheless, the etiology of bone tunnel enlargement still remains unclear. It is known that the causes are multifactorial and may include the surgical technique, the method of fixation, materials used, type of graft as well as biological factors. Due to the recent popularization of the use of hamstring grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the bone tunnel enlargement phenomenon is becoming increasingly common. In this review article, the authors focus on compiling current knowledge about the etiology, diagnosis, and the possibility of reducing the occurrence of this phenomenon by using the latest methods of supporting reconstruction surgery.

  9. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Elfons Tawafig, Marian; Miles, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good.

  10. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Elfons Tawafig, Marian; Miles, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good. PMID:26579321

  11. Weinert and Giachino ligament arthroplasty for the surgical treatment of chronic superior tibiofibular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Cazeneuve, J F; Bracq, H; Meeseman, M

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent dislocations of the superior tibiofibular joint are rare. The majority of these patients are physically active, young adults. Different surgical techniques have been described for the management of this pathology: resection of the proximal aspect of the fibula, arthrodesis of the superior tibiofibular joint with or without fibular osteotomy. Because of the problems reported with these techniques, we opted for Weinert and Giachino ligament reconstruction. From 1989 to 1994, three patients were treated and reviewed in our practice: all, soccer players on the local team, 20, 23, and 25 years old, with superior tibiofibular pain and tumefaction, without neurological symptoms, but with anteroposterior mobility of the fibular head. The average duration of the symptoms before operation was 9 months, and the average follow-up was 15 months. At the follow-up, pain and anteroposterior mobility were gone. Soccer playing was resumed at 7 months without recurrence but with low frequency and stress. In our opinion, the Weinert and Giachino ligament reconstruction, using a portion of the biceps tendon to reconstruct the superior tibiofibular ligament, appears an effective approach to restore indolence and stability to the superior tibiofibular joint and to avoid complications of resection and arthrodesis.

  12. The sacrotuberous and the sacrospinous ligament--a virtual reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hammer, N; Steinke, H; Slowik, V; Josten, C; Stadler, J; Böhme, J; Spanel-Borowski, K

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the morphometric properties of the sacrotuberous ligament (ST) and the sacrospinous ligament (SS). The influence of ligaments on pelvic stability and the extent of reconstruction in case of instability are controversially discussed. The ST and the SS of 55 human subjects fixed in alcohol solution and of four fresh cadavers were measured. Both ligaments were defined as geometric figures. The ST was a contorted bifrustum, while the SS was a contorted frustum, both with elliptic planes. In all cases investigated, the ST and the SS fibres were twisted. For men, the ST and the SS had a mean length of 64 and 38 mm. For women, lengths of 70 and 46 mm were measured in the ST and the SS. The ST length, height and cross-sectional area showed gender-specific differences at statistically significant level. The ST and the SS volumes correlated closely, regardless of gender or side. Measurements of fresh ligaments of four unfixed cadavers showed similar results. The data obtained were then used to generate computer-based three-dimensional models of both ligaments, using the Catia software. Conclusively, the virtually generated ST and SS are suitable models to be included in pelvic fracture simulation, using the finite element method.

  13. Return to Sports after Acute Simultaneous Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Grade III Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bertona, Agustin; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Viescas, Juan Manuel Gonzalez; Atala, Nicolas; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury and Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) injury account for 20% of knee ligament lesions. Conservative treatment of MCL and surgical ACL reconstruction are generally recommended. Significant medial instability after non-surgical management of MCL can lead to ACL reconstruction failure. The optimal management for athletes with combined ACL-MCL injuries remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional and clinical evolution of patients who underwent combined ACL-MCL surgery and their return-to-sport level with minimum 2-years follow-up. Methods: A total of 20 athletes with acute simultaneous ACL/Grade III MCL reconstructions were treated between March 2006 and January 2014. The minimum follow-up time was 24 months. Subjective functional results (IKDC, Lysholm), range of motion, anterior-medial and rotational stability (Lachmann, Pivot Shift, valgus stress) were evaluated. The ability to return to sport (Tegner) and the level achieved was recorded. Results: All patients significantly improved functional scores and stability tests. The mean subjective IKDC score improved from 37.7 ± 12.9 (range 21-69) preoperatively to 88.21 ± 4.47 (range 80-96) postoperatively (P <0.05). The average Lysholm score was 40.44 ± 10.58 (range 27-65) preoperatively and 90.83 ± 3.38 (range 84-95) postoperatively (P <0.05). Valgus and sagittal laxity was not observed (IKDC A 92% B 8%) at final follow-up. All patients had normal/nearly normal (IKDC A or B) mobility. All patients returned to sports; 90% reached the level they had prior to the ligamentous injury. Of all competitive athletes, 66% achieved the same level of sport. Conclusion: In athletes with acute ACL-Grade III MCL lesions, an early simultaneous reconstruction can significantly improve the medial and sagittal stability of the knee. This procedure resulted in excellent functional outcomes, with return to the same level of sports in the

  14. [Surgical reconstruction of joint function].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime

    2013-07-01

    In recent years a concept of "treat to target" is introduced into a medical treatment of RA, and tight control is recommended from the early stage of the disease. However, it is difficult to relieve all patients in a true remission. Nowadays, disease activity is controlled well and a reconstructive surgery is performed at a limited number of the damaged joints in a state of good remaining of bone and soft tissue structures. The patients are highly motivated, and a newly developed disorder at the non-surgically treated joints is uncommon. Therefore, an aggressive rehabilitation is possible. Combined with a medical treatment of RA, a surgical intervention enables to acquire a higher level of ADL and an improved QOL (Japanese T2T).

  15. An Ecological Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Timothy M.; Waddington, Gordon; Scarvell, Jennie M.; Ball, Nick; Creer, Rob; Woods, Kevin; Smith, Damian; Adams, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Additional high-quality prospective studies are needed to better define the objective criteria used in relation to return-to-sport decisions after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in active populations. Purpose: To investigate prospectively the relationship between functional performance test results at 24 weeks postoperative and return-to-sport activity (Tegner activity score) at 12 and 24 months, respectively, after synthetic (ligament advanced reinforcement system [LARS]) and autograft (doubled semitendinosus/gracilis [2ST/2GR]) ACL reconstructions. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 64 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (32 LARS, 32 2ST/2GR autograft; mean age, 27.9 years; body mass index [BMI], 24.9 kg/m2) were assessed preoperatively and at staged intervals postoperatively up to 24 weeks for isokinetic testing of quadriceps and hamstring average power per repetition at 60 deg/s and 180 deg/s, a battery of hop tests, peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and time to peak vGRF (in seconds) during a step- and jump-down task onto a force platform and peak speed (m/s) using a global positioning system (GPS unit) during a running task. A cohort of 32 healthy matched participants (mean age, 26.31 years; BMI, 25.7 kg/m2) were also tested to act as reference. Pearson correlation was calculated to assess correlation of each performance measure at 24 weeks postoperative with activity outcomes (Tegner score) at 12 and 24 months. Results: The strongest correlation between physical performance tests and return-to-sport outcomes was observed with peak speed during running. Large correlations were also observed for hamstring isokinetic power and hop test for distance. Moderate correlations were observed for timed hop, peak vGRF during a jump-down task, and quadriceps isokinetic power. No statistical correlations were observed for time to peak vGRF during a step-down and jump-down task as well as peak v

  16. Is deltoid and lateral ligament reconstruction necessary in varus and valgus ankle osteoarthritis, and how should these procedures be performed?

    PubMed

    Hogan, Macalus V; Dare, David M; Deland, Jonathan T

    2013-09-01

    Varus and valgus ankle deformities represent a challenge to the foot and ankle surgeons. The presence of degenerative changes of the tibiotalar joint articular surfaces introduces an additional layer of complexity. Reconstruction of such deformities requires a customized approach to each patient. Surgical intervention often requires joint-sparing realignment, arthroplasty, and/or arthrodesis, depending on the severity of deformity and the joint surface integrity. The ligamentous stability of the ankle plays an essential role in the preservation and optimization of function. This article reviews the role of deltoid and lateral ligament reconstruction in the treatment of varus and valgus ankle osteoarthritis.

  17. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in skeletally immature patients: an individualized approach☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Júnior, Osmar Valadão; Saggin, Paulo Renato; Matos do Nascimento, Gilberto; Kuhn, André; Saggin, José; Inácio, André Manoel

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate a series of skeletally immature patients who underwent three surgical techniques for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction according to each patient's growth potential. Methods a series of 23 skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery at ages ranging from 7 to 15 years was evaluated prospectively. The surgical technique was individualized according to the Tanner sexual maturity score. The surgical techniques used were transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction and extraphyseal reconstruction. Four patients underwent the extraphyseal technique, seven the partial transphyseal technique and twelve the full transphyseal technique, on the ACL. The postoperative evaluation was based on the Lysholm score, clinical analysis on the knee and the presence of angular deformity or dysmetria of the lower limb. Results the mean Lysholm score was 96.34 (±2.53). None of the patients presented differences in length and/or clinical or radiographic misalignment abnormality of the lower limbs. Conclusion ACL reconstruction using flexor tendon grafts in skeletally immature patients provided satisfactory functional results. Use of individualized surgical techniques according to growth potential did not give rise to physeal lesions capable of causing length discrepancies or misalignments of the lower limbs, even in patients with high growth potential. PMID:26229809

  18. Assessment of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using 3D ultrashort echo-time MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmer, Jürgen; Börnert, Peter; Dries, Sebastian P M

    2009-02-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of ultrashort TE (UTE) imaging for visualizing graft material and fixation elements after surgical repair of soft tissue trauma such as ligament or meniscal injury. Three asymptomatic patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using different graft fixation methods were imaged at 1.5T using a 3D UTE sequence. Conventional multislice turbo spin-echo (TSE) measurements were performed for comparison. 3D UTE imaging yields high signal from tendon graft material at isotropic spatial resolution, thus facilitating direct positive contrast graft visualization. Furthermore, metal and biopolymer graft fixation elements are clearly depicted due to the high contrast between the signal-void implants and the graft material. Thus, the ability of UTE MRI to visualize short-T(2) tissues such as tendons, ligaments, or tendon grafts can provide additional information about the status of the graft and its fixation in the situation after cruciate ligament repair. UTE MRI can therefore potentially support diagnosis when problems occur or persist after surgical procedures involving short-T(2) tissues and implants.

  19. LEG'S COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Ramos, Leonardo Adeo; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ejnisman, Benno; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Nicolini, Alexandre; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome.

  20. LEG'S COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Ramos, Leonardo Adeo; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ejnisman, Benno; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Nicolini, Alexandre; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome. PMID:27047834

  1. Surgical Reconstruction of Radiation Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Patients with cancer receive benefits from radiation therapy; however, it may have adverse effects on normal tissue such as causing radiation-induced ulcer and osteoradionecrosis. The most reliable method to treat a radiation ulcer is wide excision of the affected tissue, followed by coverage with well-vascularized tissue. As usual, radiation-induced skin ulcers are due to therapeutic irradiation for residual cancer or lymph nodes; the locations of radiation ulcers are relatively limited, including the head, neck, chest wall, lumbar, groin, and sacral areas. Thus, suitable reconstructive methods vary according to functional and aesthetic conditions. I reviewed the practices and surgical results for radiation ulcers over the past 30 years, and present the recommended surgical methods for these hard-to-heal ulcers. Recent Advances: At a minimum, flaps are required to treat radiation ulcers. Surgeons can recommend earlier debridement, followed by immediate coverage with axial-pattern musculocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps. Free flaps are also a useful soft tissue coverage option. The choice of flap varies with the location and size of the wounds. Critical Issues: The most crucial procedure is the complete resection of the radiation-affected area, followed by coverage with well-vascularized tissue. Future Directions: Recent developments in perforator flap techniques, which are defined as flaps with a blood supply from isolated perforating vessels of a stem artery, have allowed the surgeons to successfully resurface these difficult wounds with reduced morbidity. PMID:24761342

  2. Current Concepts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Criterion–Based Rehabilitation Progression

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, DOUGLAS; LOGERSTEDT, DAVID; HUNTER-GIORDANO, AIRELLE; AXE, MICHAEL J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The management of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should be evidence based. Since our original published guidelines in 1996, successful outcomes have been consistently achieved with the rehabilitation principles of early weight bearing, using a combination of weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing exercise focused on quadriceps and lower extremity strength, and meeting specific objective requirements for return to activity. As rehabilitative evidence and surgical technology and procedures have progressed, the original guidelines should be revisited to ensure that the most up-to-date evidence is guiding rehabilitative care. Emerging evidence on rehabilitative interventions and advancements in concomitant surgeries, including those addressing chondral and meniscal injuries, continues to grow and greatly affect the rehabilitative care of patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The aim of this article is to update previously published rehabilitation guidelines, using the most recent research to reflect the most current evidence for management of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The focus will be on current concepts in rehabilitation interventions and modifications needed for concomitant surgery and pathology. PMID:22402434

  3. Lateral collateral ligament reconstruction for chronic varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Chronic varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint is a rare injury, and only a few reports of this injury have been published. In some studies, this injury has been related to taekwondo. Taekwondo is an essential martial art in the Korean military. We have described a case of varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a professional soldier who had practiced taekwondo for 5 years and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament with the fourth toe extensor tendon.

  4. Bioscaffolds and the reconstruction of ligaments and tendons in the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jeremy J; Cook, Emily A

    2009-10-01

    Biologic scaffolds have become an integral part of surgical soft tissue reconstruction in recent years. The increased use of these materials can be partially attributed to poor long-term outcomes with synthetic products as well as the cost and morbidity associated with allografts and autografts. Bioscaffolds can augment natural healing processes of tendons and ligaments while providing additional structural support. Although these implants lack the mechanical strength of synthetics and other transplants, proper preparation can optimize their load-sharing capacity. This article presents methods that can improve these characteristics of bioscaffolds. Available studies in foot and ankle applications have shown minimal complications in a variety of techniques.

  5. Depression and psychiatric disease associated with outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao-Hua; Liu, Max; Dines, Joshua S; Kelly, John D; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-01-01

    While most patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury indicate satisfaction with surgical intervention, a significant proportion still do not return to pre-injury level of function or sport. Psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, have recently been associated with poor clinical outcomes after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). To date, no article has yet examined how depression affects ACLR outcomes and how potential screening and intervention for psychological distress may affect postoperative activity level. The purpose of this review is to delineate potential relationships between depression and ACLR outcome, discuss clinical implications and identify future directions for research. PMID:27900267

  6. Physiotherapy after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Maitê; Vieira, Neiva de Souza; Brandão, Eduardo da Rosa; Ruaro, João Afonso; Grignet, Rodrigo Juliano; Fréz, Andersom Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the existence of differences in the rehabilitation of patients after ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft and the four-strand semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts, through a literature revision. The researched databases were MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, COCHRANE and PEDro. The inclusion criteria were published studies with methodology draw from randomized clinical trials with or without meta-analysis, individuals with ACL injury, associated or not to meniscal injury, submitted to ligamentoplasty using the bone-patellar tendon-bone graft and the four-strand semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts and physiotherapy; clinical trials comparing the differences in the rehabilitation of these patients, in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to June, 2011. Five clinical trials were reviewed. No difference was observed between the techniques, however, with a recommendation for a less aggressive rehabilitation and greater attention to the strengthening of the hamstring when they are used as grafts. PMID:24453634

  7. Kinematic Analysis of Five Different Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gadikota, Hemanth R; Hosseini, Ali; Asnis, Peter; Li, Guoan

    2015-06-01

    Several anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques have been proposed to restore normal joint kinematics. However, the relative superiorities of these techniques with one another and traditional single-bundle reconstructions are unclear. Kinematic responses of five previously reported reconstruction techniques (single-bundle reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft [SBR-BPTB], single-bundle reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [SBR-HST], single-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [STDBR-HST], anatomical single-tunnel reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [ASTR-HST], and a double-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [DBR-HST]) were systematically analyzed. The knee kinematics were determined under anterior tibial load (134 N) and simulated quadriceps load (400 N) at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion using a robotic testing system. Anterior joint stability under anterior tibial load was qualified as normal for ASTR-HST and DBR-HST and nearly normal for SBR-BPTB, SBR-HST, and STDBR-HST as per the International Knee Documentation Committee knee examination form categorization. The analysis of this study also demonstrated that SBR-BPTB, STDBR-HST, ASTR-HST, and DBR-HST restored the anterior joint stability to normal condition while the SBR-HST resulted in a nearly normal anterior joint stability under the action of simulated quadriceps load. The medial-lateral translations were restored to normal level by all the reconstructions. The internal tibial rotations under the simulated muscle load were over-constrained by all the reconstruction techniques, and more so by the DBR-HST. All five ACL reconstruction techniques could provide either normal or nearly normal anterior joint stability; however, the techniques over-constrained internal tibial rotation under the simulated quadriceps load.

  8. Transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature knee using anterior tibialis allograft.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yool; Jang, Soo-Jin; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2011-05-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the skeletally immature individual is being recognized with increasing frequency. Nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients have not been favorable. Surgical treatment options for complete ACL tears include primary ligament repair, extraarticular tenodesis, transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction, and physeal-sparing reconstruction. The advantage of transphyseal reconstruction is placement of the graft tissue in an isometric position, which provides better results, according to the literature. The potential disadvantage is angular or limb-length discrepancy caused by physeal violation. Controversy exists in allograft selection about whether bone or soft tissue passes into physes. The use of standard tunnels provides reliable results, but carries the risk of iatrogenic growth disturbance from physeal injury.This article presents 4 cases of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients that had satisfactory functional outcomes with no growth disturbances. This is the first report of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients in the English-speaking literature. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis tendon allograft. None of the patients had angular deformities. No early physeal arrest was measured between the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. At last follow-up, the results of the Lachman test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. All patients demonstrated full range of knee motion (comparing the reconstructed knee to the contralateral knee). The results of the pivot-shift test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. No patients reported giving way.

  9. Compartment pressure monitoring during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Amendola, A; Faber, K; Willits, K; Miniaci, A; Labib, S; Fowler, P

    1999-09-01

    A prospective double blind randomized study was carried out using 20 healthy males with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency undergoing bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction. The subjects were randomized into either water or saline irrigation and then underwent identical reconstructive procedures using an arthroscopic pump. Continuous preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative pressures were monitored using the slit catheter technique. Blood pressure and compartment pressure measurements were continuously recorded and noted at all stages of the procedure. Mean preoperative anterior and posterior compartment pressures were similar in both groups. No significant differences were noted between the anterior and posterior compartments of each group. No difference between water and saline irrigation was identified throughout the procedure. In both groups, postoperative pressures were slightly lower in the anterior and posterior compartments compared with preoperative pressures, but not significantly.

  10. Acute patellar dislocation with multiple ligament injuries after knee dislocation and single session reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gormeli, Gokay; Gormeli, Cemile Ayse; Karakaplan, Mustafa; Gurbuz, Sukru; Ozdemir, Zeynep; Ozer, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Knee dislocation is a relatively rare condition of all orthopaedic injuries. Accompanying multiple ligament injuries are common after knee dislocations. A 41-year-old male presented to the emergency department suffering from right knee dislocation in June 2013. The patient had anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament (MCL), medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) rupture, and lateral meniscal tear. A single-bundle anatomic reconstruction, medial collateral ligament reconstruction, medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and meniscus repair were performed in single session. At twelve months follow-up; there was 160º flexion and 10° extension knee range of motion. Lysholm knee score was 90. Extensive forces can cause both MCL and MPFL injury due to overload and the anatomical relationship between these two structures. Therefore, patients with valgus instability should be evaluated for both MPFL and MCL tears to facilitate successful treatment.

  11. Finite element study on the anatomic transtibial technique for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji Yong; Kim, Geon-Hee; Seon, Jong Keun; Jeon, Insu

    2016-05-01

    The anatomic transtibial (TT) technique is proposed as a new approach for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Geometric models of the anatomic TT and anteromedial (AM) portal techniques were fabricated with a reconstructed knee joint model and virtual surgical operations. Grafts of 7 mm diameter were modeled and inserted into tunnels drilled in each model. In the models, the shape of the graft between the femur and the tibia, the lengths of the bone tunnels, and the femoral graft bending angles were evaluated. To evaluate the biomechanical effects of both techniques on the grafts, the contact pressures and maximum principal stresses in the grafts were calculated using the finite element method. The anatomic TT technique placed the femoral tunnel to the anatomic position of the native ACL femoral attachment site. In addition, it decreased the peak contact pressure and the maximum principal stress at the full extension position of the graft compared with the AM portal technique. The anatomic TT technique may be regarded as a superior surgical technique compared with the conventional TT and AM portal techniques. Because of the easy surgical operation involved, the technique decreases the operation time for ACL reconstruction and it provides a deformation behavior of grafts similar to that in the native ACL in a knee joint. With its few side effects, the anatomic TT technique may considerably help patients.

  12. Surgical menopause initiates molecular changes that do not result in mechanical changes in normal and healing ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, G. M.; Reno, C. R.; Achari, Y.; Morck, D. W.; Hart, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ligaments which heal spontaneously have a healing process that is similar to skin wound healing. Menopause impairs skin wound healing and may likewise impair ligament healing. Our purpose in this study was to investigate the effect of surgical menopause on ligament healing in a rabbit medial collateral ligament model. Methods Surgical menopause was induced with ovariohysterectomy surgery in adult female rabbits. Ligament injury was created by making a surgical gap in the midsubstance of the medial collateral ligament. Ligaments were allowed to heal for six or 14 weeks in the presence or absence of oestrogen before being compared with uninjured ligaments. Molecular assessment examined the messenger ribonucleic acid levels for collagens, proteoglycans, proteinases, hormone receptors, growth factors and inflammatory mediators. Mechanical assessments examined ligament laxity, total creep strain and failure stress. Results Surgical menopause in normal medial collateral ligaments initiated molecular changes in all the categories evaluated. In early healing medial collateral ligaments, surgical menopause resulted in downregulation of specific collagens, proteinases and inflammatory mediators at 6 weeks of healing, and proteoglycans, growth factors and hormone receptors at 14 weeks of healing. Surgical menopause did not produce mechanical changes in normal or early healing medial collateral ligaments. With or without surgical menopause, healing ligaments exhibited increased total creep strain and decreased failure stress compared with uninjured ligaments. Conclusions Surgical menopause did not affect the mechanical properties of normal or early healing medial collateral ligaments in a rabbit model. The results in this preclinical model suggest that menopause may result in no further impairment to the ligament healing process. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:38–44 PMID:25761872

  13. Radiation risk from fluoroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chitnavis, JP; Karthikesaligam, A; Macdonald, A; Brown, C

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Precise tunnel positioning is crucial for success in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of intra-operative fluoroscopy has been shown to improve the accuracy of tunnel placement. Although radiation exposure is a concern, we lack information on the radiation risk to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-assisted ACL reconstruction with a standard C-arm. The aim of our study was to determine the mean radiation doses received by our patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Radiation doses were recorded for 18 months between 1 April 2007 and 30 September 2008 for 58 consecutive patients undergoing ACL reconstruction assisted by intra-operative fluoroscopy. Dose area product (DAP) values were used to calculate the entrance skin dose (ESD), an indicator of potential skin damage and the effective dose (ED), an indicator of long-term cancer risk, for each patient. RESULTS The median age of 58 patients included in data analysis was 28 years (range, 14–52 years), of whom 44 were male (76%). The mean ESD during intra-operative fluoroscopy was 0.0015 ± 0.0029 Gy. The mean ED was 0.001 ± 0.002 mSv. No results exceeded the threshold of 2 Gy for skin damage, and the life-time risk of developing new cancer due to intra-operative fluoroscopy is less than 0.0001%. CONCLUSIONS Radiation doses administered during fluoroscopically-assisted ACL reconstruction were safe and do not represent a contra-indication to the procedure. PMID:20501019

  14. Physeal-Sparing Technique for Femoral Tunnel Drilling in Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Posteromedial Portal

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Stephen E.; Keating, Patrick M.; Scott, Timothy P.; Siwiec, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears present a technical dilemma for orthopaedic surgeons. Multiple surgical techniques have been described to protect the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes. We present an ACL reconstruction technique performed on a 12-year-old girl with open physes who sustained an ACL tear after a noncontact twisting injury while playing soccer. A hamstring autograft reconstruction was performed by use of a posteromedial portal to drill the femoral tunnel in an all-epiphyseal fashion at the anatomic footprint of the native ACL. This case provides a new surgical technique to achieve anatomic fixation for ACL reconstruction in a skeletally immature individual using a posteromedial portal to drill a physeal-sparing lateral femoral tunnel for anatomic ACL reconstruction. This advancement may make drilling the femoral tunnel less technically challenging compared with other proposed methods while maintaining the lateral wall of the distal femur. PMID:24892013

  15. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    PubMed

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  16. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status. PMID:27478579

  17. Hip and knee joint kinematics during a diagonal jump landing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed females.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Prendiville, Anna; Sweeney, Lauren; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Patterson, Matt; Murphy, Katie

    2012-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common injury encountered by sport medicine clinicians. Surgical reconstruction is the recommended treatment of choice for those athletes wishing to return to full-contact sports participation and for sports requiring multi-directional movement patterns. The aim of ACL reconstruction is to restore knee joint mechanical stability such that the athlete can return to sporting participation. However, knowledge regarding the extent to which lower limb kinematic profiles are restored following ACL reconstruction is limited. In the present study the hip and knee joint kinematic profiles of 13 ACL reconstructed (ACL-R) and 16 non-injured control subjects were investigated during the performance of a diagonal jump landing task. The ACL-R group exhibited significantly less peak knee joint flexion (P=0.01). Significant between group differences were noted for time averaged hip joint sagittal plane (P<0.05) and transverse plane (P<0.05) kinematic profiles, as well as knee joint frontal plane (P<0.05) and sagittal plane (P<0.05) kinematic profiles. These results suggest that aberrant hip and knee joint kinematic profiles are present following ACL reconstruction, which could influence future injury risk.

  18. All-Epiphyseal, All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Technique for Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Moira M.; Graziano, Jessica; Green, Daniel W.; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the juvenile population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Adult reconstruction techniques are inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients because of the risk of physeal complications, including limb-length discrepancy and angular deformities. “Physeal-sparing” reconstruction techniques exist, but their ability to restore knee stability is not well understood. We describe an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction for use in skeletally immature patients. This is an all-inside technique with the femoral tunnel drilled retrograde and the tibial tunnel drilled retrograde; both tunnels are entirely within the epiphysis. Fixation of the hamstring autograft is achieved with soft-tissue buttons on both the femur and tibia. We present case examples for 2 patients who underwent the all-inside, all-epiphyseal reconstruction and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol. We present a novel surgical technique for an all-inside, all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. PMID:23767001

  19. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Balazs, George C; Grimm, Patrick D; Donohue, Michael A; Keblish, David J; Rue, John-Paul

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to report the clinical and functional outcomes of revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in a young, active duty military population. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction were enrolled in an institutional clinical database and followed prospectively. The primary outcomes were patients' scores on a timed run, as compared with recorded scores before reinjury. Secondary outcomes included scores on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective (IKDC subjective), the Short Form - 36 health survey (SF-36) version 2, the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and the Tegner activity scale. A total of 13 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria and had complete follow-up. The mean age at revision ACL reconstruction was 20.5 years (range, 19-22 years), and mean follow-up was 40.2 months (range, 13-66 months). All patients underwent a single stage revision ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, ipsilateral hamstring autograft, or bone-tendon-bone allograft. Mean physical readiness test (PRT) score at final follow-up was not statistically different than documented preinjury PRT score (77.9 vs. 85.5, p > 0.05), nor was the mean run time (7:12 vs. 6:43/mile, p > 0.05). Significant improvements exceeding published minimal clinically important differences were seen in SANE score, SF-36 physical component summary score, KOOS sports and recreation, KOOS quality of life, WOMAC pain score, and WOMAC function score. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction at our facility show good recovery of baseline physical performance as measured by the semiannual PRT and timed run test, and significant improvements in patient-reported outcome scores. Level of Evidence Level IV, case series.

  20. Arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with allograft versus autograft

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiujiang; Zhang, Jianfeng; Qu, Xiaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare and analyze retrospectively the outcomes of arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autograft versus allograft. Material and methods Seventy-one patients who underwent arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an autograft or allograft met our inclusion criteria. There were 36 patients in the autograft group and 35 patients in the allograft group. All the patients were evaluated by physical examination and a functional ligament test. Comparative analysis was done in terms of operation time, incision length, fever time, postoperative infection rate, incidence of numbness and dysesthesia around the incision, as well as a routine blood test. Results The average follow-up of the autograft group was 3.2 ±0.2 years and that of the allograft group was 3.3 ±0.6 years; there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). No differences existed in knee range of motion, Lysholm scores, International Knee Documentation Committee standard evaluation form and Tegner activity score at final follow-up (p > 0.05), except that patients in the allograft group had a shorter operation time and incision length and a longer fever time (p < 0.05). We found a difference in posterior drawer test and KT-2000 arthrometer assessment (p < 0.05). The posterior tibia displacement averaged 3.8 ±1.5 mm in the autograft group and 4.8 ±1.7 mm in the allograft group (p < 0.05). The incidence of numbness and dysesthesia around the incision in the autograft group was higher than that in the allograft group (p < 0.05). There was no infection postoperatively. The white blood cells and neutrophils in the allograft group increased more than those in the autograft group postoperatively (p < 0.05). Conclusions Both groups of patients had satisfactory outcomes after the operation. However, in the instrumented posterior laxity test, the autograft gave better results than the allograft. No differences in functional scores

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A practical guide

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Alberto; Bailey, James R; Signorelli, Cecilia; Carbone, Giuseppe; Tchonang Wakam, Andy; Lucidi, Gian Andrea; Zaffagnini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most common orthopedic procedures performed worldwide. In this regard, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a useful pre-operative tool to confirm a disruption of the ACL and to assess for potential associated injuries. However, MRI is also valuable post-operatively, as it is able to identify, in a non-invasive way, a number of aspects and situations that could suggest potential problems to clinicians. Graft signal and integrity, correct tunnel placement, tunnel widening, and problems with fixation devices or the donor site could all compromise the surgical outcomes and potentially predict the failure of the ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, several anatomical features of the knee could be associated to worst outcomes or higher risk of failure. This review provides a practical guide for the clinician to evaluate the post-surgical ACL through MRI, and to analyze all the parameters and features directly or indirectly related to ACL reconstruction, in order to assess for normal or pathologic conditions. PMID:27795945

  2. [Follow-up results of reconstructing the knee joint with ligaments of Lavasan (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mironova, S S

    1978-01-01

    Recommendation of synthetic material for reconstructing the knee joint ligaments. 15 years experience in 262 patients (sportsmen, ballet dancers, circus artistis,. The Lavasan implant was used in isolated as well as in combined injuries of the ligaments. The long-term results (13 years) yielded satisfactory results in 91%.

  3. Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females

    PubMed Central

    Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

  4. Virtual Surgical Planning for Orbital Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Susarla, Srinivas M.; Duncan, Katherine; Mahoney, Nicholas R.; Merbs, Shannath L.; Grant, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computer-assisted technology has revolutionized planning for complex craniofacial operations, including orbital reconstruction. Orbital reconstruction is ideally suited for virtual planning, as it allows the surgeon to assess the bony anatomy and critical neurovascular structures within the orbit, and plan osteotomies, fracture reductions, and orbital implant placement with efficiency and predictability. In this article, we review the use of virtual surgical planning for orbital decompression, posttraumatic midface reconstruction, reconstruction of a two-wall orbital defect, and reconstruction of a large orbital floor defect with a custom implant. The surgeon managing orbital pathology and posttraumatic orbital deformities can benefit immensely from utilizing virtual planning for various types of orbital pathology. PMID:26692714

  5. Extra-articular subcutaneous "inverted king post-truss" ligament reconstruction for severe swan neck deformity (snapping finger).

    PubMed

    de Soras, X; de Mourgues, P; Pradel, P; Urien, J-P; Beaudoin, E

    2017-02-01

    A swan neck deformity (SND) can be well tolerated for a long time, until the appearance of a disabling "snapping finger". In its most advanced condition, the other hand is needed to initiate finger flexion. We propose a technique of extra-articular, subcutaneous ligament reconstruction with an "inverted king post-truss" configuration use in roofs and to reinforce railway bridges. An artificial ligament (MaxBraid™ polyethylene surgical suture, 5 metric, Biomet) makes a figure of eight between transosseous tunnels in the proximal and middle phalanges, crossing over top of the A3 pulley. We limited our series to severe SND cases with "snapping finger". We excluded isolated SNDs without functional disability. Eleven patients were followed for 3.4 years on average. The cause was an acute injury 8 times (7 balloon accidents), rheumatoid arthritis 2 times and overuse once (saxophone). Only one case was a poor outcome of mallet finger. The 11 patients were reassessed by a telephone survey. Two patients underwent reoperation: one for a ligament rupture, the other one for a knot that became untied. One patient had a suspected late rupture but without recurrence of the disabling snapping finger. The 11 patients considered themselves improved by the intervention. Nine patients did not notice any difference between their operated finger and the contralateral side. Return to manual activity was possible once the skin had healed. The technique is simpler than the spiral oblique retinacular ligament (SORL) reconstruction technique described by Thomson-Littler and also less demanding because it does not involve the distal interphalangeal joint. It requires only a short incision in the volar crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint. No tendon or ligament is sacrificed. Neither postoperative immobilization nor lengthy physical therapy is needed. Complications can be avoided by selecting the appropriate artificial ligament material and careful knot tying.

  6. Basket-Weave Technique for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kodkani, Pranjal S.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been well defined, with parts of its uppermost fibers having a soft-tissue insertion onto the vastus intermedius. Bone tunnels and implants on the patellar side therefore cannot replicate this anatomic construct precisely. Because of implants and tunnels, complications have been reported with bone tunnel fracture. Similarly, on the femoral side, rigid fixation with implants can result in over-constraint with compromised results. Moreover, bone tunnels cannot be used in skeletally immature cases. To overcome issues related to bone tunneling and implants, as well as to reconstruct the MPFL in a precise anatomic manner, an all–soft-tissue fixation technique was devised. Bony landmarks were used as reference points instead of radiologic markers to achieve a more precise construct and to eliminate intraoperative radiography. Hamstring graft was used to reconstruct the MPFL. Special suturing techniques were used to achieve optimal graft fixation with minimal suture knots. A special tissue elevator–suture passer device was designed to facilitate graft passage and ease in performing the procedure. This technique permits differential tensioning, and therefore one achieves stability throughout the range of motion. PMID:26258044

  7. Is bone tunnel osseointegration in hamstring tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction important?

    PubMed

    Logan, Martin; Williams, Andy; Myers, Peter

    2003-10-01

    A 27-year-old man underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using 4-strand hamstring autograft with femoral and tibial interference screw fixation. Four weeks after surgery, he developed a discharging hematoma through the graft harvest-tibial tunnel incision, which persisted. The patient required further surgical intervention 7 weeks after the initial surgery. The wound was debrided, the tibial interference screw was removed, and the tibial tunnel was completely cleared of graft remnants. Arthroscopy of the knee was performed, in which the ACL graft appeared healthy and viable. No evidence of intra-articular sepsis was found. Postoperatively, the rehabilitation program was uneventful and, at 36 months, the patient has unrestricted activity and no clinical evidence of excessive ACL laxity. This case supports the importance of marginal articular surface healing of the ACL graft, suggesting that tibial intratunnel healing becomes redundant.

  8. Massage Therapy Protocol for Post–Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zalta, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background: The intent of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy in the rehabilitation of post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patellofemoral pain syndrome. The primary complications following surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament—classified as patellofemoral pain syndrome—are hamstring flexion contracture and quadriceps weakness, leading to patellofemoral dysfunction and retropatellar pain. Methods: Treatment included lymphatic drainage, myofascial release, neuromuscular techniques including trigger point release, muscle energy techniques and cross-fiber friction. Orthopedic physical assessment tests were used to chart changes in patellofemoral function and changes in range of motion in the knee during the course of the massage interventions. Subjective reporting on pain level and function were also documented. Results: A decrease in pain level, hamstring flexion contracture and lateral tracking of the patella were documented. Conclusion: Massage therapy was determined to be an effective complementary therapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589717

  9. Surgical Pearl on Reconstructing Surgical Defects of the Nasal Tip

    PubMed Central

    César, Artur; Barros, Ana; Santos, Paulo; Azevedo, Filomena

    2016-01-01

    Repairing surgical defects of the nasal tip is challenging, mainly because of the lack of freely mobile skin available peripherally. The Peng flap is a one-stage cutaneous flap that circumvents this difficulty by recruiting skin from the nasal dorsum and sidewall regions. The design produces a tridimensional shape perfectly adapted to the configuration of the nasal tip and allows for an inconspicuous closure of the defect. We present three examples of full-thickness skin defects involving the nasal tip, reconstructed using a modified version of the Peng flap, and present the experience at our department with this surgical technique. PMID:27942370

  10. Lateral patellofemoral ligament reconstruction to restore functional capacity in patients previously undergoing lateral retinacular release

    PubMed Central

    Beckert, Mitch; Crebs, Dylan; Nieto, Michael; Gao, Yubo; Albright, John

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study patient outcomes after surgical correction for iatrogenic patellar instability. METHODS This retrospective study looked at 17 patients (19 knees) suffering from disabling medial patellar instability following lateral release surgery. All patients underwent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL) reconstruction by a single surgeon. Assessments in all 19 cases included functional outcome scores, range of motion, and assessment for the presence of apprehension sign of the patella to determine if LPFL reconstruction surgery was successful at restoring patellofemoral stability. RESULTS No patients reported any residual postoperative symptoms of patellar instability. Also no patients demonstrated medial patellar apprehension or examiner induced subluxation with the medial instability test described earlier following LPFL reconstruction. Furthermore, all patients recovered normal range of motion compared to the contralateral limb. For patients with pre and postoperative outcome scores, the mean overall knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score increased significantly, from 34.39 preoperatively (range: 7.7-70.12) to 69.54 postoperatively (range: 26.82-91.46) at final follow-up (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION This novel technique for LPFL reconstruction is effective at restoring lateral restraint of the patellofemoral joint and improving joint functionality. PMID:27574606

  11. Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies. PMID:22098703

  12. Surgical Management and Treatment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament/Posterolateral Corner Injured Knee.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Nicholas I; LaPrade, Christopher M; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    Posterolateral knee injuries occur more commonly than in the past. These injuries most commonly occur concurrent with cruciate ligament tears. The main stabilizers of the posterolateral knee are the fibular collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, and the popliteofibular ligament. These static stabilizers function to prevent increased varus, external rotation, and coupled posterolateral rotation of the knee. The most important clinical tests to diagnose posterolateral knee injuries are the varus stress test, posterolateral drawer, and dial tests. Varus stress radiographs are key objective means to diagnose these injuries. Anatomic- based reconstructions have been validated to restore stability and improve outcomes.

  13. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics. PMID:28105122

  14. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics.

  15. Functional Performance Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Gupta, Anil K.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: When to allow an athlete to return to unrestricted sporting activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. Purpose: To report the results of functional performance testing reported in the literature for individuals at differing time points following ACL reconstruction and to examine differences between graft types. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies that examined any functional rehabilitation test from 6 months to 2 years following ACL reconstruction. All patient-, limb-, and knee-specific demographics were extracted from included investigations. All functional rehabilitation tests were analyzed and compared when applicable. Results: The search term returned a total of 890 potential studies, with 88 meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 4927 patients were included, of which 66% were male. The mean patient age was 26.5 ± 3.4 years. The predominant graft choices for reconstruction were bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autograft (59.8%) and hamstring autograft (37.9%). The most commonly reported functional tests were the hop tests. The results of these functional tests, as reported in the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI), improved with increasing time, with nearly all results greater than 90% at 1 year following primary ACL reconstruction. At 6 months postoperatively, a number of isokinetic strength measurements failed to reach 80% LSI, most commonly isokinetic knee extension testing in both BPTB and hamstring autograft groups. The knee flexion strength deficit was significantly less in the BPTB autograft group as compared with those having hamstring autograft at 1 year postoperatively, while no significant differences were found in isokinetic extension strength between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Hop

  16. Current Concepts for Injury Prevention in Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    factors associated with ligament failure or a secondary (contralateral) injury in athletes who return to sport after ACLR. From these data, they propose an EBM paradigm shift in postoperative rehabilitation and return-to-sport training after ACLR that is focused on the resolution of neuromuscular deficits that commonly persist after surgical reconstruction and standard rehabilitation of athletes. PMID:23041233

  17. Suggestions from the field for return to sports participation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: soccer.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Mario; Hancock, Dave; Impellizzeri, Franco

    2012-04-01

    Successful return to play remains a challenge for a soccer player after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. In addition to a successful surgical intervention, a soccer-specific functional rehabilitation program is essential to achieve this goal. Soccer-like elements should be incorporated in the early stages of rehabilitation to provide neuromuscular training specific to the needs of the player. Gym-based and, later, field-based drills are gradually intensified and progressed until the player demonstrates the ability to return to team practice. In addition to the recovery of basic attributes such as mobility, flexibility, strength, and agility, the surgically repaired knee must also regain soccer-specific neuromuscular control and conditioning for an effective return to sports. The individual coaching of the player by the sports physiotherapist and compliance with the training program by the player are key factors in the rehabilitation process. To minimize reinjury risk and to maximize the player's career, concepts of soccer-specific injury prevention programs should be incorporated into the training routine during and after the rehabilitation of players post-ACL reconstruction.

  18. Pre-tibial synovial cyst after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: case report.

    PubMed

    Bulisani, Luís Eduardo Pedigoni; Bulisani, Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament has been modernized through new surgical techniques and new materials. When tibial fixation is performed using an absorbable screw, complications may occur, such as formation of a pre-tibial cyst. The case described here is about a patient who presented an anteromedial synovial cyst in his right knee, three years after having undergone ACL reconstruction. The patient did not present any pain nor any complaints other than a mass that progressively increased in size, worsened after physical activities. Imaging examinations were requested: simple radiography of the knee and magnetic resonance. Anteromedial imaging of the knee showed a mass with well-delimited borders and internal fluid content, suggestive of a synovial cyst, with communication with the joint cavity through the tibial tunnel, without presenting enlargement or absorption of the bone tunnel. The cyst was surgically resected and the tibial tunnel occlusion was performed using a bone plug. The diagnosis of a synovial cyst was subsequently confirmed through the results from the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of the symptoms and a return to physical activities.

  19. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  20. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  1. Segmental Subtotal Corpectomy and Reconstruction With Titanium Cage and Anterior Plate for Multilevel Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Hu, Naiwu; Chen, Limin; Wu, Yin; Wang, Yang; Liu, Libing; Zhao, Chengbin

    2016-11-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcomes of segmental subtotal corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and anterior plate fixation for multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The study included 34 patients with multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament who underwent segmental subtotal corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and anterior plate fixation from June 2005 to May 2011. Clinical and radiologic data were obtained. Neurologic function was evaluated by Japanese Orthopedic Association scores before and after surgery. No death, paralysis, or other surgically associated injuries occurred. After surgery, the bone graft fusion was firm, with no cases of lack of postoperative bone fusion, broken or loose titanium plate and screws, dislodged titanium cage, or injury to the vertebral artery, nerve root, or spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 2 cases. Japanese Orthopedic Association scores improved from 6.74±1.82 preoperatively to 11.33±3.5 postoperatively (P<.05). Neurologic outcomes were excellent or good in 84.21% of patients at follow-up of 1 to 6 years. No postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred. Reasonable and skilled operation of the pneumatic drill is the key to successful surgery. Anterior corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and plate fixation and drilling applications can directly remove the hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and relieve spinal cord compression. This technique retained the integrity of the vertebrae, increasing the possibility of bone graft healing. Segmental subtotal corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and anterior plate fixation can be used for the treatment of multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1140-e1146.].

  2. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p < 0.02) and used less narcotic use (average 1.7 tablets, p < 0.02) for the first 36 hours compared with group 1. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups with regard to demographics, hours of postoperative cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction.

  3. Gait Asymmetries Persist 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    White, Kathleen; Logerstedt, David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), motivation to return to previous levels of activity is high. Very few studies have used return-to-activity criteria to determine when to permit athletic play. Return-to-activity measures objectively evaluate functional limb symmetry; however, previous biomechanical studies have found gait deviations in these individuals that persist up to 2 years after surgery. Purpose: To evaluate gait biomechanics in a specific cohort of ACL patients 1 year after surgery and retrospectively compare individuals who pass return-to-activity criteria 6 months after surgery with those who fail. Study Design: Prospective analysis. Methods: A total of 40 athletes who participated regularly (>50 h/y) in cutting, jumping, and pivoting activities and who sustained an isolated, unilateral ACL rupture were included in this study. All participants underwent reconstruction by the same surgeon and received individualized postoperative rehabilitation. Performance-based and self-report data were measured 6 months after surgery to assess readiness to return to activity (90% outcome required to pass); 20 subjects passed return-to-activity criteria and 20 subjects did not. Motion analysis was performed 1 year after surgery, and knee flexion angles, moments, and excursions were measured during gait and evaluated for all subjects. Results: There was no limb × group interaction or effect of group for all measures. Decreased knee measures were seen on the involved limb compared with the uninvolved limb for all subjects, and failed subjects demonstrated larger differences between limbs. Conclusion: Patients continued to demonstrate biomechanical limb asymmetries 1 year after ACLR, regardless of performance-based measures at 6 months. Early return to activity did not ensure limb symmetry at 1 year. Clinical Relevance: Gait asymmetries were seen in all subjects 1 year after surgery regardless of status at 6 months. Potentially prolonging

  4. The Effects of Rehabilitation Protocol on Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dragicevic-Cvjetkovic, Dragana; Jandric, Slavica; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Manojlovic, Slavko; Talic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of rehabilitation protocol which corresponds to surgical technique results in optimal postoperative outcome and functional recovery of patients to a pre-injury level of activity. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of the official rehabilitation protocol in our Institute on functional recovery of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 70 males after ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Patients were divided into two groups according to the manner of conducting the postoperative rehabilitation. Group A consisted of 35 patients that followed postoperative rehabilitation according to the rehabilitation protocol. Group B also 35 patients, which did not undergo the rehabilitation protocol. We evaluated thigh muscle circumference and modified Tegner Lysholm Score, preoperatively and postoperatively after 1,3,6 and 12 months. In the statistical analysis, the Studentov T-test was used. Results: In the first postoperative month, the difference between groups in thigh muscle circumference is statistically significant (p<0,05). This difference between groups is statistically highly significant after 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative (p<0,01). Results of the modified Tegner Lysholm Score is statistically highly significant in 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months in patients from the experimental group (p<0,01). Conclusion: The positive effects of the rehabilitation protocol results in significant increase of the thigh muscle circumference and faster functional recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25568570

  5. Suggestions from the field for return to sports participation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: basketball.

    PubMed

    Waters, Eric

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the final, functional phases of rehabilitation that address exercises, drills, and return-to-play criteria for the sport of basketball, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. ACL injuries can be debilitating and affect the quality of life for recreational and elite athletes alike. Tears of the ACL are common in both male and female basketball players, with a higher incidence rate in females. Incidence of a retear to the existing graft or contralateral knee within 5 years of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft in young (less than 18 to 25 years of age), active basketball players can be as high as 52%. Reducing the number of ACL injuries or reinjury, of which there are an estimated 80 000 per year at an associated cost of over a billion dollars, can have significant potential long-term fiscal and health benefits. Following surgical reconstruction of the ACL, implementing a tailored rehabilitation protocol can ensure a successful return to sport. When searching the literature for such protocols, clinicians may struggle to find specific exercises, drills, and return-to-play criteria for particular sports. The intent of this manuscript is to present such a rehabilitation protocol for basketball.

  6. COMPLICATIONS OF THE SCREW/WASHER TIBIAL FIXATION TECHNIQUE FOR KNEE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Roveda, Gilberto; Valin, Márcio Rangel; Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto de; Sartor, Vanderlei; Alves, Soraya Melina

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of pain at the site of the surgical incision and the need to remove the tibial fixation screw in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, in relation to sex and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A group of 265 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral flexor tendon grafts from the thigh in which the tibial fixation technique consisted of using a cortical screw and metal washer, between July 2000 and November 2007, were evaluated. Results: 176 patients were evaluated for an average of 33.3 ± 19.5 months; median of 29.5 months; IIQ: 17-45 months; minimum of 8 and maximum of 87 months. There was no statistical difference regarding complaints of pain at the site of the screw (p = 0.272) and the need to remove the tibial screw (p = 0.633) between sexes. There was no statistical difference regarding complaints of pain at the site of the screw (p = 0.08) and the need to remove the tibial screw (p = 0.379) according to BMI. Conclusion: The pain complaint rate at the screw site from the screw and metal washer method used for tibial fixation in ACL reconstruction was of the order of 25%, and the screw had to be removed in 10.8% of the cases. There was no predominance of pain complaints at the surgical wound between the sexes. There was a greater tendency to complain about pain among patients with BMI < 25. There was no predominance of screw and washer removal between the sexes or between individuals with different BMIs. PMID:27022587

  7. Reconstructive methods in hearing disorders - surgical methods

    PubMed Central

    Zahnert, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Restoration of hearing is associated in many cases with resocialisation of those affected and therefore occupies an important place in a society where communication is becoming ever faster. Not all problems can be solved surgically. Even 50 years after the introduction of tympanoplasty, the hearing results are unsatisfactory and often do not reach the threshold for social hearing. The cause of this can in most cases be regarded as incomplete restoration of the mucosal function of the middle ear and tube, which leads to ventilation disorders of the ear and does not allow real vibration of the reconstructed middle ear. However, a few are also caused by the biomechanics of the reconstructed ossicular chain. There has been progress in reconstructive middle ear surgery, which applies particularly to the development of implants. Implants made of titanium, which are distinguished by outstanding biocompatibility, delicate design and by biomechanical possibilities in the reconstruction of chain function, can be regarded as a new generation. Metal implants for the first time allow a controlled close fit with the remainder of the chain and integration of micromechanical functions in the implant. Moreover, there has also been progress in microsurgery itself. This applies particularly to the operative procedures for auditory canal atresia, the restoration of the tympanic membrane and the coupling of implants. This paper gives a summary of the current state of reconstructive microsurgery paying attention to the acousto-mechanical rules. PMID:22073050

  8. Effects of postoperative immobilization on the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament. An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Muneta, T; Yamamoto, H; Takakuda, K; Sakai, H; Furuya, K

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of postoperative immobilization and limited motion on reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments, 28 rabbits received an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autogenous Achilles tendon and were then divided into three groups: fully immobilized, 4 weeks immobilized, and limited motion. Two rabbits from each group were evaluated macroscopically, histologically and microangiographically at 4-week intervals until 12 weeks postoperatively. An additional six rabbits in the 4 weeks immobilized and limited motion groups were studied biomechanically at 12 weeks postoperatively. Macroscopically, both immobilized groups showed more proliferation of the infrapatellar fat pad, which was adherent to the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament. Histology revealed more rapid regeneration of reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments in the limited motion group, with no findings of necrosis in the mid-substance. Microangiography indicated faster normalization of vascularity in the limited motion group. The biomechanical study showed no significant difference in laxity between the 4 weeks immobilized and limited motion groups. The graft stiffness and maximum load to failure were greater for the limited motion group, although the increase was not statistically significant. The histologic and microangiographic results from the limited number of animals in this study support limited postoperative motion in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee. However, there were no differences in terms of the biomechanical parameters at 12 weeks postoperatively between the immobilized and limited motion treatment modes.

  9. Biomechanics of a less invasive procedure for reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, K S; Tjin-A-Tsoi, E W; Zvijac, J E; Uribe, J W; Latta, L L

    1998-01-01

    A reconstruction of the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow using bone anchors was compared regarding strain and valgus load strength with the intact ulnar collateral ligament and the reconstructed ulnar collateral ligament using bone tunnels. In both normal and reconstructed elbows, the anterior band and posterior band were tight during only a portion of the range of motion. Toward extension, the mean peak strain in the anterior band was tight for the normal and bone anchor groups, but lax in the bone tunnel group. Toward extension, the mean peak strain in the posterior band was lax in all elbows. Toward flexion, the strain in the anterior band was lax in the normal and bone anchor groups, but tight in the bone tunnel group. The mean of the peak strains for the posterior band toward flexion was tight for all elbows. Mean valgus load strength of normal elbows was 22.7 +/- 9.0 N.m. The bone tunnel and bone anchor mean strengths were 76.3% and 63.5%, respectively, of normal elbow strength. We concluded that the bone anchor reproduced the normal anatomy and mechanical function of the ulnar collateral ligament more closely than the bone tunnel, and that both reconstruction methods were significantly weaker than the normal ulnar collateral ligament. However, we found no significant difference in reconstruction strength between bone anchor and bone tunnel.

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, rehabilitation, and return to play: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John; Mattocks, Alma; Kibbe, Shane; Kalloub, Alaa; Greene, Joe W; Caborn, David N M

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical discoveries and a growing appreciation of the knee as a complex organ are driving innovations in patient care decision-making following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Surgeons are increasing their efforts to restore combined mechanical-neurosensory ACL function and placing more consideration on when to reconstruct versus repair native anatomical structures. Surgical options now include primary repair with or without reinforcing the injured ACL with suture-based internal bracing, and growing evidence supports biological augmentation using platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells to enhance tissue healing. Physical therapists and athletic trainers are increasing their efforts to facilitate greater athlete cognitive engagement during therapeutic exercise performance to better restore nonimpaired neuromuscular control activation amplitude and timing. Knee brace design and use needs to evolve to better match these innovations and their influence on the rehabilitation plan timetable. There is a growing appreciation for the multifaceted characteristics of the rehabilitation process and how they influence neuromuscular, educational, and psychobehavioral treatment goal achievement. Multiple sources may influence the athlete during the return to sports process and clinical outcome measures need to be refined to better evaluate these influences. This update summarizes contemporary ACL surgical, medical, and rehabilitation interventions and future trends. PMID:26955296

  11. The use of standard operating procedures in day case anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Khan, T; Jackson, W F; Beard, D J; Marfin, A; Ahmad, M; Spacie, R; Jones, R; Howes, S; Barker, K; Price, A J

    2012-08-01

    The current rate of day-case anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the UK remains low. Although specialised care pathways with standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been effective in reducing length of stay following some surgical procedures, this has not been previously reported for ACLR. We evaluate the effectiveness of SOPs for establishing day-case ACLR in a specialist unit. Fifty patients undergoing ACLR between May and September 2010 were studied prospectively ("study group"). SOPs were designed for pre-operative assessment, anaesthesia, surgical procedure, mobilisation and discharge. We evaluated length of stay, readmission rates, patient satisfaction and compliance to SOPs. A retrospective analysis of 50 patients who underwent ACLR prior to implementation of the day-case pathway was performed ("standard practice group"). Eighty percent of patients in the study group were discharged on the day of surgery (mean length of stay=5.3h) compared to 16% in the standard practice group (mean length of stay=21.6h). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). All patients were satisfied with the day case pathway. Ninety-two percent of the study group were discharged on the day of surgery when all SOPs were followed and 46% where they were not. High rates of day-case ACLR with excellent patient satisfaction can be achieved with the use of a specialised patient pathway with SOPs.

  12. Treatment of the ulnar nerve for overhead throwing athletes undergoing ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Matthew S; Camp, Christopher L; Elattrache, Neal S; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Ulnar nerve (UN) injuries are a common complaint amongst overhead athletes. The UN is strained during periods of extreme valgus stress at the elbow, especially in the late-cocking and early acceleration phases of throwing. Although early ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction techniques frequently included routine submuscular UN transposition, this is becoming less common with more modern techniques. We review the recent literature on the sites of UN compression, techniques to evaluate the UN nerve, and treatment of UN pathology in the overhead athlete. We also discuss our preferred techniques for selective decompression and anterior transposition of the UN when indicated. More recent studies support the use of UN transpositions only when there are specific preoperative symptoms. Athletes with isolated ulnar neuropathy are increasingly being treated with subcutaneous anterior transposition of the nerve rather than submuscular transposition. When ulnar neuropathy occurs with UCL insufficiency, adoption of the muscle-splitting approach for UCL reconstructions, as well as using a subcutaneous UN transposition have led to fewer postoperative complications and improved outcomes. Prudent handling of the UN in addition to appropriate surgical technique can lead to a high percentage of athletes who return to competitive sports following surgery for ulnar neuropathy. PMID:27795946

  13. Surgical retrieval, isolation and in vitro expansion of human anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashim; Sharif, Kevin; Walters, Megan; Woods, Mia D; Potty, Anish; Main, Benjamin J; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2014-04-30

    Injury to the ACL is a commonly encountered problem in active individuals. Even partial tears of this intra-articular knee ligament lead to biomechanical deficiencies that impair function and stability. Current options for the treatment of partial ACL tears range from nonoperative, conservative management to multiple surgical options, such as: thermal modification, single-bundle repair, complete reconstruction, and reconstruction of the damaged portion of the native ligament. Few studies, if any, have demonstrated any single method for management to be consistently superior, and in many cases patients continue to demonstrate persistent instability and other comorbidities. The goal of this study is to identify a potential cell source for utilization in the development of a tissue engineered patch that could be implemented in the repair of a partially torn ACL. A novel protocol was developed for the expansion of cells derived from patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. To isolate the cells, minced hACL tissue obtained during ACL reconstruction was digested in a Collagenase solution. Expansion was performed using DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (P/S). The cells were then stored at -80 ºC or in liquid nitrogen in a freezing medium consisting of DMSO, FBS and the expansion medium. After thawing, the hACL derived cells were then seeded onto a tissue engineered scaffold, PLAGA (Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) and control Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). After 7 days, SEM was performed to compare cellular adhesion to the PLAGA versus the control TCPS. Cellular morphology was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) micrographs demonstrated that cells grew and adhered on both PLAGA and TCPS surfaces and were confluent over the entire surfaces by day 7. Immunofluorescence staining showed normal, non-stressed morphological patterns on both surfaces. This technique is

  14. Returning to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in amateur sports men: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Barletta, Federico; Ascatigno, Leonardo; Astuto, Leopoldo; Panella, Antonio; Tafuri, Silvio; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background According to the literature, 95% of professional athletes return to their sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. The main objective of this study was to verify the return to sport after ACL reconstruction in a homogenous group of amateur sportsmen and sportswomen in a series of Italian patients. Materials and methods We designed a retrospective study in which we analyzed the amateur sports patients operated for ACL reconstruction. We verified whether they had returned to sporting activities by comparing the pre- and post-operative Tegner activity scores. We then analyzed the average time to restart the sporting activity and the Lysholm and International Knee Documenting Committee (IKDC) scores. Results We analyzed 80 subjects: 47.5% restarted a sports activity, on average after eight months, with a significant reduction of their competitive level or physical commitment, as expressed by the Tegner activity score (pre-operative: 6.9; post-operative: 3.9; p<0.01). The functional knee recovery was good, as expressed by the average score of the Lyshom Knee Scoring Scale (93.5) and the IKDC (74.7). Conclusions In the literature, a return to sport for international case studies and amateur sports is higher than our data. In our population we found the lack of information provided by the medical staff at discharge and follow-up. The assessment at a short-term follow up allowed us to verify that at the end of the post-surgical rehabilitation program the patients were uninformed about the timing and the ability to resume a sporting activity. An efficacious relationship between orthopedic doctor, physiotherapist and a doctor in motorial science may ensure proper treatment the patient after ACL reconstruction. It is important to guarantee the restarting of the sports activity to have a better quality of life in amateur sports. Level of evidence: V. PMID:28217571

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction tunnel size: causes of tunnel enlargement and implications for single versus two-stage revision reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rizer, Magda; Foremny, Gregory Brian; Rush, Augustus; Singer, Adam D; Baraga, Michael; Kaplan, Lee D; Jose, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions have increased over the past 25 years. The increased incidence of ACL reconstructions has translated into a larger number of graft failures and revision ACL procedures. It is important to understand the causes of graft failure when evaluating for a revision ACL reconstruction and to appreciate changes in tunnel anatomy over time prior to planning revision surgery. In this manuscript, tunnel size for ACL reconstruction and implications for single-stage versus two-stage revision ACL reconstruction will be discussed, as well as causes of tunnel enlargement, including mechanical and biological factors.

  16. RISKS AND CONSEQUENCES OF USING THE TRANSPORTAL TECHNIQUE IN RECONSTRUCTING THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE FEMORAL TUNNEL, LATERAL SUPERIOR GENICULAR ARTERY AND LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE FEMORAL CONDYLE

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego Costa; Aleluia, Vinicius; Santos, Ciro Veronese; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Badra, Ricardo; Oliveira, Saulo Gomes; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Define a security zone to avoid possibles vascular and ligamentar complications during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Methods: Arthroscopic reconstruction using the transtibial and transportal technique in cadaver knees was performed followed by dissection and measurement of the distance between the femoral tunnel and the proximal attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the femoral tunnel and the lateral superior genicular artery. Results: The measure of the analysed distances show us an aproximation between the major branch of the lateral superior genicular artery and the femoral insertion of the colateral lateral ligament and the femoral tunnel during the transportal technique. Conclusion: We realize that the use of technical ship it to arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has a higher probability of injury to the lateral geniculate artery and insertion of the lateral collateral ligament, promoting post-surgical complications such as instability of the knee, osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle and ligamentização graft. PMID:27047873

  17. Scapholunate interosseus ligament reconstruction on a cadaver: A technique

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Prat, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute rupture of the scapholunate interosseus ligament is a relatively frequent occurrence which can be repaired primarily by direct suturing. However, patients are often seen a few weeks after injury when most of the ligament fibers have degenerated. This poses a challenge because direct repair can be difficult and long term results have not been satisfying. In the present study, a technique is presented to address this problem and its possible advantages are discussed. Materials and Methods: A fresh frozen wrist cadaver specimen, thawed to room temperature, was used to carry out the procedure. The scapholunate joint was exposed through a dorsal approach and stabilized using two percutaneous Kirschner wires. Using a U shaped chisel, a groove along the scapholunate articular margin was created to accommodate a strip from the extensor retinaculum as a ligament plasty. This has been secured using six anchor sutures and several pictures taken during the procedure to expose the key steps. Results: The ligamentoplasty presented in this article preserves most of the articular surface of proximal carpus and at the same time stabilizes the scapholunate joint. However, more in vivo research should be carried out to validate this treatment. Conclusion: The technique suggests a possible way to repair a ruptured scapholunate interosseus ligament that cannot be repaired primarily. Because osteointegration of the ligament strips is not possible in the present experiment, biomechanics of the construct cannot be fully tested. PMID:25298562

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Skeletally Immature

    PubMed Central

    Kercher, Jim; Xerogeanes, John; Tannenbaum, Allen; Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Black, James C.; Zhao, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has proven to be a reliable method to restore knee stability. However, the risk of physeal arrest with transphyseal tunnel placement in skeletally immature patients has raised concern regarding this technique. Conservative nonoperative management also has its limitations resulting in meniscal and chondral damage that may lead to degenerative joint disease and poor return to sport. Researchers have used animal models to study the threshold of physeal damage producing growth deformity. The purpose of this study was to examine the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes and determine the damage produced by drilling transphyseal tunnels. In addition, we attempted to find a reproducible angle at which to drill the tibial tunnel for safe interference screw placement. To do this, we used a custom software module. Methods A custom software package designed by our team was used: Module for Adolescent ACL Reconstructive Surgery (MAARS). This module created a 3-dimensional model of the distal femur and proximal tibia. The data required for MAARS were sagittal and coronal T1 magnetic resonance imagings of at least 1.5T. Thirty-one knee magnetic resonance imaging studies from patients aged 10 to 15 years old were used. The physes were segmented out to obtain volumetric measurements. Transphyseal tunnels were simulated based on the anatomic trajectory of the native ACL. The module calculated volume of physis was removed with the use of an 8-mm tunnel and the optimum angle for trajectory. Results Average volume of the tibial and femoral physis was 12,683.1 μL and 14,708.3 μL, respectively. The volume increased linearly with age. Average volume removed from the tibial and femoral physis was 318.4 μL and 306.29 μL, respectively. This represented 2.4% of the distal femoral physis and 2.5% of the proximal tibial physis. The volume percent removed decreased linearly with age. Manipulation of the variables

  19. Accuracy and Learning Curve of Femoral Tunnel Placement in Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Laurie Anne; Kerslake, Sarah; O'Brien, Catherine L; Lafave, Mark R

    2017-02-13

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of femoral tunnel placement in a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFL-R) cohort. The secondary purpose was to establish the evidence of a learning curve to achieve acceptable femoral tunnel placement during MPFL-R. Two surgeons, using lateral radiographs, assessed 73 subjects post-MPFL-R. Femoral tunnel accuracy and direction of tunnel error were measured in relation to Schöttle's point (A-T distance). Interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 2,k) of these measures was calculated. Learning curve of accurate femoral tunnel placement was examined by dividing the patient cohort into quartiles. A one-way analysis of variance was used to assess the quartiles for accuracy of femoral tunnel position and surgical time. In relation to Schöttle's point, 66/73 (90.4%) femoral tunnels were categorized as being in a "good" or "excellent" position and 7/73 (9.6%) were categorized as being in a "poor" position. Evidence of an MPFL-R learning curve was established via a statistically significant difference in the mean A to T distance for the four quartiles (F [3, 69] = 6.41, p = 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference in the surgical time for the four quartiles (F [3, 69] = 8.71, p = 0.001). In this series, accurate femoral tunnels were placed more than 90% of the time during MPFL-R. A clear learning curve for accurate femoral tunnel placement was demonstrated both with respect to distance of the tunnel from Schöttle point and with regard to surgical time. Level of evidence was IV.

  20. Arthroscopic-Assisted Management of Unstable Distal-Third Clavicle Fractures: Conoid Ligament Reconstruction and Fracture Cerclage With Sutures

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Reiriz, Juan Sarasquete

    2015-01-01

    Surgical treatment is usually indicated for the management of Neer type IIB fractures of the distal third of the clavicle. These unstable injuries have shown a rate of nonunion that oscillates around 30% to 45% when managed conservatively, and surgical strategies often require a second operation for implant removal. We describe an arthroscopic-assisted technique for the treatment of Neer type IIB unstable distal-third clavicle fractures that overcomes the issues related to open surgery, metal hardware, and implant irritation. This technique increases the load to failure of the construct by means of adding a synthetic conoid ligament reconstruction with a nonrigid suspension device, and it allows the diagnosis and treatment of associated glenohumeral injuries. Our technique incorporates a fracture interfragmentary fixation with sutures, thus avoiding a second operation for implant removal. PMID:26870642

  1. The Impact of the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) Research on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Orthopaedic Practice.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T Sean; Parker, Richard D; Patel, Ronak M; Andrish, Jack T; Spindler, Kurt P; Amendola, Annunziata; Brophy, Robert H; Dunn, Warren R; Flanigan, David C; Huston, Laura J; Jones, Morgan H; Kaeding, Christopher C; Marx, Robert G; Matava, Matthew J; McCarty, Eric C; Pedroza, Angela D; Reinke, Emily K; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W

    2015-03-01

    With an estimated 200,000 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions performed annually in the United States, there is an emphasis on determining patient-specific information to help educate patients on expected clinically relevant outcomes. The Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network consortium was created in 2002 to enroll and longitudinally follow a large population cohort of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. The study group has enrolled >4,400 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions from seven institutions to establish the large level I prospective anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction outcomes cohort. The group has become more than a database with information regarding anterior cruciate ligament injuries; it has helped to establish a new benchmark for conducting multicenter, multisurgeon orthopaedic research. The changes in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction practice resulting from the group include the use of autograft for high school, college, and competitive athletes in their primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Other modifications include treatment options for meniscus and cartilage injuries, as well as lifestyle choices made after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  2. Osborne’s Ligament: A Review of its History, Anatomy, and Surgical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Andre; Iwanaga, Joe; Wilson, Thomas J; Yang, Lynda; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    When discussing the pathophysiology of ulnar neuropathy, Geoffrey Vaughan Osborne described a fibrous band that can be responsible for the symptoms seen in this disorder. In this paper, we take a glimpse at the life of Osborne and review the anatomy and surgical significance of Osborne’s ligament. This band of tissue connects the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris and thus forms the roof of the cubital tunnel. To our knowledge, no prior publication has reviewed the history of this ligament, and very few authors have studied its anatomy in any detail. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to elucidate this structure that is often implicated and surgically transected to decompress the ulnar nerve at the elbow.

  3. Annular Ligament Reconstruction With Triceps Autograft for Chronic Radial Head Instability.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Patrick G; Wagner, Timothy; Styron, Joseph; Maschke, Steven; Evans, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    We present a modification and revisit of the Bell Tawse technique for annular ligament reconstruction with triceps autograft for chronic radial head instability. In patients with instability stemming from an incompetent annular ligament, this technique has proved successful to restore stability to the proximal radial capitellar joint as an augment after ensuring normal boney anatomy. Through a lateral Kocher approach, an approximately 10 cm × 4 mm strip of lateral triceps tendon is harvested as a free graft for the reconstruction. Following passing of the triceps autograft around the radial neck, it is sutured to a mini-Mitek suture anchor and is placed into a decorticated portion of the proximal ulna to recreate the annular ligament. Finally, we present 2 case illustrations where this technique was successfully used for chronic radial head instability.

  4. Arthroscopically Assisted Acromioclavicular and Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction for Chronic Acromioclavicular Joint Instability.

    PubMed

    Martetschläger, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Habermeyer, Peter; Hawi, Nael

    2016-12-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common injuries, especially in the young and active, male population. AC joint injuries account for 12% of all injuries of the shoulder girdle in the overall population. Although conservative treatment is recommended for Rockwood type I and type II injuries, there is controversial debate about optimal treatment for type III injuries. High-grade injuries are typically treated operatively to avoid painful sequelae. A vast number of different surgical methods have been described over the past few decades. Recent advances in arthroscopic surgery have enabled the shoulder surgeon to treat acute and chronic AC lesions arthroscopically assisted. Clinical studies have already shown good and reliable results. Although surgeons agree that a biological augmentation is required to minimize the risk of recurrent instability in chronic cases, a gold standard still needs to be defined. We present an arthroscopically assisted biological augmentation technique to reconstruct the AC and coracoclavicular ligaments, protected by a button-suture tape construct for chronic AC joint instability. The presented arthroscopic biological augmentation technique uses less and/or smaller drill holes in the clavicle and coracoid than previously described, thus reducing weakening of the bony structures. At the same time it enhances both horizontal and vertical stability.

  5. Pain and negative mood during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a daily process analysis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, B W; Cornelius, A E; Sklar, J H; Van Raalte, J L; Tennen, H; Armeli, S; Corsetti, J R; Brickner, J C

    2007-10-01

    Daily diary methods were used to examine changes in pain and negative mood over the first 6 weeks of rehabilitation after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Participants (58 men and 33 women) completed measures of personal factors (i.e., age, athletic identity, neuroticism, optimism) before surgery and indices of daily pain, negative mood, and stress for 42 days after surgery. Multilevel modeling revealed that, as would be expected, daily pain ratings decreased significantly over the course of the study and that the rate of decline in pain ratings decreased over time. Age and daily negative mood were positively associated with daily pain ratings. Daily negative mood also decreased significantly over the course of the study and was positively associated with neuroticism, daily pain, and daily stress. Athletic identity and optimism interacted with time since surgery in predicting daily negative mood such that participants with high levels of athletic identity and low levels of optimism reported greater decreases in daily negative mood over time. Overall, the findings reveal a pattern of improved psychological functioning over the early stages of post-operative ACL rehabilitation.

  6. Neural Excitability Alterations After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Lepley, Adam S.; Ericksen, Hayley M.; Clements, Amy; Sohn, David H.; Gribble, Phillip A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Neuromuscular dysfunction is common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). However, little is known about quadriceps spinal-reflex and descending corticomotor excitability after ACL-R. Understanding the effects of ACL-R on spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability will help elucidate the origins of neuromuscular dysfunction. Objective To determine whether spinal-reflex excitability and corticomotor excitability differed between the injured and uninjured limbs of patients with unilateral ACL-R and between these limbs and the matched limbs of healthy participants. Design Case-control study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 28 patients with unilateral ACL-R (9 men, 19 women; age = 21.28 ± 3.79 years, height = 170.95 ± 10.04 cm, mass = 73.18 ± 18.02 kg, time after surgery = 48.10 ± 36.17 months) and 29 participants serving as healthy controls (9 men, 20 women; age = 21.55 ± 2.70 years, height = 170.59 ± 8.93 cm, mass = 71.89 ± 12.70 kg) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s) Active motor thresholds (AMTs) were collected from the vastus medialis (VM) using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We evaluated VM spinal reflexes using the Hoffmann reflex normalized to maximal muscle responses (H : M ratio). Voluntary quadriceps activation was measured with the superimposed-burst technique and calculated using the central activation ratio (CAR). We also evaluated whether ACL-R patients with high or low voluntary activation had different outcomes. Results The AMT was higher in the injured than in the uninjured limb in the ACL-R group (t27 = 3.32, P = .003) and in the matched limb of the control group (t55 = 2.05, P = .04). The H : M ratio was bilaterally higher in the ACL-R than the control group (F1,55 = 5.17, P = .03). The quadriceps CAR was bilaterally lower in the ACL-R compared with the control group (F1,55 = 10.5, P = .002). The ACL-R group with low voluntary activation (CAR < 0.95) had higher AMT than

  7. Posterior tibial subluxation and short-term arthritis resulting from failed posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mavrodontidis, Alexandros N; Papadonikolakis, Anastasios; Moebius, Ulf G; Gelalis, Ioannis; Motsis, Efstathios; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2003-01-01

    Posterior tibial subluxations because of combined or isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries require detailed evaluation. PCL reconstructions are difficult procedures because of the low rate of such injuries and the complex anatomy of the ligament. We report on 2 cases of failed PCL reconstruction because of malpositioned femoral tunnels. These 2 cases support the existing biomechanical evidence that the correct placement of the tunnels, especially in the femur, is a major factor in defining the outcome. It seems that the drilling of the tunnels, especially in the femur, during PCL reconstruction must be performed with accuracy and always be evaluated in cases of graft failure. In addition, failed PCL reconstructions are usually accompanied by a short-term excessive arthritis that results in poor functional outcome.

  8. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  9. Tendon Interposition and Ligament Reconstruction with ECRL Tendon in the Late Stages of Kienböck's Disease: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Karalezli, Nazım; Uz, Aysun; Esmer, Ali Fırat; Demirtaş, Mehmet; Taşcı, Arzu Gül; Kütahya, Harun; Ulusoy, Gürhan

    2013-01-01

    Background. The optimal surgical treatment for Kienböck's disease with stages IIIB and IV remains controversial. A cadaver study was carried out to evaluate the use of coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon for tendon interposition and a strip obtained from the same tendon for ligament reconstruction in the late stages of Kienböck's disease. Methods. Coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon was used to fill the cavity of the excised lunate, and a strip obtained from this tendon was sutured onto itself after passing through the scaphoid and the triquetrum acting as a ligament to preserve proximal row integrity. Biomechanical tests were carried out in order to evaluate this new ligamentous reconstruction. Results. It was biomechanically confirmed that the procedure was effective against axial compression and distributed the upcoming mechanical stress to the distal row. Conclusion. Extensor carpi radialis longus tendon has not been used for tendon interposition and ligament reconstruction in the treatment of this disease before. In view of the biomechanical data, the procedure seems to be effective for the stabilization of scaphoid and carpal bones. PMID:23606814

  10. Biomechanical Outcomes After Bio-enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Are Equal in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Fleming, Braden C.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical outcomes of a new method of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) treatment, bio-enhanced ACL repair, with ACL reconstruction in a large animal model. Methods Twenty-four skeletally immature pigs underwent unilateral ACL transection and were randomly allocated to receive bio-enhanced ACL repair with a collagen-platelet composite, allograft (bone–patellar tendon– bone) reconstruction, or no further treatment (n = 8 for each group). The structural properties and anteroposterior laxity of the experimental and contralateral ACL-intact knees were measured 15 weeks postoperatively. All dependent variables were normalized to those of the contralateral knee and compared by use of generalized linear mixed models. Results After 15 weeks, bio-enhanced ACL repair and ACL reconstruction produced superior biomechanical outcomes to ACL transection. However, there were no significant differences between bio-enhanced ACL repair and ACL reconstruction for maximum load (P = .4745), maximum displacement (P = .4217), or linear stiffness (P = .6327). There were no significant differences between the 2 surgical techniques in anteroposterior laxity at 30° (P = .7947), 60° (P = .6270), or 90° (P = .9008). Conclusions Bio-enhanced ACL repair produced biomechanical results that were not different from ACL reconstruction in a skeletally immature, large animal model, although the variability associated with both procedures was large. Both procedures produced significantly improved results over ACL transection, showing that both were effective in this model. Clinical Relevance Bio-enhanced ACL repair may 1 day provide an alternative treatment option for ACL injury. PMID:22261137

  11. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING FLEXOR TENDONS AND RIGID GUIDE TRANSVERSE SCREW

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Renato Luiz Bevilacqua; Acras, Sandor Dosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the results of ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction using quadruple flexor tendons as grafts, with ligament fixation in the femur using a rigid guide transverse screw and in the tibia, using a cancellous screw with a fixing washer. Methods: 173 knees (166 from males and seven from females) that had undergone surgery with ACL reconstruction using this technique between December 2002 and February 2007 were evaluated. The mean age was 30 years (from 13 to 56 years), and the mean follow-up time was 30 months (6-55 months). We divided the knees into three groups, which were assessed using the Lysholm scale: Group A with six months of follow-up; Group B with 12 months of follow-up; and Group C with 24 months of follow-up. Results: We evaluated the results, and groups A, B and C received 94, 95 and 95 points respectively on the Lysholm scale. Conclusions: The surgical technique proved to be safe and easy to perform, with good results and a low complication rate. Also, its results were maintained throughout the study period of 24 months. PMID:27027002

  12. Strength and Functional Performance Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Preadolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Elliot M.; Greenberg, Eric T.; Ganley, Theodore J.; Lawrence, J. Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the skeletally immature population, the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and ACL reconstructions appears to be increasing. Differences in surgical techniques, physiology, and emotional maturity may alter the rehabilitation progression and impact the outcomes when compared with adults. Reports of objective strength recovery and performance-based outcome measures after pediatric ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are limited. Study Design: Retrospective case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: All patients that underwent all-epiphyseal ACLR from January 2008 to August 2010 were identified. Isokinetic peak quadriceps/hamstring torque values and functional performance measures in unilateral hopping tasks were extracted and compared with the noninjured limb. A limb symmetry index (LSI) of ≥90% was considered satisfactory. Results: Complete data were available for 16 patients (mean age, 12.28 years; range, 8.51-14.88 years). By a mean 7 months (range, 3.02-12.56 years) postoperatively, only 9 of 16 (56%) were able to achieve a satisfactory LSI for quadriceps strength. For hamstring strength, 15 of 16 (94%) were able to achieve satisfactory LSI. By a mean of 12 months (range, 5.39-24.39 months) postoperatively, only 6 of 16 subjects (38%) were able to achieve satisfactory performance on all functional hop tests. At a mean 15.42 months (range, 8.58-24.39 months) postsurgery, only 4 of 16 (25%) subjects were able to achieve an LSI of ≥90% on all testing parameters. Conclusion: For some pediatric patients, significant strength and functional deficits may be present at greater than 1 year after ACLR. This population may require more prolonged rehabilitation programs to allow for adequate recovery of strength and function because of unique characteristics of normal growth and development. PMID:24982702

  13. Computer-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Four generations of development and usage.

    PubMed

    Klos, Tiburtius V S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about the contribution of navigation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The evolution of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) for ACL reconstruction has undergone several steps. These steps were divided into 4 subsequent developments: (1) positioning of ACL graft placement; (2) laxity measurement of ACL reconstruction (quality control); (3) kinematic evaluation during ACL reconstruction (navigated pivot shift); (4) case-specific individual ACL reconstruction with adjustments and additional reconstruction options. CAS has shown to improve femoral tunnel positioning, even if clinical outcomes do not improve results of manual techniques. CAS technology has helped researchers better understand the effects of different ACL reconstruction techniques and bundles replacements on joint laxity and to describe tunnel positioning in relation to native ACL insertion. CAS in ACL surgery can improve results at time zero and can improve knowledge in this field.

  14. Total autogenous mandibular reconstruction using virtual surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Winters, Ryan; Saad, Adam; Beahm, Donald David; Wise, Matthew Whitten; St Hilaire, Hugo

    2012-09-01

    Free fibula transfer has become the workhorse in mandibular reconstruction. Total mandibular reconstruction is an uncommon procedure with added complexity. Numerous techniques have been described for such reconstruction, many requiring a temporomandibular joint prosthesis. We present a novel method where simultaneous bilateral free fibula transfer utilizing preoperative virtual surgical planning was used to produce a total autogenous reconstruction. The virtual surgical planning allows to effectively quantify the bone stock required preoperatively and facilitates intraoperative modeling of the fibula. Therefore, a more anatomically correct reconstruction is obtained resulting in improved functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  15. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION FOR MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AFTER REPEATED LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section

  16. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the skeletally immature athlete: a review of current concepts: AAOS exhibit selection.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Jones, Kristofer J; Delos, Demetris; Cordasco, Frank A; Marx, Robert G; Pearle, Andrew D; Warren, Russell F; Green, Daniel W

    2013-03-06

    Intrasubstance tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were once considered a rare injury in skeletally immature athletes but are now observed with increasing frequency. Treatment strategies have evolved as recent studies have identified unique considerations specific to the skeletally immature patient. The current literature now supports the trend toward early operative treatment to restore knee stability and prevent progressive meniscal and/or articular cartilage damage, but the optimal approach to ACL reconstruction in this age group remains controversial. Despite the reported clinical success of transphyseal reconstruction, iatrogenic growth disturbance secondary to physeal damage remains a genuine concern. The reluctance to place drill-holes across open physes has led to the development of numerous "physeal-sparing" reconstruction techniques using anatomic femoral and tibial footprints that have adequately restored anteroposterior and rotational knee stability in biomechanical studies but have demonstrated mixed results in the clinical setting. The intent of this review is to (1) highlight the unique anatomic considerations pertaining to ACL reconstruction in the skeletally immature athlete, (2) discuss preoperative clinical and radiographic assessment of the pediatric patient with a suspected ACL injury, (3) review transphyseal and physeal-sparing reconstruction techniques and highlight surgical technical considerations, (4) present clinical outcomes according to patient and technique-specific factors, and (5) review age-specific injury prevention treatment strategies and a novel treatment algorithm based on skeletal maturity. ACL reconstruction in the skeletally immature athlete typically results in a successful clinical outcome, yet the optimal surgical technique is still controversial. This review will help guide the management of ACL injuries in the pediatric athlete.

  17. Arthroscopic anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments: A technical simplification.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Decante, C; Geffroy, L; Brulefert, K; Noailles, T

    2016-12-01

    Anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments has become a pivotal component of the treatment strategy for chronic ankle instability. The recently described arthroscopic version of this procedure is indispensable to ensure that concomitant lesions are appropriately managed, yet remains technically demanding. Here, we describe a simplified variant involving percutaneous creation of the calcaneal tunnel for the distal attachment of the calcaneo-fibular ligament. The rationale for this technical stratagem was provided by a preliminary cadaver study that demonstrated a correlation between the lateral malleolus and the distal footprint of the calcaneo-fibular ligament. The main objectives are simplification of the operative technique and decreased injury to tissues whose function is crucial to the recovery of proprioception.

  18. Protecting a Patellar Ligament Reconstruction after Proximal Tibial Resection: A Simplified Approach

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Limb salvage in tumor surgery has encouraged the development of megaprostheses. However, reattaching the ligamentum patellae poses a particular problem: avulsion and/or extensor lag may lead to poor function. We describe a new technique of patellar ligament reconstruction. The technique involves reattachment of the patellar ligament to the tibial tuberosity of the proximal tibial megaprosthesis, which has a porous surface created, and the repair is protected with a cerclage wire through the patella and the prosthesis. In 10 consecutive patients, the range of motion averaged 95° (median, 90°; range, 70°–120°), and the mean extension lag averaged 4° (median, 0°; range, 0°–20°). We had one case of patellar ligament avulsion. This technique resulted in good quadriceps function and a low incidence of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18425561

  19. Arterial complications, venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Rob Paulus Augustinus; Reijman, Max; Janssen, Daan Martijn; van Mourik, Jan Bernardus Antonius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize the current knowledge on vascular complications and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar medical literature databases were searched up to November 10, 2015. Any arthroscopic surgical method of primary or revision intra-articular ACL reconstruction of all graft types in humans was included. A risk of bias assessment was determined. RESULTS Fourty-seven studies were included in the review. Pseudaneurysms were the most frequently reported arterial complication after ACL reconstruction, irrespective of graft type or method of graft fixation with an incidence of 0.3%. The time to diagnosis of arterial complications after ACL reconstruction varied from days to mostly weeks but even years. After ACL reconstruction without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 9.7%, of which 2.1% was symptomatic. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 0.1%. Tourniquet time > 2 h was related to venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is indicated in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSION After ACL reconstruction, the incidence of arterial complications, symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism was 0.3%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. Arterial complications may occur with all types of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, methods of graft fixation as well as any type of graft. Patients considered to be at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism should routinely receive thromboprophylaxis after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27672574

  20. Surgical treatment of avulsion fractures at the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament: functional result☆

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marcos Alexandre; Cervone, Gabriel Lopes de Faria; Costa, André Luis Serigatti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To objectively and subjectively evaluate the functional result from before to after surgery among patients with a diagnosis of an isolated avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament who were treated surgically. Method Five patients were evaluated by means of reviewing the medical files, applying the Lysholm questionnaire, physical examination and radiological examination. For the statistical analysis, a significance level of 0.10 and 95% confidence interval were used. Results According to the Lysholm criteria, all the patients were classified as poor (<64 points) before the operation and evolved to a mean of 96 points six months after the operation. We observed that 100% of the posterior drawer cases became negative, taking values less than 5 mm to be negative. Conclusion Surgical methods with stable fixation for treating avulsion fractures at the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament produce acceptable functional results from the surgical and radiological points of view, with a significance level of 0.042. PMID:27218073

  1. EFFECT OF THE GRAFTING SECTION AREA ON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY – HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON DOGS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ricardo Violante; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Vannini, Rodrigo; Felisbino, Sérgio Luiz; Curcelli, Emilio Carlos; Pereira, Gilberto José Caçdo; de Almeida Silvares, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the initial grafting section area with the outcomes from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Eight dogs underwent operations, divided into two groups according to graft size: Group A, 25% and Group B, 40% of the patellar ligament (PL) width. Methods: After eight months, the dogs were sacrificed for macroscopic and histological analysis on the reconstructed ligaments. Each dog's contralateral knee was used as a control. Results: In both groups, all the reconstructed ligaments were seen to be viable and hypertrophied. The morphology of the PL grafting had changed, which was observed by measuring the crimp and cellularity, and it resembled that of the ACL. Conclusion: The grafting section area did not influence the histological outcomes from ACL reconstruction surgery in dogs. PMID:27047857

  2. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  3. Transient laxity of an anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee related to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blecher, A M; Richmond, J C

    1998-01-01

    Transient laxity was documented around the end of pregnancy in a woman who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction 2 months before conception. This temporary laxity in the 3rd trimester and a few months postpartum corresponded to a time when substantial remodeling from large diameter to small diameter collagen fibers has been noted in the ACL graft ligamentization process. This is also a time of high levels of the hormone relaxin (member of the family of insulin-like growth factors), whose action in animals leads to dissociation of large collagen fibrils to smaller disorganized fibrils. The temporary laxity resolved. Careful observation of women who become pregnant in the first few months after ACL reconstruction is recommended.

  4. [Application of the method of anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for distal clavicle fractures].

    PubMed

    Fang, J H; Tang, G L; Chen, H; Song, L J; Li, X

    2017-04-04

    Objective: To assess the clinical results of the method of anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for distal clavicle fractures. Methods: From August 2013 to January 2015, the super image system was used to measure the CT data of 16 patients suffering distal clavicle fractures before operation in Department of Orthopaedics , the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical Univerisity. The fractures' morphological features and acromioclavicular dislocation degree were assessed. By referring to the data collected by the my research group on Chinese people's coracoclavicular ligament, the injuries of the coracoclavicular ligament were estimated, which was then to verify the actual injuries detected during operation. Coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction was performed on patients and screws or suture anchors fixing small bone blocks was used as an adjuvant therapy. Clinical and radiological follow-up was at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. The clinical outcomes were assessed pre- and postoperatively with Constant Scores. Anteroposterior radiographs for the bilateral acromioclavicular joints were obtained immediately after surgery and every follow-up.To compare the reduction maintenance, coracoclavicular distances of the injured shoulders were measured in preoperative and postoperative standard radiographs. Results: All patients received satisfactory fracture and acromioclavicular joint reduction. The average follow-up period was (12.6±3.9) months (ranging from 6 to 22 months). Fractures healed six months after the operation. The coracoclavicular distances increased from (7.8±1.4)mm at one month follow-up to (7.9±1.2)mm at the final follow-up (P>0.05), which could be considered as no difference statistically. The constant score significantly increased from (49.1±4.4) at one month follow-up to (93.8±2.1) at the final evaluation (P<0.001). Obvious loss of acromioclavicular joint reduction was not observed after the operation. Coracoid process

  5. The anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament and its relevance to the technique of reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Śmigielski, R; Zdanowicz, U; Drwięga, M; Ciszek, B; Williams, A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is commonly performed and has been for many years. Despite this, the technical details related to ACL anatomy, such as tunnel placement, are still a topic for debate. In this paper, we introduce the flat ribbon concept of the anatomy of the ACL, and its relevance to clinical practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1020-6.

  6. Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lamo-Espinosa, J. M.; Llombart Blanco, R.; Valentí, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries. PMID:22957293

  7. Visual biofeedback exercises for improving body balance control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Molka, Alicja Zyta; Lisiński, Przemysław; Huber, Juliusz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effects of balance training after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients (mean 33 ± 8 years old) who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction three months prior to participating in a one-month rehabilitation program. The control group included 15 people aged 34 ± 4 years. Patients’ functional level was evaluated according to the Lysholm knee score, and balance quality was ascertained by static and dynamic tests. A balance platform was used to measure the center of foot pressure deflection. Two dynamic balance tests evaluated time of task execution. [Results] Lysholm knee score improved significantly after rehabilitation. Balance in the sagittal plane with eyes closed improved significantly after rehabilitation. The average velocity of center of foot pressure swing in both the frontal and sagittal planes with eyes closed differed significantly from those of controls. Execution time required for the two dynamic tests decreased significantly after rehabilitation and were significantly better than those in the controls. [Conclusion] Maintaining static balance with eyes closed is very challenging after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Maintaining balance in the sagittal plane is particularly difficult. A one-month rehabilitation program partially improves static and dynamic balance. PMID:26311983

  8. Testing for isometry during reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament. Anatomic and biomechanical considerations.

    PubMed

    Covey, D C; Sapega, A A; Sherman, G M

    1996-01-01

    The change in the distance of linear separation between each pair of osseous fiber attachment sites of the posterior cruciate ligaments was measured and plotted as a function of the knee flexion angle from 0 degree to 120 degrees. Data were collected under four sequential test conditions that had in common quadriceps relaxation, absence of tibial rotation forces, and horizontal femoral stabilization. The posterior cruciate ligament fibers were intact or transected (excursion wires left intact) with gravitational joint distraction of the lower leg unconstrained or constrained. The small, posterior oblique fiber region was the most isometric of the four tested fiber regions. Progressively increasing deviations from isometry were seen in the posterior longitudinal, central, and anterior fiber regions, in that order. Transection of the posterior cruciate ligament, combined with unconstrained gravitational distraction of the knee joint, further increased the magnitude of deviation from isometry of the anterior and central fibers, but only changed the pattern of deviation for the more nearly isometric posterior fibers. Under simulated operative conditions, most of the posterior cruciate ligament's anatomic attachment sites exhibit nonisometric behavior, with near isometry demonstrated only by the relatively small posterior fiber attachment sites. If isometry alone is used for bone tunnel placement, the large anterior and central fiber regions will be left largely unreconstructed. Because the normal behavior of most of the fibers of the posterior cruciate ligament involves 4 to 6 mm of end-to-end length increase with progressive knee flexion, this pattern and degree of deviation from isometry should be sought to approximate an anatomic reconstruction of the anterocentral bulk of the ligament.

  9. Selection of Tendon Grafts for Distal Radioulnar Ligament Reconstruction and Report of a Modified Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eugene; Dy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the graft length necessary to complete a distal radioulnar ligament reconstruction and assess the suitability of several tendon graft sources. Methods We measured the graft length needed to complete the distal radioulnar ligament reconstruction in 7 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. The pure tendon lengths of 7 tendon graft sources were measured: palmaris longus, extensor indicis proprius, slips of extensor digiti minimi and abductor pollicis longus, and portions of flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and extensor carpi ulnaris. A modified technique which allows for a shorter length of graft is also described, and the suitability of each graft source for this technique was assessed. Results The mean graft length needed to complete the original and modified reconstructions were 138 mm and 89 mm, respectively. The average length of the tendon graft when measured as pure tendon were: palmaris longus (127 mm), slip of extensor digiti minimi (112 mm), extensor indicis proprius (100 mm), partial flexor carpi radialis (87 mm), slip of abductor pollicis longus (69 mm), partial flexor carpi ulnaris (67 mm), and partial extensor carpi ulnaris (67 mm). The palmaris longus was too short for the original technique in the majority of specimens but was sufficient to complete the modified technique in every specimen that had a palmaris longus. Six specimens also had an extensor indicis proprius of suitable length for the modified technique. Discussion The length of donor graft required for the modified reconstruction was significantly less than that needed for the original reconstruction. Three specimens had no donor tendons sufficiently long to complete the original technique if a pure tendon graft were used, whereas the modified technique could be completed in all specimens. Clinical Relevance Many tendon graft sources in the upper extremity are of insufficient length to complete the distal radioulnar ligament reconstruction as described. A modified

  10. Anatomical study of the ligamentous attachments and articular surfaces of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Consequences on surgical management of its osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Maes-Clavier, C; Bellemère, P; Gabrion, A; David, E; Rotari, V; Havet, E

    2014-04-01

    In the goal to optimize conservative surgical techniques of the trapeziometacarpal joint in cases of moderate osteoarthritis, we have defined the relationships between the ligamentous attachments and the articular surfaces onto the trapezium and the first metacarpal bone on the one hand, and the dorsovolar and the transverse diameters of the articular surfaces on the other hand. Thirty-six trapeziometacarpal joints (from 18 fresh cadavers) were studied. They were separated into two groups depending on the macroscopic assessment of chondral disease. Group A included stages I to III (no osteoarthritis or moderate osteoarthritis), group B included stages IV (major cartilage destruction). The dorsovolar and transverse sizes of the articular surfaces were measured. Dorsoradial ligament (DRL), posterior oblique ligament (POL), intermetacarpal ligament (IML), ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and anterior oblique ligament (AOL) were dissected and the distance between their attachments and the articular surfaces were measured. Group A included 17 joints (71% males) and group B included 19 joints (95% females). For the first metacarpal bone, the average ratio between the dorsovolar diameter and the transverse diameter of metacarpal articular surfaces was significantly higher in group B and the average distance between the ligamentous attachments and the articular surface was more than two millimeters, except for the DRL in group B. For the trapezium, only the posterior ligaments (DRL and POL) of group A were inserted at a mean distance more than two millimeters from the articular surfaces. Dorsovolar length of the metacarpal articular surface was higher for osteoarthritis cases. This difference can be explained by the existence of a palmar osteophyte that was always found in stage IV. Describing a map of the ligamentous attachment distance from the articular surface could help surgeons to avoid the ligamentous injury during minimal osteochondral resection.

  11. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook

    2016-01-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  12. Sacrotuberous Ligament Healing following Surgical Division during Transgluteal Pudendal Nerve Decompression: A 3-Tesla MR Neurography Study

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jan; Fritz, Benjamin; Dellon, A. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic pain due to chronic pudendal nerve (PN) compression, when treated surgically, is approached with a transgluteal division of the sacrotuberous ligament (STL). Controversy exists as to whether the STL heals spontaneously or requires grafting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how surgically divided and unrepaired STL heal. A retrospective evaluation of 10 patients who had high spatial resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) exams of the pelvis was done using an IRB-approved protocol. Each patient was referred for residual pelvic pain after a transgluteal STL division for chronic pudendal nerve pain. Of the 10 patients, 8 had the STL divided and not repaired, while 2 had the STL divided and reconstructed with an allograft tendon. Of the 8 that were left unrepaired, 6 had bilateral surgery. Outcome variables included STL integrity and thickness. Normative data for the STL were obtained through a control group of 20 subjects. STL integrity and thickness were measured directly on 3 T MR Neurography images, by two independent Radiologists. The integrity and thickness of the post-surgical STL was evaluated 39 months (range, 9–55) after surgery. Comparison was made with the native contra-lateral STL in those who had unilateral STL division, and with normal, non-divided STL of subjects of the control group. The normal STL measured 3 mm (minimum and maximum of absolute STL thickness, 2–3 mm). All post-operative STL were found to be continuous regardless of the surgical technique used. Measured at level of Alcock’s canal in the same plane as the obturator internus tendon posterior to the ischium, the mean anteroposterior STL diameter was 5 mm (range, 4–5 mm) in the group of prior STL division without repair and 8 mm (range, 8–9 mm) in the group with the STL reconstructed with grafts (p<0.05). The group of healed STLs were significantly thicker than the normal STL (p<0.05). We conclude that a surgically divided STL will heal

  13. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  14. ANATOMICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE: DOUBLE BAND OR SINGLE BAND?

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Luiz Antonio Zanotelli; Junior, Adair Bervig; Badotti, Augusto Alves; Michelin, Alexandre Froes; Algarve, Rodrigo Ilha; de Quadros Martins, Cesar Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the double-band and single-band techniques for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and demonstrate that the double-band technique not only provides greater anterior stability but also causes less pain and a better subjective patient response. Methods: We selected 42 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, by means of either the single-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using flexor tendon grafts with two tunnels, or the double-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using four tunnels and grafts from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. All fixations were performed using interference screws. There was no variation in the sample. Before the operation, the objective and subjective IKDC scores, Lysholm score and length of time with the injury were evaluated. All these variables were reassessed six months later, and the KT-1000 correlation with the contralateral knee was also evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but the single-band group showed better results in relation to range of motion and objective evaluations including KT-1000 (with statistical significance). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there was no difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but better results were found using the single-band anatomical technique, in relation to objective evaluations. PMID:27042621

  15. Asymmetries in explosive strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Knezevic, Olivera M.; Mirkov, Dragan M.; Kadija, Marko; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its apparent functional importance, there is a general lack of data regarding the time-related changes in explosive strength and the corresponding side-to-side asymmetries in individuals recovering from an ACL reconstruction (ACLR). The present study was designed to assess changes in the maximum and explosive strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle in athletes recovering from an ACLR. Methods Twenty male athletes with an ACL injury completed a standard isometric testing protocol pre-ACLR, 4 and 6 months post-ACLR. In addition to the maximum strength (Fmax), the explosive strength of quadriceps and hamstrings was assessed through 4 variables derived from the slope of the force-time curves over various time intervals (RFDmax, RFD50, RFD150 and RFD250). Side-to-side asymmetries were calculated relative to post-ACLR measures of the uninvolved leg (“standard” asymmetries), and relative to pre-ACLR value of the uninvolved leg (“real” asymmetries). Results Pre-ACLR asymmetries in quadriceps RFD (average 26%) were already larger than in Fmax (14%) (p < 0.05). Six months post-ACLR real asymmetries in RFD variables (33-39%) were larger than the corresponding standard asymmetries (26-28%; p < 0.01). Average asymmetries in hamstrings RFD and Fmax were 10%, 25% and 15% for pre-ACLR and two post-ACLR sessions, respectively (all p>0.05). Conclusions In addition to the maximum strength, the indices of explosive strength should also be included in monitoring recovery of muscle function following an ACLR. Furthermore, pre-injury/reconstruction values should be used for the post-ACLR side-to-side comparisons, providing a more valid criterion regarding the muscle recovery and readiness for a return to sports. PMID:25112209

  16. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  17. PERI-INCISIONAL DYSESTHESIA FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING CENTRAL THIRD OF PATELLAR TENDON

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório; Machado, Soares Luiz Fernando; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques; Júnior, Paulo Randal Pires; Baumfeld, Daniel Soares; Pereira, Marcelo Lobo; Lessa, Rodrigo Rosa; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; Bisinoto, Henrique Barra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and type of dysesthesia around the incision used to obtain the patellar tendon for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Methods: Out of a population of 1368 ACL reconstructions using the central third of the patellar tendon, 102 patients (111 knees) were evaluated by means of telephone interview. Results: The mean follow-up was 52 months (ranging from 12 to 88 months). The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years (mean: 34.7 years). There was some degree of peri-incisional dysesthesia in 66 knees (59.46%). In 40.54% of the knees, this condition was not found. In all the cases of dysesthesia, the type encountered was Highet's type II. Conclusion: Peri-incisional dysesthesia following ACL reconstruction using the central third of the patellar tendon is highly prevalent. It affected more than half of the cases in this series. PMID:27026983

  18. Ankle instability and arthroscopic lateral ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle ligament insufficiency has focused on 2 main categories: local soft-tissue reconstruction and tendon grafts/transfer procedures. There is an increasing interest in the arthroscopic solutions for chronic instability of the ankle. Recent biomechanical studies suggest the at least one of the arthroscopic techniques can provide equivalent results to current open local soft-tissue reconstruction (such as the modified Brostrom technique). Arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is becoming an increasingly acceptable method for the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle instability.

  19. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using autologous graft from quadriceps tendon to treat recurrent patellar dislocation☆

    PubMed Central

    Calapodopulos, Constantino Jorge; Nogueira, Marcelo Corvino; Eustáquio, José Martins Juliano; Calapodopulos Júnior, Constantino Jorge; Rodrigues, Oreston Alves

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the surgical technique using the quadriceps tendon as a graft in static reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament. Methods This was a prospective case series study in which the participants were 22 patients with a diagnosis of recurrent patellar dislocation without any other anatomical alterations that required surgical treatment. The functional results from the technique were evaluated using clinical data and the Lysholm questionnaire, one year after the operation. Results It was observed that the patients were predominantly female (86%) and under 21 years of age (73%), just like in the literature. At the first annual return after the surgery, there was no significant pain on medium efforts, no loss of range of motion and a positive apprehension test. According to the questionnaire used, the results were graded as good. The patients who reported having severe pain on greater effort were involved in employment-related legal disputes. Conclusion This technique showed low morbidity and good functional results over the short term. PMID:27069888

  20. Early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can save meniscus without any complications

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Chang-Ik; Song, Eun-Kyoo; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Hun; Seon, Jong-Keun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early ACL reconstruction, before retuning to activity eliminates recurrent episodes of instability and thereby decreases chances of meniscal and cartilage injury. However, there are no clear and uniform guidelines regarding the timing of ACL reconstruction or clarity in the definition of early and delayed reconstruction to reduce the complications after reconstruction in the ACL injured knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome, stability, muscle power, and postural control after early and delayed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Patients who had ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon with a minimum 2-year followup were evaluated. Early (within 3 weeks) reconstruction group was 48 knees and delayed (more than 3 months) group was 43 knees. We compared the two groups with regard to Lysholm knee score, range of motion (ROM), Lachman test, Tegner activity scale, associated meniscal or chondral injuries, and anterior laxity. We also compared muscle strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and postural control with computed dynamic posturography at the final followup. Results: While 50% of early and 70% of delayed group had meniscal injuries (P = 0.06), of which were reparable in 42% of early group and 17% of delayed group (P = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference in cartilage injury (P = 0.14). At the final followup, no significant differences were found between two groups for Lysholm score (P = 0.28), Tegner activity scale (P = 0.27), and ROM. The stabilities regarding Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and anterior laxity also showed no significant differences between two groups. The mean extension and flexion muscles power, and postural control showed no significant inter-group differences (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Early ACL reconstruction had excellent clinical results and stability as good as delayed reconstruction without the problem of knee motion, muscle power

  1. A three-dimensional finite element stress analysis for tunnel placement and buttons in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony G; Raso, V James; Liggins, Adrian B; Otto, David D; Amirfazli, A

    2005-04-01

    This communication reports the results of a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of stresses in a surgically altered femur and tibia. The model incorporated a novel approach in implementing orthotropic and inhomogeneous bone properties and non-uniform distributed loading. Cortical, cancellous, and subchondral bone of the femur and the tibia were modeled. Mechanical properties for the cortical and cancellous bone were mapped from published data characterizing the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the bone properties. Mesh adequacy was determined using stress convergence and strain energy error convergence. Qualitatively, the results of the study compare well with experimental principal compressive strains from the literature. With respect to tunnel placement in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the model predicted stress-shielding at the postero-lateral region of the tunnel wall, and increased stress at the postero-medial region of the tunnel wall. The stresses in the cancellous bone beneath the tunnel were, in general, lower than those above the tunnel. Prolonged stress shielding leads to bone resorption of the posterior tunnel wall leading to tunnel enlargement, and possible compromise of the ACL reconstruction. The stresses on the femoral cortex produced from a button-type fixation were noticeable for low levels of loading; the stress levels were very similar in models incorporating bone properties of patients aged 45 and 65. Repeated compression of the femoral cortex at these stress levels may cause microdamage to the cortex eventually resulting in fatigue failure.

  2. Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity: a resident education tool

    PubMed Central

    Croley, Julie A; Malone, C Helen; Goodwin, Brandon P; Phillips, Linda G; Cole, Eric L; Wagner, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical reconstructive planning following Mohs surgery can be a difficult subject for dermatology residents to master. Prior research demonstrates that active learning is preferred and more effective compared to passive learning models and that dermatology residents desire greater complexity and volume in surgical training. We present a novel, active, problem-based learning tool for the education of Mohs reconstruction with the goal of improving residents’ ability to plan surgical reconstructions. Materials and methods The Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity is an active, problem-based learning activity in which residents designed repairs for planned Mohs defects prior to surgery on an iPad application or on a printed photograph. The attending Mohs surgeon reviewed the reconstructive designs, provided feedback, guided discussion, and facilitated insight into additional issues requiring further review. Residents performed or observed the Mohs and reconstructive surgical procedures for respective repairs. Surveys were administered to participants before and after participating in the Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity to assess the educational value of the activity. Survey responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale. Results Mean participant-reported confidence in flap and graft knowledge, flap and graft planning, and flap and graft performance increased 1.50–2.50 Likert scale points upon completion of the Mohs surgery rotation by residents participating in the educational activity. The observed trend was larger in the dermatology resident subset, with increases of 2.00–3.50 Likert scale points reported for these questions. Mean participant-reported likelihoods of performing flaps and grafts in the future increased 0.25–0.50 Likert scale points among all residents participating in the educational activity and 0.50–1.00 Likert scale points in the dermatology resident subset. All residents participating in the

  3. A Technique of Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using an Adjustable-Loop Suspensory Fixation Device.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shaneel; Getgood, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This report describes superficial medial collateral ligament reconstruction of the knee using a novel method of graft fixation with the ACL Tightrope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL). After tibial fixation with either a standard interference screw or staple, femoral fixation of the semitendinosus tendon is performed with the adjustable-loop suspensory fixation device, which allows for both initial graft tensioning and re-tensioning after cyclical knee range of motion. This provides the ability for the graft to accommodate for resultant soft-tissue creep and stress relaxation, thereby allowing for optimal soft-tissue tension and reduction in laxity at the end of the procedure.

  4. Longitudinal changes in knee joint biomechanics during level walking following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kate E; Feller, Julian A; Wittwer, Joanne E

    2012-06-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL) patients have altered movement patterns in the reconstructed knee during walking. There is limited information about these alterations over an extended period of time. This study was designed to present a longitudinal analysis of gait patterns following ACL reconstruction surgery. Assessments of level walking were undertaken in 16 participants at a mean 10 months (initial assessment) and again at 3 years (follow-up assessment) after ACL reconstruction surgery. Kinematic and kinetic variables were analysed using a two factor (time, limb) repeated measures ANOVA. Kinematic data showed that patients were able to achieve greater extension about the reconstructed knee at follow-up than at initial assessment. The reconstructed knee was significantly less internally rotated than the contralateral knee at the initial assessment but not at follow-up. Kinetic data showed a significant increase in the external knee extension moment for the reconstructed limb over time. There were also significant increases in the external knee adduction moment for both limbs at the follow-up assessment. The external knee adduction moment was however smaller in the reconstructed knee than the contralateral knee at both assessments. The results indicate that gait variables do change over time and that measurement at a single time point may not reflect the long term outcome of ACL reconstruction surgery. The changes were however small and may not be clinically relevant. However, the consistently reduced external knee adduction moment seen about the reconstructed knee in this study may suggest that factors other than joint moments influence degenerative change over time.

  5. Biological enhancement of graft-tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    SACCOMANNO, MARISTELLA F.; CAPASSO, LUIGI; FRESTA, LUCA; MILANO, GIUSEPPE

    2016-01-01

    The sites where graft healing occurs within the bone tunnel and where the intra-articular ligamentization process takes place are the two most important sites of biological incorporation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, since they help to determine the mechanical behavior of the femur-ACL graft-tibia complex. Graft-tunnel healing is a complex process influenced by several factors, such as type of graft, preservation of remnants, bone quality, tunnel length and placement, fixation techniques and mechanical stress. In recent years, numerous experimental and clinical studies have been carried out to evaluate potential strategies designed to enhance and optimize the biological environment of the graft-tunnel interface. Modulation of inflammation, tissue engineering and gene transfer techniques have been applied in order to obtain a direct-type fibrocartilaginous insertion of the ACL graft, similar to that of native ligament, and to accelerate the healing process of tendon grafts within the bone tunnel. Although animal studies have given encouraging results, clinical studies are lacking and their results do not really support the use of the various strategies in clinical practice. Further investigations are therefore needed to optimize delivery techniques, therapeutic concentrations, maintenance of therapeutic effects over time, and to reduce the risk of undesirable effects in clinical practice. PMID:27900311

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction combined with valgus tibial osteotomy (combined procedure).

    PubMed

    Boss, A; Stutz, G; Oursin, C; Gächter, A

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the patients who were operated on in a combined procedure from 1980 to 1992 with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, cartilaginous lesions of the medial compartment, lesion of medial meniscus and varus malalignment. The combined operative procedure was autologous intra-articular ACL reconstruction with the middle third of the patellar ligament--partially augmented with Kennedy-ligament augmentation device (LAD) in hot dog technique--and high tibial osteotomy. The patients were examined according to the criteria of IKDC including testing of anterior stability with the KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiographically we checked axis and arthritis according to a modified score of Kannus. Twenty-seven of 34 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria could be followed up in three categories (2-5 years post-operatively, 5-10 years postoperatively, over 10 years post-operatively). Total qualification was good in 37%; there were no perioperative complications. Rehabilitation was not prolonged. Eighty-nine percent practised their preoperative job, over 50% had a higher level of sports activities than preoperatively, and more than 25% regained their pretraumatic sports capacity. Two-thirds had no giving way and less than 3 mm translation difference in comparison to the contralateral knee. Seventy-five percent of patients would accept the operation again. Radiological findings had no correlation to overall qualification. The encouraging results with respect to many of the criteria suggest using the combined procedure in a young patient with ACL insufficiency, varus malalignment and medial compartment damage including medial meniscus lesion.

  7. Tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique was used to investigate the cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint during in vivo weight-bearing flexion of the knee in eight patients 6 months following clinically successful reconstruction of an acute isolated ACL rupture. The location of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, size of the contact area, cartilage thickness at the contact area, and magnitude of the cartilage contact deformation of the ACL-reconstructed knees were compared with those previously measured in intact (contralateral) knees and ACL-deficient knees of the same subjects. Contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral cartilage after ACL reconstruction were similar to those measured in intact knees. However, at lower flexion, the abnormal posterior and lateral shift of cartilage contact location to smaller regions of thinner tibial cartilage that has been described in ACL-deficient knees persisted in ACL-reconstructed knees, resulting in an increase of the magnitude of cartilage contact deformation at those flexion angles. Reconstruction of the ACL restored some of the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint to normal. Clinically, recovering anterior knee stability might be insufficient to prevent post-operative cartilage degeneration due to lack of restoration of in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics.

  8. Fungal osteomyelitis after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Tian, Min

    2012-10-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a very rare complication after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction associated with catastrophic consequences. Herein, we present a case of such disastrous complication after ACL reconstruction. A 23-year-old man developed fever, swelling and pain of the affected knee from 18 days after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. Therefore, he underwent arthroscopic debridement, removal of the graft and internal fixators, irrigation and suction drainage, successively. Negative results for serial bacterial cultures and smear examinations are obtained. However, computer tomography and X-ray examination showed massive bone destruction at 48 days after ACL reconstruction. As the first open debridement was performed at 50 days after ACL reconstruction, fungal infection was diagnosed based on finding Aspergillus hyphae in pathologic examination of the debrided bone sample. After the final debridement, a 12-cm bone loss in the distal femur was treated by Ilizarov's bone transport. The patient got solid arthrodesis of the affected knee without clinical infection at a year after the initial operation. In addition, a review of the literature regarding case reports of fungal osteomyelitis after ACL reconstruction is presented.

  9. The use of autologous chondrocyte implantation following and combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, W.; Gooding, C. R.; Sood, M.; Skinner, J. A.; Carrington, R. W.J.; Briggs, T. W.R.; Bentley, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report our experience of using autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) to treat osteochondral defects of the knee in combination with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The outcome of symptomatic osteochondral lesions treated with ACI following previous successful ACL reconstruction is also reviewed. Patients were followed for a mean of 23 months. Nine patients underwent ACL reconstruction in combination with ACI. Mean modified Cincinnati knee scores improved from 42 to 69 following surgery. Seven patients described their knee as better and two as the same. A second group of nine patients underwent ACI for symptomatic articular cartilage defects following previous ACL reconstruction. In this group, the mean modified Cincinnati knee score improved from 53 to 62 after surgery. Six patients described their knee as better and three as worse. Combined treatment using ACI with ACL reconstruction is technically feasible and resulted in sustained improvement in pain and function. The results following previous ACL reconstruction also resulted in clinical improvement, although results were not as good as following the combined procedure. PMID:16320051

  10. Lower Limb Kinematics and Dynamic Postural Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Murphy, Katie; Prendiville, Anna; Sweeny, Lauren; Patterson, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Context: Deficits in lower limb kinematics and postural stability are predisposing factors to the development of knee ligamentous injury. The extent to which these deficits are present after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is still largely unknown. The primary hypothesis of the present study was that female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction and who have returned to sport participation would exhibit deficits in dynamic postural stability as well as deficiencies in hip- and knee-joint kinematics when compared with an age-, activity-, and sex-matched uninjured control group. Objective: To investigate dynamic postural stability as quantified by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles in female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen female athletes who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 17 age- and sex-matched uninjured controls. Intervention(s): Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s): Reach distances for each directional component were quantified and expressed as a percentage of leg length. Simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles were recorded using a motion-analysis system. Results: The ACL-R group had decreased reach distances on the posterior-medial (P < .01) and posterior-lateral (P < .01) directional components of the SEBT. During performance of the directional components of the SEBT, ACL-R participants demonstrated altered hip-joint frontal-, sagittal-, and transverse-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05), as well as altered knee-joint sagittal-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05). Conclusions: Deficits in dynamic postural stability and concomitant altered hip- and knee-joint kinematics are present after ACL

  11. Some clinical aspects of reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dandy, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A total of 250 patients was reviewed 71.8 months (range 49-105 months) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for disabling instability that had not responded to conservative treatment or correction of internal derangements. Knees that had undergone previous operation or had damage to other ligaments were excluded. Four techniques were used; MacIntosh extra-articular lateral substitution alone (n = 18), extra-articular reconstruction plus intra-articular carbon fibre (n = 29), extra-articular reconstruction plus a free graft from the medial third of the patellar tendon (n = 74), or extra-articular reconstruction plus a Leeds-Keio prosthesis (n = 129). The knees were assessed 1, 3 and 6 years after reconstruction using the Lysholm score and clinical examination for the anterior drawer, Lachman and pivot shift signs. The mean Lysholm score after 6 years was 77.4 (range 31-100) in the extra-articular group; 74.4 (range 34-100) in the carbon fibre group; 95.4 (range 43-100) in the patellar tendon group; and 91.2 (range 45-100) in the Leeds-Keio group. The patellar tendon group had the highest scores (P < 0.003). The pivot shift sign returned in 39% of the extra-articular group; 48% of the carbon fibre group; 1% of the patellar tendon group, and 36% of the Leeds-Keio group. The pivot shift returned least often in the patellar tendon group (P < 0.001). There were 44% satisfactory results (pivot shift negative and Lysholm score 77 or more) in the extra-articular group; 55% in the carbon fibre group; 92% in the patellar tendon group; and 60% in the Leeds-Keio group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574323

  12. “Basket weave technique” for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Clinical outcome of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kodkani, Pranjal S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bone tunneling and implants with rigid fixations for medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction are known to compromise results and are avoidable, especially in skeletally immature subjects. This study was to assess if these deficiencies were overcome with the technique devised by the author which avoids implants and bone tunnels. Results were assessed for complication rate and outcome. Materials and Methods: Fifty six knees of recurrent lateral patellar dislocation were treated in the past 49 months by MPFL reconstruction. Thirty nine were female and 17 male knees. The mean age was 20.6 years (range 9-48 years). Mean followup was 26 months. Five knees had previously failed stabilization procedures. Thirty one cases had Dejours Type A or B and 12 had Type C trochlear dysplasia. Arthroscopy was performed for associated injuries and loose bodies. Seven knees required loose body removal. Five knees underwent lateral retinacular release. Four knees had tibial tuberosity transfer. One knee had an associated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. An anatomical MPFL reconstruction was performed using hamstring autograft without the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy. Only soft tissue fixation was necessary with this newly devised technique and suturing. A rapid rehabilitation protocol was implemented with monthly followup until normalcy and 6 monthly thereafter. Results: All achieved full range of motion and normal mediolateral stability. There was no recurrence of dislocation. No major surgery related complications. One patella fracture at 8 months was due to a fall developed terminal restriction of flexion. Those in sports could return to their sporting activities (Tegner 1–9). Cases with osteochondral fractures had occasional pain that subsided in 1 year. Mean Kujala score improved from 64.3 to 99.69 with KOOS score near normal in all. Conclusion: This new method of MPFL reconstruction gives excellent results. It avoids complications

  13. Biomechanical Evaluation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Quadriceps Versus Achilles Tendon Bone Block Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Brian; Haro, Marc S.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Collins, Michael J.; Arns, Thomas A.; Trella, Katie J.; Shewman, Elizabeth F.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long-term studies of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction suggest that normal stability is not restored in the majority of patients. The Achilles tendon allograft is frequently utilized, although recently, the quadriceps tendon has been introduced as an alternative option due to its size and high patellar bone density. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of PCL reconstructions using a quadriceps versus an Achilles allograft. The hypothesis was that quadriceps bone block allograft has comparable mechanical properties to those of Achilles bone block allograft. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-nine fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) intact PCL, (2) PCL reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft, or (3) PCL reconstruction with quadriceps tendon allograft. After reconstruction, all supporting capsular and ligamentous tissues were removed. Posterior tibial translation was measured at neutral and 20° external rotation. Each specimen underwent a preload, 2 cyclic loading protocols of 500 cycles, then load to failure. Results: Construct creep deformation was significantly lower in the intact group compared with both Achilles and quadriceps allograft (P = .008). The intact specimens reached the greatest ultimate load compared with both reconstructions (1974 ± 752 N, P = .0001). The difference in ultimate load for quadriceps versus Achilles allograft was significant (P = .048), with the quadriceps group having greater maximum force during failure testing. No significant differences were noted between quadriceps versus Achilles allograft for differences in crosshead excursion during cyclic testing (peak-valley [P-V] extension stretch), creep deformation, or stiffness. Construct stiffness measured during the failure test was greatest in the intact group (117 ± 9 N/mm, P = .0001) compared with the Achilles (43 ± 11 N/mm) and quadriceps (43

  14. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  15. Reconstruction of compound loss of lateral malleolus and lateral ankle ligaments with double-bundle Achilles tendon-bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dukhwan; Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Hyeung-June; Cha, Seung-Han; Nam, Kyoung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Open ankle fracture, including compound loss of the lateral malleolus, lateral ankle ligaments, and overlying skin, is a severe injury and can result in ankle instability and permanent disability. Treatment of this injury is challenging and requires bone grafting and soft tissue reconstruction. In the present report, we describe a unique reconstruction technique for compound loss of the lateral malleolus, lateral ankle ligaments, and the overlying skin using a double-bundle Achilles tendon-bone allograft combined with a reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap. The patient obtained a stable ankle with nearly full range of motion and displayed satisfactory function during the follow-up period.

  16. Increased Compliance With Supervised Rehabilitation Improves Functional Outcome and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fucai; Banerjee, Anirban; Shen, Liang; Krishna, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful return to sport is an important outcome measure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and a reason for patients’ decisions to elect surgery. Rehabilitation programs supervised by physical therapists are routinely prescribed after ACL reconstruction surgery. However, the added advantage of supervised physical therapy after ACL reconstruction is still debatable. Hypothesis: Attending more supervised physical therapy sessions after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in recreational athletes increases their chance of successful return to sport. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The authors analyzed 93 recreational athletes who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. After arthroscopic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, patients were advised to attend 20 supervised physical therapy sessions. Patients’ demographics, surgical details, and outcome measures (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Lysholm scale, and Short Form–36 Health Survey [SF-36]) were recorded presurgery and at 1-year follow-up. Ability to return to sports was documented through patients’ self-report. The attendance at physical therapy by each patient was obtained by examining database records and assessed as fully compliant (>15 sessions), moderately compliant (6-15 sessions), or noncompliant (<6 sessions). Results: Patients in the fully compliant group had significantly greater odds (odds ratio [OR], 18.5; 95% CI, 1.9-184.5; P = .013) of a successful return to sport as compared with the noncompliant group. Patients in the moderately compliant group also had greater odds of returning to sport as compared with the noncompliant group (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-16.6; P = .043). Patients in the fully compliant group had significantly greater scores on the Lysholm (P < .001), KOOS Sports and Recreation subscale (P = .021), KOOS Symptoms subscale (P = .040), and SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) (P = .012) as compared with

  17. Surgical treatment of partial anterior cruciate ligament lesions: medium-term results

    PubMed Central

    BERRUTO, MASSIMO; GALA, LUCA; FERRUA, PAOLO; UBOLDI, FRANCESCO; FERRARA, FABRIZIO; PASQUALOTTO, STEFANO; MARELLI, BRUNO M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose this study was conducted to evaluate subjective and objective clinical outcomes of partial reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in comparison with complete ACL reconstruction. Methods three groups, each comprising 20 patients, were evaluated at a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The group 1 patients underwent partial ACL reconstruction, while those in group 2 and group 3 underwent complete ACL reconstruction, performed using either bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) or quadrupled hamstring tendon (HT) grafts, respectively. The subjective outcome was evaluated using the Lysholm knee scale and the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment and sporting activity was rated using the Tegner activity scale. Objective evaluation was performed using the IKDC objective form, KT-1000 arthrometer and KiRA triaxial accelerometer. Results at the follow-up evaluation, the mean subjective IKDC score was 86.1±10.3 in group 1, 85.2±11.1 in group 2, and 82.7±7.8 in group 3. The Lysholm score was 91.3±7.3 in group 1, 91.7±9.6 in group 2, and 89.4±6.1 in group 3. KT-1000 tests showed a mean side-to-side difference of 1.1 mm ± 1.5 mm (range, 0–5 mm) in group 1; 0.79 mm ± 0.8 mm (range, 0–2mm) in group 2; and 1.45 mm ± 1 mm (range, 0–3 mm) in group 3. The differences between groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions both subjective and objective outcomes of partial ACL reconstruction were comparable to those of complete reconstruction, but partial reconstruction in the presence of a partial lesion of the ACL is considered by the authors to be more respectful of the native vascularization, innervation and anatomy of the ACL, conferring an advantage in terms of recovery of the complete function of the knee. Level of evidence Level III, retrospective comparative study. PMID:25750906

  18. Comparison of analgesic effects of intra-articular tenoxicam and morphine in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Guler, Gulen; Karaoglu, Sinan; Velibasoglu, Hediye; Ramazanogullari, Nesrin; Boyaci, Adem

    2002-07-01

    This study compared the analgesic effect of intra-articular injection of tenoxicam with that of morphine on postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Forty-two patients undergoing arthroscopically ACL reconstructions using hamstring tendons underwent the same anesthetic protocol. The patients were randomized to receive 25 ml normal saline, 20 mg tenoxicam in 25 ml normal saline, or 2 mg morphine in 25 ml normal saline. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale and measuring analgesic requirements. We found both that both intra-articular tenoxicam and intra-articular morphine provided better analgesia than that in the control group. Although pain scores were similar between tenoxicam and morphine groups 30 min postoperative, the analgesic requirements in with tenoxicam were significantly lower than those with morphine group 3-6 h postoperatively.

  19. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a polylactic acid bioabsorbable screw: Case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Horng Lii; Chen, Darren B; Seeto, Bradley G; Macdessi, Samuel J

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of pretibial sinus and abscess after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a polylactic acid tricalcium phosphate bioabsorbable screw for tibial fixation. Mycobacterium fortuitum was identified as the pathogen after specific mycobacterial cultures were obtained from operative specimens. M. fortuitum is a known but rare cause of periprosthetic infection. Diagnosis is often delayed as routine microbiological cultures do not utilise specific culture requirements for mycobacterial growth. There have been several reports in the literature of sterile abscesses associated with bioabsorbable screws. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection associated with a bioabsorbable implant. This case illustrates that post-operative Mycobacterium infection can occur as a complication of ACL reconstruction with bioabsorbable screw fixation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of post-operative periprosthetic infection.

  20. Prognosis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a data-driven approach

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhijit; Kar, Oliva; Wu, Kuan-Chuen; Hall, Michelle; Gillette, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are at higher risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) and almost 50% display symptoms 10–20 years post injury. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often does not protect against knee OA development. Accordingly, a multi-scale formulation for data-driven prognosis (DDP) of post-ACLR is developed. Unlike traditional predictive strategies that require controlled off-line measurements or ‘training’ for determination of constitutive parameters to derive the transitional statistics, the proposed DDP algorithm relies solely on in situ measurements. The proposed DDP scheme is capable of predicting onset of instabilities. As the need for off-line testing (or training) is obviated, it can be easily implemented for ACLR, where such controlled a priori testing is almost impossible to conduct. The DDP algorithm facilitates hierarchical handling of the large dataset and can assess the state of recovery in post-ACLR conditions based on data collected from stair ascent and descent exercises of subjects. The DDP algorithm identifies inefficient knee varus motion and knee rotation as primary difficulties experienced by some of the post-ACLR population. In such cases, levels of energy dissipation rate at the knee, and its fluctuation may be used as measures for assessing progress after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27547072

  1. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention. PMID:27630396

  2. Transphyseal Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using Hamstring Autograft in Skeletally Immature Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seon, Jong Keun; Yoon, Taek Rim; Park, Sang Jin

    2005-01-01

    Eleven skeletally immature adolescents underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a transphyseal tibial and femoral tunnel. An autologous quadrupled hamstring tendon was used in all cases and the average follow-up was 77.7 months. Clinical results were evaluated using Lysholm knee scores and a return to pre-injury sports activities. Radiological results were evaluated using side-to-side differences of instrumented laxities and growth disturbances compared with the uninjured side on final follow-up orthoroentgenograms. The mean Lysholm score was 97.8 (range 94-100) and mean side-to-side laxity difference was 2.4 mm (range 1-4). Ten of 11 patients returned to pre-injury sports activity. No patient had a leg length discrepancy of over 1 cm or a significant abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. Therefore, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transphyseal tunnel and hamstring autograft in skeletally immature adolescents is believed to be a reliable treatment method, which is not associated with significant leg length discrepancy or abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. PMID:16361818

  3. Proprioception and Clinical Results of Anterolateral Single-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Remnant Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dung Chul; Kwack, Byung Hoon; Lee, Sung Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical and radiological results and proprioception following anterolateral single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with an isolated PCL injury (16 males and 4 females) were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 61 months (≥24 months) and the mean age of the patients was 36 years. Knee joint instability was evaluated using posterior drawer stress radiography. Knee function, level of activities, and individual satisfaction were assessed using the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity score, and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Knee proprioception was assessed using an isokinetic machine. Results The mean ligament laxity assessed using the posterior drawer stress radiography was improved from 10.8-3.2 mm. The mean Lysholm knee score was improved from 70.0-88.9 points, and the mean Tegner activity score was improved from 2.7-6.2 points. Individual satisfaction assessed using the IKDC score was improved from 62.7-85.4 points (p<0.05). Knee proprioception was not significantly different between the treated and the uninjured knees. Conclusions Single-bundle PCL reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury exhibited satisfactory outcomes regarding functional outcome, joint stability, and proprioception. PMID:24032101

  4. A quantitative assessment of the insertional footprints of the hip joint capsular ligaments and their spanning fibers for reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Telleria, Jessica J M; Lindsey, Derek P; Giori, Nicholas J; Safran, Marc R

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative descriptions of the hip joint capsular ligament insertional footprints have been reported. Using a three-dimensional digitizing system, and computer modeling, the area, and dimensions of the three main hip capsular ligaments and their insertional footprints were quantified in eight cadaveric hips. The iliofemoral ligament (ILFL) attaches proximally to the anterolateral supra-acetabular region (mean area = 4.2 cm(2)). The mean areas of the ILFL lateral and medial arm insertional footprints are 4.8 and 3.1 cm(2), respectively. The pubofemoral ligament (proximal footprint mean area = 1.4 cm(2)) blends with the medial ILFL anteriorly and the proximal ischiofemoral ligament (ISFL) distally without a distal bony insertion. The proximal and distal ISFL footprint mean areas are 6.4 and 1.2 cm(2), respectively. The hip joint capsular ligaments have consistent anatomic and insertional patterns. Quantification of the ligaments and their attachment sites may aid in improving anatomic repairs and reconstructions of the hip joint capsule using open and/or arthroscopic techniques.

  5. Neuromuscular Fatigue Alters Postural Control and Sagittal Plane Hip Biomechanics in Active Females With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Barnett S.; Gilsdorf, Christine M.; Goerger, Benjamin M.; Prentice, William E.; Padua, Darin A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Females with history of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and subsequent ligament reconstruction are at high risk for future ACL injury. Fatigue may influence the increased risk of future injury in females by altering lower extremity biomechanics and postural control. Hypothesis: Fatigue will promote lower extremity biomechanics and postural control deficits associated with ACL injury. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen physically active females with ACL reconstruction (mean age, 19.64 ± 1.5 years; mean height, 163.52 ± 6.18 cm; mean mass, 62.6 ± 13.97 kg) volunteered for this study. Postural control and lower extremity biomechanics were assessed in the surgical limb during single-leg balance and jump-landing tasks before and after a fatigue protocol. Main outcome measures were 3-dimensional hip and knee joint angles at initial contact, peak angles, joint angular displacements and peak net joint moments, anterior tibial shear force, and vertical ground reaction force during the first 50% of the loading phase of the jump-landing task. During the single-leg stance task, the main outcome measure was center of pressure sway speed. Results: Initial contact hip flexion angle decreased (t = −2.82, P = 0.01; prefatigue, 40.98° ± 9.79°; postfatigue, 36.75° ± 8.61°) from pre- to postfatigue. Hip flexion displacement (t = 2.23, P = 0.04; prefatigue, 45.19° ± 14.1°; postfatigue, 47.48° ± 14.21°) and center of pressure sway speed (t = 3.95, P < 0.05; prefatigue, 5.18 ± 0.96 cm/s; postfatigue, 6.20 ± 1.72 cm/s) increased from pre- to postfatigue. There was a trending increase in hip flexion moment (t = 2.14, P = 0.05; prefatigue, 1.66 ± 0.68 Nm/kg/m; postfatigue, 1.91 ± 0.62 Nm/kg/m) from pre- to postfatigue. Conclusion: Fatigue may induce lower extremity biomechanics and postural control deficits that may be associated with ACL injury in physically active females with ACL reconstruction. Clinical Relevance

  6. A Comparison between Clinical Results of Selective Bundle and Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all p<0.001). At last follow-up, mean side-to-side instrumented laxities measured by the KT-2000 and manual stress radiography were significantly improved from preoperative data in all groups (all p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the three groups in anterior instability measured by KT-2000 arthrometer, pivot shift, or functional scores. Conclusion Selective bundle reconstruction in partial ACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652

  7. RANDOMIZED PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON TRAUMATIC PATELLAR DISLOCATION: CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT VERSUS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT USING THE PATELLAR TENDON, WITH A MINIMUM OF TWO YEARS OF FOLLOW-UP

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; D'Elia, Caio Oliveira; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Viegas, Alexandre Christo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the surgical results from reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) with non-operative treatment of primary patellar dislocation. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (41 knees) with patellar dislocation were randomized into two groups. One group was treated conservatively (immobilization and physiotherapy) and other was treated surgically with reconstruction of the MPFL, and the results were evaluated with a minimum follow-up of two years. The Kujala questionnaire was applied to assess pain and quality of life, and recurrences were evaluated. Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used in the statistical evaluation. Results: The statistical analysis showed that the mean Kujala score was significantly lower in the conservative group (70.8), compared with the mean value in the surgical group (88.9), with p = 0.001. The surgical group presented a higher percentage of “good/excellent” Kujala score results (71.43%) than in the conservative group (25.0%), with p = 0.003. The conservative group presented a greater number of recurrences (35% of the cases), while in the surgical group there were no reports of recurrences and/or subluxation. Conclusions: Treatment with reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the patellar tendon produced better results, based on the analysis of post-treatment recurrences and the better final results from the Kujala questionnaire after a minimum follow-up period of two years. PMID:27027072

  8. Arthroscopic anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Devgan, Ashish; Singh, Amanpreet; Gogna, Paritosh; Singla, Rohit; Magu, Narender Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Reetadyuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been the current standard of treatment for ACL deficiency. However, a significant subset of patients continue to report residual symptoms of instability with a poor pivot control. Cadaveric biomechanical studies have shown double bundle (DB) ACL reconstructions to restore the knee kinematics better. This study evaluates the outcome of DB ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: 30 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic DB ACL reconstruction were included in this prospective longitudinal study. There were all males with a mean age of 25 ± 7.45 years. All patients were prospectively evaluated using GeNouRoB (GNRB) arthrometer, functional knee scores (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] and Lysholm) and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for comparing the graft orientation and footprint of the reconstructed ACL with that of the normal knee. Results: The average followup was 36.2 months. At the time of final followup the mean Lysholm score was 93.13 ± 3.31. As per the objective IKDC score, 26 patients (86.6%) were in Group A while 4 patients (13.3%) were in Group B. The mean differential anterior tibial translation by GNRB, arthrometer was 1.07 ± 0.8 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm). All cases had a negative pivot shift test. MRI scans of operated and the contralateral normal knee showed the mean sagittal ACL tibial angle coronal ACL tibial angle and tibial ACL footprint to be in accordance with the values of the contralateral, normal knee. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that DB ACL reconstruction restores the ACL anatomically in terms of size and angle of orientation. However, long term studies are needed to further substantiate its role in decreasing the incidence of early osteoarthritic changes compared to the conventional single bundle reconstructions. PMID:26015600

  9. Arthroscopic Control for Safe and Secure Seating of Suspensory Devices for Femoral Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Three Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seo Goo; Lee, Yong Seuk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our technique that allows direct visualization of seating of suspensory devices in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods Three different suspensory devices (TightRope RT, RetroButton, and EndoButton) were used in ACL reconstruction using 3 different techniques (outside-in, anteromedial [AM] portal, and transtibial techniques). Positioning of a guiding material and seating pattern of the suspensory devices were evaluated according to the surgical technique and suspensory device used. Results On the transtibial technique, 21 of total 26 cases (81%) of single bundle reconstructions and 22 of total 22 cases (100%) of double bundle reconstructions required superolateral capsulotomy where buttons were found in 21 of total 21 cases (100%) and 17 of 22 cases (77%), respectively. On the AM portal technique, all patients required capsulotomy and the button was found in only 18 of total 32 cases (56%) even after capsulotomy. On the outside-in technique, all patients required capsulotomy and the button was found in 86 of total 86 cases (100%). Conclusions Our technique for direct visualization of seating of the suspensory devices was more effective in outside-in and single bundle transtibial ACL reconstruction. However, it was less effective in double bundle transtibial and AM portal ACL reconstructions. PMID:28231646

  10. Comparison of Short-term Complications Between 2 Methods of Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Lane N.; Lake, Nicholas; Stiefel, Eric C.; Hobgood, Edward R.; Ramsey, J. Randall; O’Brien, Michael J.; Field, Larry D.; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous techniques have been used to treat acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation, with anatomic reconstruction of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments becoming a popular method of fixation. Anatomic CC ligament reconstruction is commonly performed with cortical fixation buttons (CFBs) or tendon grafts (TGs). Purpose: To report and compare short-term complications associated with AC joint stabilization procedures using CFBs or TGs. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the operative treatment of AC joint injuries between April 2007 and January 2013 at 2 institutions. Thirty-eight patients who had undergone a procedure for AC joint instability were evaluated. In these 38 patients with a mean age of 36.2 years, 18 shoulders underwent fixation using the CFB technique and 20 shoulders underwent reconstruction using the TG technique. Results: The overall complication rate was 42.1% (16/38). There were 11 complications in the 18 patients in the CFB group (61.1%), including 7 construct failures resulting in a loss of reduction. The most common mode of failure was suture breakage (n = 3), followed by button migration (n = 2) and coracoid fracture (n = 2). There were 5 complications in the TG group (25%), including 3 cases of asymptomatic subluxation, 1 symptomatic suture granuloma, and 1 superficial infection. There were no instances of construct failure seen in TG fixations. CFB fixation was found to have a statistically significant increase in complications (P = .0243) and construct failure (P = .002) compared with TG fixation. Conclusion: CFB fixation was associated with a higher rate of failure and higher rate of early complications when compared with TG fixation. PMID:27504468

  11. Functional Outcome of Transphyseal Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Shim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, conventional adult reconstruction techniques have to face the potential risk of growth disturbance or angular deformities in skeletally immature patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction by conventional transphyseal tunnel technique. Materials and Methods On a retrospective basis, we reviewed 25 skeletally immature patients; all the patients showed skeletal maturity at last follow-up, and the mean age was 16.4 years. The average injury to surgery interval was 12.6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed at a mean of 74.4 months postoperatively using the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, the Tegner activity level, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and plain radiographs. Results All the patients had undergone transphyseal reconstruction of ACL. The mean Lysholm score was 48.36 points preoperatively and 93.32 points postoperatively; the mean Tegner activity level was changed from 3.0 points to 5.6 points. The mean IKDC level was categorized as C preoperatively and changed to A postoperatively. Conclusions Our midterm outcome at an average 6 years after surgery was satisfactory without significant leg length discrepancies or abnormal alignment of the knee joint. Transphyseal reconstruction of ACL is a good treatment modality in the skeletally immature patient. PMID:22977795

  12. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  13. A new technique for femoral and tibial tunnel bone grafting using the OATS harvesters in revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Said, Hatem G; Baloch, Khalid; Green, Marcus

    2006-07-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is becoming more frequent, especially in specialized centers, because of the large numbers of primary ACL procedures performed. In 2-stage revisions, bone grafting of the tunnels may be undertaken if the primary position was inaccurate or if osteolysis has caused widening of the tunnels. This will allow the desired placement of the new tunnels without the risk of loss of structural integrity. It is technically difficult to deliver and impact bone graft into the femoral tunnel with the standard surgical and arthroscopic instruments. We describe a new technique for femoral and tibial tunnel impaction grafting in 2-stage ACL revisions, using the OATS grafting instruments (Osteochondral Autologous Transfer System; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The appropriately sized OATS harvester is chosen 1 mm larger than the tunnel size and is used to harvest bone graft from the iliac crest through a percutaneous approach. This provides a cylindrical graft, which is delivered to the femoral tunnel through the arthroscopic portal. The inside punch of the harvester is tapped and this allows delivery of the graft in a controlled manner and its impaction into the tunnel. The same is repeated for the tibial tunnel while providing support for the proximal end of the tunnel.

  14. Assessment of functional impairment after knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cardiorespiratory parameters: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A dynamic sub-maximum exercise with the same absolute intensity, performed with different muscle groups, may present exacerbated cardiorespiratory responses. Therefore, cardiorespiratory responses to unilateral exercise may identify bilateral differences. The purpose of this study was to verify whether the cardiorespiratory responses to lower limb exercise display counter-lateral differences, and if they could be used to assist athletes and health professionals involved in rehabilitation. Methods Nine individuals participated in this cross-sectional study. They had been treated in a private rehabilitation clinic and submitted to intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The cycling exercise with the same sub-maximal intensity and with one lower limb was used to gather data. Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise were compared between exercises performed with the involved and uninvolved limb after five minutes of exercise. Results Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise performed with the involved limb presented higher values after five minutes of cycling: oxygen uptake (+7%), carbon dioxide production (+10%), minute ventilation (+20%), breathing frequency (+19%), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (+14%), end-tidal pressure of O2 oxygen (+4%), end-tidal pressure of O2 carbon dioxide (-9%) and heart rate (+9%). Conclusions The exacerbated responses, including increase of the ventilatory equivalent and decrease of end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide, indicate that this exercise protocol may be useful in the characterization of the functional deficit of the surgical limb during rehabilitation. PMID:24885115

  15. Outcome of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using crosspin and aperture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Goyal, Ankit; Bahl, Vibhu; Modi, Prashant; Chaudhary, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (DBACL) reconstruction is said to reproduce the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy better than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament, whether it leads to better functional results is debatable. Different fixation methods have been used for DBACL reconstruction, the most common being aperture fixation on tibial side and cortical suspensory fixation on the femoral side. We present the results of DBACL reconstruction technique, wherein on the femoral side anteromedial (AM) bundle is fixed with a crosspin and aperture fixation was done for the posterolateral (PL) bundle. Materials and Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Results: The KT-1000 results were evaluated using paired t test with the P value set at 0.001. At the end of 1

  16. Complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with reconstructed ligament by trapezius muscle fascia and observation of fascial metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaoliang; Huang, Sufang; Wang, Yingzhen; Sun, Xuesheng; Zhu, Tao; Li, Qiang; Lin, Chu

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term clinical results of acute complete acromioclavicular dislocations treated by reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament using trapezius muscle fascia. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using the clavicular hook plate in 12 patients with acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation, and the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were reconstructed using trapezius muscle fascia. Radiographic evaluations were conducted postoperatively. We evaluated the functional results with constant scoring system and radiological results at the final follow-up visit. The mean Constant score at the final follow-up visit was 91.67 (range, 81 to 100). The results were excellent in eight patients (66.7%) and good in four patients (33.3%). Three patients with scores from 80 to 90 had mild pain during activity, but this did not affect the range of motion of the shoulder. All patients have returned to their preoperative work without any limitations. Compared with the contralateral side, radiography showed anatomical reposition in the vertical plane in all cases. The hook-plate fixation with ligament reconstruction was successful in treating AC dislocations. The acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament were reconstructed by trapezius muscle fascia that keep the distal clavicle stable both vertically and horizontally after type III injuries. PMID:28352721

  17. Posterior Tibial Tendoscopy: Endoscopic Synovectomy and Assessment of the Spring (Calcaneonavicular) Ligament.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A tear of the spring ligament is frequently associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Repair of the damaged spring ligament is an important component of surgical reconstruction in the treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction because it is a major anatomic contributor to the integrity of the medial longitudinal arch, particularly if the dynamic support of the posterior tibial tendon is compromised. Extensive dissection is required for exposure and repair of the ligament because it is a deep-seated structure. It is beneficial to confirm the presence of ligament tears before surgical exploration to avoid unnecessary dissection. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound studies have moderate sensitivity in the detection of these tears. We report an arthroscopic technique for assessment of the integrity of the spring ligament during endoscopic or open reconstruction of the posterior tibial tendon. This allows the surgeon to confirm the presence of a ligament tear before additional dissection to explore and repair the ligament.

  18. Intermediate- to Long-Term Results of Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Andrew N.; Bryant, Tim; Ogura, Takahiro; Minas, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cartilage injury associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures is common; however, relatively few reports exist on concurrent cartilage repair with ACL reconstruction. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been utilized successfully for treatment of moderate to large chondral defects. Hypothesis: ACL insufficiency with relatively large chondral defects may be effectively managed with concurrent ACL reconstruction and ACI. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Patients undergoing concurrent ACL primary or revision reconstruction with ACI of single or multiple cartilage defects were prospectively evaluated for a minimum 2 years. Pre- and postoperative outcome measures included the modified Cincinnati Rating Scale (MCRS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, visual analog pain scales, and postsurgery satisfaction surveys. ACI graft failure or persistent pain without functional improvement were considered treatment failures. Results: Twenty-six patients were included, with 13 primary and 13 revision ACL reconstructions performed. Mean defect total surface area was 8.4 cm2, with a mean follow-up of 95 months (range, 24-240 months). MCRS improved from 3.62 ± 1.42 to 5.54 ± 2.32, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index from 45.31 ± 17.27 to 26.54 ± 17.71, and visual analog pain scale from 6.19 ± 1.27 to 3.65 ± 1.77 (all Ps <.001). Eight patients were clinical failures, 69% of patients were improved at final follow-up, and 92% stated they would likely undergo the procedure again. No outcome correlation was found with regard to age, body mass index, sex, defect size/number, follow-up time, or primary versus revision ACL reconstruction. In subanalysis, revision ACL reconstructions had worse preoperative MCRS scores and greater defect surface areas. However, revision MCRS score improvements were greater, resulting in similar final functional scores when compared with

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Combination of Autograft and Allograft Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Darnley, James E.; Léger-St-Jean, Benjamin; Pedroza, Angela D.; Flanigan, David C.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Magnussen, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring autografts less than 8.5 mm in diameter is associated with worse patient-reported outcome scores and increased risk of revision surgery compared with reconstructions performed with larger grafts. One proposed solution to small autograft harvest is to create a hybrid graft by augmenting autografts with allograft tissue to increase graft diameter. Purpose: To compare hybrid autograft/allograft ACL reconstruction to autograft ACL reconstruction, specifically analyzing the patient-reported outcome scores and the risk of revision surgery at 2 years postoperative. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From the years 2002 to 2009, a total of 34 patients were identified from a prospectively collected database as having undergone hybrid ACL reconstruction. Twenty-seven of 34 (79.4%) patients had a 2-year follow-up. These 27 patients were matched by age (within 1 year) and sex to 27 patients who underwent hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction during the same period. At the 2-year mark, revision surgery risk and patient-reported outcome scores were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The mean age for the hybrid and matched groups (±SD) was 20.9 ± 7.0 years. Both the hybrid and control groups had 17 males and 10 females. There was no significant difference in preoperative patient-reported outcome scores, meniscus tears, or cartilage lesions between the 2 groups. Graft size was larger in the hybrid group (9.5 ± 0.6 mm) than in the autograft group (8.4 ± 0.9 mm) (P < .001). At 2 years postoperative, patient-reported outcome scores were similar between the hybrid and autograft groups. Revision surgery was required in 5 (18.5%) patients who underwent hybrid reconstruction compared with 2 (7.4%) of those who underwent autograft reconstruction (P = .26). Conclusion: Patients who undergo ACL reconstruction with hybrid hamstring grafts and hamstring autografts report similar

  20. Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N.; Keller, Robert A.; Khalil, Lafi S.; Lombardo, Stephen J.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)–caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). Results: With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete’s jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). Conclusion: In athletes who are able to return to sport

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Clinical Outcomes of Patella Tendon and Hamstring Tendon Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Gulick, Dawn T.; Yoder, Heather N.

    2002-01-01

    An injury to the ACL can result in significant functional impairment. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 new ACL injuries occur each year. Surgeons employ numerous techniques for reconstruction of the ACL. Of critical importance is the source of the graft to replace the damaged ACL. The graft choices include autografts (the patient's own tissue), allografts (donor tendon), and synthetic/prosthetic ligaments. Tissue harvest sites for autografting include the middle third of the patella tendon, the quadriceps tendon, semitendinosus tendon, gracilis tendon, iliotibial band, tensor fascia lata, and the Achilles tendon. Selection of the type of graft material is predicated upon the tissue's ability to tolerate high levels of stress. Likewise, the clinical presentation and functional outcome is related to the graft material selected. This manuscript specifically examined the patella tendon and hamstring tendon grafts. Numerous manuscripts that studied the outcomes of these graft materials were compiled to help the clinician appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the graft materials. Outcome measures such as thigh circumference, knee range of motion, isokinetic strength, knee stability, pain, and vertical jump/1-leg hop were incorporated. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare and contrast the clinical presentation of patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction using the patella tendon versus the hamstring tendons. This information can be valuable to the clinician when considering the rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24701126

  2. INFLUENCE OF ANTERIOR PAIN ON RESULTS FROM ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Wilson; Santos, Claudinei; Ferracini, Antonio Marcos; Dejour, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of residual pain on functional outcomes two years after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare the types of graft used during the procedure (patellar vs. flexor). Method: A retrospective epidemiological study on 129 ACL reconstructions with a mean follow-up of 28 months was conducted. The presence, intensity and location of the anterior pain were investigated. Pain provocation tests were conducted, sensitivity was analyzed and functional scores were applied (IKDC, femoropatellar and SF-36), comparing the results with the type of graft used. Results: Anterior pain was present in 28% of patients with a mean intensity of 2.9 in 10. When pain was present, the functional scores decreased significantly. Abnormalities of knee sensitivity and gait occurred frequently with use of the patellar tendon, but there was no statistical difference regarding the presence of pain. Conclusion: The presence of anterior pain in ACL reconstructions, even if minimal, has a deleterious effect on the final outcome over the medium term. Because of the influence of graft harvesting on the presence of abnormalities of knee sensitivity and gait, choosing the graft should take into account the patient's professional and sports activities. PMID:27026984

  3. Effects of electrical and electromagnetic stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Currier, D P; Ray, J M; Nyland, J; Rooney, J G; Noteboom, J T; Kellogg, R

    1993-04-01

    A need exists to develop new methods of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that are both effective and relatively pain-free. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effects of both NMES and a new method of electromagnetic (NMES/PEMF) stimulation for reducing girth loss and for reducing pain and muscle weakness of the knee extensor muscles in patients during the first 6 weeks after reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventeen patients receiving ACL reconstructive surgery participated as a control group (N = 3), as an NMES group (N = 7), and with combined NMES and magnetic field stimulation (NMES/PEMF) (N = 7). Patients receiving NMES/PEMF rated each type of stimulation for perceived pain and were measured for their torque. Torque results revealed a mean decrease of 13.1% for NMES/PEMF patients. The mean percent of thigh girth decreased 8.3% for controls, 0.5% for NMES, and 2.3% for NMES/PEMF patients. The NMES/PEMF patients rated NMES as causing about twice the pain intensity as NMES/PEMF during treatments. As a result of this data, the authors conclude that both NMES and NMES/PEMF are effective in reducing girth loss and that NMES/PEMF is less painful than NMES alone in treating patients after ACL reconstruction.

  4. Evaluation of Infection after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction during a Short Period

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-June; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Jong-Chul; Min, Seung-Gi; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We encountered 7 cases (7.1%) of infection (5 deep and 2 superficial) in 98 cases of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autografts in a 17-month period. The aim of this study was to analyze the causes of infection and to introduce our treatment strategy. Materials and Methods We investigated the shelf-life of the fixation implants, the order of surgery, previous knee surgery, infectious pathogen, treatment of infection, and results of treatment. Results There was no problem with the expiration date of the fixation implants. The order of surgery was either the last or second to the last of all those performed on the same day. One patient had undergone knee surgery 8 months previously. The treatment after infection included aggressive debridement in all cases. Revision ACL reconstruction with graft removal was performed in 1 case of persistent infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. All cases had satisfactory clinical results without recurrence during a mean 24.9 months of follow-up. Conclusions We could not verify the exact cause of the high incidence of infection during the 17-month period. However, preventive measures are important to decrease the incidence of infection after ACL reconstruction. PMID:28231648

  5. Change in posture control after recent knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Dauty, Marc; Collon, Sylvie; Dubois, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare statical postures of a knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) population with a healthy control population. Thirty-five patients (age 25.5 +/- 5.8 years) were compared at 15 days after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with 35 healthy, age and sex-matched subjects. Bilateral and unilateral postures were studied according to various stances, knee extension and 20 degrees knee flexion with opened and closed eyes, using a stabilometric platform. A comparison with the non-ACLR limb and the healthy limbs of the control population was carried out. The ACLR subjects present with the following: (i) a significant change in two-legged stance, i.e. distances covered by the centre of pressure projection are significantly increased; (ii) a postural alteration during the ACLR one-legged stance with knee extension and opened eyes in comparison with the non-ACLR limb; (iii) an incapacity for certain ACLR subjects to perform one-legged stance on the non-ACLR limb when there is no visual compensation. Only 11.4% (95% CI: 0.9-21.9%) and 42.8% (95% CI: 26.3-59.3%) of ACLR subjects are capable of maintaining correctly a one-legged stance posture with closed eyes on both sides (knee extension and flexion, respectively). The identification of the ACLR knee limb is possible from the one-legged stance postural test in knee extension and opened eyes condition. Because of a change in two-legged balance and of the incapacity for certain ACLR subjects to maintain one-legged stance with closed eyes, a central origin explaining the abnormalities of postural control is suggested.

  6. Effect of knee angle on quadriceps strength and activation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Theuerkauf, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Quadriceps strength and activation deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or surgery are typically evaluated at joint positions that are biomechanically advantageous to the quadriceps muscle. However, the effect of knee joint position and the associated changes in muscle length on strength and activation is currently unknown in this population. Here, we examined the effect of knee angle on quadriceps strength, activation, and electrically evoked torque in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, we evaluated whether knee angle mediated the relationship between quadriceps weakness and functional performance after ACL reconstruction. Knee strength and activation were tested bilaterally at 90° and 45° of knee flexion in 11 subjects with ACL reconstruction using an interpolated triplet technique. The magnitude of electrically evoked torque at rest was used to quantify peripheral muscle contractile property changes, and the single-leg hop for distance test was used to evaluate functional performance. The results indicated that although quadriceps strength deficits were similar between knee angles, voluntary activation deficits were significantly higher in the reconstructed leg at 45° of knee flexion. On the contrary, the side-to-side evoked torque at rest ratio [i.e., (reconstructed/nonreconstructed) × 100] was significantly lower at 90° than at 45° of knee flexion. The association between quadriceps strength and functional performance was stronger at 45° of knee flexion. The results provide novel evidence that quadriceps activation is selectively affected at 45° of knee flexion and emphasize the importance of assessing quadriceps strength and activation at this position when feasible because it better captures activation deficits. PMID:25997949

  7. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Rehabilitation With Cryotherapy in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Joseph M.; Kuenze, Christopher M.; Diduch, David R.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. Objective: To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. Intervention(s): The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. Results: After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). Conclusions: After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone. PMID:25299442

  8. Spontaneous locking of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as a result of a broken tibial fixation device.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Andrew J; James, Stuart H; Fairclough, John A

    2008-10-01

    The Intrafix device (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) is one of a number of recently developed products whose aim is to improve fixation of quadrupled hamstring grafts when used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We present a case of failure and intra-articular migration of the sleeve of an Intrafix device causing locking of the knee 10 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We were unable to identify the cause of the failure or migration of the device. Rehabilitation had been progressing normally and without incident. The broken fragments were removed arthroscopically, and the reconstruction was found to be intact and healing well. Presumably, the device retained enough mechanical function to allow healing to progress, despite failure of the sleeve. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of such an event occurring with the new generation of hamstring graft fixation devices.

  9. Dynamic Simulation of the Effects of Graft Fixation Errors During Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John J.; Kelly, Michael J.; Smith, Kathryn E.; Gall, Kenneth A.; Farr, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is performed to prevent recurrent instability, but errors in femoral fixation can elevate graft tension. Hypothesis: Errors related to femoral fixation will overconstrain the patella and increase medial patellofemoral pressures. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Five knees with patellar instability were represented with computational models. Kinematics during knee extension were characterized from computational reconstruction of motion performed within a dynamic computed tomography (CT) scanner. Multibody dynamic simulation of knee extension, with discrete element analysis used to quantify contact pressures, was performed for the preoperative condition and after MPFL reconstruction. A standard femoral attachment and graft resting length were set for each knee. The resting length was decreased by 2 mm, and the femoral attachment was shifted 5 mm posteriorly. The simulated errors were also combined. Root-mean-square errors were quantified for the comparison of preoperative patellar lateral shift and tilt between computationally reconstructed motion and dynamic simulation. Simulation output was compared between the preoperative and MPFL reconstruction conditions with repeated-measures Friedman tests and Dunnett comparisons against a control, which was the standard MPFL condition, with statistical significance set at P < .05. Results: Root-mean-square errors for simulated patellar tilt and shift were 5.8° and 3.3 mm, respectively. Patellar lateral tracking for the preoperative condition was significantly larger near full extension compared with the standard MPFL reconstruction (mean differences of 8 mm and 13° for shift and tilt, respectively, at 0°), and lateral tracking was significantly smaller for a posterior femoral attachment (mean differences of 3 mm and 4° for shift and tilt, respectively, at 0°). The maximum medial pressure was also larger for the short graft with a

  10. Comparing Transtibial and Anteromedial Drilling Techniques for Single-bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sukur, Erhan; Akman, , Yunus Emre; Senel, , Ahmet; Unkar, Ethem Ayhan; Topcu, , Huseyin Nevzat; Ozturkmen, , and Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the many factors that determine the outcome following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the position of the femoral tunnel is known to be critically important and is still the subject of extensive research. Objective: We aimed to retrospectively compare the outcomes of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using transtibial (TT) or anteromedial (AMP) drilling techniques for femoral tunnel placement. Methods: ACL reconstruction was performed using the TT technique in 49 patients and the AMP technique in 56 patients. Lachman and pivot-shift tests, the Lysholm Knee Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner activity scale and visual analog scale (VAS) were used for the clinical and functional evaluation of patients. Time to return to normal life and time to jogging were assessed in addition to the radiological evaluation of femoral tunnel placement. Results: In terms of the Lysholm, IKDC, Tegner score, and stability tests, no significant differences were found between the two groups (p > 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed reduced time to return to normal life and jogging in the AMP group (p < 0.05). The VAS score was also significantly reduced in the AMP group (p < 0.05). The position of the femoral tunnel was anatomically appropriate in 51 patients in the AMP group and 5 patients in the TT group. Conclusion: The AMP technique is superior to the TT technique in creating anatomical femoral tunnel placement during single-bundle ACL reconstruction and provides faster recovery in terms of return to normal life and jogging at short-term follow-up. PMID:27733884

  11. Mid-Term Outcomes of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Far Anteromedial Portal Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yoon Sang; Choi, Sung Wook; Park, Ju Hyun; Yoon, Jae Sik; Shin, Jung Sub; Kim, Myung Ku

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcomes of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using two anteromedial (AM) portals by comparing with short-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods Fifty patients who were treated by ACL reconstruction using a two AM portal technique were evaluated retrospectively. The follow-up period was at least 5 years. The mean follow-up period was 68.5±13.9 months. The mid-term clinical outcomes were compared with short-term (≥12 months) results. For the assessment of knee stability, anterior tibial translation was evaluated using the Lachman test and the KT-2000. Rotational stability was evaluated using pivot shift test. For clinical assessment, the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used. Results The average anterior translation was 2.1±1.4 mm at the short-term follow-up and 2.8±1.8 mm at the mid-term follow-up. Stability and midterm clinical outcomes were not significantly improved compared to the short-term follow-up results. At the mid-term follow-up, anteroposterior (AP) instability assessed by the KT-2000 was slightly increased, but still acceptable. On the other clinical physical evaluation, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusions The short-term and mid-term outcomes of ACL reconstruction using the two AM portal technique were not significantly different except for AP stability although the value was less than 3 mm at both follow-ups. Therefore, this operative technique could be considered a satisfactory alternative for ACL reconstruction. PMID:28231644

  12. Mechanoreceptor Reinnervation of Autografts Versus Allografts After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon W.; Valladares, Roberto D.; Loi, Florence; Dragoo, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of proprioceptive function occurs after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Clinical, motor, and proprioceptive function is known to improve after ACL reconstruction but does not return to normal. While histological studies of human ACL allografts have been unable to demonstrate mechanoreceptor reinnervation, animal data suggest that reinnervation may occur when an autograft is used. Purpose: To compare the presence or absence of mechanoreceptors between allograft versus autograft after ACL reconstruction in humans. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Ten patients with previous ACL reconstruction presenting for either revision ACL surgery or knee arthroscopy for other reasons were enrolled in a prospective, comparative study. Five patients had a previous autograft ACL and 5 patients had an allograft. Biopsies, either from intact or ruptured grafts, were taken from identical locations as close to the femoral and tibial insertions as possible. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and monoclonal antibodies against neurofilament protein (NFP), known to be present in mechanoreceptor tissue. Immunohistochemical examination was carried out, and the number of NFP+ neural tissue analogs was counted and compared with that of native ACL tissue. Results: The mean time between original graft and biopsy was 6.9 years (range, 0.5-15 years). Histological examination showed significantly less NFP+ neural analogs in allograft and autograft patients than control tissue (mean number of NFP+ analogs per high-power field, 0.7 ± 0.9 [allograft] and 0.5 ± 0.8 [autograft] vs 4.7 ± 0.9 [controls]; P < .0001). There was no significant difference in NFP analogs between autograft and allograft tissue. Conclusion: We found a reduced concentration of NFP+ neural analogs in ACL grafts compared with native ACL tissue. This deficit exists irrespective of whether allograft or autograft is used. These findings may explain the continued

  13. Patient Outcomes and Predictors of Success After Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William R.; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J.; Hosseini, Ali; Hampilos, Perry; Li, Guoan; Gill, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient outcomes and predictors of success after revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are currently limited in the literature. Existing studies either have a small study size or are difficult to interpret because of the multiple surgeons involved in the care of the study sample. Purpose: To determine patient outcomes and predictors of success or failure after a single-stage revision ACL reconstruction by a single fellowship-trained senior surgeon at a single institution. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 78 patients who underwent revision ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon from 2010 to 2014 were contacted and available for follow-up. The mean time from revision procedure to follow-up was 52 months. Those patients who were able to participate in the study sent in a completed Tegner activity level scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and IKDC Current Health Assessment Form. The patients’ medical records were also thoroughly reviewed. Results: Five patients had subsequent failure after revision surgery. The median Tegner score was 6 at follow-up, and the mean subjective IKDC score was 72.5. There was no statistically significant difference in outcome scores when comparing revision graft type, body mass index, sex, need for bone grafting, and time from failure to revision. Patients with failures after primary ACL reconstruction secondary to a traumatic event were found to have statistically significantly higher IKDC scores (mean, 76.6) after revision when compared with nontraumatic failures (mean, 67.1), even when controlling for confounders (P < .017). Conclusion: Revision ACL reconstruction is effective in improving patient activity levels and satisfaction. However, the subjective IKDC results are quite variable and likely based on multiple factors. Patients with traumatic injuries contributing to graft failure after primary ACL reconstruction

  14. Osteoarthritis Prevalence Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luc, Brittney; Gribble, Phillip A.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prophylactic capability of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in decreasing the risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) when compared with ACL-deficient patients, as well as the effect of a concomitant meniscectomy. We also sought to examine the influence of study design, publication date, and graft type as well as the magnitude of change in physical activity from preinjury Tegner scores in both cohorts. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases from 1960 through 2012 with the search terms osteoarthritis, meniscectomy, anterior cruciate ligament, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and anterior cruciate ligament deficient. Study Selection: Articles that reported the prevalence of tibiofemoral or patellofemoral OA based on radiographic assessment were included. We calculated numbers needed to treat and relative risk reduction with associated 95% confidence intervals for 3 groups (1) patients with meniscal and ACL injury, (2) patients with isolated ACL injury, and (3) total patients (groups 1 and 2). Data Extraction: A total of 38 studies met the criteria. Of these, 27 assessed the presence of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in patients treated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Data Synthesis: Overall, ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) yielded a numbers needed to treat to harm of 16 with a relative risk increase of 16%. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction along with meniscectomy yielded a numbers needed to treat to benefit of 15 and relative risk reduction of 11%. Isolated ACL-R showed a numbers needed to treat to harm of 8 and relative risk increase of 43%. Activity levels were decreased in both ACL-R (d = −0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.77, 1.13) and ACL-deficient (d = −1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.96, 1.29) patients after injury. Conclusions: The current literature does not provide substantial evidence to suggest that ACL-R is an adequate intervention to prevent knee osteoarthritis

  15. The Restoration of Passive Rotational Tibio-Femoral Laxity after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Moewis, Philippe; Duda, Georg N.; Jung, Tobias; Heller, Markus O.; Boeth, Heide; Kaptein, Bart; Taylor, William R.

    2016-01-01

    While the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is considered one of the most important ligaments for providing knee joint stability, its influence on rotational laxity is not fully understood and its role in resisting rotation at different flexion angles in vivo remains unknown. In this prospective study, we investigated the relationship between in vivo passive axial rotational laxity and knee flexion angle, as well as how they were altered with ACL injury and reconstruction. A rotometer device was developed to assess knee joint rotational laxity under controlled passive testing. An axial torque of ±2.5Nm was applied to the knee while synchronised fluoroscopic images of the tibia and femur allowed axial rotation of the bones to be accurately determined. Passive rotational laxity tests were completed in 9 patients with an untreated ACL injury and compared to measurements at 3 and 12 months after anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction, as well as to the contralateral controls. Significant differences in rotational laxity were found between the injured and the healthy contralateral knees with internal rotation values of 8.7°±4.0° and 3.7°±1.4° (p = 0.003) at 30° of flexion and 9.3°±2.6° and 4.0°±2.0° (p = 0.001) at 90° respectively. After 3 months, the rotational laxity remained similar to the injured condition, and significantly different to the healthy knees. However, after 12 months, a considerable reduction of rotational laxity was observed towards the levels of the contralateral controls. The significantly greater laxity observed at both knee flexion angles after 3 months (but not at 12 months), suggests an initial lack of post-operative rotational stability, possibly due to reduced mechanical properties or fixation stability of the graft tissue. After 12 months, reduced levels of rotational laxity compared with the injured and 3 month conditions, both internally and externally, suggests progressive rotational stability of the reconstruction with

  16. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  17. Knee moments of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and control participants during normal and inclined walking

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Raghav K; Duffell, Lynsey D; Nathwani, Dinesh; McGregor, Alison H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prior injury to the knee, particularly anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, is known to predispose one to premature osteoarthritis (OA). The study sought to explore if there was a biomechanical rationale for this process by investigating changes in external knee moments between people with a history of ACL injury and uninjured participants during walking: (1) on different surface inclines and (2) at different speeds. In addition we assessed functional differences between the groups. Participants 12 participants who had undergone ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma or injury were recruited into this study. Peak knee flexion and adduction moments were assessed during flat (normal and slow speed), uphill and downhill walking using an inclined walkway with an embedded Kistler Force plate, and a ten-camera Vicon motion capture system. Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to assess function. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in gait and KOOS outcomes. Results No significant difference was observed in the peak knee adduction moment between ACLR and control participants, however, in further analysis, MANOVA revealed that ACLR participants with an additional meniscal tear or collateral ligament damage (7 participants) had a significantly higher adduction moment (0.33±0.12 Nm/kg m) when compared with those with isolated ACLR (5 participants, 0.1±0.057 Nm/kg m) during gait at their normal speed (p<0.05). A similar (non-significant) trend was seen during slow, uphill and downhill gait. Conclusions Participants with an isolated ACLR had a reduced adductor moment rather an increased moment, thus questioning prior theories on OA development. In contrast, those participants who had sustained associated trauma to other key knee structures were observed to have an increased adduction moment. Additional injury concurrent with an ACL rupture may

  18. Allograft tissue irradiation and failure rate after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dashe, Jesse; Parisien, Robert L; Cusano, Antonio; Curry, Emily J; Bedi, Asheesh; Li, Xinning

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft irradiation is effective for sterility without compromising graft integrity and increasing failure rate. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, and Google. The following search terms were used: “Gamma irradiation AND anterior cruciate ligament AND allograft” with a return of 30 items. Filters used included: English language, years 1990-2015. There were 6 hits that were not reviewed, as there were only abstracts available. Another 5 hits were discarded, as they did not pertain to the topic of interest. There were 9 more articles that were excluded: Three studies were performed on animals and 6 studies were meta-analyses. Therefore, a total of 10 articles were applicable to review. RESULTS: There is a delicate dosing crossover where gamma irradiation is both effective for sterility without catastrophically compromising the structural integrity of the graft. Of note, low dose irradiation is considered less than 2.0 Mrad, moderate dose is between 2.1-2.4 Mrad, and high dose is greater than or equal to 2.5 Mrad. Based upon the results of the literature search, the optimal threshold for sterilization was found to be sterilization at less than 2.2 Mrad of gamma irradiation with the important caveat of being performed at low temperatures. The graft selection process also must include thorough donor screening and testing as well as harvesting the tissue in a sterile fashion. Utilization of higher dose (≥ 2.5 Mrad) of irradiation causes greater allograft tissue laxity that results in greater graft failure rate clinically in patients after ACL reconstruction. CONCLUSION: Allograft ACL graft gamma irradiated with less than 2.2 Mrad appears to be a reasonable alternative to autograft for patients above 25 years of age. PMID:27335815

  19. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  20. Surgical Treatment of a Rare Isolated Bilateral Agenesis of Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The isolated bilateral agenesis of both cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital disorder. A 17-year-old male came to our attention due to an alteration in gait pattern, pain, and tendency to walk on the forefoot with his knee flexed. The patient did not recall previous injuries. Upon physical examination anterior and posterior chronic instability were observed. Radiographic examination of both knees showed hypoplasia of the tibial eminence, a hypoplastic lateral femoral condyle, and a narrow intercondylar notch. MRI brought to light a bilateral agenesis of both posterior cruciate ligaments. Arthroscopic evaluation confirmed bilateral isolated agenesis of both cruciate ligaments. We recommended a rehabilitation program to prepare the patient for the arthroscopic construction of both cruciate ligaments. PMID:25197599

  1. How Are We Measuring Patient Satisfaction After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A.; Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Ferraro, Richard A.; Schairer, William W.; Steinhaus, Michael E.; Allen, Answorth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common orthopaedic operations in the United States. The long-term impact of ACL reconstruction is controversial, however, as longer term data have failed to demonstrate that ACL reconstruction helps alter the natural history of early onset osteoarthritis that occurs after ACL injury. There is significant interest in evaluating the value of ACL reconstruction surgeries. Purpose: To examine the quality of patient satisfaction reporting after ACL reconstruction surgery. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of the MEDLINE database was performed using the PubMed interface. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as well as the PRISMA checklist were employed. The initial search yielded 267 studies. The inclusion criteria were: English language, US patient population, clinical outcome study of ACL reconstruction surgery, and reporting of patient satisfaction included in the study. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies comprised a total of 1984 patients with a mean age of 31.9 years at the time of surgery and a mean follow-up period of 59.3 months. The majority of studies were evidence level 4 (n = 18; 81.8%), had a mean Newcastle-Ottawa scale score of 5.5, and were published before 2006 (n = 17; 77.3%); 5 studies (22.7%) failed to clearly describe their method for determining patient satisfaction. The most commonly used method for assessing satisfaction was a 0 to 10 satisfaction scale (n = 11; 50.0%). Among studies using a 0 to 10 scale, mean satisfaction ranged from 7.4 to 10.0. Patient-reported outcome and objective functional measures for ACL stability and knee function were positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Degenerative knee change was negatively correlated with satisfaction

  2. Association Between Meniscal and Chondral Lesions and Timing of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Gustavo Constantino; Nery, Wilton; Teixeira, Paulo Eduardo Portes; Araujo, Paulo Henrique; Alves, Wilson de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common sports injury and is known to be associated with an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis. Several studies have indicated that the risk of additional injuries to the menisci and articular cartilage increases with delays in the treatment of ACL tears. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the ideal timing for ACL reconstruction in terms of preventing secondary lesions. Purpose: To determine how the time elapsed between an ACL lesion and its reconstruction affects the incidence of meniscal and chondral lesions. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Medical records of 764 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction were reviewed. Data from arthroscopic findings that included information about meniscal lesions and full-thickness articular cartilage lesions at the time of surgery were collected. The association between time elapsed between ACL lesion and reconstruction surgery and incidence of articular cartilage and meniscal lesions was analyzed by chi-square or Fisher exact test. The risk of secondary lesion was calculated by odds ratios (ORs) obtained from simple logistic regression analysis. Results: A positive correlation was observed between time after injury and the presence of any articular lesions (P = .003), cartilage lesions (P = .01), and medial meniscus lesions (P < .001). When analyzing the risk of secondary lesion relative to the reference period (<2 months), it was observed that the odds of finding any articular injury at the time of ACL reconstruction increased when the time from ACL injury to surgery was between 12 and 24 months (OR = 2.62) and >24 months (OR = 5.88). Furthermore, the odds of lesions on the medial meniscus increased when the timing between injury and surgery was 6 to 12 months (OR = 2.71) and continued to increase when the timing was 12 to 24 months (OR = 3.78) and >24 months (OR = 9.07). Conclusion: Associated articular lesions

  3. Initial evaluation of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: history, physical examination, imaging studies, surgical and nonsurgical indications.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vidriero, Emilio; Simon, David A; Johnson, Donald H

    2010-12-01

    Compared with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, posterior cruciate ligament injuries are a rare event. The mechanisms are predictable and a thorough physical examination is mandatory to rule out or define combined injury patterns. Stress radiography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are very helpful adjuncts. Acute and chronic injuries require slightly different approaches. As our understanding of normal and pathologic knee joint kinematics develops, nonoperative rehabilitation goals and operative techniques continue to evolve.

  4. Orthopedic Practice Patterns Relating to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Fillingham, Yale A; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an online survey of National Hockey League (NHL), Major League Soccer (MLS), and US Olympic/World Cup Ski/Snowboard (Olympic) team orthopedic surgeons to determine practice patterns relating to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in elite athletes. Of the 94 team orthopedic surgeons surveyed, 47 (50%) responded. Mean (SD) experience as a team physician was 7.73 (5.33) years for NHL, 6.77 (6.64) years for MLS, and 1.14 (0.36) years for Olympic. Mean (SD) number of ACL reconstructions performed in 2012 was 101 (51) for NHL, 78 (38) for MLS, and 110 (105) for Olympic. Overall, 33 surgeons (70.2%) indicated they would use bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft to treat their starting athletes. Twenty-one (44.7%) drilled the femoral tunnel through a transtibial portal, 36.2% through an anteromedial portal, and 12.8% by a 2-incision technique. All the surgeons used a single-bundle technique. Thirty-three (70.2%) did not recommend a brace for their elite athletes during play on return to sport (RTS). Twenty-seven NHL and MLS surgeons (81.8%) recommended RTS only after an athlete has passed a series of RTS tests (eg, Vail, single-leg hop). Most of the NHL, MLS, and Olympic team orthopedic surgeons who were surveyed perform their ACL reconstructions using BPTB autograft, using a single-bundle technique, and through a transtibial portal, and do not require bracing for their athletes returning to sport. Most required their athletes to complete a series of RTS tests before resuming competitive play.

  5. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a novel porcine xenograft: the initial Italian experience

    PubMed Central

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; GRASSI, ALBERTO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; DI SARSINA, TOMMASO ROBERTI; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2015-01-01

    At the current state of the art in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, multiple techniques have been presented but none has given clearly defined and improved results. One of the main issues concerns the choice of graft. The concept of using xenograft tissue, defined as a graft tissue from one species and destined for implantation in an unlike species, was introduced in order to try to overcome the mechanical and biological concerns associated with synthetic materials and the safety and quality concerns and availability problems of allograft tissue. Xenograft tissue carries the risk of producing an immunological reaction. In order to try to overcome or attenuate the immune response against porcine xenograft tissue, the Z-Process® (Aperion Biologics Inc, San Antonio, Texas, USA) has been developed and used to produce the Z-Lig® family of devices for ACL reconstruction procedures. Z-Lig® is a tendon graft with or without bone blocks, sourced from animal tissue in a manner consistent with what has normally been sourced from human tissue, and processed to overcome anti-Gal-mediated rejection and to attenuate other immunological recognition in humans. All this while ensuring sterility, viral inactivation and preservation of mechanical proprieties appropriate for an ACL reconstruction device. The Z-Lig® device has been tested in skeletally mature monkeys and given interesting and promising results from the preclinical performance and safety profile point of view. On this basis, it was possible to proceed with the first clinical trial involving humans, which gave similar encouraging results. The Z-Lig® device has also been implanted in Italy at the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute in Bologna, as a part of international multicenter prospective randomized blinded controlled study aimed at comparing xenograft with allograft tissue. PMID:26605257

  7. Validation of an algorithm for planar surgical resection reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Federico E.; Ritacco, Lucas E.; Farfalli, Germán L.; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A.; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán; Risk, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Surgical planning followed by computer-assisted intraoperative navigation in orthopaedics oncology for tumor resection have given acceptable results in the last few years. However, the accuracy of preoperative planning and navigation is not clear yet. The aim of this study is to validate a method capable of reconstructing the nearly planar surface generated by the cutting saw in the surgical specimen taken off the patient during the resection procedure. This method estimates an angular and offset deviation that serves as a clinically useful resection accuracy measure. The validation process targets the degree to which the automatic estimation is true, taking as a validation criterium the accuracy of the estimation algorithm. For this purpose a manually estimated gold standard (a bronze standard) data set is built by an expert surgeon. The results show that the manual and the automatic methods consistently provide similar measures.

  8. Anatomy of the inferior extensor retinaculum and its role in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Dalmau-Pastor, M; Yasui, Y; Calder, J D; Karlsson, J; Kerkhoffs, G M M J; Kennedy, J G

    2016-04-01

    The inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) is an aponeurotic structure, which is in continuation with the anterior part of the sural fascia. The IER has often been used to augment the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments, for instance in the Broström-Gould procedure, with good outcomes reported. However, its anatomy has not been described in detail and only a few studies are available on this structure. The presence of a non-constant oblique supero-lateral band appears to be important. This structure defines whether the augmentation of the lateral ankle ligaments reconstruction is performed using true IER or only the anterior part of the sural fascia. It is concluded that the use of this structure will have an impact on the resulting ankle stability.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament- and hamstring tendon-derived cells: in vitro differential properties of cells involved in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghebes, Corina Adriana; Kelder, Cindy; Schot, Thomas; Renard, Auke J; Pakvis, Dean F M; Fernandes, Hugo; Saris, Daniel B

    2015-03-11

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves the replacement of the torn ligament with a new graft, often a hamstring tendon (HT). Described as similar, the ACL and HT have intrinsic differences related to their distinct anatomical locations. From a cellular perspective, identifying these differences represents a step forward in the search for new cues that enhance recovery after the reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype and multilineage potential of ACL- and HT-derived cells. ACL- and HT-derived cells were isolated from tissue harvest from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or ACL reconstruction. In total, three ACL and three HT donors were investigated. Cell morphology, self-renewal potential (CFU-F), surface marker profiling, expression of tendon/ligament-related markers (PCR) and multilineage potential were analysed for both cell types; both had fibroblast-like morphology and low self-renewal potential. No differences in the expression of tendon/ligament-related genes or a selected set of surface markers were observed between the two cell types. However, differences in their multilineage potential were observed: while ACL-derived cells showed a high potential to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes, but not osteoblasts, HT-derived cells showed poor potential to form adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that HT-derived cells have low multilineage potential compared to ACL-derived cells, further highlighting the need for extrinsic signals to fully restore the function of the ACL upon reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Kinesiophobia After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and Reconstruction: Noncopers Versus Potential Copers

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lynch, Andrew D.; Logerstedt, David S.; Chmielewski, Terese L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Secondary-analysis, longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVES To compare kinesiophobia levels in noncopers and potential copers at time points spanning pre– and post–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to examine the association between changes in kinesiophobia levels and clinical measures. BACKGROUND After ACL injury, a screening examination may be used to classify patients as potential copers or noncopers based on dynamic knee stability. Quadriceps strength, single-leg hop performance, and self-reported knee function are worse in noncopers. High kinesiophobia levels after ACL reconstruction are associated with poorer self-reported knee function and lower return-to-sport rates. Kinesiophobia levels have not been examined before ACL reconstruction, across the transition from presurgery to postsurgery, or based on potential coper and noncoper classification. METHODS Quadriceps strength indexes, single-leg hop score indexes, self-reported knee function (Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living subscale, global rating scale), and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) scores were compiled for potential copers (n = 50) and noncopers (n = 61) from 2 clinical trial databases. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare TSK-11 scores between groups and across 4 time points (before preoperative treatment, after preoperative treatment, 6 months post–ACL reconstruction, and 12 months post–ACL reconstruction). Correlations determined the association of kinesiophobia levels with other clinical measures. RESULTS Presurgery TSK-11 scores were significantly higher in noncopers than in potential copers. Postsurgery, no group differences existed. TSK-11 scores in both groups decreased across all time points; however, TSK-11 scores decreased more in noncopers in the interval between presurgery and postsurgery. In noncopers, the decreases in TSK-11 scores from presurgery to postsurgery and after surgery were

  11. Treatment of patellar instability in a case of hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia (nail-patella syndrome) with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianguo; Qi, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia, also known as nail-patella syndrome (NPS), is a rare genetic disorder that is primarily characterized by poorly developed nails and patella. Patients with NPS frequently suffer from patellar instability that requires surgical management. The present case report describes a 25-year-old man with NPS. The patient presented with left knee pain and was found to have recurrent left patellar dislocation. The knee pain was first reported 1-year after a minor knee trauma incident. Following complete evaluation, a diagnosis of NPS was reached. The patient underwent surgical intervention using medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction with a gracilis tendon autograft looped through two transverse 3.2-mm drill holes in the patella and fixed at the natural MPFL insertion site on the medial femoral condyle with an interference screw. The surgery resulted in stabilization of the patella in the femoral trochlea and the patient did not have any subsequent dislocations or subluxations. The patient had an excellent range of knee movement in the follow-up period. This case indicates that MPFL reconstruction in patients with patellar dislocation secondary to NPS can successfully restore normal patellar tracking and result in good range of movement and functional activity.

  12. Treatment of patellar instability in a case of hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia (nail-patella syndrome) with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GONG, YUBAO; YANG, CHEN; LIU, YANG; LIU, JIANGUO; QI, XIN

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia, also known as nail-patella syndrome (NPS), is a rare genetic disorder that is primarily characterized by poorly developed nails and patella. Patients with NPS frequently suffer from patellar instability that requires surgical management. The present case report describes a 25-year-old man with NPS. The patient presented with left knee pain and was found to have recurrent left patellar dislocation. The knee pain was first reported 1-year after a minor knee trauma incident. Following complete evaluation, a diagnosis of NPS was reached. The patient underwent surgical intervention using medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction with a gracilis tendon autograft looped through two transverse 3.2-mm drill holes in the patella and fixed at the natural MPFL insertion site on the medial femoral condyle with an interference screw. The surgery resulted in stabilization of the patella in the femoral trochlea and the patient did not have any subsequent dislocations or subluxations. The patient had an excellent range of knee movement in the follow-up period. This case indicates that MPFL reconstruction in patients with patellar dislocation secondary to NPS can successfully restore normal patellar tracking and result in good range of movement and functional activity. PMID:27284321

  13. HOW CAN BONE TUNNEL ENLARGEMENT IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY BE MEASURED? DESCRIPTION OF A TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar Leonardi, Adriano Barros de; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Junior, Aires Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgery to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple flexor tendon grafts, and to propose a new technique for its measurement. Methods: The study involved 25 patients aged 18-43 years over a six-month period. The assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and in the third and sixth months of evolution after operations to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using grafts from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, fixed in the femur with a transverse metal screw and in the tibia with an interference screw. The radiographs were evaluated in terms of the relative value between the diameter of the tunnel and the bone, both at 2 cm below the medial tibial condyle. Results: There were significant increases in tunnel diameters: 20.56% for radiographs in anteroposterior view and 26.48% in lateral view. Enlargement was present in 48% of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, but was present in both views in only 16% of the cases. Conclusions: Bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgery to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. The measurement technique proposed in this study was sufficient to detect it. PMID:27027030

  14. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  15. An ambulatory method of identifying anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn; Sweeney, Kevin T; Caulfield, Brian

    2014-01-07

    The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist.

  16. Isokinetic Identification of Knee Joint Torques before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, Adam; Jarocka, Marta; Walawski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serial change of isokinetic muscle strength of the knees before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in physically active males and to estimate the time of return to full physical fitness. Extension and flexion torques were measured for the injured and healthy limbs at two angular velocities approximately 1.5 months before the surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after ACLR. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in peak knee extension and flexion torques, hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios, uninvolved/involved limb peak torque ratios, and the normalized work of these muscles between the four stages of rehabilitation were identified. Significant differences between extension peak torques for the injured and healthy limbs were also detected at all stages. The obtained results showed that 12 months of rehabilitation were insufficient for the involved knee joint to recover its strength to the level of strength of the uninvolved knee joint. The results helped to evaluate the progress of the rehabilitation and to implement necessary modifications optimizing the rehabilitation training program. The results of the study may also be used as referential data for physically active males of similar age. PMID:26646385

  17. Investigation of a hybrid method of soft tissue graft fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony G; Otto, David D; Raso, V James; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2005-04-01

    To increase knee stability following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, development of increasingly stronger and stiffer fixation is required. This study assessed the initial pullout force, stiffness of fixation, and failure modes for a novel hybrid fixation method combining periosteal and direct fixation using porcine femoral bone. A soft tissue graft was secured by combining both an interference screw and an EndoButton (Smith and Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA). The results were compared with the traditional direct fixation method using a titanium interference screw. Twenty porcine hindlimbs were divided into two groups. Specimens were loaded in line with the bone tunnel on a materials testing machine. Maximum pullout force of the hybrid fixation (588+/-37 N) was significantly greater than with an interference screw alone (516+/-37 N). The stiffness of the hybrid fixation (52.1+/-12.8 N/mm) was similar to that of screw fixation (56.5+/-10.2 N/mm). Graft pullout was predominant for screw fixation, whereas a combination of graft pullout and graft failure was seen for hybrid fixation. These results indicate that initial pullout force of soft tissue grafts can be increased by using the suggested novel hybrid fixation method.

  18. A new surgical technique for medial collateral ligament balancing: multiple needle puncturing.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Victor, Jan

    2010-10-01

    In this article, we present our experience with a new technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the medial collateral ligament (MCL) using a 19-gauge needle, to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Ligament status was evaluated both before and after the procedure using computer navigation and mediolateral stress testing. The procedure was considered successful when 2 to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 34 of 35 cases, a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above described criteria. One case was considered overreleased in extension. Needle puncturing is a new, effective, and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness in the varus knee.

  19. Efficacy of Osteoconductive Ceramics in Bioresorbable Screws for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Johannes; Akritopoulos, Panagiotis; Graveleau, Nicolas; Barthelemy, Renaud; Toanen, Cécile; Saffarini, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoconductive additives are used in resorbable interference screws for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to improve graft incorporation and mitigate adverse effects. There are no published studies that compare biological performances of bioresorbable and biocomposite screws without artifacts due to different follow-up times and intrinsic patient characteristics. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of osteoconductive agents in bioresorbable screws for ACL reconstruction at minimum follow-up of 2 years by intrapatient comparison. The hypothesis was that osteoconductive ceramics would result in slower resorption, improved ossification, and less tunnel widening. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 28 ACL reconstructions at 2 centers were randomly assigned into 2 comparable groups: (1) the graft was fixed in the tibia using standard bioresorbable screws and in the femur using biocomposite screws with osteoconductive agents (biphasic calcium phosphate), and (2) the graft was fixed in the femur using a standard bioresorbable screw and in the tibia using a biocomposite screw with osteoconductive agents. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed evaluations at 29.9 ± 4.0 months. Resorption was complete for more bioresorbable (81%) than biocomposite (37%) screws (P = .0029), whereas satisfactory ossification was observed in more biocomposite (52%) than bioresorbable (15%) screws (P = .0216). The tunnel shape was normal in more biocomposite (81%) than bioresorbable (48%) screws (P = .0126), and marked cortical formation was twice more frequent for biocomposite (78%) than bioresorbable (37%) screws (P = .0012). Bioresorbable screws exhibited faster resorption in the femur (P = .0202) but not in the tibia (not significant). Conversely, biocomposite screws demonstrated better ossification, less tunnel widening, and more cortical formation in the tibia (P < .0001, P = .0227, and P

  20. The efficacy of combined cryotherapy and compression compared with cryotherapy alone following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Brian; Walker, John J; Swaims, Chad; Shortt, Michael; Todd, Michael S; Machen, Shaun M; Owens, Brett D

    2012-05-01

    While cryotherapy has been shown to decrease postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, less is known of the effects of combined cryotherapy and compression. The goal of this study was to compare subjective and objective patient outcomes following ACL reconstruction with combined compression and cryotherapy compared with traditional ice therapy alone. Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction were randomized to cryotherapy/compression device (group 1) or a standardized ice pack (group 2). Both groups were instructed to use the ice or cryotherapy/compression device three times per day and return to the clinic at 1, 2, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Patient-derived outcome measurements used in this study consisted of the visual analog scale (VAS), the Lysholm knee score, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and single assessment numerical evaluation (SANE). Circumferential measurements of the knee at three locations (1 cm proximal to patella, mid-patella, and 1 cm distal to patella) were also obtained as a measure of postoperative edema. Narcotic medication use was recorded by questionnaire. The primary outcome measure (VAS) was significantly different among groups in the preoperative measurement, despite similarities in group demographics. Baseline VAS for group 1 was 54.9 compared with group 2 at 35.6 (p = 0.01). By 6 weeks, this had lowered to 28.1 and 40.3, respectively, resulting in a significant 27-point decrease in mean VAS for group 1 (p < 0.0001). However, the small increase in VAS for group 2 was not significant (p = 0.34). No significant differences were noted for the Lysholm, SF-36, or SANE scores either between groups or time points. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted for any of the circumferential measurements either between groups or time points. Of all patients, 83% of group 1 discontinued narcotic use by 6 weeks, compared with only 28% of group 2 (p = 0.0008). The use of combined cryotherapy and compression in the

  1. The long-term functional and radiological outcome after open reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, A G; Cooper, K; Alexander, L A; Nicol, M; Smith, F W; Scotland, T R

    2010-08-01

    We identified a series of 128 patients who had unilateral open reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by a single surgeon between 1993 and 2000. In all, 79 patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically eight to 15 years after surgery. Assessment included measurement of the Lysholm and Tegner scores, the ACL quality-of-life score and the Short Form-12 score, as well as the International Knee Documentation Committee clinical assessment, measurement of laxity by the KT-1000 arthrometer, a single-leg hop test and standardised radiography of both knees using the uninjured knee as a control. Of the injured knees, 46 (57%) had definite radiological evidence of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3), with a mean difference between the injured and non-injured knees of 1.2 grades. The median ACL quality-of-life score was 80 (interquartile range (IQR) 60 to 90), the Lysholm score 84 (IQR 74 to 95), the Short Form-12 physical component score 54 (IQR 49 to 56) and the mean Hop Index 0.94 (0.52 to 1.52). In total 58 patients were graded as normal, 20 as nearly normal and one as abnormal on the KT-1000 assessment and pivot-shift testing. Taking the worst-case scenario of assuming all non-attenders (n = 48), two septic failures and one identified unstable knee found at review to be failures, the failure rate was 40%. Only two of the patients reviewed stated that they would not have similar surgery again. Open reconstruction of the ACL gives good, durable functional results, but with a high rate of radiologically evident osteoarthritis.

  2. Adaptations in single-leg hop biomechanics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Orishimo, Karl F; Kremenic, Ian J; Mullaney, Michael J; McHugh, Malachy P; Nicholas, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    When a patient performs a clinically normal hop test based on distance, it cannot be assumed that the biomechanics are similar between limbs. The objective was to compare takeoff and landing biomechanics between legs in patients who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded as 13 patients performed the single-leg hop on each leg. Distance hopped, joint range of motion, peak joint kinetics and the peak total extensor moment were compared between legs during both takeoff and landing. Average hop distance ratio (involved/noninvolved) was 93 ± 4%. Compared to the noninvolved side, knee motion during takeoff on the involved side was significantly reduced (P = 0.008). Peak moments and powers on the involved side were lower at the knee and higher at the ankle and hip compared with the noninvolved side (Side by Joint P = 0.011; P = 0.003, respectively). The peak total extensor moment was not different between legs (P = 0.305) despite a decrease in knee moment and increases in ankle and hip moments (Side by Joint P = 0.015). During landing, knee motion was reduced (P = 0.043), and peak power absorbed was decreased at the knee and hip and increased at the ankle on the involved side compared to the noninvolved side (P = 0.003). The compensations by other joints may indicate protective adaptations to avoid overloading the reconstructed knee.

  3. Neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in professional soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Shalimá Figueirêdo; Marques, Natália Pereira; Silva, Rômulo Lemos e; Rebouças, Nahra Santos; de Freitas, Luise Monteiro; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in high-performance soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, compared to the uninvolved leg. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 22 male professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction (4–12 months postoperatively). The athletes were submitted to functional rehabilitation with an accelerated protocol on the soccer team. They were evaluated using isokinetic dynamometer, surface electromyography and electronic baropodometer. There was no decrease or difference between neuromuscular efficiency of the VMO when comparing both the limbs after ACL reconstruction in the professional soccer athletes under treatment. The same result was found in postural balance. It can be concluded that the NME of the VMO in the involved member and postural balance were successfully re-established after the reconstruction procedure of the ACL in the sample group studied. PMID:23738285

  4. One-step venous reconstruction using the donor's round ligament in right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Takeo; Ikegami, Toru; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshiya, Shohei; Harimoto, Norifumi; Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    We herein report the use of an opened round ligament as a venous patch graft for inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) reconstruction and anastomosis to the inferior vena cava (IVC) in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a right-lobe (RL) graft. After laparotomy, the donor's round ligament was harvested and opened, and the semi-transparent umbilical vein, which was 7.0 cm in length and 3.0 cm in width, was carefully trimmed on the back table for use as a patch graft. The right hepatic vein of the graft was anastomosed to the harvested patch, and the IRHV was anastomosed to an independent hole made in the wall on the other side of the patch, to form a bridged vascular patch for anastomosis to the IVC. The interposition graft filled promptly and provided a good outflow from the posterior segment. This is the first report of venous reconstruction using a donor's round ligament graft in RL-LDLT.

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with cadaveric graft in Adolescents with Active Growth Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Ronnald; Rosell, Italo; Pedregal, Carlos; Revoredo, Rafael; Makino, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    The immature skeleton ACL reconstruction is controversial, due to the possibility of injuring the physis, producing discrepancies in length and angular deformities. The purpose of this study, is presenting our experience of 11 cases, describing the surgical technique Arthroscopic intra-articular respecting them physis. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to present our surgical technique, control and monitoring in patients with active growth cartilage. Material and Methods: Between 2010 and 2015 treated 11 patients from 12 to 16 years, with a injury of the ACL with active growth cartilage evaluated clinically and radiologically. We use a scale of Tanner, x-ray of wrist and MRI for evaluation. They showed no tibial spine avulsions. The acute injury was inclusive criterion. We indicate Arthroscopic cadaveric graft reconstruction, without passing through the physis. We use rehabilitation protocol, immobilizer and crutches. Tracking through scale IKDC and resonance. Description of the surgical technique: Arthroscopic portals habitual plus supramedial accesory portal, identified the injury of the ACL; using fluoroscopy identified the physis active, put kirschner’s pins as guides without crossing them physis, drilled tunnels, check indemnity of the physis, spent the graft, fixing femoral with endobutton and tibial with biodegradable screw. Results: Of the 11 patients, there were 3 meniscal injuries, only 1 sutured. We didn’t have cartilaginous lesions. One patient presented surface Erythema that solved with antibiotic. Slight pain according to scale of pain. Not instability was present. The 60% had sport return without complications. There were no failures of the graft or comorbidities. They showed no growth disorders. Conclusion: The discussion is in repair without producing complications, considering that the natural evolution will lead to a potential damage. Authors show reports of shortening by perforation of the physis, our series presents one more

  6. Persisting side-to-side differences in bone mineral content, but not in muscle strength and tendon stiffness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Reeves, Neil D; Narici, Marco V; Belavý, Daniel L; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Tendon stiffness may be involved in limiting peak musculoskeletal forces and thus may constitute an upper limit for bone strength. The patellar tendon bone (PTB) graft, which is harvested from the patellar tendon during surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), is an ideal scenario to test this hypothesis. Eleven participants were recruited who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the ACL with a PTB graft 1-10 years prior to study inclusion. As previously reported, there was no side-to-side difference in thigh muscle cross-sectional area, in maximum voluntary knee extension torque, or in patellar tendon stiffness, suggesting full recovery of musculature and tendon. However, in the present study bone mineral content (BMC), assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, was lower on the operated side than on the control side in four regions studied (P = 0·0019). Differences were less pronounced in the two sites directly affected by the operation (patella and tibia epiphysis) when compared to the more remote sites. Moreover, significant side-to-side differences were found in BMC in the trabecular compartment in the femoral and tibial epiphysis (P = 0·004 and P = 0·047, respectively) with reductions on the operated side, but increased in the patella (P = 0·00016). Cortical BMC, by contrast, was lower on the operated side at all sites except the tibia epiphysis (P = 0·09). These findings suggest that impaired recovery of BMC following ACL reconstruction is not because of lack of recovery of knee extensor strength or patellar tendon stiffness. The responsible mechanisms still remain to be determined.

  7. Should We Limit Innings Pitched Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Bach, Bernard R.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure amongst major league baseball (MLB) pitchers. It is unclear if a limit on innings pitched following UCLR should be instituted to prevent revision UCLR. Purpose: To determine whether the number of innings pitched or number of pitches thrown in the first full season following UCLR, as well as the pitcher’s overall MLB career, correlated with need for a revision UCLR Hypothesis: Number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown following UCLR will not affect whether a pitcher undergoes a revision UCLR. Methods: Methods: All MLB pitchers between 1974-2015 who pitched at least one full season following UCLR were included. Pitch counts and innings pitched for the first full season following UCLR as well as total pitch count and total innings pitched following UCLR were recorded. Pitch counts and innings pitched were compared amongst players who required revision UCLR and those who did not. Results: Results: Overall, 154 pitchers were included. Of these, 135 pitchers did not require revision UCLR while 19 underwent revision UCLR. No significant difference existed between pitchers who underwent revision UCLR and those who did not in: number of innings pitched in the season following UCLR (p=0.9016), number of pitches thrown in the season following UCLR (p=0.7337), number of innings pitched in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.6945), and number of pitches thrown in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.4789). Furthermore, no difference existed in revision rate between pitchers who pitched more or less than 180 innings in the first full season following UCLR (p=0.6678). Conclusion: Conclusion: The number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown in the first full season as well as over a player’s career following UCLR does not appear to increase a player’s risk of revision UCLR.

  8. Inter-limb differences in impulsive loading following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in females.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J Troy; Pietrosimone, Brian; Harkey, Matt S; Luc, Brittney A; Pamukoff, Derek N

    2016-09-06

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction (ACLR) dramatically increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis, but the contributing factors, and therefore the targets for intervention, are poorly understood. Differences in loading characteristics between the ACLR and contralateral limbs during routine activities such as walking may elucidate the mechanical pathogenesis of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis. Twenty-nine females with ACLR (age=21.7±3.1 years; time since ACL injury=48±41 months) performed walking gait at a self-selected speed from which the overall peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) in the first 50% of the stance phase and its linear (slope of the vGRF-time curve) and instantaneous (first time-derivative) loading rates were calculated. The magnitude of the vGRF peak immediately following heelstrike and its linear and instantaneous loading rates were also identified. Subjects were further classified as "Impulsive Loaders" or "Normal Loaders" based on whether the transient vGRF peak immediately following heelstrike was objectively classified as a heelstrike transient in the majority of trials. The vGRF magnitude immediately following heelstrike and instantaneous loading rates (both overall and immediately following heelstrike) were greater in the ACLR limb. Additionally, vGRF linear and instantaneous loading rates were greater in subjects classified as Impulsive Loaders. As higher loading rates are associated with greater cartilage degradation in animal models, these data suggest that the greater loading rates in the ACLR limb may play an important role in development of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis. Additionally, the heelstrike transient appears to be an objective indicator of impulsive loading.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cryopreserved irradiated bone-ACL-bone-allograft transplants.

    PubMed

    Goertzen, M J; Clahsen, H; Schulitz, K P

    1994-01-01

    Bone-ACL-bone allograft transplantation has been investigated as a potential solution to reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). To minimize disease transmission (e.g. the acquired immuno deficiency syndrome), bony and collagenous tissues should be sterilized. Recent animal studies indicate that gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide sterilization result in diminished histological and biomechanical properties. The purpose of the present study was biomechanical and histological determination of the fate of deep-frozen gamma-irradiated (2.5 Mrad) canine bone-ACL-bone allografts with argon gas protection. Particular attention was paid to collagenous and neuroanatomical morphology 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, by comparison to a non-irradiated control group. Sixty skeletally mature foxhounds were operated on in this study, divided up in two groups of 30 dogs each. In group A animals the ACL was replaced by a deep-frozen (-80 degrees C) bone-ACL-bone LAD-augmented allograft subjected to 2.5 Mrad gamma irradiation with argon gas protection. The animals in group B received an LAD-augmented ACL-allograft transplant without gamma irradiation. All knees from both groups were evaluated 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation in regard to biomechanical properties, collagen morphology and routine histology (haematoxylin and eosin stain, polarization microscopy), neuroanatomical morphology (silver and gold chloride stain) and microvasculature (modified Spalteholz technique). The irradiated ACL allografts withstood a maximum load that was 63.8% (718.3 N) of the maximum load of normal ACLs after 12 months. By contrast, the non-irradiated allografts failed at 69.1% (780.1 N) of the maximum load of normal control ACLs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Increased Complications in Trapeziectomy With Ligament Reconstruction and Tendon Interposition Compared With Trapeziectomy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Naram, Aparajit; Lyons, Keith; Rothkopf, Douglas M.; Calkins, Edward R.; Breen, Thomas; Jones, Marci; Shufflebarger, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the treatment of basal joint arthritis of the thumb, recent studies suggest equivalent outcomes with regard to long-term pain, mobility, and strength, in patients undergoing either trapeziectomy alone or trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI). The goal of this study was to investigate risk factors for complications in carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 5 surgeons at a single institution performing CMC arthroplasties from November 2006 to November 2012. A total of 200 thumbs in 179 patients underwent simple trapeziectomy with or without LRTI and with or without Kirschner wire stabilization, or a Weilby procedure. The average follow-up was 11.6 months (range = 1-69 months). Data collection included sex, age, history of smoking or diabetes, and any other surgeries performed on the hand at the time of arthroplasty. Furthermore, we collected outcomes involving any adverse events, paying attention to those necessitating reoperation, antibiotics, or those who developed complex regional pain syndrome. Results: Seventy hands had a postoperative complication. Ten of these complications were considered major, defined as requiring antibiotics, reoperation, or other aggressive interventions. On multivariate analysis, risk of total complications was significantly greater only in patients undergoing either trapeziectomy with LRTI or Weilby procedure in comparison with trapeziectomy with K-wire stabilization (odds ratio = 4.30 and 6.73, respectively). Conclusions: Patients undergoing trapeziectomy with LRTI or Weilby had a greater incidence of reported complications when compared with trapeziectomy alone. These results suggest an advantage of simple trapeziectomy; however, further study is warranted. PMID:27418894

  11. In vitro biomechanical testing of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: traditional versus physiologically relevant load analysis.

    PubMed

    Trump, Mark; Palathinkal, Darren M; Beaupre, Lauren; Otto, Dave; Leung, Paul; Amirfazli, A

    2011-06-01

    Various anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft-fixation devices exist. In this in vitro study a comparison of biomechanical characteristics of the cross-pin and button type fixation devices under practical rehabilitation loads was done. Forty bovine knees and hoof extensor tendons were harvested. After disarticulation, the femoral end of an ACL was prepared with either fixation, using the extensor tendon as graft. The mechanical test was either a single load to failure or load to failure after cycling loads. Twenty specimens were loaded to failure at a rate of 1mm/s, remaining specimens were cycled between 50 and 250 N for 1000 cycles then failure tested in a similar manner. Results show that both forms of fixation are able to withstand loads that exceed those observed in performing functional activities. Activity-specific stiffness (loads comparable to walking, jogging and stair descent) was lower than linear stiffness for both endobutton and cross-pin, without prior cycling. After cycling, activity-specific stiffness increased to linear stiffness values for the cross-pin for all activities. Thus, suggesting that the cross-pin provides a more rigid fixation after initial implantation over a wider range of activities, which would theoretically permit a more aggressive rehabilitation protocol and possibly an earlier return to regular activity. In contrast, activity-specific stiffness increased above linear stiffness values for the endobutton only under heavier loads (jogging and stair descent). Dynamic stiffness was higher and displacement lower for cross-pin throughout the cycle test. These results indicate, in ACL reconstruction, that graft complex stiffness should be considered at relevant loads only.

  12. Three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow to aid in reconstruction: From diagnosis to surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Sándor, George K; Bujtár, Péter; Wolf, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow has simplified the planning of complex reconstruction cases. It can also be helpful in planning distraction osteogenesis cases. This article examines the evolving role of three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. No Association of Time From Surgery With Functional Deficits in Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Martin, Larry; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Heidt, Robert S.; Colosimo, Angelo; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Release for full activity and return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is often dictated by time from surgery and subjective opinion by the medical team. Temporal guidelines for return to sport may not accurately identify impaired strength and neuromuscular control, which are associated with increased risk for second injury (contralateral and/or ipsilateral limb) after ACLR in athletes. Hypotheses Athletes undergoing ACLR and returning to sport would demonstrate functional deficits that would not be associated with time from surgery. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Thirty-three male (n = 10) and female (n = 23) athletes with unilateral ACLR, who were cleared by a physician to return to their sport after surgery and rehabilitation, performed the single-legged vertical hop test for 10 seconds on a portable force plate. Matched teammates of each patient were recruited to serve as sex-, sport-, and age-matched controls (CTRL; n = 67). Maximum vertical ground-reaction force (VGRF) was measured during each single-limb landing. Single-limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated as the ratio of the involved divided by uninvolved limb, expressed as a percentage. Results The single-limb vertical jump height LSI was reduced in the ACLR group, 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 83%–95%), compared with the matched CTRL group, 101% (95% CI, 96%–105%; P<.01). The LSI for VGRF normalized to potential energy achieved during flight of the hop was increased in ACLR at 112% (95% CI, 106%–117%) relative to the CTRL group at 102% (95% CI, 98%–106%; P<.01). Linear regression analysis indicated that time from surgery was not associated with limb symmetry deficits in the ACLR group (P >.05; R2 = .002–.01). Conclusion Deficits in unilateral force development (vertical jump height) and absorption (normalized VGRF) persist in an athlete’s single-limb performance after ACLR and full return to sports. These symmetry deficits

  14. Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, F; Rosenlund, E; Aune, A; MacLean, J; Hillis, S

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine (a) return to competitive sport within 12 months of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, (b) maintenance of competitive participation at follow up, and (c) the relation of the level of sports activity and competitive participation at follow up to subjective functional assessments. Also to address the incidence of continued competitive participation despite notable functional problems with the operated knee at 12 months and follow up. Methods: All patients were competitive athletes before injury and had undergone ACL reconstruction by the transtibial endoscopic technique with either a bone-patellar tendon-bone or a multiple looped hamstring autograft. Evaluation was carried out a mean of 43 months (range 24–73) after surgery by a postal questionnaire in which the Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were presented in conjunction with closed questions on change in competitive level and the presence of complaints. Results: Of 109 selected patients, 77 (71%) responded. At follow up, 62 of 77 patients (81%) reported that they had returned to competition within 12 months of surgery. Within the same time frame, 55 of the above 62 patients (89%) also claimed to have returned to the level at which they were competing before injury (or higher). At follow up, 30 of the above 55 patients (54%) reported to still be competing at this high level. Twelve of the above 55 patients (22%) also admitted to major problems with the operated knee at that time. The overall incidence of patients competing despite major functional impairment in the operated knee was 13 of 62 (21%) at 12 months and six of 47 (13%) at follow up. Thirty eight patients (49%) were active in sport at least four times a week at follow up (CSAS level 1), and, using Spearman's rank correlation between CSAS scores and total sports function scores, r was calculated to be 0.44. Competitive and male patients had higher total sports function

  15. Occupational consequences after isolated reconstruction of the insufficient posterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With incorrect or even without treatment, acute injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can lead to chronic instability of the knee joint. After delayed treatment, negative occupational changes and reduced quality of life can occur. These aspects have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational consequences after isolated reconstruction in cases of chronic PCL insufficiency. Findings 12 patients treated with PCL reconstruction in a single bundle technique, using hamstring tendon grafts, were evaluated. All patients were operated upon at least 3 months after injury. Mean time of follow-up was 51 ± 18.2 months (14–75). Radiological assessment (Telos stress device) showed a side comparison of total translation of 4.5 ± 2.6 mm. Occupational consequences have been evaluated by the classification system “REFA”. Median time incapacity for work was 8 weeks. Nearly all patients achieved the mental status of the normal population (SF-36), but physical status was still restricted. A pre- to postoperative improvement of the clinical scores could be seen: Lysholm-Score: 46.4 ± 17.3 to 84.7 ± 14.1, HSS-Score: 74.3 ± 10.5 to 88.3 ± 10.7. Postoperative evaluated scores were: Tegner score: 4.8 ± 1.2, IKDC score: 80.0 ± 16.2, VPS: 3.4 ± 2.7. Patients with low physical load in their workplace described significantly better clinical results in every clinical score (p < .05) and less pain than patients with high physical load prior to the accident (VPS: REFA < 2: 2.4 ± 2.6, REFA ≥ 2: 5.5 ± 1.7; p < 0.05). Conclusions Operative treated patients with a chronic PCL insufficiency achieve an improvement of the clinical result. Patients with low physical load at their workplace achieve less restrictions. PMID:24684773

  16. Evaluation of the resolving potency of a novel reconstruction filter on periodontal ligament space with dental cone-beam CT: a quantitative phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houno, Yuuki; Hishikawa, Toshimitsu; Gotoh, Ken-ichi; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro; Kodera, Yoshie

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis of the alveolar bone condition is important for the treatment planning of periodontal disease. Especially the determination of periodontal ligament space is the most important remark because it represents the periodontal tissue support for tooth retention. However, owing to the image blur of the current cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging technique, the periodontal ligament space is difficult to visualize. In this study, we developed an original periodontal ligament phantom (PLP) and evaluated the image quality of simulated periodontal ligament space using a novel reconstruction filter for CBCT that emphasized high frequency component. PLP was composed from two resin blocks of different materials, the bone equivalent block and the dentine equivalent block. They were assembled to make continuously changing space from 0.0 to 1.0 millimeter that mimics periodontal ligament space. PLP was placed in water and the image was obtained by using Alphard-3030 dental cone-beam CT (Asahi Roentgen Industry Co., Ltd.). Then we reconstructed the projection data with a novel reconstruction filter. The axial images were compared with conventional reconstructed images. In novel filter reconstruction images, 0.4 millimeter of the space width was steadily detected by calculation of pixel value, on the other hand 0.6 millimeter was in conventional images. With our method, the resolving potency of conebeam CT images was improved.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Surgical Options for Medial Collateral Ligament Repair in Terrible Triad Injury of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Taku; Nobuta, Shingo; Aizawa, Toshitake; Sasajima, Koichi; Nakajima, Soichi; Honda, Masahito; Oki, Gosuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes in patients with terrible triad injury, who underwent surgical treatment with or without the medial collateral ligament (MCL) repair. Fourteen patients who underwent surgery with a minimum of 12-month follow-up (mean, 17 months) were reviewed. Based on the systematic treatment protocol, radial head fracture, lateral collateral ligament, and coracoid fracture were treated. Subsequently, torn MCL was repaired in 7 patients, whereas in the remaining 7 patients, the MCL was not treated. Range of motion, elbow function, and radiographs regarding the arthrosis and heterotopic ossification were assessed. At final follow-up, no significant differences were found in elbow motion or function between the groups with and without MCL repair; except the pronation and supination which had superior range in repair group. In contrast, radiologic findings such as the arthrosis were seen more frequently in patients without MCL repair than those with repair. Our results indicate the effect of MCL repair on elbow motion and function might be small, whereas osteoarthritic changes occurred more frequently in elbows without MCL repair. PMID:27761222

  18. Bioresorbable scaffolds for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: do we need an off-the-shelf ACL substitute?

    PubMed

    Richmond, John C; Weitzel, Paul P

    2010-03-01

    Currently available anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft sources, autograft and allograft, present potential problems that a natural biomaterial ACL graft might be able to solve. Earlier efforts in the development of synthetic ACL grafts were less than optimal, and those devices have largely been abandoned. We can learn from these past failures, and potentially develop a bioresorbable scaffold for ACL reconstruction, which will provide immediate stability, promote and direct tissue in growth, and degrade at an appropriate rate, without harmful wear debris. We have developed a modified silk scaffold, which is currently being evaluated in humans in a pilot study.

  19. Does Geographic Location Matter on the Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Donlan, Robert M.; Brisbane, Sonya Tang; Farmer, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant amount of research in the prevention of throwing injuries. However, one area of research that is lacking is geographic location of play. Warm climates may permit year-round play and increased exposure to throwing arm injury risk. Hypotheses: (1) Pitchers from southern institutions would have greater rates of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCL-R) compared with pitchers from northern institutions. (2) Pitchers originating from high school teams in warm weather states would have a greater risk of undergoing UCL-R while in college. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This study was completed by reviewing publicly obtained records of male collegiate baseball players during the 2008 through 2014 seasons. Data were accessed through online search engines, online baseball media guides, and school websites. Results: A total of 5315 player-years and 2575 pitcher-years were identified. Fifty-eight UCL-R cases were found in collegiate pitchers, 40 of which occurred in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and 18 in the Big Ten. More injuries (36/58) occurred in pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states as compared with northern states (22/58), regardless of location of collegiate participation (χ2 = 28.8, P < .05). The injury rate for pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states was 25.3 per 1000 player-years versus 19.1 per 1000 player-years in northern states, with a risk ratio of 1.32 (χ2 = 0.89, P = .35). The injury rate for the SEC versus Big Ten pitchers was 13.3 per 1000 player-years versus 7.8 per 1000 player-years, with a risk ratio of 1.71 (χ2 = 1.45, P = .23). Conclusion: There is a greater likelihood of undergoing UCL-R in the SEC compared with the Big Ten. There is also an increased risk for UCL-R for pitchers who played high school baseball in southern states versus northern states, irrespective of collegiate play location. Clinical Relevance

  20. Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P.; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key points Functional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular

  1. Persistent Neuromuscular and Corticomotor Quadriceps Asymmetry After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kuenze, Christopher M.; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur; Diduch, David; Saliba, Susan A.; Hart, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Return to activity in the presence of quadriceps dysfunction may predispose individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to long-term joint degeneration. Asymmetry may manifest during movement and result in altered knee-joint–loading patterns; however, the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To compare limb symmetry of quadriceps neuromuscular function between participants with ACLR and participants serving as healthy controls. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 22 individuals with ACLR (12 men, 10 women) and 24 individuals serving as healthy controls (12 men, 12 women). Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (Nm/kg), quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) (%), quadriceps motor-neuron–pool excitability (Hoffmann reflex to motor wave ratio), and quadriceps active motor threshold (AMT) (% 2.0 T) were measured bilaterally and used to calculate limb symmetry indices for comparison between groups. We used analyses of variance to compare quadriceps Hoffmann reflex to motor wave ratio, normalized knee-extension MVIC torque, quadriceps CAR, and quadriceps AMT between groups and limbs. Results: The ACLR group exhibited greater asymmetry in knee-extension MVIC torque (ACLR group = 0.85 ± 0.21, healthy group = 0.97 ± 0.14; t44 = 2.26, P = .03), quadriceps CAR (ACLR group = 0.94 ± 0.11, healthy group = 1.00 ± 0.08; t44 = 2.22, P = .04), and quadriceps AMT (ACLR group = 1.13 ± 0.18, healthy group = 1.02 ± 0.11; t34 = −2.46, P = .04) than the healthy control group. Conclusions: Asymmetries in measures of quadriceps function and cortical excitability were present in patients with ACLR. Asymmetry in quadriceps strength, activation, and cortical excitability persisted in individuals with ACLR beyond return to recreational activity. Measuring the magnitude of asymmetry

  2. What Can the First 2 Months Tell Us About Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jesse C.; Goldfine, Laura R.; Barker, Tyler; Collingridge, Dave S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Substantial research has been conducted on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to evaluate patient outcomes. However, little attention has been given to outcomes during the early phase of recovery and how early deficits affect both short- and long-term outcomes. Objective: To identify relationships between demographic (age, sex, and body mass index [BMI]) and intraoperative (isolated ACLR versus primary ACLR + secondary procedures), and postoperative (range-of-motion [ROM] and peak isometric knee-extension force [PIF]) variables during the first 2 months after ACLR using self-reported outcomes. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Outpatient orthopaedic hospital. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 63 patients (38 men, 25 women; age = 33.0 ± 12.1 years; BMI = 26.3 ± 6.5 kg/m2) who underwent ACLR. Main Outcome Measure(s): Demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were collected at 1 and 2 months after ACLR and were compared with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form scores at 1, 2, and ≥12 months. Results: Significant relationships were identified between ≥12-month IKDC scores and the 1-month (Pearson correlation, r = 0.283, r2 = 0.08; P = .025) and 2-month (r = 0.301, r2 = 0.09; P = .017) IKDC scores. After controlling for other variables, we found that the PIF ratio measures at 1 and 2 months were positively associated with 1- and 2-month IKDC scores (P < .001) and BMI was negatively associated with both 1- and 2-month IKDC scores (P < .05). One-month IKDC scores were related to the 1-month difference in knee-flexion ROM (P = .04). Conclusions: The IKDC scores during the first 2 months were positively correlated with patients' perceptions of function on long-term IKDC scores. It also appears that improvements in lower extremity strength and flexion ROM deficits were positively associated with short-term IKDC scores. Higher BMI was negatively associated with patients

  3. Drop-Landing Performance and Knee-Extension Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kuenze, Christopher M.; Foot, Nathaniel; Saliba, Susan A.; Hart, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Context Individuals with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk of reinjury and developing early-onset osteoarthritis due to persistent abnormal joint loading. Real-time clinical assessment tools may help identify patients experiencing abnormal movement patterns after ACLR. Objective To compare performance on the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) between participants with ACLR and uninjured control participants and to determine the relationship between LESS score and knee-extension strength in these participants. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Forty-six recreationally active participants, consisting of 22 with ACLR (12 men, 10 women; age = 22.5 ± 5.0 years, height = 172.8 ± 7.2 cm, mass = 74.2 ± 15.6 kg, body mass index = 24.6 ± 4.0) and 24 healthy control participants (12 men, 12 women; age = 21.7 ± 3.6 years, height = 168.0 ± 8.8 cm, mass = 69.2 ± 13.6 kg, body mass index = 24.3 ± 3.2) were enrolled. Main Outcome Measure(s) Bilateral normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (Nm/kg) and LESS scores were measured during a single testing session. We compared LESS scores between groups using a Mann-Whitney U test and the relationships between LESS scores and normalized knee-extension MVIC torque using Spearman ρ bivariate correlations. Results The ACLR participants had a greater number of LESS errors (6.0 ± 3.6) than healthy control participants (2.8 ± 2.2; t44 = −3.73, P = .002). In ACLR participants, lower normalized knee-extension MVIC torque in the injured limb (ρ = −0.455, P = .03) was associated with a greater number of landing errors. Conclusions Participants with ACLR displayed more errors while landing. The occurrence of landing errors was negatively correlated with knee-extension strength, suggesting that weaker participants had more landing errors. Persistent quadriceps weakness commonly

  4. Functional tissue engineering of ligament healing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ligaments and tendons are dense connective tissues that are important in transmitting forces and facilitate joint articulation in the musculoskeletal system. Their injury frequency is high especially for those that are functional important, like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee as well as the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder. Because the healing responses are different in these ligaments and tendons after injury, the consequences and treatments are tissue- and site-specific. In this review, we will elaborate on the injuries of the knee ligaments as well as using functional tissue engineering (FTE) approaches to improve their healing. Specifically, the ACL of knee has limited capability to heal, and results of non-surgical management of its midsubstance rupture have been poor. Consequently, surgical reconstruction of the ACL is regularly performed to gain knee stability. However, the long-term results are not satisfactory besides the numerous complications accompanied with the surgeries. With the rapid development of FTE, there is a renewed interest in revisiting ACL healing. Approaches such as using growth factors, stem cells and scaffolds have been widely investigated. In this article, the biology of normal and healing ligaments is first reviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues related to the treatment of ACL injuries. Afterwards, current promising FTE methods are presented for the treatment of ligament injuries, including the use of growth factors, gene delivery, and cell therapy with a particular emphasis on the use of ECM bioscaffolds. The challenging areas are listed in the future direction that suggests where collection of energy could be placed in order to restore the injured ligaments and tendons structurally and functionally. PMID:20492676

  5. DOUBLE-BUNDLE ANATOMICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY WITH TWO-YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Mod, Maurício Sante Bettio; Mimura, Hélio Massahiro; Kushiyama, Walberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the results from double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, among patients at our clinic, by means of the 2000 protocol of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC). Study Design: Case series; level of evidence IV. Methods: Fifty-eight patients who underwent anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using an autologous flexor tendon graft by means of the double-bundle technique were evaluated in accordance with the IKDC 2000 protocol. The patients' ages ranged from 17 to 58 years, with a mean of 35.2 years. The follow-up ranged from 24 to 37 months (mean of 28.9 months). Results: Postoperatively, 89.65% of the pivot-shift test findings were negative. In the final evaluation, 44 (75.86%) of the patients' knees were graded as normal, 13 (22.41%) as nearly normal and one (1.72 %) as abnormal. Conclusion: The technique used was effective in promoting restoration of joint stability, without compromising mobility. PMID:27026982

  6. Clinical Results of Technique for Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hybrid Femoral Fixation and Retroscrew

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doo-Sup; Yi, Chang-Ho; Chung, Hoi-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been presented as a means to more accurately restore the native anatomy of this ligament. This article describes a new method that uses a double bundle to perform ACL reconstruction and to evaluate the clinical outcome. Methods Grafts are tibialis anterior tendon allograft for anteromedial bundle (AMB) and hamstring tendon autograft without detachment of the tibial insertion for posterolateral bundle (PLB). This technique creates 2 tunnels in both the femur and tibia. Femoral fixation was done by hybrid fixation using Endobutton and Rigidfix for AMB and by biointerference screw for PLB. Tibial fixations are done by Retroscrew for AMB and by native insertion of hamstring tendon for PLB. Both bundles are independently and differently tensioned. We performed ACL reconstruction in 63 patients using our new technique. Among them, 47 participated in this study. The patients were followed up with clinical examination, Lysholm scales and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system and radiological examination with a minimum 12 month follow-up duration. Results Significant improvement was seen on Lachman test and pivot-shift test between preoperative and last follow-up. Only one of participants had flexion contracture about 5 degrees at last follow-up. In anterior drawer test by KT-1000, authors found improvement from average 8.3 mm (range, 4 to 18 mm) preoperatively to average 1.4 mm (range, 0 to 6 mm) at last follow-up. Average Lysholm score of all patients was 72.7 ± 8.8 (range, 54 to 79) preoperatively and significant improvement was seen, score was 92.2 ± 5.3 (range, 74 to 97; p < 0.05) at last follow-up. Also IKDC score was normal in 35 cases, near normal in 11 cases, abnormal in 1 case at last follow-up. Conclusions Our new double bundle ACL reconstruction technique used hybrid fixation and Retroscrew had favorable outcomes. PMID:22162791

  7. Location of the tibial tunnel aperture affects extrusion of the lateral meniscus following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuya; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Inoue, Hiroto; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-09-27

    The anterior root of the lateral meniscus provides functional stability to the meniscus. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the position of the tibial tunnel and extrusion of the lateral meniscus after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, where extrusion provides a proxy measure of injury to the anterior root. The relationship between extrusion and tibial tunnel location was retrospectively evaluated from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of 26 reconstructed knees, contributed by 25 patients aged 17 to 31 years. A measurement grid was used to localize the position of the tibial tunnel based on anatomical landmarks identified from the three-dimensional reconstruction of axial computed tomography images of the tibial plateaus. The reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance (mm) was defined as the distance from the midpoint of the lateral edge of the grid to the posterolateral aspect of the tunnel aperture. The optimal cutoff of this distance to minimize post-operative extrusion was identified using receiver operating curve analysis. Extrusion of the lateral meniscus was positively correlated to the reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance (r(2)  = 0.64; P < 0.001), with a cutoff distance of 5 mm having a sensitivity to extrusion of 83% and specificity of 93%. The mean extrusion for a distance >5 mm was 0.40 ± 0.43 mm, compared to 1.40 ± 0.51 mm for a distance ≤5 mm (P < 0.001). Therefore, a posterolateral location of the tibial tunnel aperture within the footprint of the anterior cruciate ligament decreases the reference tibial-to-tunnel distance and increases extrusion of the lateral meniscus post-reconstruction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Runx2-Modified Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promote Tendon Graft Integration in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ma, Yong; Fu, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Shao, Zhenxing; Dai, Linghui; Pi, Yanbin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiying; Duan, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-08

    Runx2 is a powerful osteo-inductive factor and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent. However, it is unknown whether Runx2-overexpressing ADSCs (Runx2-ADSCs) could promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We evaluated the effect of Runx2-ADSCs on ACL reconstruction in vitro and in vivo. mRNA expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen I (COLI) increased over time in Runx2-ADSCs. Runx2 overexpression inhibited LPL and PPARγ mRNA expressions. Runx2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity markedly. In nude mice injected with Runx2-ADSCs, promoted bone formation was detected by X-rays 8 weeks after injection. The healing of tendon-to-bone in a rabbit model of ACL reconstruction treated with Runx2-ADSCs, fibrin glue only and an RNAi targeting Runx2, was evaluated with CT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis and biomechanical methods. CT showed a greater degree of new bone formation around the bone tunnel in the group treated with Runx2-ADSCs compared with the fibrin glue group and RNAi Runx2 group. Histology showed that treatment with Runx2-ADSCs led to a rapid and significant increase at the tendon-to-bone compared with the control groups. Biomechanical tests demonstrated higher tendon pullout strength in the Runx2-ADSCs group at early time points. The healing of the attachment in ACL reconstruction was enhanced by Runx2-ADSCs.

  9. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  10. Peroneal Tendon Reconstruction and Coverage for Treatment of Septic Peroneal Tenosynovitis: A Devastating Complication of Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction With a Tendon Allograft.

    PubMed

    Schade, Valerie L; Harsha, Wayne; Rodman, Caitlin; Roukis, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Septic peroneal tenosynovitis is a rare and significant challenge. A search of peer-reviewed published studies revealed only 5 case reports to guide treatment, none of which resulted in significant loss of both peroneal tendons necessitating reconstruction. No clear guidance is available regarding how to provide reliable reconstruction of both peroneal tendons after a significant loss secondary to septic tenosynovitis. In the present report, we describe the case of a young, active-duty soldier who underwent lateral ankle ligament reconstruction with a tendon allograft whose postoperative course was complicated by septic peroneal tenosynovitis resulting in significant loss of both peroneal tendons. Reconstruction was achieved in a staged fashion with the use of silicone rods and external fixation to maintain physiologic tension and preserve peroneal tendon function, followed by reconstruction of both peroneal tendons and the superior peroneal retinaculum with a tensor fascia lata autograft. Soft tissue coverage was obtained with an anterolateral thigh free tissue transfer and a split-thickness skin graft. The patient returned to full activity as an active-duty soldier with minimal pain and no instability of the right lower extremity. The muscle strength of both peroneal tendons remained at 5 of 5, and no objective findings of ankle instability were seen at 3.5 years postoperatively.

  11. A new approach to determine ligament strain using polydimethylsiloxane strain gauges: exemplary measurements of the anterolateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Zens, Martin; Ruhhammer, Johannes; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Woias, Peter; Feucht, Matthias J; Mayr, Herrmann O; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of ligament strains and behavior is necessary to create biomechanical models, comprehend trauma mechanisms, and surgically reconstruct those ligaments in a manner that restores a physiological performance. Measurement techniques and sensors are needed to conduct this data with high accuracy in an in vitro environment. In this work, we present a novel sensor device that is capable of continuously recording ligament strains with high resolution. The sensor principle of this biocompatible strain gauge may be used for in vitro measurements and can easily be applied to any ligament in the human body. The recently rediscovered anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee joint was chosen to display the capability of this novel sensor system. Three cadaver knees were tested to successfully demonstrate the concept of the sensor device and display first results regarding the elongation of the ALL during flexion/extension of the knee.

  12. Association Between Previous Meniscal Surgery and the Incidence of Chondral Lesions at Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; David, Tal S.; McCormack, Robert G.; Sekiya, Jon K.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Huston, Laura J.; Haas, Amanda K.; Steger-May, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Knees undergoing revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction typically have more intra-articular injuries than do knees undergoing primary reconstruction. Hypothesis Previous partial meniscectomy (PM) is associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, whereas previous meniscal repair (MR) is not associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, compared with knees undergoing revision ACL with no previous meniscal surgery. Study design Cohort study (Prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Data from a multicenter cohort was reviewed to determine the history of prior meniscal surgery (PM/MR) and the presence of grade II/III/IV chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction. The association between previous meniscal surgery and the incidence of chondral lesions was examined. Patient age was included as a covariate to determine if surgery type contributes predictive information independent of patient age. Results The cohort included 725 ACL revision surgeries. Chondrosis was associated with patient age (P < .0001) and previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001). After adjusting for patient age, knees with previous PM were more likely to have chondrosis than knees with previous MR (P = .003) or no previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001). There was no difference between knees without previous meniscal surgery and knees with previous MR (P = .7). Previous partial meniscectomy was associated with a higher rate of chondrosis in the same compartment compared with knees without previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001) and knees with previous MR (P ≤ .03). Conclusion The status of articular cartilage at the time of revision ACL reconstruction relates to previous meniscal surgery independent of the effect of patient age. Previous partial meniscectomy is associated with a higher incidence of articular cartilage lesions, whereas previous meniscal repair is not. Although this association may

  13. Attitudes of Lebanese university students towards surgical hymen reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Awwad, Johnny; Nassar, Anwar; Usta, Ihab; Shaya, Monique; Younes, Zeina; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-11-01

    Many cultural and religious beliefs place virginity at a high level of social significance, in that women who lose their virginity before marriage may face humiliation, ostracism, divorce, and extreme violence. This led to an increase in the demand for virginity restoration through surgical hymen reconstruction among these cultures. However, data regarding the acceptance of hymenoplasty in societies that consider sexuality a taboo are scarce. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the effects of gender and religion on sexual attitudes towards hymenoplasty, premarital sex, and virginity in a sample of 600 Lebanese university students. Our findings showed that approval of hymenoplasty was low among participants regardless of gender (25.7 % men vs. 19.1 % women) and religious affiliations (22.5 % Muslims vs. 22.3 % Christians). Arguments for rejection were rooted in moral ethics and personal convictions: "form of deceiving and cheating" (80.7 %) and "betrayal of honesty in the relationship" (80.4 %). Reasons for acceptance included: personal belief in "women's rights, autonomy, and freedom" (72.2 %) and "physical harm and death" (63.5 %).Male participants were more likely to approve premarital coital sex than females (61.0 vs. 27.3 %). Muslims were also more likely to reject marrying a non-virgin than Christians (39.9 vs. 18.0 %). Female participants expressed more tolerance towards marrying a non-virgin male partner (78.3 vs. 57.3 %). Low acceptance of hymenoplasty among Lebanese university students was found to be related to moral ethics and personal convictions independently from gender and religious affiliation. Differences in sexual attitudes towards premarital coital sex and virginity, however, were more significantly influenced by culture and religion.

  14. Magnesium inference screw supports early graft incorporation with inhibition of graft degradation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pengfei; Han, Pei; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaonong; Chai, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery commonly encounters graft failure in the initial phase of rehabilitation. The inhibition of graft degradation is crucial for the successful reconstruction of the ACL. Here, we used biodegradable high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws in the rabbit model of ACL reconstruction with titanium (Ti) screws as a control and analyzed the graft degradation and screw corrosion using direct pull-out tests, microCT scanning, and histological and immunohistochemical staining. The most noteworthy finding was that tendon graft fixed by HP Mg screws exhibited biomechanical properties substantially superior to that by Ti screws and the relative area of collagen fiber at the tendon-bone interface was much larger in the Mg group, when severe graft degradation was identified in the histological analysis at 3 weeks. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical results further elucidated that the MMP-13 expression significantly decreased surrounding HP Mg screws with relatively higher Collagen II expression. And HP Mg screws exhibited uniform corrosion behavior without displacement or loosening in the femoral tunnel. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Mg screw inhibited graft degradation and improved biomechanical properties of tendon graft during the early phase of graft healing and highlighted its potential in ACL reconstruction. PMID:27210585

  15. Magnesium inference screw supports early graft incorporation with inhibition of graft degradation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Han, Pei; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaonong; Chai, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery commonly encounters graft failure in the initial phase of rehabilitation. The inhibition of graft degradation is crucial for the successful reconstruction of the ACL. Here, we used biodegradable high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws in the rabbit model of ACL reconstruction with titanium (Ti) screws as a control and analyzed the graft degradation and screw corrosion using direct pull-out tests, microCT scanning, and histological and immunohistochemical staining. The most noteworthy finding was that tendon graft fixed by HP Mg screws exhibited biomechanical properties substantially superior to that by Ti screws and the relative area of collagen fiber at the tendon-bone interface was much larger in the Mg group, when severe graft degradation was identified in the histological analysis at 3 weeks. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical results further elucidated that the MMP-13 expression significantly decreased surrounding HP Mg screws with relatively higher Collagen II expression. And HP Mg screws exhibited uniform corrosion behavior without displacement or loosening in the femoral tunnel. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Mg screw inhibited graft degradation and improved biomechanical properties of tendon graft during the early phase of graft healing and highlighted its potential in ACL reconstruction.

  16. The Efficacy of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Combined with Tibial Tuberosity Transfer in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Downham, Christopher; Bassett, James; Thompson, Peter; Sprowson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction combined with tibial tuberosity transfer (TTT) in the treatment of patellofemoral instability. Using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, a systematic search was carried out to identify and review the published literature pertinent to MFPL reconstruction combined with TTT. Relevant studies were critically appraised with narrative data synthesis. Studies that met the eligibility criteria were suitable for appraisal and consisted of case series and therapeutic series (levels IV & III). All studies had inherent variations in outcomes reporting and limited follow-up. Combined treatment offers restoration of normal anatomy, thus adding clinical value to the currently recommended anatomic approach to MPFL reconstruction. Nevertheless, the current body of evidence does not determine the threshold at which patellofemoral axis requires the need for adjunctive distal realignment as opposed to MPFL reconstruction alone. This review highlighted numerous recurring limitations in the conduct and presentation of the studies, which inadvertently mitigated the interpretation of their results. Future priority should be awarded to larger randomised controlled trials utilising validated patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27274466

  17. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella: current perspectives and trends in Brazil☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; da Silva, Adriano Vaso Rodrigues; Ueda, Léo Renato Shigueru; Astur, Diego da Costa; Yazigi Júnior, João Alberto; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating medial patellofemoral lesions (MPFL) of the knee in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella. Materials and methods A questionnaire comprising 15 closed questions on topics relating to treating MPFL of the knee following acute dislocation of the patella was used. It was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2012. Results 106 knee surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them were from the southeastern region of Brazil. The majority (57%) reported that they perform fewer than five MPFL reconstruction procedures per year. Indication of non-surgical treatment after a first episode of acute dislocation of the patella was preferred and done by 93.4% of the sample. Only 9.1% of the participants reported that they had never observed postoperative complications. Intraoperative radioscopy was used routinely by 48%. The professionals who did not use this tool to determine the point of ligament fixation in the femur did not have a statistically greater number of postoperative complications than those who used it (p > 0.05). Conclusions There are clear evolutionary trends in treatments and rehabilitation for acute dislocation of the patella due to MPFL, in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends. PMID:26229852

  18. [Surgical treatment of tumors of the carotid body with reconstruction of the internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Reparaz, L; Magallón, P; Riera, L; Capilla, M T; Merino, M J; Martínez, I; Hernández, A; Sáez, L; Alamo, O; Jiménez Cossío, J A

    1990-01-01

    The experience about treatment in infiltrating tumors of Carotid Corpus, III Degree (Shamblin), is presented. Different methods of carotid reconstruction, and biologic and evolutive characteristics are emphasized, discussing preoperatory study and surgical technics.

  19. The use of layer by layer self-assembled coatings of hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin to improve the biocompatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate) artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shurong; Jiang, Jia; Tao, Hongyue; Xu, Jialing; Sun, Jianguo; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-11-01

    In this study layer by layer (LBL) self-assembled coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and cationized gelatin (CG) were used to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament grafts. Changes in the surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and contact angle and biomechanical measurements. The cell compatibility of this HA-CG coating was investigated in vitro on PET films seeded with human foreskin dermal fibroblasts over 7days. The results of our in vitro studies demonstrated that the HA-CG coating significantly enhanced cell adhesion, facilitated cell growth, and suppressed the expression of inflammation-related genes relative to a pure PET graft. Furthermore, rabbit and porcine anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction models were used to evaluate the effect of this LBL coating in vivo. The animal experiment results proved that this LBL coating significantly inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and promoted new ligament tissue regeneration among the graft fibers. In addition, the formation of type I collagen in the HA-CG coating group was much higher than in the control group. Based on these results we conclude that PET grafts coated with HA-CG have considerable potential as substitutes for ligament reconstruction.

  20. [Injuries of the medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint and Lemaire surgical functional treatment. Long-term outcome].

    PubMed

    Schmid, F

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports the results of 112 extraarticular ligamento-plasties performed on the knee with the procedure proposed by Lemaire. The series includes isolated tears of the anterior cruciate and medical collateral ligament as well as combined tears of both ligaments. The clinical and radiological results with a mean follow-up time of 11.5 years are compared with the results obtained in a first assessment 8 years ago. Good clinical results are in contrast with increasing osteoarthrosis in 1/3 of the knees radiologically assessed. The operation for a torn anterior cruciate ligament should be performed as soon as possible to avoid secondary meniscal lesions with subsequent severe osteoarthrosis. Presence or absence of arthrotic signs in the X-rays mainly determine the long-term result after ligamento-plasties of the knee. The Lemaire plasties are well tolerated even by elderly still active people and need little postoperative care.

  1. Surgical Excision of Multiple Penile Syringomas With Scrotal Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Elbert E.; Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Zelken, Jonathan A.; Erdag, Gulsun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Penile syringomas are rare lesions usually occurring in isolation. We report the excision and reconstruction of multiple synchronous penile shaft syringomas with local scrotal flaps. Methods: We report a rare case of excision of multiple penile syringomas and reconstruction with scrotal flaps in a 29-year-old man. Results: Penile syringomas were excised and reconstructed with scrotal flaps in a single-stage procedure. Conclusions: In addition to providing wound coverage, this reconstructive option allowed for excellent functional results with regard to shaft alignment and erectile function, and it should be considered in the reconstructive armamentarium for penile shaft lesions. PMID:24966995

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft for adolescents with open physes- a technical note

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One major concern in the treatment of ACL lesions in children and adolescents with open physes is the risk of iatrogenic damage to the physes and a possibly resulting growth disturbance. Purpose The primary purpose of this article is to describe our technique of a transphyseal ACL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-bone autograft in children and adolescents with open growth plates. The secondary aim is to report our early results in terms of postoperative growth disturbances which are considered to be a major concern in this challenging group of patients. It was our hypothesis that with our proposed technique no significant growth disturbances would occur. Methods From January 1997 to December 2007 49 consecutive children and adolescents with open growth plates were treated for a torn ACL using the aforementioned surgical technique. The patients (28 males and 21 females) with a median age at surgery of 13 (range 8-15) years were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures were follow-up radiographs (weight-bearing long leg radiographs of the injured and uninjured knee, anteroposterior and lateral views, a tangential view of the patella and a tunnel view of the injured knee) and follow-up notes (6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months and until closing of physes) for occurrence of any tibial and/or femoral growth changes. Results: All of the 49 patients had a sufficient clinical and radiological follow-up (minimum 5 years, rate 100%). 48 cases did not show any clinical and radiological growth disturbance. One case of growth disturbance in a 10.5 years old girl was observed. She developed a progressive valgus-flexion deformity which was attributed to a malplacement of the autograft bone block within the femoral posterolateral epiphyseal plate leading to an early localized growth stop. None of the patients were reoperated due to ACL graft failure. Five of the patients underwent revision ACL surgery due to another adequate sports trauma after the growth-stop. The

  3. Arthroscopic-Assisted Combined Dorsal and Volar Scapholunate Ligament Reconstruction with Tendon Graft for Chronic SL Instability

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Pak-cheong; Wong, Clara Wing-yee; Tse, Wing-lim

    2015-01-01

    Background Both the dorsal and the volar portion of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) are major stabilizers of the scapholunate (SL) joint. Most reconstruction methods to restore SL stability do not address the volar constraints and frequently fail to reduce the SL gapping. Wrist arthroscopy allows a complete evaluation of the SL interval, accompanying ligament status, and associated SL advanced collapse (SLAC) wrist changes. It enables simultaneous reconstruction of the dorsal and palmar SL ligaments anatomically with the use tendon graft in a boxlike structure. Materials and Methods From October 2002 to June 2012, the treatment method was applied in 17 patients of chronic SL instability of average duration of 9.5 months (range 1.5–18 months). There were three Geissler grade 3 and 14 grade 4 instability cases. The average preoperative SL interval was 4.9 mm (range 3–9 mm). Dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) deformity was present in 13 patients. Six patients had stage 1 SLAC wrist change radiologically. Concomitant procedures were performed in four patients. Description of Technique With the assistance of arthroscopy and intraoperative imaging as a guide, a combined limited dorsal and volar incision exposed the dorsal and palmar SL interval without violating the wrist joint capsule. Bone tunnels of 2.4 mm were made on the proximal scaphoid and lunate. A palmaris longus tendon graft was delivered through the wrist capsule and the bone tunnels to reduce and connect the two bones in a boxlike fashion. Once the joint diastasis is reduced and any DISI malrotation corrected, the tendon graft was knotted and sutured on the dorsal surface of the SL joint extra-capsularly in a shoe-lacing manner. The scaphocapitate joint was transfixed with Kirschner wires (K-wires) to protect the reconstruction for 6–8 weeks. Results The average follow-up was 48.3 months (range 11–132 months). Thirteen returned to their preinjury job level

  4. Radiographic visualization of patellar tendon grafts for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J; Vidal, C; Cubillo, A

    1997-12-01

    The new biodegradable interference screws offer very many advantages for anterior cruciate ligament replacement with patellar tendon. However, their radiolucency makes it impossible to identify the anchorage sites. We describe an imaging technique of the plasty and its anchorage sites by means of a radiopaque contrast that is commonly used in radiology (Iopamidol; Bracco, Milan, Italy). It is an easy technique that does not extend the time of surgery, it is harmless, and allows us to identify malpositioning or impingement of the plasty.

  5. [Expansive duralplasty and subarachnoid reconstruction for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis using Gore-Tex surgical membrane].

    PubMed

    Seki, Toshitaka; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Syunsuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2004-12-01

    Effective surgical treatment of adhesive spinal arachnoiditis has not been established because of its complex clinical manifestation. The authors present a new surgical technique to minimize the postoperative recurrence of adhesion after microlysis of adhesion to treat spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. After complete release and reconstruction of the spinal cord, a 0.1 mm Gore-Tex surgical membrane was placed over the cord and fixed to the lateral dural surface with stay sutures. Furthermore, maximal expansion of a subarachnoid space was performed by expansive dural plasty with a 0.3 mm Gore-Tex surgical membrane. We performed this surgical method in tree cases of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. During a postoperative follow-up period ranging from 2 to 3 years, postoperative neurological deterioration did not occur in all cases, and postoperative MR imaging studied showed no adhesion spinal cord and reconstructed subarachnoid space. The authors believe that this procedure is an effective surgical treatment for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.

  6. Cost of Outpatient Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Among Commercially Insured Patients in the United States, 2005-2013

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Mackenzie M.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Pate, Virginia; Spang, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the significance of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, these conditions have been under-researched from a population-level perspective. It is important to determine the economic effect of these injuries in order to document the public health burden in the United States. Purpose: To describe the cost of outpatient arthroscopic ACL reconstruction and health care utilization among commercially insured beneficiaries in the United States. Study Design: Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The study used the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, an administrative claims database that contains a large sample (approximately 148 million) of privately insured individuals aged <65 years and enrolled in employer-sponsored plans. All claims with Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code 29888 (arthroscopically aided ACL reconstruction or augmentation) from 2005 to 2013 were included. “Immediate procedure” cost was computed assuming a 3-day window of care centered on date of surgery. “Total health care utilization” cost was computed using a 9-month window of care (3 months preoperative and 6 months postoperative). Results: There were 229,446 outpatient arthroscopic ACL reconstructions performed over the 9-year study period. Median immediate procedure cost was $9399.49. Median total health care utilization cost was $13,403.38. Patients who underwent concomitant collateral ligament (medial [MCL], lateral [LCL]) repair or reconstruction had the highest costs for both immediate procedure ($12,473.24) and health care utilization ($17,006.34). For patients who had more than 1 reconstruction captured in the database, total health care utilization costs were higher for the second procedure than the first procedure ($16,238.43 vs $15,000.36), despite the fact that immediate procedure costs were lower for second procedures ($8685.73 vs $9445.26). Conclusion: These results provide a

  7. Biomechanical comparison of the hand-based transplant used in bone-tissue-bone scapho-lunate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gay, A M; Thoreson, A; Berger, R A

    2014-02-01

    Although work has been published comparing the five most commonly used transplant techniques to the properties of the scapho-lunate interosseous ligament (SLIL), no study has been carried out which compares the biomechanical properties of the different bone-tissue-bone autografts to each other, using a standard methodology of testing. The hypothesis of this study was that mechanically significant differences in the material properties of commonly used bone-tissue-bone exist when compared to each other. We tested the dorsal part of the SLIL and the five most quoted transplants in the literature: capitate to trapezoid; trapezoid to second metacarpal; third metacarpal-carpal; dorsal capitate-hamate; 4-5 extensor retinaculum. For each transplant, we measured failure load, failure displacement, width, and thickness. Anova was used to compare the different results obtained and the level of significance attributed to P<0.05. Load to failure were: SLIL 94.3±42.86N; capitate to trapezoid 37.7±23.13N; trapezoid to second metacarpal 45.43±14.28N; third metacarpal-carpal 60.11±19.94N; dorsal capitate-hamate 63±25.51N; 4-5 retinaculum 15.67±10.7N. Only the dorsal capitate-hamate ligament showed to have no significant (P>0.05) difference in term of load to failure, all the others was significantly weaker (P<0.05). Previous biomechanical studies have identified the dorsal region of the SLIL as the most structurally and functionally important area of the SLIL. As a result, attention has been more specifically brought to the replacement of the dorsal portion of the SLIL. An attempt to achieve a reconstruction that reproduces more closely the SLIL has generated research on the use of bone-tissue-bone composite graft, several donor sites have been used in order to find the most similar. Our results suggest that, using a normalized method to compare the previously described grafts harvested at the wrist level, that the dorsal capitate-hamate ligament has the closest properties

  8. Suggestions from the field for return-to-sport rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: alpine skiing.

    PubMed

    Kokmeyer, Dirk; Wahoff, Michael; Mymern, Matt

    2012-04-01

    Alpine skiing is a high-risk sport for injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). While descending a hill, a skier must resist large centrifugal forces at a high velocity, while the knees are positioned in postures that place the ACL at risk of injury. Skiers who undergo ACL reconstructive surgery are prone to a high rate of reinjury to the same knee and even ACL injury in the uninjured knee. A rehabilitation program that integrates the best current evidence of ACL rehabilitation and the science of skiing is essential to a successful return to alpine skiing. Unlike rehabilitation programs developed for court or field athletes, a skiing program must place a large emphasis on slow eccentric-loading and weight-bearing (closed-chain) power and endurance. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide the rehabilitation specialist such a program directed toward safely returning the athlete to alpine skiing.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the Bio-TransFix femoral fixation device and anteromedial portal technique.

    PubMed

    Hantes, Michael E; Dailiana, Zoe; Zachos, Vasilios C; Varitimidis, Sokratis E

    2006-05-01

    The cross-pin femoral fixation technique for soft tissue grafts is a popular option in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. One of these devices is the Bio-TransFix (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA) which provides high fixation strength. According to the manufacturer, the femoral tunnel is created by placing the femoral aiming device through the tibial tunnel (transtibial technique). However, using this technique it is very difficult or even impossible to place the graft at the anatomical ACL attachment site at the "10 o'clock" position. In this report, we describe the use of the Bio-TransFix device with an anteromedial portal technique. Using this technique, the surgeon has more freedom to place the graft in an anatomical position, while combining the advantages of the excellent biomechanical properties of this device.

  10. Advances in Surgical Reconstructive Techniques in the Management of Penile, Urethral, and Scrotal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bickell, Michael; Beilan, Jonathan; Wallen, Jared; Wiegand, Lucas; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation. Reconstruction following treatment of primary urethral carcinoma and current techniques for scrotal cancer reconstruction using split-thickness skin grafts and flaps are described.

  11. The addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in combined femoral-sciatic nerve block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Couture, Darren J; Cuniff, Heather M; Maye, John P; Pellegrini, Joseph

    2004-08-01

    Clonidine has been shown to prolong sensory analgesia when given as an adjunct to peripheral nerve blocks but has not been evaluated when given in conjunction with a femoral-sciatic nerve block. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the addition of clonidine to a femoral-sciatic nerve block would prolong the duration of sensory analgesia in groups of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This prospective, randomized, double-blind investigation was performed on 64 subjects undergoing ACL reconstruction. Patients were assigned randomly to receive a femoral-sciatic nerve block using 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (control group) or 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 1 microg/kg of clonidine (experimental group). Variables measured included demographics, timed pain intensity measurements, postoperative analgesic consumption, duration of analgesia, and patient satisfaction. No significant differences were noted between groups for pain intensity scores, duration of sensory analgesia, postoperative analgesic requirements, or overall patient satisfaction. Both groups reported minimal amounts of postoperative pain and high analgesic satisfaction scores. Based on our results, we do not recommend the addition of clonidine to a femoral-sciatic nerve block when given to facilitate postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction.

  12. Hydroxyapatite-doped polycaprolactone nanofiber membrane improves tendon-bone interface healing for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yaying; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring tendon autograft is a routine graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, ways of improving the healing between the tendon and bone is often overlooked in clinical practice. This issue can be addressed by using a biomimetic scaffold. Herein, a biomimetic nanofiber membrane of polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHAp/Col) is fabricated that mimics the composition of native bone tissue for promoting tendon-bone healing. This membrane has good cytocompatibility, allowing for osteoblast cell adhesion and growth and bone formation. As a result, MC3T3 cells reveal a higher mineralization level in PCL/nHAp/Col membrane compared with PCL membrane alone. Further in vivo studies in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model shows that PCL/nHAp/Col-wrapped tendon may afford superior tissue integration to nonwrapped tendon in the interface between the tendon and host bone as well as improved mechanical strength. This study shows that PCL/nHAp/Col nanofiber membrane wrapping of autologous tendon is effective for improving tendon healing with host bone in ACL reconstruction.

  13. A mini-invasive adductor magnus tendon transfer technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Petri J; Mäenpää, Heikki M; Mattila, Ville M; Visuri, Tuomo; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2009-05-01

    Patellar dislocations are associated with injuries to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Several techniques for MPFL reconstruction have been recently published with some disadvantages involved, including large skin incisions and donor site morbidity. Arthroscopic stabilizing techniques carry the potential of inadequate restoration of MPFL function. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using adductor magnus tendon autograft. This technique is easily performed, safe, and provides a stabilizing effect equal to current MPFL reconstructions. Skin incision of only 3-4 cm is located at the level of the proximal half of the patella. After identifying the distal insertion of the adductor magnus tendon, a tendon harvester is introduced to harvest the medial two-thirds of the tendon, while the distal insertion is left intact. The adductor magnus tendon is cut at 12-14 cm from its distal insertion and transferred into the patellar medial margin. Two suture anchors are inserted through the same incision at the superomedial aspect of the patella in the anatomic MPFL origin. The graft is tightened at 30 degrees knee flexion. Aftercare includes 4 weeks of brace treatment with restricted range of motion.

  14. A Comparative Animal Study of Tendon Grafts Healing After Remnant-Preserving Versus Conventional Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Kan; Chai, Hao; Zhou, Mei; Bai, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by remnant preservation promotes cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, and improved biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts. Material/Methods 75 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into the control group (group A), conventional ACL reconstruction group (group B), ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and graft through remnant sleeve technique group (group C), and ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and remnant tensioning technique group (group D). The remnant and healing of tendon grafts in groups C and D were observed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, and the mRNA expression levels of VEGF, NT-3 and GAP-43 in ACL (group A) or tendon graft samples (groups B, C, and D) were determined by real-time PCR. Tendon graft cell count, microvessel density (MVD), and proprioceptors were determined by H&E staining, CD34, and S-100 immunohistochemical staining. The biomechanical properties of the tendon graft at week 12 in groups B, C, and D were examined by using a tensile strength test. Results Remnant and tendon grafts were not healed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after the operation in groups C and D. VEGF, NT-3, and GAP-43 mRNA expressions in groups B, C, and D were higher than those in group A (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between groups B, C, and D (P>0.05). Furthermore, tendon graft cell count, MVD, proprioception, and biomechanical properties showed no significant differences (P>0.05) among groups B, C, and D at various time points. Conclusions There was no significant difference in cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, or biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts between remnant-preserving and conventional ACL reconstruction methods. PMID:27669454

  15. Biomechanics of the meniscus-meniscal ligament construct of the knee.

    PubMed

    Masouros, S D; McDermott, I D; Amis, A A; Bull, A M J

    2008-12-01

    The menisci of the knee act primarily to redistribute contact force across the tibio-femoral articulation. This meniscal function is achieved through a combination of the material, geometry and attachments of the menisci. The main ligaments that attach the menisci to the tibia (insertional ligaments, deep medial collateral ligament), the femur (meniscofemoral ligaments, deep medial collateral ligament) and each other (the anterior intermeniscal ligament) are the means by which the contact force between tibia and femur is distributed into hoop stresses in the menisci to reduce contact pressure at the joint. This means that the functional biomechanics of the menisci cannot be considered in isolation and should be considered as the functional biomechanics of the meniscus-meniscal ligament construct. This article presents the current knowledge on the anatomy and functional biomechanics of the meniscus and its associated ligaments. Much is known about the function of the meniscus-meniscal ligament construct; however, there still remain significant gaps in the literature in terms of the properties of the anterior intermeniscal ligament and its function, the properties of the insertional ligaments, and the most appropriate ways to reconstruct meniscal function surgically.

  16. Arthroscopic reconstruction of chronic AC joint dislocations by transposition of the coracoacromial ligament augmented by the Tight Rope device: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Friedmann, Svenja; Tröger, Markus; Lobenhoffer, Philipp; Agneskirchner, Jens D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new arthroscopic technique for chronic AC joint dislocations with coracoacromial ligament transposition and augmentation by the Tight Rope device (Arthrex, Naples, USA). First the glenohumeral joint is visualised to repair concomitant lesions, such as SLAP lesions, if needed. Once the rotator interval is opened and the coracoid is identified, the arthroscope is moved to an additional anterolateral portal. A 1.5 cm incision is made 2 cm medial to the AC joint. After drilling a 4 mm hole with a cannulated drill through the clavicle and coracoid a Tight Rope is inserted, the clavicule is reduced and stabilized with the implant. The arthroscope is moved to the subacromial space and a partial bursectomy is performed to visualise the CA ligament and lateral clavicle. The CA ligament is armed with a strong braided suture using a Lasso stitch and dissected from the undersurface of the acromion. It is then reattached to the distal part of the clavicle by transosseous suture fixation after abrasion of its undersurface. Although this combined arthroscopic procedure of AC joint augmentation with a Tight Rope combined with a ligament transposition is technically demanding, it is a safe method to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments and achieve a sufficient reduction of the clavicle without the need of further implant removal or autologous tendon transplantation.

  17. Laser-guided placement of the tibial guide in the transtibial technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Takeda, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Seiji; Yamamoto, Haruyasu

    2009-02-01

    In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, it is important to determine the location and direction of the femoral bone tunnel when using the transtibial technique. Accurately identifying the anatomic location at which to make the femoral bone tunnel for double-bundle ACL reconstruction is not a straightforward procedure. We describe a new method in which the centrum of the femoral tunnel is marked with an awl and a laser beam-guided technique is used to place the tibial pin. This procedure allows us to mark the desired location of the femoral tunnel before drilling the tibial bone tunnel when using the transtibial technique. This is the first report of a laser-guided technique used in arthroscopic surgery. We used a laser beam to determine the location of the femoral tunnel--the anatomic site needed to perform the intra-articular drilling in the tibia. In this technique, a laser pointer is set at the tibial guide, which reflects the laser beam and illuminates the point where the femoral bone tunnel should be made. Our method offers an easy and accurate way to reconfirm the tibial placement before drilling.

  18. Videofluoroscopy Instrument to Identify the Tibiofemoral Contact Point Migration for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Follow-up: CINARTRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.

  19. Effectiveness and safety of cryotherapy after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Gomes da Silva, Brenda Nazaré; de Carvalho, Alan Pedrosa Viegas; Silva, Valter; Torloni, Maria Regina; Peccin, Maria Stella

    2014-11-01

    Cryotherapy is widely used in rehabilitation; however, its effectiveness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains uncertain. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of cryotherapy following ACL reconstruction through a systematic review, randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials were searched in the databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PEDro, SportDiscus, CINAHL, LILACS (June 2013). The primary outcomes measures were pain, edema and adverse events; the secondary outcomes were knee function, analgesic medication use, range of motion, blood loss, hospital stay, quality of life and patient satisfaction. The methodological quality of studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool. Ten trials (a total of 573 patients) were included. Results of meta-analysis showed that the use of cold compression devices produced a significant reduction in pain scores 48 h after surgery (p < 0.00001), compared to no cryotherapy. The risk for adverse events did not differ between patients receiving cryotherapy versus no treatment (p = 1.00). The limited evidence currently available is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions on the effectiveness of cryotherapy for other outcomes. There is a need for well designed, good quality randomized trials to answer other questions related to this intervention and increase the precision of future systematic reviews.

  20. Evaluating the Center of Gravity of Dislocations in Soccer Players With and Without Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using a Balance Platform

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Greve, Júlia Maria D’Andréa; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare the dislocation of the center of gravity and postural balance in sedentary and recreational soccer players with and without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the Biodex Balance System (BBS). METHOD Sixty-four subjects were divided into three groups: a) soccer players who were post- anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; b) soccer players with no anterior cruciate ligament injuries; and c) sedentary subjects. The subjects were submitted to functional stability tests using the Biodex Balance System. The instability protocols used were level eight (more stable) and level two (less stable). Three stability indexes were calculated: the anteroposterior stability index, the mediolateral stability index, and the general stability index. RESULTS Postural balance (dislocation) on the reconstructed side of the athletes was worse than on the side that had not undergone reconstruction. The postural balance of the sedentary group was dislocated less on both sides than the reconstructed knees of the athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injuries. There were no differences in postural balance with relation to left/right dominance for the uninjured athletes and the sedentary individuals. CONCLUSION The dislocation of the center of gravity and change in postural balance in sedentary individuals and on the operated limb of Surgery Group are less marked than in the soccer players from the Non Surgery Group and on the non-operated limbs. The dislocation of the center of gravity and the change in postural balance from the operated limb of the soccer players is less marked than in their non-operated limbs. PMID:19330239

  1. [Surgical reconstruction of large defects of the nose].

    PubMed

    Hofer, S O P; Mureau, M A M

    2008-07-26

    --Skin cancer of the face is the most prevalent type of cancer. The large increase of the incidence of this type of cancer in recent years has resulted in an increase of skin cancer resections in the face. --Nasal defects are the most challenging of these facial defects. Nasal reconstruction requires reconstruction of three tissue layers: the inner mucosal lining, supporting structures (cartilage or bone) and the outer cutaneous lining. --The new inner lining should consist of well-vascularized thin tissue to prevent rejection of cartilage or bone in the supporting layer. For example, septal mucosa or skin can be used in various ways to reconstruct the inner lining. --The new supporting structures, consisting of transplanted cartilage or bone, should be strong enough to prevent contraction of the soft tissues--inner and outer lining--during wound healing. --The outer lining is reconstructed per subunit of the nose, e.g. nostril, ala nasi or ridge of the nose. Usually a paramedian forehead flap is used for the reconstruction of the outer lining.

  2. Tendon and ligament imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J

    2012-01-01

    MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301

  3. Knee functional recovery and limb-to-limb symmetry restoration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and ACL reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya Hussein

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sport injury of young athletes who participate in jumping, cutting, and pivoting activities. Although ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgery has the goal of enabling athletes to return to preinjury activity levels, treatment results often fall short of this goal. The outcomes after ACLR are variable and less than optimal with low rate of return to preinjury activity level and high risk for second ACL injury. Factors related to the knee functional limitations, strength deficits, and limb-to-limb movement asymmetry may be associated with poor outcomes after ACLR. Additionally, the criteria that are used to determine a patient's readiness to return to the preinjury activity level are undefined which may also be associated with poor outcomes after ACLR. The clinical decision-making to clear patients' for safe and successful return to high physical activities should be based on a universal comprehensive set of objective criteria that ensure normal knee function and limb-to-limb symmetry. A battery of return to activity criteria (RTAC) that emphases normal knee function and limb-to-limb movement symmetry has been constituted to better ensure safe and successful return to preinjury activity level. Yet, only variables related to patients' demographics, concomitant injuries, and treatment measures have been used to predict return to preinjury activity levels after ACLR. However, the ability of RTAC variables that ensure normal knee function and limb movement symmetry to predict the return to participate in the same preinjury activity level after ACLR has not been investigated. In light of this background, the first aim of the present study was to compare functional knee performance-based and patient-reported measures of those who PASS and who FAIL on RTAC at 6 months (6-M) following ACLR with those at 12 months (12-M) and 24 months (24-M) following ACLR and to determine how performance-based and patient-reported measures

  4. Gold and Hydroxyapatite Nano-Composite Scaffolds for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: In Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Smith, S E; White, R A; Grant, D A; Grant, S A

    2016-01-01

    Current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft replacement materials often fail due to the lack of biological integration. While many newly developed extracellular matrix based scaffolds show good biocompatibility they often do not entice cellular remodeling and the rebuilding of a functional ligament. We have proposed the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAp) to acellular tissue to enhance cell attachment and proliferation while maintaining an improved degradation resistance and open microstructure. We are the first to investigate the double conjugation of AuNP and nano-HAp onto decellularized tissue to improve the tissue remodeling response. Decellularized porcine diaphragm was crosslinked with two types of nano-HAp and amine-functionalized AuNP with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethlaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) crosslinker. Scaffolds were characterized using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and fibroblast assays. Results demonstrated that scaffolds with nano-HAp have increased thermal stability at low levels of crosslinking. The open microstructure of the scaffold was not compromised allowing for cell migration while still providing increased degradation resistance. The addition of < 200 nm nano-HAp decreased cell viability compared to scaffolds without nanoparticles, but the addition of AuNP to scaffolds showed enhanced cell viability in the presence of < 200 nm nano-HAp. The addition of < 40 nm nano-HAp showed an increase in cell viability compared to scaffolds crosslinked without nanoparticles. It is concluded that attaching AuNP and < 40nm nano-HAp to extracellular matrices may improve overall properties.

  5. Enteral metallic stenting by balloon enteroscopy for obstruction of surgically reconstructed intestine.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kazunari; Okuse, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Suetani, Keigo; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yosuke; Ozawa, Shun-ichiro; Hosoya, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Otsubo, Takehito; Itoh, Fumio

    2015-06-28

    We present three cases of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement using a balloon enteroscope (BE) and its overtube (OT) for malignant obstruction of surgically reconstructed intestine. A BE is effective for the insertion of an endoscope into the deep bowel. However, SEMS placement is impossible through the working channel, because the working channel of BE is too small and too long for the stent device. Therefore, we used a technique in which the BE is inserted as far as the stenotic area; thereafter, the BE is removed, leaving only the OT, and then the stent is placed by inserting the stent device through the OT. In the present three cases, a modification of this technique resulted in the successful placement of the SEMS for obstruction of surgically reconstructed intestine, and the procedures were performed without serious complications. We consider that the present procedure is extremely effective as a palliative treatment for distal bowel stenosis, such as in the surgically reconstructed intestine.

  6. Prospectively Identified Deficits in Sagittal Plane Hip-Ankle Coordination in Female Athletes who Sustain a Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Bonnette, Scott; Riley, Michael A.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Shockley, Kevin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Athletes who return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are at increased risk of future ACL injury. Altered coordination of lower extremity motion may increase this risk. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine if altered lower extremity coordination patterns exist in athletes who go on to sustain a 2nd anterior cruciate ligament injury. Methods Sixty-one female athletes who were medically cleared to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included. Hip-ankle coordination was assessed prior to return to sport with a dynamic postural coordination task. Within 12 months, 14 patients sustained a 2nd ACL injury. Fourteen matched subjects were selected for comparative analysis. Cross-recurrence quantification analysis characterized hip-ankle coordination patterns. A group × target speed (slow vs. fast) × leg (involved vs. uninvolved) analysis of variance was used to identify coordination differences. Findings A main effect of group (p = 0.02) indicated that the single injury group exhibited more stable hip-ankle coordination [166.2 (18.9)] compared to the 2nd injury group [108.4 (10.1)]. A leg × group interaction was also observed (p = .04). The affected leg of the single injury group exhibited more stable coordination [M = 187.1 (23.3)] compared to the affected leg of the 2nd injury group [M = 110.13 (9.8)], p = 0.03. Interpretation Hip-ankle coordination was altered in female athletes who sustained a 2nd anterior cruciate ligament injury after return to sport. Failure to coordinate lower extremity movement in the absence of normal knee proprioception may place the knee at high-risk. PMID:26416200

  7. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by means of an anteromedial portal and femoral fixation using Rigidfix☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, André Manoel; Lopes Júnior, Osmar Valadão; Kuhn, André; Saggin, José Idílio; Fernandes Saggin, Paulo Renato; de Freitas Spinelli, Leandro; de Castro, Daniela Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a series of patients who underwent surgery for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with flexor tendons, by means of the anteromedial transportal technique using Rigidfix for femoral fixation, and to analyze the positioning of the pins by means of tomography. Methods Thirty-two patients were included in the study. The clinical evaluation was done using the Lysholm, subjective IKDC and Rolimeter. All of them underwent computed tomography with 3D reconstruction in order to evaluate the entry point and positioning of the Rigidfix pins in relation to the joint cartilage of the lateral condyle of the femur. Results The mean Lysholm score obtained was 87.81 and the subjective IKDC was 83.72. Among the 32 patients evaluated, 43% returned to activities that were considered to be very vigorous, 9% vigorous, 37.5% moderate and 12.5% light. In 16 patients (50%), the distal entry point of the Rigidfix pin was located outside of the cartilage (extracartilage); in seven (21.87%), the distal pin injured the joint cartilage (intracartilage); and in nine (28.12%), it was at the border of the lateral condyle of the femur. Conclusion The patients who underwent ACL reconstruction by means of the anteromedial transportal using the Rigidfix system presented satisfactory clinical results over the length of follow-up evaluated. However, the risk of lesions of the joint cartilage from the distal Rigidfix pin needs to be taken into consideration when the technique via an anteromedial portal is used. Further studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up times should be conducted for better evaluation. PMID:26229871

  8. Metatarsal Reconstruction with a Fibular Osteocutaneous Flap: A Novel Approach Utilizing Virtual Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Thomas N.; Delatte, Stephen; Hebert, Christopher K.; Canizares, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Craniofacial reconstruction remains the main application for virtual surgical planning (VSP). We present a case in which this technology was applied to reconstruct a bony defect of the first metatarsal bone from a gunshot injury. VSP was used to facilitate a 1-stage reconstruction with a fibular osteocutaneous flap. A template of the reconstructed bone was designed based on the virtual mirror-image, noninjured bone. Prefabricated cutting guides facilitated precise shaping of the vascularized bone accounting for location of perforators. Successful reconstruction of the metatarsal bone was achieved with excellent functional outcomes. We believe that VSP can be a valuable tool in reconstruction of metatarsal bones by facilitating precise intraoperative shaping and anatomic orientation of the vascularized flap and reducing flap ischemia and operative time. PMID:25506541

  9. Custom-made, 3D, intraoperative surgical guides for nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Babar; Byrne, Patrick J

    2011-11-01

    This article presents the use of an intraoperative surgical guide created by 3D laser surface scanning and rapid prototyping. The authors present outcomes of 3 patients in whom the nasal surgical guide was used intraoperatively for reconstruction of full-thickness, complex nasal defects. This effort highlights the multidisciplinary approach involving a surgeon and anaplastologist integrated with the latest technology to provide patients with the best possible outcomes.

  10. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in repeat calvarial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis: technical note.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Melissa; Daniels, Bradley; Buchanan, Edward P; Monson, Laura; Lam, Sandi

    2017-02-03

    Repeat surgery for restenosis after initial nonsyndromic craniosynostosis intervention is sometimes needed. Calvarial vault reconstruction through a healed surgical bed adds a level of intraoperative complexity and may benefit from preoperative and intraoperative definitions of biometric and aesthetic norms. Computer-assisted design and manufacturing using 3D imaging allows the precise formulation of operative plans in anticipation of surgical intervention. 3D printing turns virtual plans into anatomical replicas, templates, or customized implants by using a variety of materials. The authors present a technical note illustrating the use of this technology: a repeat calvarial vault reconstruction that was planned and executed using computer-assisted design and 3D printed intraoperative guides.

  11. Landing Mechanics During Side Hopping and Crossover Hopping Maneuvers in Noninjured Women and Women With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alexis; Olson, Sharon; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Rosario, Martin; Venegas, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare, landing mechanics and electromyographic activity of the lower extremities during side hopping and crossover hopping maneuvers, in noninjured women and women with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Design A case-control study. Setting A 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Participants Twenty-eight young women (range, 21–35 years) (15 control subjects and 13 subjects with ACL reconstruction). Patients and Methods All participants performed a side-to-side hopping task that consisted of hopping single-legged 10 times consecutively from side to side across 2 lines marked 30 cm apart on 2 individual force plates. The task was designated as a side hopping when the hop was to the opposite side of the stance leg and as crossover hopping when the hop was toward the side of the stance leg. Main Outcome Measurements Peak hip-/knee-joint angles; peak knee extension/abduction joint moments; electromyographic studies of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and hamstring muscles; and quadriceps/hamstring co-contraction ratio were compared between the groups by means of 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance tests (group × maneuver). Results Noninjured women and women with ACL reconstruction exhibited similar hip-and knee-joint angles during both types of hopping. Hip-joint angles were greater during the crossover hopping in both groups, and knee-joint angles did not differ between the groups or hops. Knee-joint moments demonstrated a significant group × maneuver interaction. Greater knee extension and valgus moments were noted in the control group during crossover hopping, and greater knee abduction moments were noted in the ACL group during side hopping. Electromyographic data revealed no statistically significantly differences between the groups. Conclusions Women with ACL reconstruction exhibited the restoration of functional biomechanical movements such as hip-/knee-joint angles and lower extremity neuromuscular

  12. Surgical results and complications of anterior decompression and fusion as a revision surgery after initial posterior surgery for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    PubMed

    Odate, Seiichi; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Soeda, Tsunemitsu; Yamamura, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a progressive disease. An anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) procedure for cervical OPLL is theoretically feasible, as the lesion exists anteriorly; however, such a procedure is considered technically demanding and is associated with serious complications. Cervical laminoplasty is reportedly an effective alternative procedure with few complications; it is recognized as a comparatively safe procedure, and has been widely used as an initial surgery for cervical OPLL. After posterior surgery, some patients require revision surgery because of late neurological deterioration due to kyphotic changes in cervical alignment or OPLL progression. Here, the authors retrospectively investigated the surgical results and complications of revision ACDF after initial posterior surgery for OPLL. METHODS This was a single-center, retrospective study. Between 2006 and 2013, 19 consecutive patients with cervical OPLL who underwent revision ACDF at the authors' institution after initial posterior surgery were evaluated. The mean age at the time of revision ACDF was 66 ± 7 years (± SD; range 53-78 years). The mean interval between initial posterior surgery and revision ACDF was 63 ± 53 months (range 3-235 months). RESULTS The mean follow-up period after revision ACDF was 41 ± 26 months (range 24-108 months). Before revision ACDF, the mean maximum thickness of the ossified posterior longitudinal ligament was 7.2 ± 1.5 mm (range 5-10 mm), and the mean C2-7 angle was 1.3° ± 14° (range -40° to 24°). The K-line was plus (OPLL did not exceed the K-line) in 8 patients and minus in 11 (OPLL exceeded the K-line). The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved from 10 ± 3 (range 3-15) before revision ACDF to 11 ± 4 (range 4-15) at the last follow-up, and the mean improvement rate was 18% ± 18% (range 0%-60%). A total of 16 surgery-related complications developed in 12 patients (63%). The

  13. The effects of femoral graft placement on cartilage thickness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Eziamaka C; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; Widmyer, Margaret R; Abebe, Ermias S; Collins, Amber T; Taylor, Dean C; Spritzer, Charles E; Moorman, C T; Garrett, William E; DeFrate, Louis E

    2014-01-03

    Altered joint motion has been thought to be a contributing factor in the long-term development of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. While many studies have quantified knee kinematics after ACL injury and reconstruction, there is limited in vivo data characterizing the effects of altered knee motion on cartilage thickness distributions. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare cartilage thickness distributions in two groups of patients with ACL reconstruction: one group in which subjects received a non-anatomic reconstruction that resulted in abnormal joint motion and another group in which subjects received an anatomically placed graft that more closely restored normal knee motion. Ten patients with anatomic graft placement (mean follow-up: 20 months) and 12 patients with non-anatomic graft placement (mean follow-up: 18 months) were scanned using high-resolution MR imaging. These images were used to generate 3D mesh models of both knees of each patient. The operative and contralateral knee models were registered to each other and a grid sampling system was used to make site-specific comparisons of cartilage thickness. Patients in the non-anatomic graft placement group demonstrated a significant decrease in cartilage thickness along the medial intercondylar notch in the operative knee relative to the intact knee (8%). In the anatomic graft placement group, no significant changes were observed. These findings suggest that restoring normal knee motion after ACL injury may help to slow the progression of degeneration. Therefore, graft placement may have important implications on the development of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction.

  14. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  15. Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Nishino, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical cutting guides are used in mandibular reconstruction involving osteotomy of the mandible and fibula. Cutting guides produced using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies have been reported recently. These guides aim to increase the benefits to patients by improving the accuracy, shortening the operating time, and correcting occlusion. However, the availability of these advanced technologies is limited in some regions of the world. To test whether we could produce low-cost surgical cutting guides, we made surgical guides and investigated their accuracy. Methods: Using free CAD software, we designed surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual mandibular segmental osteotomies and fibula transplants in 12 model surgeries. The cutting guides were printed on a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The model surgeries were performed using 3D mandibular models and cutting guides to check their accuracy. Deviations between the virtually simulated plan and the actual model surgery were investigated. Results: CAD and CAM technologies were used to design and 3D print the cutting guides and models. The guided surgeries were performed. The deviations were about 1.3 mm for mandibular osteotomy, less than 1 mm for fibular osteotomy, and within 2.4 mm for reconstructions of the mandible. Conclusions: Without using expensive software or products, we were able to design surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual simulation of mandibular segmental osteotomy and fibular reconstruction. Model surgeries using 3D-printed surgical guides showed that the accuracy of reconstruction was within a 3-mm deviation. In circumstances where commercial CAD/CAM guides are not available, it may be possible to use CAD/CAM surgical guides in the clinic if doctors are willing to volunteer their time for the design and printing. PMID:27536484

  16. Osteointegration of soft tissue grafts within the bone tunnels in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can be enhanced.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Guan-Ming; Yau, W P; Lu, William W; Chiu, K Y

    2010-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a soft tissue autograft (hamstring autograft) has grown in popularity in the last 10 years. However, the issues of a relatively long healing time and an inferior histological healing result in terms of Sharpey-like fibers connection in soft tissue grafts are still unsolved. To obtain a promising outcome in the long run, prompt osteointegration of the tendon graft within the bone tunnel is essential. In recent decades, numerous methods have been reported to enhance osteointegration of soft tissue graft in the bone tunnel. In this article, we review the current literature in this research area, mainly focusing on strategies applied to the local bone tunnel environment. Biological strategies such as stem cell and gene transfer technology, as well as the local application of specific growth factors have been reported to yield exciting results. The use of biological bone substitute and physical stimulation also obtained promising results. Artificially engineered tissue has promise as a solution to the problem of donor site morbidity. Despite these encouraging results, the current available evidence is still experimental. Further clinical studies in terms of randomized control trial in the future should be conducted to extrapolate these basic science study findings into clinical practice.

  17. Treadmill training with partial body-weight support after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    luo, Yuan; Shen, Weizhong; Jiang, Zhong; Sha, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the effects of treadmill training with partial body weight support (TTPBWS) and conventional physical therapy (PT) on subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 subjects were randomly allocated to either a treatment group or a control group. Subjects received either treadmill training with partial body weight support (treatment group) or conventional physical therapy (control group). The circumferences of the lower extremities, Holden classifications, 10-meter walking times and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were compared at 12 and 24 weeks post-operation. The knee joint stability was tested at 24 weeks post-operation using a KT-1000. [Results] Significant differences were found between the two groups at the 12 weeks post-operation. For most of the measures, there was no significant difference between the groups at 24 weeks post-operation. Interestingly, for most of the measures, there was no significant difference between their values in the treatment group at 12 weeks and their values in the control group at 24 weeks post-operation. [Conclusion] The function of a subject’s lower extremities can be improved and the improvement was clearly accelerated by the intervention of treadmill training with partial body weight support, without compromising the stability of the knee joints in a given follow-up period. PMID:28174445

  18. Classification of gait kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects using principal component analysis and regressions modelling.

    PubMed

    Leporace, Gustavo; Batista, Luiz Alberto; Muniz, Adriane M; Zeitoune, Gabriel; Luciano, Thiago; Metsavaht, Leonardo; Nadal, Jurandir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the knee kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) and healthy subjects (CG) during gait and classify the status of normality. Ten healthy and six ACL-R subjects had their gait analyzed at 60 fps. 3D knee angles were calculated and inserted into three separate matrices used to perform the principal component (PC) analysis. The scores of PCs retained in each analysis were used to calculate the standard distances (SD) of each participant in relation to the center of the CG. The PC scores of the three planes were used in a logistic regression to define normality. In the sagittal plane there was no difference between groups. In the frontal and transverse planes ACL-R subjects showed higher SD values than CG. PCs identified that ACL-R subjects showed increased adduction, internal and external rotation. All these subjects had their gait classified as abnormal by logistic regression. Therefore, in the studied ACL-R subjects the gait pattern did not return to normal levels after surgery. This may lead to degenerative injuries, as osteoarthritis, in the future.

  19. Stem cell therapy: a promising biological strategy for tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zi-Chen; Wang, Shan-Zheng; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Lu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a complex process, impacting significantly on patients' prognosis. Natural tendon-bone healing usually results in fibrous scar tissue, which is of inferior quality compared to native attachment. In addition, the early formed fibrous attachment after surgery is often not reliable to support functional rehabilitation, which may lead to graft failure or unsatisfied function of the knee joint. Thus, strategies to promote tendon-bone healing are crucial for prompt and satisfactory functional recovery. Recently, a variety of biological approaches, including active substances, gene transfer, tissue engineering and stem cells, have been proposed and applied to enhance tendon-bone healing. Among these, stem cell therapy has been shown to have promising prospects and draws increasing attention. From commonly investigated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) to emerging ACL-derived CD34+ stem cells, multiple stem cell types have been proven to be effective in accelerating tendon-bone healing. This review describes the current understanding of tendon-bone healing and summarizes the current status of related stem cell therapy. Future limitations and perspectives are also discussed.

  20. Comparison of endoscopic and two-incision techniques for reconstructing a torn anterior cruciate ligament using hamstring tendons.

    PubMed

    Howell, S M; Deutsch, M L

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the differences in clinical outcome between an endoscopic (67 of 70) and two-incision (41 of 49) technique used to reconstruct tom anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) using a double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis (DLSTG) graft. In both techniques, the graft was placed without roof impingement, the looped end of the graft was fixed around a post with bone compaction, and the free ends were fixed with either double staples or a soft tissue washer(s). No graft required suture fixation. The postoperative treatment featured an aggressive rehabilitation protocol without a brace, and allowed unrestricted sports participation 4 months after reconstruction. Age, sex distribution, duration from injury to surgery, and preoperative laxity were not significantly different between treatment groups. The operative time for the endoscopic technique averaged 48 minutes less than the two-incision technique. There were no significant differences in thigh circumference, knee extension, stability, and the single leg hop test between the two treatment groups at 4 and 24 months. Ninety-one percent of the knees in the endoscopic group and 90% in the two-incision group had less than a 3 mm increase in anterior translation compared with the normal knee using the manual maximum test (KT-1000) and had either a normal or near normal knee (IKDC score) at 2 years. A second surgery for removal of painful, prominent hardware was required in 21% of the subjects in the endoscopic group and 12% of the subjects in the two-incision treatment group. Patients preferred the endoscopic technique because the result was more cosmetic and aggressive rehabilitation could be accomplished without the assistance of a physical therapist. Unfortunately, objective stability could not be restored in about 10% of knees with either technique. Reoperation for removal of prominent staples and washers continues to be the primary source of postoperative morbidity.

  1. A comparative study of effect of autograft versus allograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction onexpressions ofLOXsand MMPs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Shi-Bo; Ren, Liu-Bao; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2017-03-08

    This study aimed to compare the effect of autograft or allograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on the expressions of LOXs and MMPs in a New Zealand white rabbit model. New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into control, sham, autograft and allograft groups At the 4th and 8th week after operation, biomechanical testing was performed to measure the primary length, cross-sectional area, maximum tensile load and stiffness of ACL, and HE staining was used to observe cell morphology and fibre alignment of ACL. At the 2nd, 4th and 8th week after operation, qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect LOXs and MMPs expressions, and expressions of APC/Wnt signaling pathway-related proteins. At the 4th and 8th week after operation, the maximum tensile load and stiffness were higher in the autograft group than in the allograft group, and the values at the 8th week were higher than those at the 4th week after operation. The fibroblast proliferation in the allograft group was more significant than that in the autograft group. Compared with the control group, LOXs and MMPs expressions, and the positive expression rates of LOXs and MMPs proteins were elevated, and the values in the allograft group were higher than those in the autograft group at all time points. At 8th week after operation, compared with the autograft group, Wnt expression was higher and APC expression lower in the allograft group. Autograft and allograft ACL reconstruction can promote LOXs and MMPs expressions by activating the APC/Wnt signaling pathway.

  2. Role of anthropometric data in the prediction of 4-stranded hamstring graft size in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sean Wei Loong; Tan, Teong Jin Lester; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate whether pre-operative anthropometric data can predict the optimal diameter and length of hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This was a cohort study that involved 169 patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstruction (single surgeon) with 4-stranded MM Gracilis and MM Semi-Tendinosus autografts. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), gender, race, age and -smoking status were recorded pre-operatively. Intra-operatively, the diameter and functional length of the 4-stranded autograft was recorded. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the anthropometric measurements and the length and diameter of the implanted autografts. The strongest correlation between 4-stranded hamstring autograft diameter was height and weight. This correlation was stronger in females than males. BMI had a moderate correlation with the diameter of the graft in females. Females had a significantly smaller graft both in diameter and length when compared with males. Linear regression models did not show any significant correlation between hamstring autograft length with height and weight (p>0.05). Simple regression analysis demonstrated that height and weight can be used to predict hamstring graft diameter. The following regression equation was obtained for females: Graft diameter=0.012+0.034*Height+0.026*Weight (R2=0.358, p=0.004) The following regression equation was obtained for males: Graft diameter=5.130+0.012*Height+0.007*Weight (R2=0.086, p=0.002). Pre-operative anthropometric data has a positive correlation with the diameter of 4 stranded hamstring autografts but no significant correlation with the length. This data can be utilised to predict the autograft diameter and may be useful for pre-operative planning and patient counseling for graft selection.

  3. The effect of polystyrene sodium sulfonate grafting on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments on in vitro mineralisation and in vivo bone tissue integration

    PubMed Central

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Viateau, Véronique; Guérard, Sandra; Anagnostou, Fani; Manassero, Mathieu; Castner, David G.; Migonney, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of polystyrene sodium sulfonate (PolyNaSS) grafting onto the osseointegration of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament (Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System, LARS™) used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). The performance of grafted and non-grafted ligaments was assessed in vitro by culturing human osteoblasts under osteogenic induction and this demonstrated that the surface modification was capable of up-regulating the secretion of ALP and induced higher level of mineralisation as measured 6 weeks post-seeding by Micro-Computed Tomography. Grafted and non-grafted LARS™ were subsequently implanted in an ovine model for ACL reconstruction and the ligament-to-bone interface was evaluated by histology and biomechanical testing 3 and 12 months post-implantation. The grafted ligaments exhibited more frequent direct ligament-to-bone contact and bone formation in the core of the ligament at the later time point than the nongrafted specimens, the grafting also significantly reduced the fibrous encapsulation of the ligament 12 months post-implantation. However, this improved osseo-integration was not translated into a significant increase in the biomechanical pull-out loads. These results provide evidences that PolyNaSS grafting improved the osseo-integration of the artificial ligament within the bone tunnels. This might positively influence the outcome of the surgical reconstructions, as higher ligament stability is believed to limit micro-movement and therefore permits earlier and enhanced healing. PMID:23790438

  4. [Reconstruction of the mandibular symphysis using a revascularized free flap of the scapula. Surgical technic].

    PubMed

    Mayot, D; Perrin, C; Lindas, P; Dron, K

    1993-01-01

    In cases of surgically removed mandibular symphysis malignancies, the bone and mouth floor were reconstructed using osteo-musculo-cutaneous flaps. In our experience, the latter provide the best results. Removed in dorsal decubitus, they allow floor replacement. During the dissection of the tumor site, we also preserve labial and chin structures, which favours a good restoration of phonation and swallowing.

  5. Surgical reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with patch-angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been established as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis However, the conventional grafting provides a retrograde perfusion to extensive myocardial area and leads prospectively to competitive flow of the non-occluded coronaries thus consuming the grafts. Surgical reconstruction of the LMCA with patch-angioplasty is an alternative method that eliminates these drawbacks. Methods Between February 1997 and July 2007, 37 patients with isolated LMCA stenosis were referred for surgical ostial reconstruction. In 27 patients (73%) surgical angioplasties have been performed. All patients were followed up clinically and with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and coronary angiography when required. Results In 10 patients (27%) a LMCA stenosis could not be confirmed. There were no early mortality or perioperative myocardial infarctions. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In 25 patients, TEE demonstrated a wide open main stem flow pattern one to six months after reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with one patch mild aneurysmal dilated. Conclusions The surgical reconstruction with patch-angioplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of proximal and middle LMCA stenosis. Almost one third of the study group had no really LMCA stenosis: antegrade flow pattern remained sustained and the arterial grafts have been spared. In the cases of unclear or suspected LMCA stenosis, cardio-CT can be performed to unmask catheter-induced coronary spasm as the underlying reason for isolated LMCA stenosis. PMID:21375723

  6. Skeletal ligament healing using the recombinant human amelogenin protein.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, Salem; Ejzenberg, Ayala; Goren, Koby; Saba, Faris; Suki, Yarden; Sharon, Shay; Shilo, Dekel; Waxman, Jacob; Spitzer, Elad; Shahar, Ron; Atkins, Ayelet; Liebergall, Meir; Blumenfeld, Anat; Deutsch, Dan; Haze, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Injuries to ligaments are common, painful and debilitating, causing joint instability and impaired protective proprioception sensation around the joint. Healing of torn ligaments usually fails to take place, and surgical replacement or reconstruction is required. Previously, we showed that in vivo application of the recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+)) resulted in enhanced healing of the tooth-supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether amelogenin might also enhance repair of skeletal ligaments. The rat knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) was chosen to prove the concept. Full thickness tear was created and various concentrations of rHAM(+), dissolved in propylene glycol alginate (PGA) carrier, were applied to the transected MCL. 12 weeks after transection, the mechanical properties, structure and composition of transected ligaments treated with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) were similar to the normal un-transected ligaments, and were much stronger, stiffer and organized than control ligaments, treated with PGA only. Furthermore, the proprioceptive free nerve endings, in the 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) treated group, were parallel to the collagen fibres similar to their arrangement in normal ligament, while in the control ligaments the free nerve endings were entrapped in the scar tissue at different directions, not parallel to the axis of the force. Four days after transection, treatment with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) increased the amount of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers at the injured site. In conclusion application of rHAM(+) dose dependently induced mechanical, structural and sensory healing of torn skeletal ligament. Initially the process involved recruitment and proliferation of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers.

  7. Surgical management and autologous intestinal reconstruction in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Matthijs J; van Baren, Robertine; Haveman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. When treatment with parenteral nutrition fails and life-threatening complications occur, autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) should be considered before intestinal transplantation (ITx). Single or combined ITx should be reserved for patients with severe liver disease and as last resort in the treatment of SBS. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has proven its value in AIR, but its availability depends on the expertise of the surgeons. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) has similar success rates as LILT and fewer patients progress to ITx. STEP is also applicable at small bowel dilatation in ultra-short bowel syndrome. The scope may be widened when duodenal dilatation can be treated as well. Spiral intestinal lengthening and tailoring (SILT) is a promising alternative. More research is needed to confirm these findings. Therefore we suggest an international data registry for all intestinal lengthening procedures.

  8. Femoral and Tibial Tunnel Widening following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction using Various Modalities of Fixation: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanthila, Mahesha; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Vidyasagar, JVS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone tunnel enlargement after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACL-R) is a well-accepted phenomenon but there are very few published data comparing the extent of tunnel widening by various methods of fixation after ACL-R. Aim To compare the femoral and tibial tunnel widening following ACL-R with different methods of fixation using CT scan. Materials and Methods This one year prospective study included all patients with chronic Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL-R using tripled hamstring tendon autograft. The graft was fixed to the tibial tunnel by Interference Screw (IFS) or Suture Disc (SD) and to the femoral tunnel by IFS, SD, Cross-Pin (CP) or Endo-button CL (Smith & Nephew). The widening of the tibial and femoral tunnels in different methods of fixation was assessed by Computed Tomography (CT) at 12 months follow-up; and was compared using paired sample test. Results A total of 63 patients were included in the study of which 58 (92%) were males and 5 (8%) were females, with a mean age of 29.1 ± 5.9 years. The tibial tunnel widening at one year follow-up was 1.680 ± 1.08794 (19.37%) and 1.517 ± 0.94834 mm (17.39%) by IFS and SD methods respectively. Femoral tunnel widening at one year follow-up was 1.294 ± 0.231, 1.809 ± 0.912, 1.320 ± 0.238, 1.779 ± 0.889 mm by IFS, SD, EB, and CP methods respectively. Femoral tunnel widening following suture disc method of fixation was very highly significant (p<0.001) in comparison with other methods. Conclusion Femoral tunnel and tibial tunnel widening varies with different methods of fixation and was maximum with suture disc method compared to others at one year follow-up after ACL-R. PMID:28050456

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the bioabsorbable Milagro interference screw for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Frosch, K-H; Sawallich, T; Schütze, G; Losch, A; Walde, T; Balcarek, P; Konietschke, F; Stürmer, K M

    2009-10-01

    Ligament graft fixation with bioabsorbable interference screws is a standard procedure in cruciate ligament replacement. Previous screw designs may resorb incompletely, and can cause osteolysis and sterile cysts despite being implanted for several years. The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo degradation and biocompatibility of the new Milagro interference screw (Mitek, Norderstedt, Germany). The Milagro interference screw is made of 30% ss-TCP (TriCalcium phosphate) and 70% PLGA (Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid). In the period between June 2005 and February 2006, 38 patients underwent graft fixation with Milagro screws in our hospital. Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction was performed using hamstring tendon grafts in all the patients. MR imaging was performed on 12 randomly selected patients out of the total of 38 at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. During the examination, the volume loss of the screw, tunnel enlargement, presence of osteolysis, fluid lines, edema and postoperative screw replacement by bone tissue were evaluated. There was no edema or signs of inflammation around the bone tunnels. At 3, 6 and 12 months, the tibial screws showed an average volume loss of 0, 8.1% (+/-7.9%) and 82.6% (+/-17.2%, P < 0.05), respectively. The femoral screws showed volume losses of 2.5% (+/-2.1%), 31.3% (+/-21.6%) and 92.02% (+/-6.3%, P < 0.05), respectively. The femoral tunnel enlargement was 47.4% (+/-43.8%) of the original bone tunnel volume after 12 months, and the mean tunnel volume of the tibial tunnel was -9.5% (+/-58.1%) compared to the original tunnel. Bone ingrowth was observed in all the patients. In conclusion, the resorption behaviour of the Milagro screw is closely linked to the graft healing process. The screws were rapidly resorbed after 6 months and, at 12 months, only the screw remnants were detectable. Moreover, the Milagro screw is biocompatible and osteoconductive, promoting bone ingrowth during resorption. Tunnel enlargement is not prevented in

  10. The Role of Bioreactors in Ligament and Tendon Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Mace, James; Wheelton, Andy; Khan, Wasim S; Anand, Sanj

    2016-01-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal to the emerging field of tissue engineering. The formation of neotissue from pluripotent cell lineages potentially offers a source of tissue for clinical use without the significant donor site morbidity associated with many contemporary surgical reconstructive procedures. Modern bioreactor design is becoming increasingly complex to provide a both an expandable source of readily available pluripotent cells and to facilitate their controlled differentiation into a clinically applicable ligament or tendon like neotissue. This review presents the need for such a method, challenges in the processes to engineer neotissue and the current designs and results of modern bioreactors in the pursuit of engineered tendon and ligament.

  11. Arthroscopically assisted meniscal allograft transplantation with and without combined anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yoldas, Erol A; Sekiya, Jon K; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H; Harner, Christopher D

    2003-05-01

    The menisci provide a vital role in load transmission across the knee joint as well as contribute to knee stability, particularly in the ACL-deficient knee. Loss of the meniscus, in part or in total, significantly alters joint function and predisposes the articular cartilage to degenerative changes, which has been well documented both clinically and radiographically. This study examined clinical and patient-reported outcomes following meniscal allograft transplantation with and without combined ACL reconstruction in a select group of 31 patients with complaints of pain and/or instability (34 meniscal allografts); 11 underwent isolated meniscal transplantation and 20 meniscal transplantation combined with ACL reconstruction. Bony fixation was performed with bone plugs for medial transplants and using a bone bridge for lateral transplants. All patients completed several knee-specific and general measures of health-related quality of life and underwent a comprehensive physical examination. Flexion weightbearing PA radiographs at latest follow-up were compared to those obtained preoperatively. Mean follow-up was 2.9 years (range 2-5.5 years). The Activities of Daily Living and Sports Activities Scale scores were 86+/-11 and 78+/-16, respectively, and the average Lysholm score was 84+/-14. There were no significant differences in these scores based upon which meniscus (medial or lateral) was transplanted, concurrent ACL reconstruction, or the degree of chondrosis at arthroscopy. SF-36 scores indicated that patients were functioning at a level similar to the age- and sex-matched population. Twenty-two patients stated they were greatly improved, 8 were somewhat improved, 1 was without change. All but one patient reported that knee function and level of activity were normal or nearly normal. The average loss of motion compared to the noninvolved side was 3 degrees for extension and 9 degrees for flexion. All but one patient had a negative or 1+ Lachman's test. The

  12. Effect of Immediate and Delayed High-Strain Loading on Tendon-to-Bone Healing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Jonathan D.; Bedi, Asheesh; Fox, Alice J.; Gasinu, Selom; Imhauser, Carl W.; Stasiak, Mark; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: We previously demonstrated, in a rat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft reconstruction model, that the delayed application of low-magnitude-strain loading resulted in improved tendon-to-bone healing compared with that observed after immediate loading and after prolonged immobilization. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of higher levels of strain loading on tendon-to-bone healing. Methods: ACL reconstruction was carried out in a rat model in three randomly assigned groups: high-strain daily loading beginning on either (1) postoperative day one (immediate-loading group; n = 7) or (2) postoperative day four (delayed-loading group; n = 11) or (3) after prolonged immobilization (immobilized group; n = 8). Animals were killed two weeks after surgery and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and biomechanical testing of the bone-tendon-bone complex were carried out. Results: The delayed-loading group had greater tissue mineral density than either the immediate-loading or immobilized group (mean [and standard deviation], 813.0 ± 24.9 mg/mL compared with 778.4 ± 32.6 mg/mL and 784.9 ± 26.4 mg/mL, respectively; p < 0.05). There was a trend toward greater bone volume per total volume fraction in both the immobilized and the delayed-loading group compared with the immediate-loading group (0.24 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.06 compared with 0.20 ± 0.05; p = 0.06). Trabecular thickness was greater in the immobilized group compared with the immediate-loading group (106.5 ± 23.0 μm compared with 72.6 ± 10.6 μm; p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in failure load or stiffness between the immobilized group and either high-strain cyclic-loading group. Conclusions: Immediate application of high-strain loading appears to have a detrimental effect on healing in this rat model. Any beneficial effects of delayed loading on the healing tendon-bone interface (after a brief period of immobilization) may be offset by the detrimental effects of

  13. Risk Factors and Surgical Refinements of Postresective Mandibular Reconstruction: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Yokoo, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Komori, Takahide; Tahara, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Postresective mandibular reconstruction is common in cases of oral and mandibular tumors. However, complications such as infection, plate exposure, or plate fracture can occur. We identified several significant risk factors of complications after reconstructive surgery and compared the effectiveness of different surgical techniques for reducing the incidence of complications. Methods. This study is a retrospective analysis of 28 oromandibular cancer cases that required reconstructive surgery between January 1999 and December 2011 at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan. All cases were classified using Hashikawa's CAT and Eichner's classification methods. Then, we determined whether these classifications and different treatment or surgical methods were significantly related to complications. Results. Complications after mandibular reconstruction occurred in 10/28 patients (36%). Specifically, five patients had plate fractures, four had plate exposures, and one had an infection. Radiation therapy and closure without any flaps were significantly related to infection or plate exposure. The wrap-around technique of securing reconstruction plates was used in 14 cases, whereas the run-through technique was used in two cases. Conclusions. The success of mandibular reconstruction depends on both mechanical and biological factors, such as the location of defects, presence of occlusions, and the amount of vascularization of the flap. PMID:25228992

  14. The influence of graft placement on clinical outcome in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    PADUA, ROBERTO; ALVITI, FEDERICA; VENOSA, MICHELE; MAZZOLA, CARLO; PADUA, LUCA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of graft tunnel position on both clinical outcome and instrumental knee stability in patients submitted to arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft. Methods thirty patients (24 men and 6 women) who underwent ACL reconstruction performed using an autologous bone-patellar tendon-bone graft were studied at a mean follow-up of 18 months. Clinical outcome was assessed on the basis of the Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective form and the Short Form-36. Clinical outcomes were correlated with both femoral and tibial tunnel placement measured on standard anteroposterior and lateral knee radiographs, in accordance with established guidelines. Results tibial tunnel position on the lateral view correlated significantly with both the IKDC subjective form (r = −0.72; p<0.05) and the Lysholm score (r=−0.73; p<0.05). Tibial tunnel position on the lateral view also correlated with stability measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer at 30N of force (r=0.57; p<0.05). No correlation was found between α angle and anteroposterior (AP) laxity measured by KT-1000 arthrometer. No significant correlation was found between femoral tunnel position (on either view) and Lysholm score, IKDC score and Tegner activity level. Similarly, no correlation was found between AP laxity measured by KT-1000 arthrometer and femoral tunnel position. Conclusions these results suggest that the more anterior the placement of the tibial tunnel, the better the clinical outcome will be. On the basis of literature data and our findings, we discuss the hypothesis that there exists a “correct area” for tunnel placement, making it possible to obtain the best results. Level of evidence Level IV, case series. PMID:27386442

  15. Effect of physiotherapy on the strength of tibial internal rotator muscles in males after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)

    PubMed Central

    Czamara, Andrzej; Szuba, Łukasz; Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Tomaszewski, Wiesław; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of physiotherapy on the strength of muscles responsible for tibial internal rotation (IR) in male patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using autografts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles (STGR). Material/Methods Fifty-nine males were examined. The first group consisted of 19 patients subjected to 4-stage physiotherapy following ACLR. The second group consisted of 20 males without knee injuries. The third group consisted of 20 males who had not undergone systematic physiotherapy within the last 12 months following lower limb injuries. Moments of maximal strength (MMS), isometric torque (IT), and peak torque (PT) were measured under static and isokinetic conditions using the Humac Norm System. In the first group, IT measurements were performed during the 13th and 21st week of physiotherapy, while PT measurements were performed during the 16th and 21st weeks of physiotherapy following ACLR. In the control groups (II and III) the measurements were performed once. Results In the first group, the IT (13 weeks) and PT (16 weeks) values of internal tibial rotator muscles, obtained from the operated extremities were significantly lower than the values obtained from the uninvolved knees and the control group results. During the 21st week of physiotherapy, the results obtained for IT and PT in patients after ACLR were similar to the values obtained from the uninvolved knees and the results of the second group subjects. Conclusions The 21-week physiotherapy in ACLR patients favorably affected the PT values of tibial rotator muscles of the operated knees. In the third group, the IT values did not indicate a complete improvement after 12 months without systematic physiotherapy. PMID:21873950

  16. Between-leg differences in challenging single-limb balance performance one year following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Anna L; Crossley, Kay M; Clark, Ross A; Whitehead, Timothy S; Morris, Hayden G; Culvenor, Adam G

    2017-02-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, reconstructive surgery (ALCR) is often performed to mechanically stabilise the knee, however functional deficits often persist long after surgery. Impaired single-limb standing balance has been observed in the ACLR limb compared to healthy individuals. However, it remains inconclusive as to whether these same balance deficits exist between the injured and contralateral uninjured limbs, during challenging balance tasks, and at a time when patients are permitted to return to sport. 100 adults who had undergone a primary hamstring-tendon ACLR 12 months previously (68 male; median[IQR] age: 28.1[14.1] years) performed tests of single-limb standing with the knee in a functional position of 20-30° flexion, with their eyes closed, over 20s (Nintendo Wii Balance Board). Two repetitions were performed on the ACLR and uninjured limb. Measures of postural control included centre of pressure (CoP) path velocity, anterior-posterior and mediolateral range and standard deviation, and were averaged across the two trials. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed no significant between-leg differences in single-limb balance for any of the CoP measures of interest (all P values>0.686). Further, multiple linear regression analyses showed no significant associations between concomitant meniscectomy or chondral lesions noted at the time of ACLR and measures of single-limb balance on the ACLR limb one year later (all P values>0.213). In the context of prior research, these findings suggest bilateral balance deficits may exist prior to ACL injury, or appear post ACL-injury or ACLR. Treatment of balance deficits should therefore consider both limbs after ACLR.

  17. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  18. The relationship between isokinetic quadriceps strength test and hop tests for distance and one-legged vertical jump test following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Petschnig, R; Baron, R; Albrecht, M

    1998-07-01

    Isokinetic measurements and functional tests are often used to assess function following knee ligament reconstruction using the opposite limb as a control. However, the question of whether the uninvolved leg may serve as a reference on functional tests has not been adequately answered. In particular, the one-legged rebound vertical jump has not been used to assess functional levels following surgery of the cruciate ligament. The purposes of this study were: 1) to determine whether the uninvolved leg is within normal range of an age- and weight-matched group, 2) to determine differences between the involved and uninvolved leg in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 3) to examine the relationship between knee extensor strength and four functional performance tests, and 4) to determine if the one-legged rebound vertical jump yields more information in the assessment of knee function than the other functional tests with respect to two time-frames. Fifty healthy subjects (group A, mean age = 28.1 years) and 55 anterior cruciate ligament patients (groups B and C) participated in dynamometric measurement, one-legged and two-legged vertical jump, and the single- and the triple-hop test. Mean time for testing was 13 weeks following surgery for group B (N = 30, mean age = 27.8 years) and 54 weeks following surgery for group C (N = 25, mean age = 29.9 years). Pearson product moment correlation coefficients between peak torque and single and triple hop were r = .45, r = .48, r = .51, and r = .55 for groups B and C, respectively. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients between peak torque and the height of the vertical jump was r = .51 for group C. Results for group A revealed limb symmetry indices of 95% or more on all functional performance and isokinetic tests. In group B, all patients showed a limb symmetry index of less than 85% on all tests. In group C, the index for the vertical jump was the only functional test that fell below the level of

  19. [Pretibial pseudocyst after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a biocomposite screw].

    PubMed

    Alonso, B; Sobrón, F B; Vidal, C; Vaquero, J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented a pretibial extra-articular cyst two years after an arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction using an autologous bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. The tibial fixation was achieved with a bioabsorbable screw made of poly-L, D-lactic and -tricalcium phosphate (-TCP). A subcutaneous pseudocystic lesion was excised. It consisted of a capsular fibrous tissue with minimal milky fluid (1 ml) centrally. It penetrated into the tibial tunnel but did not communicate with the knee joint space. The histopathological analysis demonstrated fibrous tissue with multinucleated giant cells and refractile particles which suggested a foreign body reaction. After the surgery, the patient recovered perfectly well and he returned to his pre-injury level of physical activity in two months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this complication in a patient with a biocomposite screw made of poly-L, D-lactic and -tricalcium phosphate (-TCP).

  20. Allergic reaction to biodegradable interference poly-L-lactic acid screws after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft.

    PubMed

    Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Paessler, Hans H

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of a systemic allergic reaction to biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. A 30-year-old patient complained of certain symptoms, such as an inability to focus mentally, rash on the right femur, chronic fatigue, decreased sex drive, and localized alopecia, 3 months after ACL reconstruction in the right knee. Two biodegradable PLLA interference screws had been used for proximal and distal graft fixation. Allergy testing showed a value of 7 in PLLA antigen. After removal of 1 screw in August 2000, the patient reported marked improvement, but some symptoms remained. In July 2001 he underwent arthroscopic revision ACL reconstruction with hamstrings via an implant-free technique with intensive debridement of the tunnels and removal of all scar tissue and screw rests. All symptoms disappeared, and the PLLA antigen number fell from 3 to "concentrate" 2 months postoperatively.

  1. Endoscopic Intermetatarsal Ligament Decompression.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Morton neuroma is an entrapment of the intermetatarsal nerve by the deep intermetatarsal ligament. It is usually treated conservatively. Surgery is considered if there is recalcitrant pain that is resistant to conservative treatment. The surgical options include resection of the neuroma or decompression of the involved nerve. Decompression of the nerve by release of the intermetatarsal ligament can be performed by either an open or minimally invasive approach. We describe 2-portal endoscopic decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve. The ligament is released by a retrograde knife through the toe-web portal under arthroscopic guidance through the plantar portal.

  2. POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH AUTOGRAFT OF THE DOUBLE SEMITENDINOSUS MUSCLES AND MIDDLE THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS TENDON WITH DOUBLE FEMORAL AND SINGLE TIBIAL TUNNELS: CLINICAL RESULTS IN TWO YEARS FOLLOW UP

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Ricardo de Paula Leite; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix; Aihara, Tatsuo; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Avakian, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surgical aspects that may offer good anatomic and functional results in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using an autologous graft of the quadriceps tendon and double semitendinosus through a double femoral tunnel. Methods: Fourteen patients with isolated PCL lesions, instability and pain were operated on by arthroscopy and evaluated according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scales. Posterior knee laxity was examined with a KT1000 arthrometer. Results: The mean postoperative posterior side-to-side difference was between 0-2 mm in 57.1% of patients and between 3 and 5 mm in 35.7% of cases. The average Lysholm score was 93 points in the final follow-up. In the IKDC evaluation, 3 patients were graded A, 10 were graded B, and 1 patient was graded C. Conclusions: Double bundle arthroscopic PCL reconstruction based on the anatomical positioning of the tunnels, with double semitendinosus tendon and single quadriceps, provides a clinically evident reduction in symptoms and restores satisfactory stability, although no statistically significant difference was found due to the small sample. PMID:27027083

  3. Scar formation and ligament healing.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, K A; Frank, C B

    1998-12-01

    Ligaments are highly organized, dense, fibrous connective-tissue structures that provide stability to joints and participate in joint proprioception. Injuries to ligaments induce a healing response that is characterized by the formation of a scar. The scar tissue is weaker, larger and creeps more than normal ligament and is associated with an increased amount of minor collagens (types III, V and VI), decreased collagen cross-links and an increased amount of glycosaminoglycans. Studies have shown that certain surgical variables alter the healing of ligaments. Such factors include the size of gap between the healing ligament, ends, the use of motion in a stable joint and the presence of multiple ligamentous injuries. Research on ligament healing includes studies on low-load and failure-load properties, alterations in the expression of matrix molecules, cytokine modulation of healing and gene therapy as a method to alter matrix protein and cytokine production.

  4. Topsy-turvy heart with associated congenital tracheobronchial stenosis and airway compression requiring surgical reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Patricio; Caldarone, Christopher A; Forte, Vito; Holtby, Helen; Cox, Peter; Chiu, Priscilla; Kim, Peter C W

    2008-07-01

    We describe a case of "topsy-turvy heart" that necessitated simultaneous left tracheobronchial repair, aortic arch reconstruction, and bronchial stenting in an 11-month-old girl. This case highlights the significant therapeutic dilemmas clinicians are faced with when dealing with conditions having an unknown natural history and unpredictable surgical outcomes, and reinforces the need for these patients to be managed by a multidisciplinary team approach.

  5. The relationship between isokinetic quadriceps strength and laxity on gait analysis parameters in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees.

    PubMed

    Gokeler, Alli; Schmalz, Thomas; Knopf, Elmar; Freiwald, Jürgen; Blumentritt, Siegmar

    2003-11-01

    Gait alterations after ACL reconstruction have been reported in the literature. The current study examined a group of 14 patients who all had an ACL reconstruction with a patellar tendon autograft. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained from the knee during walking. The flexion-extension deficit (FED) calculated from the angular difference between maximal flexion and maximal extension during the stance phase in the ACL-reconstructed and the normal knee was measured. We investigated whether these alterations in gait are related to quadriceps strength and residual laxity of the knee. It may be that patients modify their gait patterns to protect the knee from excessive anterior translation of the tibia by reducing the amount of extension during stance. On the other hand, persistent quadriceps weakness may also cause changes in gait patterns as the quadriceps is functioning as an important dynamic stabilizer of the knee during stance. Results showed that patients had a significantly higher FED value (4.9+/-4.0) than a healthy control group in a previous study (1.3+/-0.9). This is caused mainly by an extension deficit during midstance. External extension moments of the knee (TZMAX were significantly lower in the current patients group than in a healthy control group (TZMAX -0.27+/-0.19 Nm/kg in patients vs. -0.08+/-0.06 Nm/kg in controls). There were no significant correlations between quadriceps strength and gait analysis parameters. Furthermore no correlation was found between the amount of laxity of the knee and gait. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that apparently the measured gait alterations cannot be explained solely by often used biomechanical indicators such as laxity and strength. The measured gait alterations may be a result of the surgical procedure with subsequent modified motor programming.

  6. The anterolateral ligament (ALL) and its role in rotational extra-articular stability of the knee joint: a review of anatomy and surgical concepts.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Philip P; Schüttler, Karl F; Heyse, Thomas J; Wirtz, Dieter C; Efe, Turgay

    2016-03-01

    The anterolateral ligament of the knee (ALL) has caused a lot of rumors in orthopaedics these days. The structure that was first described by Segond back in 1879 has experienced a long history of anatomic descriptions and speculations until its rediscovery by Claes in 2013. Its biomechanical properties and function have been examined recently, but are not yet fully understood. While the structure seems to act as a limiter of internal rotation and lateral meniscal extrusion its possible proprioceptive effect remains questionable. Its contribution to the pivot shift phenomenon has been uncovered in parts, therefore it has been recognized that a concomitant anterolateral stabilization together with ACL reconstruction may aid in prevention of postoperative instability after severe ligamentous knee damages. However, there are a lot of different methods to perform this procedure and the clinical outcome has yet to be examined. This concise review will give an overview on the present literature to outline the long history of the ALL under its different names, its anatomic variances and topography as well as on histologic examinations, imaging modalities, arthroscopic aspects and methods for a possible anterolateral stabilization of the knee joint.

  7. A novel technique for three-dimensional reconstruction for surgical simulation around the craniocervical junction region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Jiu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Qiu, Ming-Guo; Tan, Li-Wen; Li, Qi-Yu; Li, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Performing surgeries on the craniocervical junction presents a technical challenge for operating surgeons. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and surgical simulation have improved the efficacy and success rate of surgeries. The aim of this study was to create a 3D, digitized visible model of the craniocervical junction region to help realize accurate simulation of craniocervical surgery on a graphic workstation. Transverse sectional anatomy data for the study were chosen from the first Chinese visible human. Manual axial segmentation of the skull base, cervical spine, cerebellum, vertebral artery, internal carotid artery, sigmoid sinus, internal jugular vein, brain stem, and spinal cord were carried out by using Photoshop software. The segmented structures were reconstructed in 3 dimensions with surface and volume rendering to accurately display 3D models spatially. In contrast to conventional 3D reconstruction techniques that are based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) inputs and provide mostly osseous details, this technique can help to illustrate the surrounding soft tissue structure and provide a realistic surgical simulation. The reconstructed 3D model was successfully used in simulating complex procedures in the virtual environment, including the transoral approach, bone drillings, and clivus resection.

  8. A systematic approach to the failed plastic surgical reconstruction of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis I; Tsiampa, Vassiliki A; Papalois, Apostolos E

    2011-01-01

    Plastic reconstruction for diabetic foot wounds must be approached carefully and follow sound micro-surgical principles as it relates to the anatomy of the designated flap chosen for coverage. First, the surgeon always needs to evaluate the local and general conditions of the presenting pathology and patient, respectively when considering a flap for reconstruction. The flap that is chosen is based on the vascularity, location, and size of the defect. Salvage of the failed flap and revisional reconstructive procedures are very challenging. Often, adjunctive therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen, negative pressure wound therapy, vasodilators, and/or vascular surgery is required. In certain case scenarios, such as patients with poor general health and compromised local vascularity in which revisional flap coverage cannot be performed, the above mentioned adjunctive therapies could be used as a primary treatment to potentially salvage a failing flap.

  9. A systematic approach to the failed plastic surgical reconstruction of the diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis I.; Tsiampa, Vassiliki A.; Papalois, Apostolos E.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic reconstruction for diabetic foot wounds must be approached carefully and follow sound micro-surgical principles as it relates to the anatomy of the designated flap chosen for coverage. First, the surgeon always needs to evaluate the local and general conditions of the presenting pathology and patient, respectively when considering a flap for reconstruction. The flap that is chosen is based on the vascularity, location, and size of the defect. Salvage of the failed flap and revisional reconstructive procedures are very challenging. Often, adjunctive therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen, negative pressure wound therapy, vasodilators, and/or vascular surgery is required. In certain case scenarios, such as patients with poor general health and compromised local vascularity in which revisional flap coverage cannot be performed, the above mentioned adjunctive therapies could be used as a primary treatment to potentially salvage a failing flap. PMID:22396827

  10. Rehabilitation After Surgical Reconstruction to Restore Function to the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia: A Changing Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Johanson, M. Elise

    2016-01-01

    Upper limb reconstructive surgical procedures for individuals with tetraplegia are performed in many centers internationally. Most recipients of surgery return to local communities and nonsurgical centers for postoperative rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. This supplement focuses on the clinical significance of upper extremity reconstruction, addressing issues related to the availability and choice for surgery, preoperative assessments, postoperative training paradigms, and appropriate outcome measures. Comprehensive intervention protocols are described in terms of dose, timing, specific activities, modalities, and related outcomes. Shared knowledge of current rehabilitation practice, as it relates to reconstructive surgery, can expand treatment options communicated to patients, increase the availability of postoperative muscle reeducation programs, and motivate long-term follow-up assessments. PMID:27233593

  11. A review of the surgical management of breast cancer: plastic reconstructive techniques and timing implications.

    PubMed

    Rosson, Gedge D; Magarakis, Michael; Shridharani, Sachin M; Stapleton, Sahael M; Jacobs, Lisa K; Manahan, Michele A; Flores, Jaime I

    2010-07-01

    The oncologic management of breast cancer has evolved over the past several decades from radical mastectomy to modern-day preservation of chest and breast structures. The increased rate of mastectomies over recent years made breast reconstruction an integral part of the breast cancer management. Plastic surgery now offers patients a wide variety of reconstruction options from primary closure of the skin flaps to performance of microvascular and autologous tissue transplantation. Well-coordinated partnerships between surgical oncologists, plastic surgeons, and patients address concerns of tumor control, cosmesis, and patients' wishes. The gamut of breast reconstruction options is reviewed, particularly noting state-of-the-art techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various timing modalities.

  12. Traumatic shoulder dislocation with combined bankart lesion and humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament in a professional basketball player: three-year follow-up of surgical stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aakash A; Selesnick, F Harlan

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic anterior shoulder instability has been well documented to have associated lesions such as a Bankart tear, humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL), Hill-Sachs lesion, fracture, and nerve injury. To our knowledge, the combined Bankart and HAGL injury in a single acute anterior shoulder dislocation has not yet been reported. We describe a traumatic first-time anterior-inferior shoulder dislocation in a professional basketball player with a combined Bankart and HAGL lesion. The patient underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair followed by open repair of the HAGL lesion with an open capsular shift reconstruction. At 3 years' follow-up, the patient had returned to an elite level of play, with an excellent outcome.

  13. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Exercise in Men and Women With a History of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kuenze, Christopher M.; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sex differences in lower extremity neuromuscular function have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Research evidence supports different levels of fatigability in men and women and between patients with ACLR and healthy controls. The influence of sex on the response to continuous exercise in patients with ACLR is not clear. Objective: To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function after exercise between men and women with ACLR. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-six active volunteers (13 men [50%]: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years, height = 179.1 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 80.1 ± 9.4 kg, months since surgery = 43.5 ± 37.0; 13 women [50%]: age = 24.2 ± 5.6 years, height = 163.0 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 62.3 ± 8.3 kg, months since surgery = 45.8 ± 42.7) with a history of unilateral primary ACLR at least 6 months earlier. Intervention(s): Thirty minutes of continuous exercise comprising 5 separate 6-minute cycles, including 5 minutes of uphill walking and 1 minute of body-weight squatting and step-ups. Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, quadriceps superimposed-burst torque, and quadriceps central activation ratio before and after exercise. We performed separate 2 (sex: men, women) × 2 (time: preexercise, postexercise) repeated-measures analyses of variance for the 3 variables. Separate, independent-samples t tests were calculated to compare preexercise with postexercise change in all dependent variables between sexes. Results: A significant group-by-time interaction was present for knee-extension torque (P = .04). The percentage reduction in knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (men = 1.94%, women = −10.32%; P = .02) and quadriceps central activation ratio (men = −1.45%, women = −8.69%; P = .03) experienced by men was less than that observed in women. Conclusions: In the presence of

  14. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z.; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach. PMID:26835214

  15. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach.

  16. Patients With Ligament Hiperlaxity With Rupture Of Previous Plastic For ACL. Reconstruction With Intra-articular And Extra-articular Combined Technics

    PubMed Central

    Astore, Ignacio; Agotegaray, Juan Ignacio; Comba, Ignacio; Bisiach, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of patients with ligament hiperlaxity with rupture of ACL, the use of a BTB graft is recommended for its reconstruction. Our job consists of the clinical and functional assessment of a group of 10 patients with ligament laxaty according to Beighton scale, who, after surgery for ACL rupture with BTB technique, suffered a rupture of the plastic. For its reconstruction a combination of intra-articular and extra-articular techniques was used with a BTB graft in the contralateral knee, associated with a modified Lemaire technique. Methods: The series consists of 10 patients, male, average age of 24.2 years, amateur athletes, operated for a second time in March, 2011 and November, 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. They were evaluated before surgery and 24 months after surgery based on Lysholm scale, IKDC evaluation form and a physical exam (Lachman - Pivot Shift). Results: After surgery, the average in Lysholm scale was of 87.6 and 86.3 for the IKDC subjetive form. In the physical exam, 8 patients showed Lachman 1+, while none of the patients showed Pivot Shift positive. 7 patients were able to return to their usual sport activities. As a postoperative disadvantage, 6 patients reported pain in the external face of the knee in the first 6 months. And 4 patients reported a subjetive loss of full extension that did not interfere with their sport activities. Conclusion: Based on our experience and literature, we believe that the combination of both techniques, intra-articular (BTB) and extra-articular (Lemaire), is a good alternative for patients with ligament laxaty, providing positive clinical and functional results.

  17. Accumulation of irrigation fluid in the calf as a complication during high tibial osteotomy combined with simultaneous arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Marti, C B; Jakob, R P

    1999-01-01

    Extravasation of irrigation fluid during arthroscopy is a well-known complication. We report a case of accumulation of fluid into the calf during open wedge high tibial osteotomy combined with simultaneous arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The main cause for fluid extravasation was the drilling of the tibial tunnel, which allowed the fluid to cross the osteotomy gap and invade the flexor compartments. Although an elevation of the intracompartmental pressure was measured, there was no clinical evidence of compartment syndrome. A subcutaneous release of the flexor compartment of the leg was performed. The patient suffered no further sequelae. High tibial osteotomy combined with simultaneous arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has to be performed carefully, and potential complications must be detected immediately to prevent compartment syndrome.

  18. Evaluation of Outcome of Corrective Ulnar Osteotomy with Bone Grafting and Annular Ligament Reconstruction in Neglected Monteggia Fracture Dislocation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, ND; Pal, Ananda Kisor; Das, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected Monteggia fracture dislocation in the paediatric age group constitutes significant disability in respect to pain, stiffness, deformity, neurological compromise and restriction of activities of daily living. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was done on 21 children with old Monteggia fracture-dislocation which included 18 cases of Bado type I and 3 cases of Bado type III at the department of orthopaedics, IPGME&R,SSKM hospital, Kolkata, India between 2007 and 2012. All were treated by modified Hirayama corrective osteotomy of ulna with wedge bone grafting along with restoration of its length and reconstruction of annular ligament using Bell Tawse method and fixation of radial head with transcapitellar Kirschner wire. Average follow up period was 5.5 years. Results and Analysis: Results were evaluated on the basis of 100 point Mayo Elbow Performance Index, radiology and questionnaire. The mean postoperative increase in Mayo Elbow Performance Index score was 30 with average increase in the range of movement by 30o. In three cases, there was subluxation of radial head and in addition one had transient palsy of posterior interosseous nerve. Three cases showed distortion of the radial head which were insignificant functionally. Results of improvement in mean MEPI were analysed by chi-square test and was significant at 0 .01 level of significance. Conclusion: Study showed good results with modified Hirayama osteotomy with annular ligament reconstruction using Bell Tawse procedure which is a more biological option for restoration of elbow biomechanics. PMID:25121011

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    PubMed

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  20. Surgical treatment of skeletal metastatic lesions of the proximal femur: endoprosthesis or reconstruction nail?

    PubMed

    Wedin, R; Bauer, H C F

    2005-12-01

    We report positive and negative factors associated with the most commonly-used methods of reconstruction after pathological fracture of the proximal femur. The study was based on 142 patients treated surgically for 146 metastatic lesions between 1996 and 2003. The local rate of failure was 10.3% (15 of 146). Of 37 operations involving osteosynthetic devices, six failed (16.2%) compared with nine (8.3%) in 109 operations involving endoprostheses. Of nine cases of prosthetic failure, four were due to periprosthetic fractures and three to recurrent dislocation. In the osteosynthesis group, three (13.6%) of 22 reconstruction nails failed. The two-year risk of re-operation after any type of osteosynthesis was 0.35 compared with 0.18 after any type of endoprosthetic reconstruction (p = 0.07). Endoprosthetic reconstructions are preferable to the use of reconstruction nails and other osteosynthetic devices for the treatment of metastatic lesions in the proximal third of the femur.

  1. Individualized Risk of Surgical Complications: An Application of the Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment Score

    PubMed Central

    Mlodinow, Alexei S.; Khavanin, Nima; Hume, Keith M.; Simmons, Christopher J.; Weiss, Michael J.; Murphy, Robert X.; Gutowski, Karol A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk discussion is a central tenet of the dialogue between surgeon and patient. Risk calculators have recently offered a new way to integrate evidence-based practice into the discussion of individualized patient risk and expectation management. Focusing on the comprehensive Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons (TOPS) database, we endeavored to add plastic surgical outcomes to the previously developed Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment (BRA) score. Methods: The TOPS database from 2008 to 2011 was queried for patients undergoing breast reconstruction. Regression models were constructed for the following complications: seroma, dehiscence, surgical site infection (SSI), explantation, flap failure, reoperation, and overall complications. Results: Of 11,992 cases, 4439 met inclusion criteria. Overall complication rate was 15.9%, with rates of 3.4% for seroma, 4.0% for SSI, 6.1% for dehiscence, 3.7% for explantation, 7.0% for flap loss, and 6.4% for reoperation. Individualized risk models were developed with acceptable goodness of fit, accuracy, and internal validity. Distribution of overall complication risk was broad and asymmetric, meaning that the average risk was often a poor estimate of the risk for any given patient. These models were added to the previously developed open-access version of the risk calculator, available at http://www.BRAscore.org. Conclusions: Population-based measures of risk may not accurately reflect risk for many individual patients. In this era of increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine, we have developed a breast reconstruction risk assessment calculator from the robust TOPS database. The BRA Score tool can aid in individualizing—and quantifying—risk to better inform surgical decision making and better manage patient expectations. PMID:26090295

  2. Natrelle Silicone Breast Implant Follow-up Study: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Surgical Characteristics of More Than 5000 Reconstruction Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navin; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A large, multicenter, 10-year observational study is comparing the long-term safety and effectiveness of Natrelle silicone breast implants versus saline implants or national norms. Methods: Women who underwent primary augmentation, revision-augmentation, primary reconstruction, or revision-reconstruction were invited to participate. Enrolled subjects had completed surgery and received one implant or matching implants. Baseline demographics, health, lifestyle, and surgical characteristics are presented here for adult subjects who underwent primary reconstruction or revision-reconstruction. Results: Of 5637 subjects who underwent reconstruction surgery (86.7% primary reconstruction; 13.3% revision-reconstruction), 5407 received silicone implants and 230 received saline implants; 72.9% received bilateral implants. Silicone implants were used in 96.2% who underwent primary reconstruction and in 94.1% who underwent revision-reconstruction. Median age was about 3 years lower in those who underwent primary reconstruction versus revision-reconstruction. Most subjects were white nonsmokers and had attended college. Hispanic subjects were more likely to receive saline implants for primary reconstruction. Across groups, the most common characteristics by implant type or procedure included smooth-surface implants (90.8%), mastectomy scar site (69.7%), and partial (59.2%) or complete (33.9%) submuscular placement. Implant size was larger for revision-reconstruction versus primary reconstruction, and incision size was larger for silicone versus saline implants in subjects undergoing primary reconstruction. Conclusions: This study provides an unprecedented look at a large subject sample. The data offer surgeons an opportunity to make informed decisions regarding the most appropriate implant attributes and surgical approaches for women who desire breast implants for primary or revisionary breast reconstruction. PMID:26495202

  3. Laparoscopic Free Omental Flap for Craniofacial Reconstruction: A Video Article Demonstrating Operative Technique and Surgical Applications.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Benjamin C; Lobb, David; Navarro, Fernando; Nottingham, James

    2017-03-01

    The omental flap is a well described pedicled flap for surgical reconstruction of multiple body locations. As a laparoscopically harvested free flap, the omentum offers a minimally invasive solution to many reconstructive problems including extremity and head and neck wounds. This video article highlights the operative technique involved in flap harvest and inset for a cranial defect. An illustrative case involving a 23-year-old female's traumatic scalp degloving injury that was resurfaced by free omental flap and split-thickness skin graft is presented. This patient had stable long-term wound coverage for a very severe injury. Through video media we demonstrate that the laparoscopically harvested free omental flap is a minimally invasive, 2-team operation that provides soft tissue coverage of severe, remote wounds. This video demonstrates a safe operative technique and nuances specific to laparoscopic harvest of this flap.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the frontal recess--is there a benefit in multiplanar CT-reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Leunig, A; Sommer, B; Betz, C S; Sommer, F

    2008-09-01

    Anatomical variations in the sinus region are not necessarily pathological, but they may complicate the anatomy of the lateral nasal wall and contribute to the occurrence or persistence of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study the interpretations of initial coronal CT scans were significantly altered following multiplanar CT-reconstruction. Assuming that a multiplanar analysis includes coronal views, we may conclude that imaging in three planes yields more information and provides a substantial benefit in the planning and performance of a surgical procedure on the paranasal sinuses.

  5. The effect of knee brace on coordination and neuronal leg muscle control: an early postoperative functional study in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients.

    PubMed

    Rebel, M; Paessler, H H

    2001-09-01

    Two studies were carried out after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to determine the effect of a knee brace on coordination (test 1) and electromyographic muscle activity in drop jumps (test 2). Test 1 studied 25 patients with ACL reconstruction under three test conditions (one-leg static, two-legged static, two-legged dynamic) compared with a control (n=30). The results showed highly significant improvements in all braced conditions. In test 2 ten patients with ACL reconstruction and ten healthy subjects performed a two-legged drop-jump; this was repeated 15 times and again 15 times with a knee brace worn on the reconstructed limb. Changes in electromyographically determined muscle activity (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius) were observed, but they were significant in only few cases because of high variability. Drop-jumps with knee brace improved jumping height, increased the maximum knee angle in the ground contact phase, and reduced the maximum knee angle in the landing phase. Patients thus develop an increased confidence in the stability of their knees. We conclude that the benefits of the knee brace are due to the mechanical action, an enhanced coordination, and a psychological effect.

  6. Isokinetic dynamometer evaluation of the effects of early thigh diameter difference on thigh muscle strength in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Oc, Yunus; Celik, Haluk

    2015-04-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, which muscle groups are more affected from frequently developing thigh muscle atrophy is a matter of debate. We evaluate the effect of thigh circumference difference between patients' knees who were administered the ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and intact knees, on torque between the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. Fifty-five patients at least 6 months follow-up period available were included in our study. Power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in patients' extremities were done by using isokinetic dynamometer. The maximum torque values at 60°/sec, 240°/sec in frequency, positions of flexion and extension were determined. In accordance with our findings it is still possible to encounter the thigh atrophy in average 28 months after ACL reconstruction surgery even under physical rehabilitation programs and appropriate follow-up. It is inevitable for the clinician to consider these changes in diagnosis and rehabilitation stages. It can't be ignored that muscle weakness mechanisms developing in the thigh circumference vary according to the thigh muscle group and knee flexors play an important role in thigh atrophy when determining an appropriate rehabilitation program after reconstruction application.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Interactive Surgical Planning Using Shape Descriptors in Mandibular Reconstruction with Fibular Segments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to quantitatively analyze medical knowledge of, and experience with, decision-making in preoperative virtual planning of mandibular reconstruction. Three shape descriptors were designed to evaluate local differences between reconstructed mandibles and patients’ original mandibles. We targeted an asymmetrical, wide range of cutting areas including the mandibular sidepiece, and defined a unique three-dimensional coordinate system for each mandibular image. The generalized algorithms for computing the shape descriptors were integrated into interactive planning software, where the user can refine the preoperative plan using the spatial map of the local shape distance as a visual guide. A retrospective study was conducted with two oral surgeons and two dental technicians using the developed software. The obtained 120 reconstruction plans show that the participants preferred a moderate shape distance rather than optimization to the smallest. We observed that a visually plausible shape could be obtained when considering specific anatomical features (e.g., mental foramen. mandibular midline). The proposed descriptors can be used to multilaterally evaluate reconstruction plans and systematically learn surgical procedures. PMID:27583465

  8. Parasagittal meningiomas: Our surgical experience and the reconstruction technique of the superior sagittal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Alessandro; Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Del Maestro, Mattia; Gallieni, Massimo; Dechcordi, Soheila Raysi; Marzi, Sara; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The radical resection of parasagittal meningiomas without complications and recurrences is the goal of the neurosurgeon. Nowadays, different managements are proposed. This study describes our surgical technique during the lesional excision and the reconstruction of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Methods: The total removal (Simpson I and II) of parasagittal meningiomas (WHO grade I and II) was obtained in 75 patients from September 2000 to January 2010. The indocyanine green videoangiography was used before the dural opening and, when necessary, to identify and preserve the cortical veins. The surgery of the SSS was performed in accordance with Sindou's classification, and its reconstruction was achieved through the use of a patch of galea capitis. Results: We had no cases of recurrence and thrombotic occlusion of the SSS in 5 years after the reconstruction. No complications were observed in 65 patients, and no cases of mortality were reported. Neurological focal deficits were observed in 5 patients. A brain swelling and a venous infarction were observed in 1 patient. Only one case of thrombotic occlusion was observed. A cerebrospinal fluid leak was observed in 2 patients, and a systemic complication was found in 1 patient. Conclusion: Several factors contribute to the success of the parasagittal meningioma surgery. We consider the preservation of the cortical veins to be important, and, when possible, we recommend the reconstruction of the anterior third of the SSS. Our experience has led us to believe that until now surgery is a winning choice if practiced by expert hands. PMID:28217380

  9. Estimation of eighth costal cartilage in surgical timing of microtia reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Yung; Oh, Kap Sung; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2015-01-01

    There is controversy over the optimal timing of microtia reconstruction. The eighth costal cartilage, which is used to shape the helix framework, can be one of the key factors determining surgical timing of microtia reconstruction. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the length of the eighth costal cartilage preoperatively. The aim of the present study was to suggest clinical predictors of the length of the eighth cartilage by assessing the correlation between the actual length of the eighth cartilage and preoperative measurements of the cartilage length using three-dimensional rib-cage computed tomography (3D rib-cage CT). A retrospective analysis was performed on a total of 97 patients who underwent preoperative 3D rib-cage CT and auricular reconstruction using a rib cartilage graft between January 2010 and February 2013. The length of the eighth costal cartilage on 3D rib-cage CT was measured preoperatively, and the length of the harvested eighth rib cartilage was measured intraoperatively. We analyzed the association between the preoperative and intraoperative measured length of the eighth rib, with patient age, height, weight, and body mass index. Preoperative measurement using 3D rib-cage CT showed a high correlation with actual cartilage length. Height and weight correlated more strongly with length than with age. This study describes the usefulness of 3D rib-cage CT for preoperative measurement of the length of the eighth costal cartilage. The measurement of the eighth rib cartilage on 3D rib-cage CT could be a useful aid for reconstructive surgeons in planning microtia reconstruction.

  10. Surgical Guides (Patient-Specific Instruments) for Pediatric Tibial Bone Sarcoma Resection and Allograft Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis. PMID:23533326

  11. Surgical guides (patient-specific instruments) for pediatric tibial bone sarcoma resection and allograft reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis.

  12. Biodegradable Magnesium Screws Accelerate Fibrous Tissue Mineralization at the Tendon-Bone Insertion in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Model of Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Fu, Weimin; Cheng, Wenxiang; Chan, Kaiming; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Qin, Ling

    2017-01-10

    The incorporation of tendon graft into bone tunnel is one of the most challenging clinical issues in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. As a biodegradable metal, Mg has appropriate mechanical strength and osteoinductive effects, thus may be a promising alternative to commercialized products used for graft fixation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Mg based interference screws would promote tendon graft-bone junction healing when compared to Ti screws. Herein, we compared the effects of Mg and Ti screws on tendon graft healing in rabbits with ACL reconstruction via histological, HR-pQCT and mechanical analysis. The histological results indicated that Mg screws significantly improved the graft healing quality via promoting mineralization at the tendon graft enthesis. Besides, Mg screws significantly promoted bone formation in the peri-screw region at the early healing stage. Importantly, Mg screws exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and the degradation of Mg screws did not induce bone tunnel widening. In tensile testing, there were no significant differences in the load to failure, stress, stiffness and absorption energy between Mg and Ti groups due to the failure mode at the midsubstance. Our findings demonstrate that Mg screws can promote tendon graft healing after ACL reconstruction, implying a potential alternative to Ti screws for clinical applications.

  13. Biodegradable Magnesium Screws Accelerate Fibrous Tissue Mineralization at the Tendon-Bone Insertion in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Model of Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Fu, Weimin; Cheng, Wenxiang; Chan, Kaiming; Yung, Patrick Shu-hang; Qin, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of tendon graft into bone tunnel is one of the most challenging clinical issues in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. As a biodegradable metal, Mg has appropriate mechanical strength and osteoinductive effects, thus may be a promising alternative to commercialized products used for graft fixation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Mg based interference screws would promote tendon graft-bone junction healing when compared to Ti screws. Herein, we compared the effects of Mg and Ti screws on tendon graft healing in rabbits with ACL reconstruction via histological, HR-pQCT and mechanical analysis. The histological results indicated that Mg screws significantly improved the graft healing quality via promoting mineralization at the tendon graft enthesis. Besides, Mg screws significantly promoted bone formation in the peri-screw region at the early healing stage. Importantly, Mg screws exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and the degradation of Mg screws did not induce bone tunnel widening. In tensile testing, there were no significant differences in the load to failure, stress, stiffness and absorption energy between Mg and Ti groups due to the failure mode at the midsubstance. Our findings demonstrate that Mg screws can promote tendon graft healing after ACL reconstruction, implying a potential alternative to Ti screws for clinical applications. PMID:28071744

  14. Soft tissue reconstruction for type IV-D duplicated thumb: a new surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yin-Chun; Chih, Tsai-Tung; Wang, Tai-Lung; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chen, Jian-Chih

    2007-06-01

    Type IV-D duplicated thumb has the most complex anomalies and difficulties for treatment among polydatyly. Double osteotomy is usually recommended to gain the best cosmetic and functional outcome. However, 4 cases of type IV-D duplicated thumb were treated only by soft tissue procedure in this study. At operation, a conjoined A2 pulley was routinely identified, and the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) was found bifurcated distal to the conjoined pulley in every of these cases. Instead of double osteotomy, a soft tissue procedure that included centralization of FPL and A2 pulley reconstruction was pursued to correct these special anomalies. The overall clinical results were evaluated by a modification of the Tada scoring system based on the range of motion, joint stability, alignment of the remaining thumb, and subjective opinion regarding the reconstructed thumb after an average follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 2.5-4.7 years). According to the scoring system, the results were rated as good in 3 cases and fair in 1 case. From the results, the A2 pulley reconstruction and FPL centralization could prove to be an effective method for the treatment of type IV-D duplicated thumb and could efficiently avoid the residual angular deformities. Therefore, we recommend this soft tissue procedure as an alternative surgical technique to the double-osteotomy procedure for treating a type IV-D duplicated thumb in a very young child, whose bone is still not mature enough for holding the fixing pins.

  15. The use of platelets to affect functional healing of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) autograft in a caprine ACL reconstruction model.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Kurt P; Murray, Martha M; Carey, James L; Zurakowski, David; Fleming, Braden C

    2009-05-01

    Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions have increased laxity postoperatively. We hypothesized that enhancing an ACL graft with a collagen-platelet composite (CPC) would improve knee laxity and graft structural properties. We also hypothesized the platelet concentration in the CPC would affect these parameters. Twelve goats underwent ACL reconstruction with autologous patellar tendon graft. In six goats, a collagen-platelet composite was placed around the graft (CPC group). In the remaining six goats, the collagen scaffold only was used (COLL group). Three goats were excluded due to complications. After 6 weeks in vivo, anterior-posterior (AP) laxity and tensile properties of the ACL reconstructed knees were measured and normalized against the contralateral intact knee. At a knee flexion angle of 30 degrees, the average increase in AP laxity was 40% less in the CPC group than the COLL group (p = 0.045). At 60 degrees, the AP laxity was 30% less in the CPC group, a difference that was close to statistical significance (p = 0.080). No differences were found between treatment groups with respect to the structural properties (p > 0.30). However, there were significant correlations between serum platelet concentration and AP laxity (R2 = 0.643; p = 0.009), maximum load (R2 = 0.691; p = 0.006), and graft stiffness (R2 = 0.840; p < 0.001). In conclusion, use of a CPC to enhance healing of an allograft ACL reconstruction inversely correlated with early sagittal plane laxity and the systemic platelet count was highly predictive of ACL reconstruction graft strength and stiffness at 6 weeks. These findings emphasize the importance of further research on delineating the effect of platelets in treating of ACL injuries.

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Choices

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Alec A.; Perfetti, Dean C.; Levine, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common surgical procedure; however, there is no consensus to what the best graft option is to replace the injured ACL. The main options available consist of allografts and autografts, which include patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and quadriceps tendon autografts. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in August 2010 for English-language articles pertaining to ACL grafts. Results: Postoperative outcome variables were analyzed to determine similarities and differences among the different graft options. These variables include stability, strength, function, return to sports, patient satisfaction, complications, and cost. Conclusions: Both allografts and the 3 main options for autografts can provide excellent results in ACL reconstruction and lead to a high percentage of satisfied patients. However, differences exist among the graft choices. Both the similarities and the differences are important to discuss with a patient who will be undergoing ACL reconstruction so that he or she has the best information available when making a choice of graft. PMID:23016071

  17. The posterolateral corner: surgical approach and technique overview.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Jonathan F; Kilcoyne, Kelly; Kluk, Matthew; Rue, John-Paul

    2011-09-01

    Injuries to the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee can lead to profound knee instability, especially when combined with anterior cruciate or posterior cruciate ligament injury. With increased recognition of this injury, as well as improved understanding of the pathoanatomy, surgical treatment of these injuries has evolved in favor of acute treatment including reconstructive techniques to minimize recurrent laxity and allow for early rehabilitation. This article describes the approach to the PLC and the technique for figure of 8 reconstruction.

  18. Knee Contact Force Asymmetries in Patients Who Failed Return-to-Sport Readiness Criteria 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gardinier, Emily S.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, contact forces are decreased in the injured knee when compared with the uninjured knee. The persistence of contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction may increase the risk of reinjury and may play an important role in the development of knee osteoarthritis in these patients. Functional performance may also be useful in identifying patients who demonstrate potentially harmful joint contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction. Hypothesis Knee joint contact force asymmetries would be present during gait after ACL reconstruction, and performance on a specific set of validated return-to-sport (RTS) readiness criteria would discriminate between those who demonstrated contact force asymmetries and those who did not. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods A total of 29 patients with ACL ruptures participated in gait analysis and RTS readiness testing 6 months after reconstruction. Muscle and joint contact forces were estimated using an electromyography (EMG)–driven musculoskeletal model of the knee. The magnitude of typical limb asymmetry in uninjured controls was used to define limits of meaningful limb asymmetry in patients after ACL reconstruction. The RTS testing included isometric quadriceps strength testing, 4 unilateral hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Paired t tests were used to assess limb symmetry for peak medial and tibiofemoral contact forces in all patients, and a mixed-design analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of passing or failing RTS testing on contact force asymmetry. Results Among all patients, neither statistically significant nor meaningful contact force asymmetries were identified. However, patients who failed RTS testing exhibited meaningful contact force asymmetries, with tibiofemoral contact force being significantly lower for the involved knee. Conversely, patients who passed RTS testing exhibited neither significant nor meaningful

  19. Outcomes in head and neck reconstruction by surgical site and donor site

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, JW; Sweeny, L; Carroll, WR; Peters, GE; Rosenthal, EL

    2012-01-01

    Objective Define surgical outcomes of specific donor sites for free tissue transfer in head and neck reconstruction. Design Retrospective cohort review Setting Academic tertiary care center. Patients A review of free tissue transfer procedures performed at a university-based tertiary care facility from October 2004 to April 2011. A total of 1051 patients underwent 6 types of free flaps: fasciocutaneous radial forearm (53%), osteocutaneous radial forearm (16%), rectus abdominus (11%), fibula (10%), anterior lateral thigh (7%), and latissimus dorsi (2%). Main Outcome Measures Demographic data was collected and outcomes measured were: length of hospital stay, flap viability, and major complications (infection, fistula, and hematoma). Results Of the 1051 flaps performed, the most common operative site was oral cavity (40% n=414) followed by hypopharynx/larynx (22%, n=234), cutaneous (20%, n=206), oropharynx (9%, n= 98), mid-face (7%, n= 76), and skull base (2%, n=23). The median hospital stay was 7.9 days (range 1-76) and the overall failure rate was 2.8%. Cutaneous defects required the shortest length of hospitalization (5.8 days, P< .0001), a low free flap failure rate (1.5%, n= 3), and limited major complications (6%, n= 12). Conversely, oropharynx defects were associated with the longest hospitalization (8.9 days). While midface defects had a high incidence of complications (15%, n= 11, P=.10). Defects above the angle of the mandible had higher overall complications when compared to below. Similarly, reconstruction for primary or recurrent cancer had a total failure rate of 2.5% while secondary reconstruction and radionecrosis had a failure rate of 4.0% (P=.29). Additionally, there was no statistical difference between outcomes based on donor site. Conclusions This review demonstrates that certain subsets of patients are at higher risk for complications after free tissue transfer. Patients undergoing free flap reconstruction for cutaneous defects have substantially

  20. Contact Stress and Kinematic Analysis of All-Epiphyseal and Over-the-Top Pediatric Reconstruction Techniques for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Moira M.; Tucker, Scott; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Green, Daniel W.; Imhauser, Carl W.; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Furthermore, adult reconstruction techniques may be inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients due to the risk of physeal complications. “Physeal-sparing” reconstruction techniques exist but their ability to restore knee stability and contact mechanics is not well understood. Purpose (1) To assess the ability of the all-epiphyseal (AE) and over-the-top (OT) reconstructions to restore knee kinematics; (2) to assess whether these reconstructions decrease the high posterior contact stresses seen with ACL deficiency; (3) to determine whether the AE or OT produce abnormal tibiofemoral contact stresses. Hypothesis The AE reconstruction will restore contact mechanics and kinematics similarly to that of the ACL intact knee. Methods Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were tested using a robotic manipulator. Tibiofemoral motions were recorded with the ACL intact, after sectioning the ACL, and after both reconstructions in each of the 10 specimens. The AE utilized an all-inside technique with tunnels exclusively within the epiphysis and fixed with suspensory cortical fixation devices. The OT had a central and vertical tibial tunnel with an over-the-top femur position and was fixed with staples and posts on both ends. Anterior stability was assessed with 134N anterior force at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90° of knee flexion. Rotational stability was assessed with combined 8 Nm and 4 Nm of abduction and internal rotation, respectively, at 5, 15, and 30° of knee flexion. Results Both reconstruction techniques offloaded the posterior aspect of the tibial plateau compared to the ACL deficient knee in response to both anterior loads and combined moments as demonstrated by reduced contact stresses in this region at all flexion angles. Compared to the ACL intact condition, both the AE

  1. Shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction options and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Simon; Bedi, Asheesh

    2016-12-01

    Acromioclavicular joint separations are a common cause of shoulder pain in the young athletic population. In high-grade injuries, acromioclavicular joint reconstruction procedures may be indicated for functional improvement. There is currently no gold standard for the surgical management of these injuries. Multiple reconstructive options exist, including coracoclavicular screws, hook plates, endobutton coracoclavicular fixations, and anatomic ligament reconstructions with tendon grafts. This article aims to review pertinent acromioclavicular joint anatomy and biomechanics, radiographic evaluation, classification system, as well as reconstruction options, outcomes, and complications.

  2. Exploratory benchtop study evaluating the use of surgical design and simulation in fibula free flap mandibular reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgical design and simulation (SDS) is a useful tool to help surgeons visualize the anatomy of the patient and perform operative maneuvers on the computer before implementation in the operating room. While these technologies have many advantages, further evidence of their potential to improve outcomes is required. The present benchtop study was intended to identify if there is a difference in surgical outcome between free-hand surgery completed without virtual surgical planning (VSP) software and preoperatively planned surgery completed with the use of VSP software. Methods Five surgeons participated in the study. In Session A, participants were asked to do a free-hand reconstruction of a 3d printed mandible with a defect using a 3d printed fibula. Four weeks later, in Session B, the participants were asked to do the same reconstruction, but in this case using a preoperatively digitally designed surgical plan. Digital registration computer software, hard tissue measures and duration of the task were used to compare the outcome of the benchtop reconstructions. Results The study revealed that: (1) superimposed images produced in a computer aided design (CAD) software were effective in comparing pre and post-surgical outcomes, (2) there was a difference, based on hard tissue measures, in surgical outcome between the two scenarios and (3) there was no difference in the time it took to complete the sessions. Conclusion The study revealed that the participants were more consistent in the preoperatively digitally planned surgery than they were in the free hand surgery. PMID:23800209

  3. Endoscopic Repair of the Superficial Deltoid Ligament and Spring Ligament.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-06-01

    The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, also known as the spring ligament, is an important static stabilizer of the medial longitudinal foot arch. Compromise of this ligament is a primary causative factor of peritalar subluxation, and it should be repaired in addition to treatment of tibialis posterior tendon abnormalities. Open repair of the ligament requires extensive soft-tissue dissection. The development of the high distal portal for posterior tibial tendoscopy allows repair of the ligament endoscopically. This, together with endoscopically assisted reconstruction of the tibialis posterior tendon, allows complete endoscopic treatment of stage 2 posterior tibial tendon deficiency. The major structure at risk is the medial plantar nerve. This technique is technically demanding and should be reserved for experienced foot and ankle arthroscopists.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysms after Aorto-iliac Surgical Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lagana, Domenico Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Mangini, Monica Recaldini, Chiara; Lumia, Domenico; Cuffari, Salvatore; Caronno, Roberto; Castelli, Patrizio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. To assess the effectiveness of endovascular treatment of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms (APAs) following aorto-iliac surgical reconstruction. Materials. We retrospectively evaluated 21 men who, between July 2000 and March 2006, were observed with 30 APAs, 13 to the proximal anastomosis and 17 to the distal anastomosis. The patients had had previous aorto-iliac reconstructive surgery with a bypass due to aneurysm (15/21) or obstructive disease (6/21). The following devices were used: 12 bifurcated endoprostheses, 2 aorto-monoiliac, 4 aortic extenders, 1 stent-graft leg, and 2 covered stents. Follow-up was performed with CT angiography at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure and yearly thereafter. Results. Immediate technical success was 100%. No periprocedural complications occurred. Four patients died during follow-up from causes not related to APA, and 1 (treated for prosthetic-enteric fistula) from sepsis 3 months after the procedure. During a mean follow-up of 19.7 months (range 1-72 months), 2 of 21 occlusions of stent-graft legs occurred 3 and 24 months after the procedure (treated with thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and femorofemoral bypass, respectively) and 1 type I endoleak. Primary clinical success rate was 81% and secondary clinical success was 91%. Conclusion. Endovascular treatment is a valid alternative to open surgery and can be proposed as the treatment of choice for APAs, especially in patients who are a high surgical risk. Further studies with larger series and longer follow-up are necessary to confirm the long-term effectiveness of this approach.

  5. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hägi, Tobias T.; Klemensberger, Sabrina; Bereiter, Riccarda; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cosgarea, Raluca; Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a) to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b) to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Material and Methods Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a) hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR), b) ultrasonication (US), c) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP) and d) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX). The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz), the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness) as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD. Results After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10). The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10). Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm) in comparison with US (14±12 µm), EAP (6±7 µm) and EAP-CHX (11±10) µm). Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts. Conclusion The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air

  6. EARLY REGENERATION DETERMINES LONG‐TERM GRAFT SITE MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH SEMITENDINOSUS‐GRACILIS AUTOGRAFT: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Snyder‐Mackler, Lynn; Axe, Michael J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: The semitendinosus‐gracilis tendon autograft is often used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Tendon regeneration appears to occur for most individuals in the short term, but little is known about the long‐term effects of graft harvest. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of semitendinosis‐gracilis tendon graft harvest on muscle and tendon morphology at least five years following reconstruction in a case series. Methods: Magnetic resonance images were taken of the knees of three subjects at least five years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. These subjects represented the different regeneration patterns at the time of return‐to‐sport. Muscle and tendon morphology were analyzed by calculating the volume, peak cross‐sectional area, and length of the knee flexors. Muscle and tendon morphological changes were analyzed individually, and then in combination as defined as a knee flexor group. Results: Muscle and tendon regeneration continued in those tendons that had begun regeneration at the time of return‐to‐sports in two subjects. There was significant additional muscle degeneration in those muscles whose tendons had not regenerated at the time of return‐to‐sports, in the remaining subject. Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining knee flexors restored the knee flexor group to near preoperative peak cross‐sectional area and volume across the each of the three case subjects. Conclusions: Knee flexor morphology at the time of return‐to‐sports foreshadowed the long‐term outcome in the three studied subjects. Preservation of the tendon sheath in situ may play a role in tendon regeneration. When tendon regeneration did not occur, fatty infiltration of the muscle may be a worst‐case outcome. Semitendinosus‐gracilis muscle synergists demonstrated hypertrophy, perhaps in an effort to compensate for knee flexor group morphology deficits that existed after Semitendinosus gracilis

  7. Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Secondary stenting of the celiac trunk after inefficient median arcuate ligament release and reoperation as an alternative to simultaneous hepatic artery reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Guilbaud, Théophile; Ewald, Jacques; Turrini, Olivier; Delpero, Jean Robert

    2017-01-01

    In patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), unrecognized hemodynamically significant celiac axis (CA) stenosis impairs hepatic arterial flow by suppressing the collateral pathways supplying arterial flow from the superior mesenteric artery and leads to serious hepatobiliary complications due to liver and biliary ischemia, with a high rate of mortality. CA stenosis is usually due to an extrinsic compression by a previously asymptomatic median arcuate ligament (MAL). MAL is diagnosed by computerized tomography in about 10% of the candidates for PD, but only half are found to be hemodynamically significant during the gastroduodenal artery clamping test with Doppler assessment, which is mandatory before any resection. MAL release is usually efficient to restore an adequate liver blood inflow and prevent ischemic complications. In cases of failure in MAL release, postponed PD with secondary stenting of the CA and reoperation for PD should be considered as an alternative to immediate hepatic artery reconstruction, which involves the risk of postoperative thrombosis of the arterial reconstruction. We recently used this two-stage strategy in a patient undergoing surgery for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:28223737

  8. Does computer navigation system really improve early clinical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Guo-You; Zhang, Xian-Long

    2012-03-01

    Inaccurate tunnel placement is an important cause of failure in conventional anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Controversy currently exists over the usefulness of computer-assisted navigation systems in addressing this problem. Five randomized or quasi-randomized, controlled trials comparing computer-navigated versus conventional technique in ACL reconstructions until December 1, 2009 were identified through a systematical database search. The clinical outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Lachman test, pivot-shift test, International Knee Documentation Committee knee score, Lysholm score, and Tegner score. Mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Heterogeneity across the studies was also assessed. We found that the use of computer-assisted navigation systems led to additional operative time (8-17min). No significant differences between computer-navigated and conventional groups were found in terms of knee stability and functional assessment during short-term follow-up. The role of computer-assisted navigation systems on clinical performance and longevity needs further investigation in large sample, long-term randomized trials.

  9. Effect of Anterior Tibiofemoral Glides on Knee Extension during Gait in Patients with Decreased Range of Motion after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Michael A.; Di Ciacca, Stephen R.; Jones, Ian C.; Padfield, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to evaluate the effect of anterior tibiofemoral glides on maximal knee extension and selected spatiotemporal characteristics during gait in patients with knee extension deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: Twelve patients with knee-extension deficits after recent ACL reconstructions underwent quantitative gait analyses immediately before and after 10 minutes of repeated anterior tibiofemoral glides on the operative limb, and again after a 10-minute seated rest period. Results: Maximum knee extension during stance phase of the operative limb significantly increased immediately after the treatment (mean increase: 2.0°±4.1°, 95% CI: 0.6°–3.3°). Maximum knee extension decreased after the 10-minute rest period (mean decrease: 0.9°±1.8°, 95% CI: −0.1°–1.8°), although the decrease was not statistically significant. Small increases in operative limb step length, stride length, and gait speed were observed after the rest period compared to baseline values only. Conclusions: A single session of anterior tibiofemoral glides increases maximal knee extension during the stance phase of gait in patients with knee-extension deficits. Increases in knee extension are small and short-lived, however, suggesting that continued activity is required to maintain the observed improvements. PMID:21629602

  10. Particle-hemodynamics simulations and design options for surgical reconstruction of diseased carotid artery bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Hyun, S; Kleinstreuer, C; Longest, P W; Chen, C

    2004-04-01

    Based on the hypothesis that aggravating hemodynamic factors play a key role in the onset of arterial diseases, the methodology of "virtual prototyping" of branching blood vessels was applied to diseased external carotid artery (ECA) segments. The goals were to understand the underlying particle-hemodynamics and to provide various geometric design options for improved surgical reconstruction based on the minimization of critical hemodynamic wall parameters (HWPs). First, a representative carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) and then CABs with stenosed ECAs, i.e., a distally occluded ECA and an ECA stump, were analyzed based on transient three-dimensional blood flow solutions, employing a user-enhanced commercial finite volume code. Specifically, the HWPs, i.e., oscillatory shear index, wall shear stress angle gradient, near-wall residence time of monocytes, and near-wall helicity angle difference were evaluated to compare the merits of each design option, including a reconstructed near-optimal junction which generates the lowest HWP-values. The results provide physical insight to the biofluid dynamics of branching blood vessels and guide vascular surgeons as well as stent manufacturers towards interventions leading to high sustained patency rates.

  11. Surgical exploration of 71 free flaps in crisis following head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Li, S; Wu, K; Hu, L; Liu, W; Ji, T; Hu, Y; Xu, L; Sun, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, C

    2016-02-01

    The medical records of patients who had undergone a free flap reconstruction after radical resection of oral cancer between January 2009 and December 2013 at the study hospital in China were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 1550 patients who underwent free flap reconstructions, 71 were explored for suspected flap compromise caused by postoperative thrombosis. Patient demographic data, clinicopathological data of the tumour, details of the free flaps, and operative findings were assessed, and the medical records were analyzed to identify the reasons for intervention and the outcomes. Of the 71 flaps in crisis, 47 (66.2%) were salvaged. Free flap failure was 6.2-times more likely to develop in patients undergoing surgical exploration after 72 h (95% confidence interval 2.090-18.197, P=0.001). Of the 19 flaps identified as subject to delayed exploration, 14 failed and three had partial necrosis. Free flap failure was 3.4-times more likely to develop in patients with perforator flaps (95% confidence interval 1.222-9.719, P=0.019). The early detection of free flap failure is critical to flap salvage. The salvage success rate decreases significantly at >72 h after the initial operation. It appears to be more difficult to salvage a perforator flap.

  12. Step-by-step surgical technique for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: application of digital technology in virtual surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Succo, G; Berrone, M; Battiston, B; Tos, P; Goia, F; Appendino, P; Crosetti, E

    2015-06-01

    At present, mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is the gold standard for functional and esthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction procedure adopting the customized solution Synthes ProPlan CMF. The study reports five consecutive patients with benign or malignant disease requiring mandibular reconstruction using a microvascular fibular free flap, pre-operative virtual planning, construction of cutting guides and customized laser pre-bent titanium plates. The surgical technique is discussed in a step-by-step fashion. The average post-operative hospital stay was 18 ± 3 days. Ischemia time was recorded in all five cases, with an average of 75 ± 8 min. No problems were encountered in any surgical step and there were no major complications. Excellent precision of cutting guides and a good fit of pre-bent plates were found on both the mandible and fibula. There was excellent precision in bone to bone contact and position between mandible and fibula graft. Measurement data from the pre-operative and post-operative CT scans were compared. The average difference (Δ) between programed segment lengths and CT control segment lengths was 0.098 ± 0.077 cm. Microsurgical mandibular reconstruction using a virtual surgical planning yields significantly shorter ischemia times and allows more precise osteotomies. The technology is becoming increasingly recognized for its ability to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize operating time. Considering that the extent of resection can be wider than predicted, this results in safer modeling of the fibula only after frozen sections have demonstrated the radicality of resection.

  13. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Resina, André França; Pedro, Gabriel; Neto, Ildefonso Angelo Mora; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT), tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using flexor tendons. Methods Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line. Results The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ± 6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ± 0.51 cm. Conclusion The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°. PMID:26229872

  14. Isolated fracture-dislocation of the scaphoid's proximal pole treated by scaphoid internal fixation and scapho-lunate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Marco; Parchi, Paolo; Lisanti, Michele

    2009-05-01

    We present a case of irreducible palmar dislocation of the proximal fragment of a scaphoid fracture without carpal dislocation. We observed this lesion 2 days after the injury and we immediately operated the patient with a combined volar and dorsal access: using the Henry access we reduced the fracture and we inserted a cannulated screw to synthesize the scaphoid, using the dorsal access we repaired the complete rupture of the scapho-lunate ligament using a mini anchor. Stabilization among scaphoid, lunate and capitate was performed using Kirschner wires. X-ray showed fracture healing after 90 days. No clinical or radiographic evidence of carpal instability was revealed, on standard X-rays or on dynamic evaluations. No sign of avascular necrosis or degenerative arthritis was observed after 9 months.

  15. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  16. The suitability of human adipose-derived stem cells for the engineering of ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Eagan, Michael J; Zuk, Patricia A; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Bluth, Benjamin E; Brinkmann, Elyse J; Wu, Benjamin M; McAllister, David R

    2012-10-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the one of the most common sports-related injuries. With its poor healing capacity, surgical reconstruction using either autografts or allografts is currently required to restore function. However, serious complications are associated with graft reconstructions and the number of such reconstructions has steadily risen over the years, necessitating the search for an alternative approach to ACL repair. Such an approach may likely be tissue engineering. Recent engineering approaches using ligament-derived fibroblasts have been promising, but the slow growth rate of such fibroblasts in vitro may limit their practical application. More promising results are being achieved using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) is often proposed as an alternative choice to the MSC and, as such, may be a suitable stem cell for ligament engineering. However, the use of ASCs in ligament engineering still remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, in this study, the potential use of human ASCs in ligament tissue engineering was initially explored by examining their ability to express several ligament markers under growth factor treatment. ASC populations treated for up to 4 weeks with TGFβ1 or IGF1 did not show any significant and consistent upregulation in the expression of collagen types 1 and 3, tenascin C and scleraxis. While treatment with EGF or bFGF resulted in increased tenascin C expression, increased expression of collagens 1 and 3 were never observed. Therefore, simple in vitro treatment of human ASC populations with growth factors may not stimulate their ligament differentiative potential.

  17. The effect of bone growth factor in the tendon to bone healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: An experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bluwi, Mohammed T; Azam, Md Q; Sadat-Ali, Mir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) involves use of semintendinosis and gracilis tendons graft that is transplanted into bone tunnels at the femoral and tibial insertion sites and the sites and the bone tendon interface is a weak link in the early healing period due to slow rate of healing. We hypothesized that an addition of bone growth factor like Sadat-Habdan mesenchymal stimulating peptide (SHMSP) could enhance bone tendon healing rate so that re-rupture of the tendon does not take place. Methodology: Twenty skeletally mature rabbits underwent ACL reconstruction of the right knee. In 10 of the rabbits at the site of the tendon-graft 5 mg/kg body weight of SHMSP was put in the bone tunnel. In 10 other animals, nothing was added. At eight and 12 weeks 5 animals from each group were sacrificed. The tendon-graft site was harvested and sent for histopathological examination to assess the healing at the tendon-bone graft to the tibial tunnel. Results: There were no deaths in both the groups. One rabbit of the control group developed an infection. In all the animals of the study group from 4 weeks onward showed bone formation, wherein the control group only granulation tissue was observed. By 8 weeks in the study group, the canal was totally obliterated with the new bone formation which extended onto the periosteal area. In the control, there was minimal change in the formation of the new bone formation. Conclusion: Addition of a growth factor like SHMSP would enhance the osteo-integration of the tendon-graft in the bony tunnel after ACL reconstruction in vivo. PMID:26958518

  18. Electromyographic Analysis of Single-Leg, Closed Chain Exercises: Implications for Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Anthony I.; Cooper, Leslie W.; Kirkendall, Don T.; Garrett, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many knee rehabilitation studies have examined open and closed kinetic chain exercises. However, most studies focus on 2-legged, closed chain exercise. The purpose of our study was to characterize 1-legged, closed chain exercise in young, healthy subjects. Subjects: Eighteen normal subjects (11 men, 7 women; age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) performed unsupported, 1-legged squats and step-ups to approximately tibial height. Measurements: Knee angle data and surface electromyographic activity from the thigh muscles were recorded. Results: The maximum angle of knee flexion was 111 ± 23° for squats and 101 ± 16° for step-ups. The peak quadriceps activation was 201 ± 66% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, occurring at an angle of 96 ± 16° for squats. Peak quadriceps activation was 207 ± 50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction and occurred at 83 ± 12° for step-ups. Conclusions: The high and sustained levels of quadriceps activation indicate that 1-legged squats and step-ups would be effective in muscle rehabilitation. As functional, closed chain activities, they may also be protective of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Because these exercises involve no weights or training equipment, they may prove more cost effective than traditional modes of rehabilitation. PMID:12937438

  19. Feedback Techniques to Target Functional Deficits Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Implications for Motor Control and Reduction of Second Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Benjaminse, Anne; Hewett, Timothy E.; Paterno, Mark V.; Ford, Kevin R.; Otten, Egbert; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training has been shown to reduce the risk of injury. Less is known about the effect of prevention on second injury after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Given recent findings that second injury rates exceed 20 % in only the first year following the return to sport, it is imperative that rehabilitation after ACLR is scrutinized so that second injury preventative strategies can be optimized. A potential limitation of current rehabilitative processes following ACLR could be a deficiency in the transition from conscious awareness achieved during rehabilitation sessions to unexpected and automatic movements required for athletic activities on the field. Learning strategies with an internally directed focus have traditionally been utilized but may be less suitable for acquisition of control of complex motor skills required for sport reintegration. Conversely, an externally focused rehabilitation strategy may enhance skill acquisition more efficiently and increase the potential to transfer to competitive sport. This article presents new insights gained from the motor learning domain that may improve neuromuscular training programmes via increased retention from improved techniques and may ultimately reduce the incidence of second ACL injuries. PMID:24062274

  20. Examination of a biodegradable magnesium screw for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: A pilot in vivo study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Julia; Bauer, Sylvie; Weizbauer, Andreas; Willbold, Elmar; Windhagen, Henning; Helmecke, Patrick; Lucas, Arne; Reifenrath, Janin; Nolte, Ingo; Ezechieli, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is, for the most part, currently performed with interference screws made of titanium or degradable polymers. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of biodegradable magnesium interference screws for such a procedure because of their known biocompatibility and reported osteoconductive effects. The left tibiae of each of 18 rabbits were implanted with a magnesium-based (MgYREZr-alloy) screw, and another 18 with a titanium-based control. Each group was divided into observation periods of 4, 12 and 24weeks. After sacrifice, μCT scans were acquired to assess the amount of the gas liberated and the degradation rate of the implant. Histological evaluations were performed to investigate the local tissue response adjacent to the implant and to assess the status of the attachment between the tendon and the bone tissue. The μCT scans showed that liberation of gas was most prominent 4weeks after implantation and was significantly decreased by 24weeks. All screws remained in situ and formed a sufficient connection with the tendon and sufficient osseous integration at 24weeks. Histological evaluations showed neither inflammatory reactions nor necrosis of the tendon. The results of this pilot study in rabbits indicate that this magnesium-based interference screw should be considered as an alternative to conventional implant materials.

  1. Enhanced knee joint function due to accelerated rehabilitation exercise after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery in Korean male high school soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myungchun; Sung, Dong Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Oh, Inyoung; Kim, Sojung; Kim, Seungho; Kim, Jooyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on Korean male high school soccer players who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to identify the effects of an accelerated rehabilitation exercise (ARE) program on knee joint isometric strength, thigh circumference, Lysholm score, and active balance agility. We assigned eight test participants each to a physical therapy group (PTG) and an accelerated rehabilitation exercise group (AREG), and compared differences between the groups. Both the PTG and AREG showed significant increases in 30° away and 60° toward isometric strength after treatment. In addition, significant differences were observed in these strength tests between the two groups. Both groups also showed significant increases in thigh circumference, Lysholm score, and active balance agility after treatment, but no significant differences were observed between the two groups. We conclude that the ARE treatment was more effective for improving isometric strength of the knee joint than that of physical therapy, and that an active rehabilitation exercise program after ACLR had positive effects on recovery performance of patients with an ACL injury and their return to the playing field. PMID:26933657

  2. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of analgesia using intrathecal morphine, intra-articular morphine and intra-articular levobupivacaine☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Leandro Queiroz; Neri Junior, Edmundo; Fernandes, Reginaldo Mendonça; Cardozo, Rodrigo Tavares; Rezende, Priscila Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the analgesic effect of intra-articular administration of morphine and levobupivacaine (separately or in combination) with intrathecal administration of morphine in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous grafts from the patellar tendon. Methods This was a retrospective analysis on data gathered from the medical files of 60 patients aged 20 to 50 years who underwent knee video arthroscopy for ACL reconstruction. The patients were divided into four groups of 15 individuals (A, B, C and D) according to the agent administered into the joint and around the incision: 20 mL of saline solution with 5 mg of morphine in A; 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine solution in B; 10 mL of solution with 2.5 mg of morphine plus 10 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine solution in C; and morphine administered intrathecally in D. Results All the groups presented low pain scores during the first 12 h after the surgery. Groups B and C presented significantly greater pain scores than shown by group D (control), 24 h after the surgery. There was no statistical difference in pain scores between group A and group D. Conclusion The patients in group A presented analgesia comparable to that of the patients in group D, whereas the procedure of group C was no capable of reproducing the analgesic effect observed in group D, as observed 24 h after the surgery. Further studies are needed in order to show the exact mechanism of action, along with the ideal dose and concentration for applying opioids to joints. PMID:26229934

  3. Comparison of Bioabsorbable Suture Anchor Fixation on the Tibial Side for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Free Soft Tissue Graft: Experimental Laboratory Study on Porcine Bone

    PubMed Central

    Na, Suk In; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of graft tissue fixation using bioabsorbable interference screws (BISs) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction offers various advantages, but limited pullout strength. Therefore, additional tibial fixation is essential for aggressive rehabilitation. We hypothesized that additional graft tissue fixation using bioabsorbable suture anchors (BSA) would provide sufficient pull-out strength. Materials and Methods Twenty four fresh frozen porcine distal femur and patellar tendon preparations were used. All specimens were divided into three groups based on additional fixation methods: A, isolated BIS; B, BIS and BSA; and C, BIS and post cortical screw. Tensile testing was carried out under an axial load. Ultimate failure load and ultimate failure load after cyclic loading were recorded. Results The ultimate failure loads after load to failure testing were 166.8 N in group A, 536.4 N in group B, and 438 N in group C; meanwhile, the ultimate failure loads after load to failure testing with cyclic loading were 140 N in group A, 466.5 N in group B, and 400 N in group C. Stiffness after load to failure testing was 16.5 N/mm in group A, 33.5 N/mm in group B, and 40 N/mm in group C. An additional BSA fixation resulted in a significantly higher ultimate failure load and stiffness than isolated BIS fixation, similar to post screw fixation. Conclusion Additional fixation using a BSA provided sufficient pullout strength for ACL reconstruction. The ultimate failure load of the BSA technique was similar to that of post cortical screws. PMID:24719145

  4. Correlation between the result from arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and the return to sports activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Valin, Márcio Rangel; Ferreira, Ramon; de Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto; Agostini, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the return to pre-injury sports activity in a group of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, in relation to age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and associations with upper-limb fractures. Methods A group of 265 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using an ipsilateral graft from the thigh flexor tendons, between July 2000 and November 2007, was analyzed. Results A total of 176 patients was evaluated after a mean period of 34.95 ± 18.8 months (median: 31 months) (interquartile range: 20–48 months). The minimum evaluation period was 12 months and the maximum was 87 months. The number of patients who returned to their sports activity prior to tearing the ACL was 121/176 (68.8%). Patients under 30 years of age more frequently returned to sports activity and this was considered significant: p = 0.016; odds ratio, OR = 0.44 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.22–0.86). Returning to previous sports activity more frequently was not considered significant for male sex (p = 0.273), individuals with BMI < 25 (p = 0.280) or patients with an ACL injury unrelated to an initial traumatic episode with upper-limb fracturing (p = 0.353). Conclusions The rate of return to the sports activity prior to ACL injury was 68.8%. It was found that patients under the age of 30 years had a significantly greater rate of return to sports activity after the surgery. In relation to sex, BMI and association with an initial traumatic episode of upper-limb fracturing, there was no statistical difference in the return to sports activity. PMID:26229807

  5. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. Methods sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. Results in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. Conclusion the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL. PMID:26229829

  6. Do Muscle Strength Deficits of the Uninvolved Hip and Knee Exist in Young Athletes Before Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Joseph; Wang-Price, Sharon; Goto, Shiho; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Muscle strength of the involved limb is known to be decreased after injury. Comparison with the uninvolved limb has become standard of practice to measure progress and for calculation of limb symmetry indices (LSIs) to determine readiness to return to sport. However, some literature suggests strength changes in the uninvolved limb also are present after lower extremity injury. Purpose: To examine the uninvolved limb strength in a population of adolescent athletes after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and compare strength values with those of the dominant limb in a healthy control group. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 64 athletes were enrolled in this study, including 31with injured ACLs (mean age, 15.6 ± 1.4 years) and 33 healthy controls (mean age, 14.9 ± 1.9 years). The median time from injury to testing was 23 days for the ACL-injured group. Participants underwent Biodex isokinetic strength testing at 60 deg/s to assess quadriceps and hamstring strength. Isometric hip strength (abduction, extension, external rotation) was measured using a handheld dynamometer. The muscle strength of the uninvolved limb of the ACL-injured group was compared with that of the dominant limb of the healthy control group. Results: The results showed a significant difference in quadriceps muscle strength between the 2 study groups (P < .001). Isokinetic quadriceps strength of the uninvolved limb in the ACL group was significantly decreased by 25.5% (P < .001) when compared with the dominant limb of the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a decreased isokinetic strength of the quadriceps muscle in the uninvolved limb after ACL injury as compared with healthy controls. Consideration should be taken when using the uninvolved limb for comparison when assessing quadriceps strength in a population with an ACL injury. PMID:28203600

  7. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Computed Tomography Evaluation of the Tunnel Location and Angle in Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Comparison of the Anteromedial Portal and Outside-in Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Il; Lee, Sang Hak; Bae, Chanil; Bae, Sung Hae

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the geometry and position of the femoral tunnel between the anteromedial portal (AMP) and outside-in (OI) techniques after anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods We evaluated 82 patients undergoing single-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring autografts using either the AMP (n=40) or OI (n=42) technique. The locations of the tunnel apertures were assessed by postoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging. The femoral graft bending angle, femoral tunnel aperture shape, femoral tunnel length, and posterior wall breakage were also measured. Results The mean femoral tunnel position parallel to the Blumensaat line was more caudally positioned in the AMP group than in the OI group (p=0.025) The mean femoral graft angle in the OI group (99.6°±7.1°) was significantly more acute than that of the AMP group (108.9°±10.2°, p<0.001). The mean height/width ratio of the AMP group (1.21±0.20) was significantly more ellipsoidal than that of the OI group (1.07±0.09, p<0.001). Conclusions The mean femoral tunnel position was significantly shallower in the AMP technique than in the OI technique. The OI technique might be more disadvantageous than the AMP technique in terms of the more acute bending angle. PMID:28231643

  8. FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND KNEE LAXITY IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND IN INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Jansen Paccola, Cleber Antonio; Salvini, Tânia Fátima; Prado, Christiane Lanatovits; Mello Junior, Wilson A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between deficits in the isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors with hop tests, postoperative knee laxity and functional scores in normal and ACL- reconstructed subjects with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts. Methods: Sixty male subjects were enrolled and subdivided into three groups: Twenty subjects without knee injuries (GC group) and two groups of 20 subjects submitted to ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (GTP group) and hamstrings autograft (GTF group). Results: The results showed significant correlation between knee extensors peak torque and performance in the hop tests for GTF and GC groups. There are no significantly correlations between post op knee laxity and Lysholm score compared with the hop tests and peak torque deficits. Concerning the differences between groups, the GTP group showed greater peak torque deficits in knee extensors, worst Lysholm scores and higher percentage of individuals with lower limb symmetry index (ISM) < 90% in both hop tests when compared to the other two groups. Conclusion: It is not recommendable to use only one measurement instrument for the functional evaluation of ACL-reconstructed patients, because significant correlation between peak torque, subject's functional score, knee laxity and hop tests were not observed in all groups. PMID:26998464

  9. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ... When other ligaments are also injured When your meniscus is torn Before surgery, talk to your health ...

  10. Block resection of the hepatoduodenal ligament for carcinoma of the bile duct and gallbladder. Surgical technique and a report of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Mimura, H; Takakura, N; Kim, H; Hamazaki, K; Tsuge, H; Ochiai, Y

    1991-12-01

    Carcinoma of the bile duct and gallbladder often infiltrates the entire hepatoduodenal ligament. Therefore radical resection should include block resection of the hepatoduodenal ligament. Over the last two years, block resection of the hepatoduodenal ligament for carcinoma of the bile duct and gallbladder was performed in 11 patients. When the carcinoma was located in the hilar bile duct, a combination of hemihepatectomy including the caudate lobe and ligamentetomy, "hepato-ligamentectomy", was performed (six cases). When the carcinoma was in the lower bile duct, a combination of pancreatico-duodenectomy and ligamentectomy, "ligamento-pancreatectomy", was performed (three cases). In two extremely advanced cases a combination of both hepatectomy and pancreatectomy with ligamentectomy, "hepato-ligamento-pancreatectomy", was performed. To accomplish these procedures safely, double catheter bypass of the portal circulation, devised by the authors in 1986, proved very effective in maintaining sufficient hepatic circulation and preventing portal congestion during block resection of the hepatoduodenal ligament. Histological evidence of invasion of the carcinoma cells into the hepatoduodenal ligament was detected in 10 cases, and in half of them the hepatic artery or portal vein was involved. As of April 1988, five cases in whom curative resection was performed are still alive, the longest survival period being 18 months. Four cases died in the early postoperative period, three of the deaths being due to sepsis and one to respirator malfunction.

  11. Arthroscopic-Assisted Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction Using the TightRope Device With Allograft Augmentation: Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Trenhaile, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical management of acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations remains challenging, especially in the revision setting. Most commonly, Rockwood type I and II injuries are managed nonoperatively whereas type IV, V, and VI injuries are managed with surgery. Type III separations are more controversial, with evidence supporting both nonoperative and operative treatment options. Multiple different arthroscopic techniques have been described; however, there is no current gold standard. AC joint reconstruction with the TightRope device (Arthrex, Naples, FL) with the patient in the lateral decubitus position is a method of restoring joint stability that allows for a minimally invasive, low-profile fixation construct using a single drill hole through the clavicle. Allograft augmentation of this fixation construct helps to eliminate the stress risers potentially created by this device while increasing overall repair construct stability. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical technique for arthroscopic AC joint reconstruction using a TightRope device with allograft augmentation. PMID:26759765

  12. Accurate three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of surgical field using calibrated trajectories of an image-guided medical robot

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Hu, Danying; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Brain tumor margin removal is challenging because diseased tissue is often visually indistinguishable from healthy tissue. Leaving residual tumor leads to decreased survival, and removing normal tissue causes life-long neurological deficits. Thus, a surgical robotics system with a high degree of dexterity, accurate navigation, and highly precise resection is an ideal candidate for image-guided removal of fluorescently labeled brain tumor cells. To image, we developed a scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) which acquires concurrent reflectance and fluorescence wide-field images at a high resolution. This miniature flexible endoscope was affixed to the arm of a RAVEN II surgical robot providing programmable motion with feedback control using stereo-pair surveillance cameras. To verify the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructed surgical field, a multimodal physical-sized model of debulked brain tumor was used to obtain the 3-D locations of residual tumor for robotic path planning to remove fluorescent cells. Such reconstruction is repeated intraoperatively during margin clean-up so the algorithm efficiency and accuracy are important to the robotically assisted surgery. Experimental results indicate that the time for creating this 3-D surface can be reduced to one-third by using known trajectories of a robot arm, and the error from the reconstructed phantom is within 0.67 mm in average compared to the model design. PMID:26158071

  13. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Berrone, M; Crosetti, E; Succo, G

    2014-08-01

    Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging the period of ischaemia and not restoring the correct maxillomandibular and occlusal relationships can ultimately lead to a higher rate of complications as well as poor aesthetic and functional results. Recently, there has been rising interest in virtual surgical planning and computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction in pre-operative planning; however, this is not always possible because of the costs involved and the set-up time for the entire procedure. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive technique for fibular free flap modelling and repositioning after segmental resection of the mandible; the technique entails the pre-operative preparation of a resin repositioning template on a stereolithographic model. This technique has been successfully applied in four cases: two cases underwent resection involving only the mandibular body, one case involving the mandibular body and symphysis and one case in which a ramus to ramus resection was performed. In this preliminary report, we show that the resin repositioning template is an easy, safe and useful tool for mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap.

  14. Pulley Reconstruction As Part of the Surgical Treatment for de Quervain Disease: Surgical Technique with Medium-Term Results.

    PubMed

    van der Wijk, Jacobien; Goubau, Jean F; Mermuys, Koen; van Hoonacker, Petrus; Vanmierlo, Bert; Kerckhove, Diederick; Berghs, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Background Simple decompression of the first extensor compartment is commonly used for treating de Quervain disease, with the possible complication of subluxation of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) over the radial styloid. To prevent this painful subluxation of the tendons, several methods of reconstructing the pulley have been proposed. Questions/Purposes The purpose of our study was to evaluate a new technique for reconstructing the first extensor compartment following a release f