Science.gov

Sample records for ligand binding site

  1. An alternate binding site for PPARγ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Giri, Pankaj Kumar; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Shin, Youseung; Blayo, Anne-Laure; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    PPARγ is a target for insulin sensitizing drugs such as glitazones, which improve plasma glucose maintenance in patients with diabetes. Synthetic ligands have been designed to mimic endogenous ligand binding to a canonical ligand-binding pocket to hyperactivate PPARγ. Here we reveal that synthetic PPARγ ligands also bind to an alternate site, leading to unique receptor conformational changes that impact coregulator binding, transactivation and target gene expression. Using structure-function studies we show that alternate site binding occurs at pharmacologically relevant ligand concentrations, and is neither blocked by covalently bound synthetic antagonists nor by endogenous ligands indicating non-overlapping binding with the canonical pocket. Alternate site binding likely contributes to PPARγ hyperactivation in vivo, perhaps explaining why PPARγ full and partial or weak agonists display similar adverse effects. These findings expand our understanding of PPARγ activation by ligands and suggest that allosteric modulators could be designed to fine tune PPARγ activity without competing with endogenous ligands. PMID:24705063

  2. LIBRA: LIgand Binding site Recognition Application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Le Viet; Caprari, Silvia; Bizai, Massimiliano; Toti, Daniele; Polticelli, Fabio

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, structural genomics and ab initio molecular modeling activities are leading to the availability of a large number of structural models of proteins whose biochemical function is not known. The aim of this study was the development of a novel software tool that, given a protein's structural model, predicts the presence and identity of active sites and/or ligand binding sites. The algorithm implemented by ligand binding site recognition application (LIBRA) is based on a graph theory approach to find the largest subset of similar residues between an input protein and a collection of known functional sites. The algorithm makes use of two predefined databases for active sites and ligand binding sites, respectively, derived from the Catalytic Site Atlas and the Protein Data Bank. Tests indicate that LIBRA is able to identify the correct binding/active site in 90% of the cases analyzed, 90% of which feature the identified site as ranking first. As far as ligand binding site recognition is concerned, LIBRA outperforms other structure-based ligand binding sites detection tools with which it has been compared. The application, developed in Java SE 7 with a Swing GUI embedding a JMol applet, can be run on any OS equipped with a suitable Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and is available at the following URL: http://www.computationalbiology.it/software/LIBRAv1.zip. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging To Identify Protein Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient biomolecular interactions are the cornerstones of the cellular machinery. The identification of the binding sites for low affinity molecular encounters is essential for the development of high affinity pharmaceuticals from weakly binding leads but is hindered by the lack of robust methodologies for characterization of weakly binding complexes. We introduce a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of low affinity protein–ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, which are invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. The methodology is corroborated by identification of the low millimolar volatile anesthetic interaction site of the calcium sensor protein calmodulin. It presents an efficient route to binding site localization for low affinity complexes and is applicable to rapid screening of protein–ligand systems with varying binding affinity. PMID:26289584

  4. Gaussian mapping of chemical fragments in ligand binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Murcia, Marta; Constans, Pere; Pérez, Carlos; Ortiz, Angel R.

    2004-02-01

    We present a new approach to automatically define a quasi-optimal minimal set of pharmacophoric points mapping the interaction properties of a user-defined ligand binding site. The method is based on a fitting algorithm where a grid of sampled interaction energies of the target protein with small chemical fragments in the binding site is approximated by a linear expansion of Gaussian functions. A heuristic approximation selects from this expansion the smallest possible set of Gaussians required to describe the interaction properties of the binding site within a prespecified accuracy. We have evaluated the performance of the approach by comparing the computed Gaussians with the positions of aromatic sites found in experimental protein-ligand complexes. For a set of 53 complexes, good correspondence is found in general. At a 95% significance level, ˜65% of the predicted interaction points have an aromatic binding site within 1.5 Å. We then studied the utility of these points in docking using the program DOCK. Short docking times, with an average of ˜0.18 s per conformer, are obtained, while retaining, both for rigid and flexible docking, the ability to sample native-like binding modes for the ligand. An average 4-5-fold speed-up in docking times and a similar success rate is estimated with respect to the standard DOCK protocol. Abbreviations: RMSD - root mean square deviation; ASA - Atomic Shell Approximation; LSF - Least-Squares Fitting; 3D - three-dimensional; VDW - Van der Waals.

  5. Cloud Computing for Protein-Ligand Binding Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824

  6. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  7. Molecular simulations of multimodal ligand-protein binding: elucidation of binding sites and correlation with experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alexander S; Garde, Shekhar; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-11-17

    Multimodal chromatography, which employs more than one mode of interaction between ligands and proteins, has been shown to have unique selectivity and high efficacy for protein purification. To test the ability of free solution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water to identify binding regions on the protein surface and to shed light on the "pseudo affinity" nature of multimodal interactions, we performed MD simulations of a model protein ubiquitin in aqueous solution of free ligands. Comparisons of MD with NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin mutants in solutions of free ligands show a good agreement between the two with regard to the preferred binding region on the surface of the protein and several binding sites. MD simulations also identify additional binding sites that were not observed in the NMR experiments. "Bound" ligands were found to be sufficiently flexible and to access a number of favorable conformations, suggesting only a moderate loss of ligand entropy in the "pseudo affinity" binding of these multimodal ligands. Analysis of locations of chemical subunits of the ligand on the protein surface indicated that electrostatic interaction units were located on the periphery of the preferred binding region on the protein. The analysis of the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity maps, and the binding of both acetate and benzene probes were used to further study the localization of individual ligand moieties. These results suggest that water-mediated electrostatic interactions help the localization and orientation of the MM ligand to the binding region with additional stability provided by nonspecific hydrophobic interactions.

  8. Rosetta and the Design of Ligand Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rocco; Bender, Brian J; Allison, Brittany; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Proteins that bind small molecules (ligands) can be used as biosensors, signal modulators, and sequestering agents. When naturally occurring proteins for a particular target ligand are not available, artificial proteins can be computationally designed. We present a protocol based on RosettaLigand to redesign an existing protein pocket to bind a target ligand. Starting with a protein structure and the structure of the ligand, Rosetta can optimize both the placement of the ligand in the pocket and the identity and conformation of the surrounding sidechains, yielding proteins that bind the target compound.

  9. Salt-mediated two-site ligand binding by the cocaine-binding aptamer.

    PubMed

    Neves, Miguel A D; Slavkovic, Sladjana; Churcher, Zachary R; Johnson, Philip E

    2017-02-17

    Multisite ligand binding by proteins is commonly utilized in the regulation of biological systems and exploited in a range of biochemical technologies. Aptamers, although widely utilized in many rationally designed biochemical systems, are rarely capable of multisite ligand binding. The cocaine-binding aptamer is often used for studying and developing sensor and aptamer-based technologies. Here, we use isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that the cocaine-binding aptamer switches from one-site to two-site ligand binding, dependent on NaCl concentration. The high-affinity site functions at all buffer conditions studied, the low-affinity site only at low NaCl concentrations. ITC experiments show the two ligand-binding sites operate independently of one another with different affinities and enthalpies. NMR spectroscopy shows the second binding site is located in stem 2 near the three-way junction. This ability to control ligand binding at the second site by adjusting the concentration of NaCl is rare among aptamers and may prove a useful in biotechnology applications. This work also demonstrates that in vitro selected biomolecules can have functions as complex as those found in nature. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Evidence for chemoreceptors with bimodular ligand-binding regions harboring two signal-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Molina, Estela; Reyes-Darias, José-Antonio; Lacal, Jesús; Ramos, Juan L.; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gavira, Jose A.; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemoreceptor-based signaling is a central mechanism in bacterial signal transduction. Receptors are classified according to the size of their ligand-binding region. The well-studied cluster I proteins have a 100- to 150-residue ligand-binding region that contains a single site for chemoattractant recognition. Cluster II receptors, which contain a 220- to 300-residue ligand-binding region and which are almost as abundant as cluster I receptors, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report high-resolution structures of the ligand-binding region of the cluster II McpS chemotaxis receptor (McpS-LBR) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in complex with different chemoattractants. The structure of McpS-LBR represents a small-molecule binding domain composed of two modules, each able to bind different signal molecules. Malate and succinate were found to bind to the membrane-proximal module, whereas acetate binds to the membrane-distal module. A structural alignment of the two modules revealed that the ligand-binding sites could be superimposed and that amino acids involved in ligand recognition are conserved in both binding sites. Ligand binding to both modules was shown to trigger chemotactic responses. Further analysis showed that McpS-like receptors were found in different classes of proteobacteria, indicating that this mode of response to different carbon sources may be universally distributed. The physiological relevance of the McpS architecture may lie in its capacity to respond with high sensitivity to the preferred carbon sources malate and succinate and, at the same time, mediate lower sensitivity responses to the less preferred but very abundant carbon source acetate. PMID:23112148

  11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-05-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, /sup 3/H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion (/sup 3/H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that /sup 3/H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin.

  12. LISE: a server using ligand-interacting and site-enriched protein triangles for prediction of ligand-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Liu, Chuan-Kun; Hsiao, Fang-Chih; Yao, Adam; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2013-01-01

    LISE is a web server for a novel method for predicting small molecule binding sites on proteins. It differs from a number of servers currently available for such predictions in two aspects. First, rather than relying on knowledge of similar protein structures, identification of surface cavities or estimation of binding energy, LISE computes a score by counting geometric motifs extracted from sub-structures of interaction networks connecting protein and ligand atoms. These network motifs take into account spatial and physicochemical properties of ligand-interacting protein surface atoms. Second, LISE has now been more thoroughly tested, as, in addition to the evaluation we previously reported using two commonly used small benchmark test sets and targets of two community-based experiments on ligand-binding site predictions, we now report an evaluation using a large non-redundant data set containing >2000 protein–ligand complexes. This unprecedented test, the largest ever reported to our knowledge, demonstrates LISE’s overall accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we have identified some hard to predict protein classes and provided an estimate of the performance that can be expected from a state-of-the-art binding site prediction server, such as LISE, on a proteome scale. The server is freely available at http://lise.ibms.sinica.edu.tw. PMID:23609546

  13. Assembly of a π-π stack of ligands in the binding site of an acetylcholine-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Stornaiuolo, Mariano; De Kloe, Gerdien E; Rucktooa, Prakash; Fish, Alexander; van Elk, René; Edink, Ewald S; Bertrand, Daniel; Smit, August B; de Esch, Iwan J P; Sixma, Titia K

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine-binding protein is a water-soluble homologue of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of cys-loop receptors. It is used as a structurally accessible prototype for studying ligand binding to these pharmaceutically important pentameric ion channels, in particular to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, due to conserved binding site residues present at the interface between two subunits. Here we report that an aromatic conjugated small molecule binds acetylcholine-binding protein in an ordered π-π stack of three identical molecules per binding site, two parallel and one antiparallel. Acetylcholine-binding protein stabilizes the assembly of the stack by aromatic contacts. Thanks to the plasticity of its ligand-binding site, acetylcholine-binding protein can accommodate the formation of aromatic stacks of different size by simple loop repositioning and minimal adjustment of the interactions. This type of supramolecular binding provides a novel paradigm in drug design.

  14. Multiple ligand simultaneous docking: orchestrated dancing of ligands in binding sites of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Huameng; Li, Chenglong

    2010-07-30

    Present docking methodologies simulate only one single ligand at a time during docking process. In reality, the molecular recognition process always involves multiple molecular species. Typical protein-ligand interactions are, for example, substrate and cofactor in catalytic cycle; metal ion coordination together with ligand(s); and ligand binding with water molecules. To simulate the real molecular binding processes, we propose a novel multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) strategy, which can deal with all the above processes, vastly improving docking sampling and binding free energy scoring. The work also compares two search strategies: Lamarckian genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, which have respective advantages depending on the specific systems. The methodology proves robust through systematic testing against several diverse model systems: E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) complex with two substrates, SHP2NSH2 complex with two peptides and Bcl-xL complex with ABT-737 fragments. In all cases, the final correct docking poses and relative binding free energies were obtained. In PNP case, the simulations also capture the binding intermediates and reveal the binding dynamics during the recognition processes, which are consistent with the proposed enzymatic mechanism. In the other two cases, conventional single-ligand docking fails due to energetic and dynamic coupling among ligands, whereas MLSD results in the correct binding modes. These three cases also represent potential applications in the areas of exploring enzymatic mechanism, interpreting noisy X-ray crystallographic maps, and aiding fragment-based drug design, respectively.

  15. Theory and simulation of diffusion-influenced, stochastically gated ligand binding to buried sites

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Jorge L.; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion-influenced rate coefficient of ligand binding to a site located in a deep pocket on a protein; the binding pocket is flexible and can reorganize in response to ligand entrance. We extend to this flexible protein-ligand system a formalism developed previously [A. M. Berezhkovskii, A, Szabo, and H.-X. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 075103 (2011)10.1063/1.3609973] for breaking the ligand-binding problem into an exterior problem and an interior problem. Conformational fluctuations of a bottleneck or a lid and the binding site are modeled as stochastic gating. We present analytical and Brownian dynamics simulation results for the case of a cylindrical pocket containing a binding site at the bottom. Induced switch, whereby the conformation of the protein adapts to the incoming ligand, leads to considerable rate enhancement. PMID:22010732

  16. Label-free microscale thermophoresis discriminates sites and affinity of protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Susanne A I; Wienken, Christoph J; Geissler, Sandra; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Duhr, Stefan; Reiter, Alwin; Trauner, Dirk; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp

    2012-10-15

    Look, no label! Microscale thermophoresis makes use of the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins to quantify the binding affinities of ligands and discriminate between binding sites. This method is suitable for studying binding interactions of very small amounts of protein in solution. The binding of ligands to iGluR membrane receptors, small-molecule inhibitorss to kinase p38, aptamers to thrombin, and Ca(2+) ions to synaptotagmin was quantified.

  17. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  18. Synthesis and binding properties of new selective ligands for the nucleobase opposite the AP site.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-06-01

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress or DNA alkylating agents. These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3'-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the AP site.

  19. 3DLigandSite: predicting ligand-binding sites using similar structures

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Mark N.; Kelley, Lawrence A.; Sternberg, Michael J. E.

    2010-01-01

    3DLigandSite is a web server for the prediction of ligand-binding sites. It is based upon successful manual methods used in the eighth round of the Critical Assessment of techniques for protein Structure Prediction (CASP8). 3DLigandSite utilizes protein-structure prediction to provide structural models for proteins that have not been solved. Ligands bound to structures similar to the query are superimposed onto the model and used to predict the binding site. In benchmarking against the CASP8 targets 3DLigandSite obtains a Matthew’s correlation co-efficient (MCC) of 0.64, and coverage and accuracy of 71 and 60%, respectively, similar results to our manual performance in CASP8. In further benchmarking using a large set of protein structures, 3DLigandSite obtains an MCC of 0.68. The web server enables users to submit either a query sequence or structure. Predictions are visually displayed via an interactive Jmol applet. 3DLigandSite is available for use at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/3dligandsite. PMID:20513649

  20. Identification of ligands that target the HCV-E2 binding site on CD81.

    PubMed

    Olaby, Reem Al; Azzazy, Hassan M; Harris, Rodney; Chromy, Brett; Vielmetter, Jost; Balhorn, Rod

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis C is a global health problem. While many drug companies have active R&D efforts to develop new drugs for treating Hepatitis C virus (HCV), most target the viral enzymes. The HCV glycoprotein E2 has been shown to play an essential role in hepatocyte invasion by binding to CD81 and other cell surface receptors. This paper describes the use of AutoDock to identify ligand binding sites on the large extracellular loop of the open conformation of CD81 and to perform virtual screening runs to identify sets of small molecule ligands predicted to bind to two of these sites. The best sites selected by AutoLigand were located in regions identified by mutational studies to be the site of E2 binding. Thirty-six ligands predicted by AutoDock to bind to these sites were subsequently tested experimentally to determine if they bound to CD81-LEL. Binding assays conducted using surface Plasmon resonance revealed that 26 out of 36 (72 %) of the ligands bound in vitro to the recombinant CD81-LEL protein. Competition experiments performed using dual polarization interferometry showed that one of the ligands predicted to bind to the large cleft between the C and D helices was also effective in blocking E2 binding to CD81-LEL.

  1. Identification of ligands that target the HCV-E2 binding site on CD81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaby, Reem Al; Azzazy, Hassan M.; Harris, Rodney; Chromy, Brett; Vielmetter, Jost; Balhorn, Rod

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis C is a global health problem. While many drug companies have active R&D efforts to develop new drugs for treating Hepatitis C virus (HCV), most target the viral enzymes. The HCV glycoprotein E2 has been shown to play an essential role in hepatocyte invasion by binding to CD81 and other cell surface receptors. This paper describes the use of AutoDock to identify ligand binding sites on the large extracellular loop of the open conformation of CD81 and to perform virtual screening runs to identify sets of small molecule ligands predicted to bind to two of these sites. The best sites selected by AutoLigand were located in regions identified by mutational studies to be the site of E2 binding. Thirty-six ligands predicted by AutoDock to bind to these sites were subsequently tested experimentally to determine if they bound to CD81-LEL. Binding assays conducted using surface Plasmon resonance revealed that 26 out of 36 (72 %) of the ligands bound in vitro to the recombinant CD81-LEL protein. Competition experiments performed using dual polarization interferometry showed that one of the ligands predicted to bind to the large cleft between the C and D helices was also effective in blocking E2 binding to CD81-LEL.

  2. Common Internal Allosteric Network Links Anesthetic Binding Sites in a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Thomas T.

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics bind reversibly to ion channels, modifying their global conformational distributions, but the underlying atomic mechanisms are not completely known. We examine this issue by way of the model protein Gloeobacter violaceous ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) using computational molecular dynamics, with a coarse-grained model to enhance sampling. We find that in flooding simulations, both propofol and a generic particle localize to the crystallographic transmembrane anesthetic binding region, and that propofol also localizes to an extracellular region shared with the crystallographic ketamine binding site. Subsequent simulations to probe these binding modes in greater detail demonstrate that ligand binding induces structural asymmetry in GLIC. Consequently, we employ residue interaction correlation analysis to describe the internal allosteric network underlying the coupling of ligand and distant effector sites necessary for conformational change. Overall, the results suggest that the same allosteric network may underlie the actions of various anesthetics, regardless of binding site. PMID:27403526

  3. Ligand Binding Sites of Inducible Costimulator and High Avidity Mutants with Improved Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengdian; Zhu, Gefeng; Tamada, Koji; Chen, Lieping; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Interaction between inducible costimulator (ICOS) and its ligand is implicated in the induction of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. However, the molecular details of this interaction are unknown. We report here a mutagenesis analysis of residues in ICOS that are critical for ligand binding. A three-dimensional model of the extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain of ICOS was used to map the residues conserved within the CD28 family. This analysis identified a surface patch containing the characteristic “PPP” sequence and is conserved in human and mouse ICOS. Mutations in this region of human ICOS reduce or abolish ligand binding. Our results suggest that the ligand binding site in ICOS maps to a region overlapping yet distinct from the CD80/CD86 binding sites in CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4. Thus, the analysis suggests that differences in ligand binding specificity between these related costimulatory molecules have evolved by utilization of overlapping regions with different patterns of conserved and nonconserved residues. Two site-specific mutants generated in the course of our studies bound ICOS ligand with higher avidity than wild-type ICOS. An S76E mutant protein of ICOS blocked T cell costimulatory function of ICOS ligand and inhibited T cell response to allogeneic antigens superior to wild-type ICOS. Our studies thus identified critical residues involving in ICOS receptor–ligand interaction and provide new modulators for immune responses. PMID:11956294

  4. Localization of ligand binding site in proteins identified in silico.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal; Kochanczyk, Marek; Broniatowska, Elzbieta; Roterman, Irena

    2007-07-01

    Knowledge-based models for protein folding assume that the early-stage structural form of a polypeptide is determined by the backbone conformation, followed by hydrophobic collapse. Side chain-side chain interactions, mostly of hydrophobic character, lead to the formation of the hydrophobic core, which seems to stabilize the structure of the protein in its natural environment. The fuzzy-oil-drop model is employed to represent the idealized hydrophobicity distribution in the protein molecule. Comparing it with the one empirically observed in the protein molecule reveals that they are not in agreement. It is shown in this study that the irregularity of hydrophobic distributions is aim-oriented. The character and strength of these irregularities in the organization of the hydrophobic core point to the specificity of a particular protein's structure/function. When the location of these irregularities is determined versus the idealized fuzzy-oil-drop, function-related areas in the protein molecule can be identified. The presented model can also be used to identify ways in which protein-protein complexes can possibly be created. Active sites can be predicted for any protein structure according to the presented model with the free prediction server at http://www.bioinformatics.cm-uj.krakow.pl/activesite. The implication based on the model presented in this work suggests the necessity of active presence of ligand during the protein folding process simulation.

  5. Multipurpose ligand, DAKLI (Dynorphin A-analogue Kappa LIgand), with high affinity and selectivity for dynorphin (. kappa. opioid) binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, A.; Nestor, J.J. Jr.; Naidu, A.; Newman, S.R. )

    1988-10-01

    The authors describe a synthetic ligand, DALKI (Dynorphin A-analogue Kappa LIgand), related to the opioid peptide dynorphin A. A single reactive amino group at the extended carboxyl terminus permits various reporter groups to be attached, such as {sup 125}I-labeled Bolton-Hunter reagent, fluorescein isothiocyanate, or biotin. These derivatives have high affinity and selectivity for the dynorphin ({kappa} opioid) receptor. An incidental finding is that untreated guinea pig brain membranes have saturable avidin binding sites.

  6. Atomic level computational identification of ligand migration pathways between solvent and binding site in myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Jory Z; Kumar, Deept; Shukla, Maulik; Prisant, Michael G; Murali, T M; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2008-07-08

    Myoglobin is a globular protein involved in oxygen storage and transport. No consensus yet exists on the atomic level mechanism by which oxygen and other small nonpolar ligands move between the myoglobin's buried heme, which is the ligand binding site, and surrounding solvent. This study uses room temperature molecular dynamics simulations to provide a complete atomic level picture of ligand migration in myoglobin. Multiple trajectories--providing a cumulative total of 7 micros of simulation--are analyzed. Our simulation results are consistent with and tie together previous experimental findings. Specifically, we characterize: (i) Explicit full trajectories in which the CO ligand shuttles between the internal binding site and the solvent and (ii) pattern and structural origins of transient voids available for ligand migration. The computations are performed both in sperm whale myoglobin wild-type and in sperm whale V68F myoglobin mutant, which is experimentally known to slow ligand-binding kinetics. On the basis of these independent, but mutually consistent ligand migration and transient void computations, we find that there are two discrete dynamical pathways for ligand migration in myoglobin. Trajectory hops between these pathways are limited to two bottleneck regions. Ligand enters and exits the protein matrix in common identifiable portals on the protein surface. The pathways are located in the "softer" regions of the protein matrix and go between its helices and in its loop regions. Localized structural fluctuations are the primary physical origin of the simulated CO migration pathways inside the protein.

  7. Alignment-free ultra-high-throughput comparison of druggable protein-ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Weill, Nathanaël; Rognan, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Inferring the biological function of a protein from its three-dimensional structure as well as explaining why a drug may bind to various targets is of crucial importance to modern drug discovery. Here we present a generic 4833-integer vector describing druggable protein-ligand binding sites that can be applied to any protein and any binding cavity. The fingerprint registers counts of pharmacophoric triplets from the Calpha atomic coordinates of binding-site-lining residues. Starting from a customized data set of diverse protein-ligand binding site pairs, the most appropriate metric and a similarity threshold could be defined for similar binding sites. The method (FuzCav) has been used in various scenarios: (i) screening a collection of 6000 binding sites for similarity to different queries; (ii) classifying protein families (serine endopeptidases, protein kinases) by binding site diversity; (iii) discriminating adenine-binding cavities from decoys. The fingerprint generation and comparison supports ultra-high throughput (ca. 1000 measures/s), does not require prior alignment of protein binding sites, and is able to detect local similarity among subpockets. It is thus particularly well suited to the functional annotation of novel genomic structures with low sequence identity to known X-ray templates.

  8. Ligand-supported homology modelling of protein binding-sites using knowledge-based potentials.

    PubMed

    Evers, Andreas; Gohlke, Holger; Klebe, Gerhard

    2003-11-21

    A new approach, MOBILE, is presented that models protein binding-sites including bound ligand molecules as restraints. Initially generated, homology models of the target protein are refined iteratively by including information about bioactive ligands as spatial restraints and optimising the mutual interactions between the ligands and the binding-sites. Thus optimised models can be used for structure-based drug design and virtual screening. In a first step, ligands are docked into an averaged ensemble of crude homology models of the target protein. In the next step, improved homology models are generated, considering explicitly the previously placed ligands by defining restraints between protein and ligand atoms. These restraints are expressed in terms of knowledge-based distance-dependent pair potentials, which were compiled from crystallographically determined protein-ligand complexes. Subsequently, the most favourable models are selected by ranking the interactions between the ligands and the generated pockets using these potentials. Final models are obtained by selecting the best-ranked side-chain conformers from various models, followed by an energy optimisation of the entire complex using a common force-field. Application of the knowledge-based pair potentials proved efficient to restrain the homology modelling process and to score and optimise the modelled protein-ligand complexes. For a test set of 46 protein-ligand complexes, taken from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the success rate of producing near-native binding-site geometries (rmsd<2.0A) with MODELLER is 70% when the ligand restrains the homology modelling process in its native orientation. Scoring these complexes with the knowledge-based potentials, in 66% of the cases a pose with rmsd <2.0A is found on rank 1. Finally, MOBILE has been applied to two case studies modelling factor Xa based on trypsin and aldose reductase based on aldehyde reductase.

  9. Ligand-apomyoglobin interactions. Configurational adaptability of the haem-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Lind, K E; Moller, J V

    1976-01-01

    1. The interaction of the haem-binding region of apomyoglobin with different ligands was examined by ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis and spectrophotometry, to study unspecific features of protein-ligand interactions such as they occur in, for example, serum albumin binding. 2. Apomyoglobin, in contrast with metmyoglobin, binds at pH 7, with a high affinity, one molecule of Bromophenol Blue, bilirubin and protoporphyrin IX, two molecules of n-dodecanoate and n-decyl sulphate and four molecules of n-dodecyl sulphate and n-tetradecyl sulphate. 3. The number of high-affinity sites and/or association constants for the alkyl sulphates are enhanced by an increase of hydrocarbon length, indicating hydrophobic interactions with the protein. 4. Measurements of the temperature-dependence of the association constants of the high-affinity sites imply that the binding processes are largely entropy-driven. 5. Binding studies in the presence of two ligands show that bilirubin plus Bromophenol Blue and dodecanoate plus Bromophenol Blue can be simultaneously bound by apomyoglobin, but with decreased affinities. By contrast, the apomyoglobin-protoporphyrin IX complex does not react with Bromophenol Blue. 6. Optical-rotatory-dispersion measurements show that the laevorotation of apomyoglobin is increased towards that of metmyglobin in the presence of haemin and protoporphyrin IX. Small changes in the optical-rotatory-dispersion spectrum of apomyoglobin are observed in the presence of the other ligands. 7. It is concluded that the binding sites on apomyoglobin probably do not pre-exist but appear to be moulded from predominantly non-polar amino acid residues by reaction with hydrophobic ligands. 8. Comparison with data in the literature indicates that apomyoglobin on a weight basis has a larger hydrophobic area avaialble for binding of ligands than has human serum albumin. On the other hand, the association constants of serum for the ligands used in this study are generally

  10. eFindSite: Improved prediction of ligand binding sites in protein models using meta-threading, machine learning and auxiliary ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylinski, Michal; Feinstein, Wei P.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular structures and functions of the majority of proteins across different species are yet to be identified. Much needed functional annotation of these gene products often benefits from the knowledge of protein-ligand interactions. Towards this goal, we developed eFindSite, an improved version of FINDSITE, designed to more efficiently identify ligand binding sites and residues using only weakly homologous templates. It employs a collection of effective algorithms, including highly sensitive meta-threading approaches, improved clustering techniques, advanced machine learning methods and reliable confidence estimation systems. Depending on the quality of target protein structures, eFindSite outperforms geometric pocket detection algorithms by 15-40 % in binding site detection and by 5-35 % in binding residue prediction. Moreover, compared to FINDSITE, it identifies 14 % more binding residues in the most difficult cases. When multiple putative binding pockets are identified, the ranking accuracy is 75-78 %, which can be further improved by 3-4 % by including auxiliary information on binding ligands extracted from biomedical literature. As a first across-genome application, we describe structure modeling and binding site prediction for the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. Carefully calibrated confidence estimates strongly indicate that highly reliable ligand binding predictions are made for the majority of gene products, thus eFindSite holds a significant promise for large-scale genome annotation and drug development projects. eFindSite is freely available to the academic community at http://www.brylinski.org/efindsite.

  11. Development of a protein-ligand-binding site prediction method based on interaction energy and sequence conservation.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Hiroto; Sato, Kenta; Wei, Cao; Saad, Gul; Sumikoshi, Kazuya; Nakamura, Shugo; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-09-01

    We present a new method for predicting protein-ligand-binding sites based on protein three-dimensional structure and amino acid conservation. This method involves calculation of the van der Waals interaction energy between a protein and many probes placed on the protein surface and subsequent clustering of the probes with low interaction energies to identify the most energetically favorable locus. In addition, it uses amino acid conservation among homologous proteins. Ligand-binding sites were predicted by combining the interaction energy and the amino acid conservation score. The performance of our prediction method was evaluated using a non-redundant dataset of 348 ligand-bound and ligand-unbound protein structure pairs, constructed by filtering entries in a ligand-binding site structure database, LigASite. Ligand-bound structure prediction (bound prediction) indicated that 74.0 % of predicted ligand-binding sites overlapped with real ligand-binding sites by over 25 % of their volume. Ligand-unbound structure prediction (unbound prediction) indicated that 73.9 % of predicted ligand-binding residues overlapped with real ligand-binding residues. The amino acid conservation score improved the average prediction accuracy by 17.0 and 17.6 points for the bound and unbound predictions, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the combined use of the interaction energy and amino acid conservation in the ligand-binding site prediction.

  12. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The water network in galectin-3 ligand binding site guides inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiyong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peiqi; Liu, Fengjian; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa

    2015-03-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) which shows affinity of β-galactosides is a cancer-related protein. Thus, it is important to understand its ligand binding mechanism and then design its specific inhibitor. It was suggested that the positions of water molecules in Gal-3 ligand-binding site could be replaced by appropriate chemical groups of ideal inhibitors. However, the reported structures of Gal-3 carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) complexed with lactose showed that the number of water molecules are different and the water positions are inconsistent in the ligand-binding site. This study reported four high-resolution (1.24-1.19 Å) structures of Gal-3 CRD complexed with lactose, and accurately located 12 conserved water molecules in the water network of Gal-3 CRD ligand-binding site by merging these structures. These water molecules either directly stabilize the binding of Gal-3 CRD and lactose, or hold the former water molecules at the right place. In particular, water molecule 4 (W4) which only coordinates with water molecule 5 (W5) and water molecule 6 (W6) plays a key role in stabilizing galactose residue. In addition, by three-dimensional alignment of the positions of all residues, 14 flexible parts of Gal-3 CRD were found to dynamically fluctuate in the crystalline environment.

  14. A Simple Method for Improving Torsion Optimization of Ligand Molecules in Receptor Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Che, Jianwei

    2005-07-01

    A simple but effective method is introduced for optimizing ligand molecules in torsion space within receptor binding sites. The algorithm makes use of geometric constraints of ligand molecules to search for energetically favorable conformations. It is applied to a conjugate gradient (CG) method as an example. During conformational energy optimization, new line search directions are modified according to the spatial span of rotational groups in ligand molecules. Significant improvements were observed in terms of the abilities both to recover global optimal structures and to obtain lower energy ensembles. This simple algorithm allows rapid implementation and can be incorporated into other conformational energy optimization techniques.

  15. Integrin αIIbβ3:ligand interactions are linked to binding-site remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Hantgan, Roy R.; Stahle, Mary C.; Connor, John H.; Horita, David A.; Rocco, Mattia; McLane, Mary A.; Yakovlev, Sergiy; Medved, Leonid

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high-affinity binding of macromolecular ligands to the αIIbβ3 integrin is tightly coupled to binding-site remodeling, an induced-fit process that shifts a conformational equilibrium from a resting toward an open receptor. Interactions between αIIbβ3 and two model ligands—echistatin, a 6-kDa recombinant protein with an RGD integrin-targeting sequence, and fibrinogen's γ-module, a 30-kDa recombinant protein with a KQAGDV integrin binding site—were measured by sedimentation velocity, fluorescence anisotropy, and a solid-phase binding assay, and modeled by molecular graphics. Studying echistatin variants (R24A, R24K, D26A, D26E, D27W, D27F), we found that electrostatic contacts with charged residues at the αIIb/β3 interface, rather than nonpolar contacts, perturb the conformation of the resting integrin. Aspartate 26, which interacts with the nearby MIDAS cation, was essential for binding, as D26A and D26E were inactive. In contrast, R24K was fully and R24A partly active, indicating that the positively charged arginine 24 contributes to, but is not required for, integrin recognition. Moreover, we demonstrated that priming—i.e., ectodomain conformational changes and oligomerization induced by incubation at 35°C with the ligand-mimetic peptide cHarGD—promotes complex formation with fibrinogen's γ-module. We also observed that the γ-module's flexible carboxy terminus was not required for αIIbβ3 integrin binding. Our studies differentiate priming ligands, which bind to the resting receptor and perturb its conformation, from regulated ligands, where binding-site remodeling must first occur. Echistatin's binding energy is sufficient to rearrange the subunit interface, but regulated ligands like fibrinogen must rely on priming to overcome conformational barriers. PMID:16877710

  16. Predicting protein ligand binding sites by combining evolutionary sequence conservation and 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Capra, John A; Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M; Singh, Mona; Funkhouser, Thomas A

    2009-12-01

    Identifying a protein's functional sites is an important step towards characterizing its molecular function. Numerous structure- and sequence-based methods have been developed for this problem. Here we introduce ConCavity, a small molecule binding site prediction algorithm that integrates evolutionary sequence conservation estimates with structure-based methods for identifying protein surface cavities. In large-scale testing on a diverse set of single- and multi-chain protein structures, we show that ConCavity substantially outperforms existing methods for identifying both 3D ligand binding pockets and individual ligand binding residues. As part of our testing, we perform one of the first direct comparisons of conservation-based and structure-based methods. We find that the two approaches provide largely complementary information, which can be combined to improve upon either approach alone. We also demonstrate that ConCavity has state-of-the-art performance in predicting catalytic sites and drug binding pockets. Overall, the algorithms and analysis presented here significantly improve our ability to identify ligand binding sites and further advance our understanding of the relationship between evolutionary sequence conservation and structural and functional attributes of proteins. Data, source code, and prediction visualizations are available on the ConCavity web site (http://compbio.cs.princeton.edu/concavity/).

  17. Energetics of displacing water molecules from protein binding sites: consequences for ligand optimization.

    PubMed

    Michel, Julien; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2009-10-28

    A strategy in drug design is to consider enhancing the affinity of lead molecules with structural modifications that displace water molecules from a protein binding site. Because success of the approach is uncertain, clarification of the associated energetics was sought in cases where similar structural modifications yield qualitatively different outcomes. Specifically, free-energy perturbation calculations were carried out in the context of Monte Carlo statistical mechanics simulations to investigate ligand series that feature displacement of ordered water molecules in the binding sites of scytalone dehydratase, p38-alphaMAP kinase, and EGFR kinase. The change in affinity for a ligand modification is found to correlate with the ease of displacement of the ordered water molecule. However, as in the EGFR example, the binding affinity may diminish if the free-energy increase due to the removal of the bound water molecule is not more than compensated by the additional interactions of the water-displacing moiety. For accurate computation of the effects of ligand modifications, a complete thermodynamic analysis is shown to be needed. It requires identification of the location of water molecules in the protein-ligand interface and evaluation of the free-energy changes associated with their removal and with the introduction of the ligand modification. Direct modification of the ligand in free-energy calculations is likely to trap the ordered molecule and provide misleading guidance for lead optimization.

  18. Modification of the binding site(s) of lectins by an affinity column carrying an activated galactose-terminated ligand.

    PubMed

    Moroney, S E; D'Alarcao, L J; Goldmacher, V S; Lambert, J M; Blättler, W A

    1987-12-15

    An affinity column approach is described, aimed at the modification of the galactose binding site(s) of ricin in an effort to block the binding of ricin to cells. The affinity column was prepared by linking N-(2'-mercaptoethyl)lactamine to pyridyldithio-activated polyacrylamide heads. The linker between the ligand and the solid support thus contained a disulfide bond and an unmodified terminal galactose moiety. The amino group of the ligand was allowed to react with the bifunctional cross-linking reagent 2,4-dichloro-6-methoxytriazine. The lectin was then allowed to bind to the galactose functions on the activated column at pH 7.0, prior to raising the pH to 8.6 to initiate the cross-linking reaction between the ligand and the lectin. Lectin that was not covalently linked to the functionalized galactose residues on the column was eluted with galactose or lactose. Finally, the covalent ligand-lectin complexes were released from the solid support by reducing the disulfide bond between the ligand and the support. The affinity column was used in this way to modify the galactose binding site(s) of ricin. Upon release from the affinity column, blocked ricin was purified from unmodified ricin by affinity chromatography on columns of immobilized asialofetuin (a ligand to which ricin binds very tightly). The sulfhydryl group formed by cleavage of the ligand-ricin complex from the column was labeled with [3H]-N-ethylmaleimide to provide evidence that one blocking ligand was linked per ricin molecule. The blocked ricin and a conjugate of the blocked ricin with the monoclonal antibody J5 were toxic for cultures of Namalwa cells in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Binding site identification and structure determination of protein-ligand complexes by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Ziarek, Joshua J.; Peterson, Francis C.; Lytle, Betsy L.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, the role of NMR spectroscopy in the lead identification and optimization stages of pharmaceutical drug discovery has steadily increased. NMR occupies a unique niche in the biophysical analysis of drug-like compounds because of its ability to identify binding sites, affinities, and ligand poses at the level of individual amino acids without necessarily solving the structure of the protein-ligand complex. However, it can also provide structures of flexible proteins and low-affinity (Kd > 10-6 M) complexes, which often fail to crystallize. This article emphasizes a throughput-focused protocol that aims to identify practical aspects of binding site characterization, automated and semi-automated NMR assignment methods, and structure determination of protein-ligand complexes by NMR. PMID:21371594

  20. Detecting Local Ligand-Binding Site Similarity in Non-Homologous Proteins by Surface Patch Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. PMID:22275074

  1. Detecting local ligand-binding site similarity in nonhomologous proteins by surface patch comparison.

    PubMed

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Protein ligand-binding site comparison by a reduced vector representation derived from multidimensional scaling of generalized description of binding sites.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsukasa; Tomii, Kentaro

    2016-01-15

    Proteins serve various functions in living cells. When they exert their functions, physical contact with other molecules occurs. A close connection therefore exists between their functions and structures. Therefore, comparison and classification about known and predicted protein structures provides important insight into the structural features of proteins, elucidating their functions and structures. Analyzing the mutual interactions between proteins and small molecules is important to predict the ligands which bind to parts of putative ligand binding sites. Such analysis demands a fast and efficient method for comparing ligand binding sites because of the recent increase of protein structure information. A method has been developed for representing a ligand binding site with one reduced vector for binding site comparison. Using our method, one can calculate the similarity between ligand binding sites merely by calculating the inner product of 11-dimensional vectors. The method explained herein shows higher performance of the similarity between binding sites than metrics used in existing alignment-free methods. It also shows performance that is comparable to accurate methods developed recently, which employ solving the optimization problem: APoc. Moreover, these study results suggest that this new method can provide similarities faster than our previous method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrostatic coupling to pH-titrating sites as a source of cooperativity in protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Spassov, V.; Bashford, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative mechanism for the cooperative binding of charged ligands to proteins. The ligand-binding sites are electrostatically coupled to protein side chains that can undergo protonation and deprotonation. The binding of one ligand alters the protein's protonation equilibrium in a manner that makes the the binding of the second ligand more favorable. This mechanism requires no conformational change to produce a cooperative effect, although it is not exclusive of conformational change. We present a theoretical description of the mechanism, and calculations on three kinds of systems: A model system containing one protonation site and two ligand-binding sites; a model system containing two protonation sites and two ligand-binding sites; and calbindin D9k, which contains two Ca2+-binding sites and 30 protonation sites. For the one-protonation-site model, it is shown that the influence of the protonation site can only be cooperative. The competition of this effect with the anticooperative effect of ligand-ligand repulsion is studied in detail. For the two-protonation site model, the effect can be either cooperative or, in special cases, anticooperative. For calbindin D9k, the calculations predict that six protonation sites in or near the ligand-binding sites make a cooperative contribution that approximately cancels the anticooperative effect of Ca2+-Ca2+ repulsion, accounting for more than half of the total cooperative effect that is needed to overcome repulsion and produce the net cooperativity observed experimentally. We argue that cooperative mechanisms of the kind described here are likely when there is more than one ligand-binding site in a protein domain. PMID:9761483

  4. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  5. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution. PMID:26561004

  6. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM.

    PubMed

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-11-12

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  7. Hydration in drug design. 3. Conserved water molecules at the ligand-binding sites of homologous proteins.

    PubMed

    Poornima, C S; Dean, P M

    1995-12-01

    Water molecules are known to play an important rôle in mediating protein-ligand interactions. If water molecules are conserved at the ligand-binding sites of homologous proteins, such a finding may suggest the structural importance of water molecules in ligand binding. Structurally conserved water molecules change the conventional definition of 'binding sites' by changing the shape and complementarity of these sites. Such conserved water molecules can be important for site-directed ligand/drug design. Therefore, five different sets of homologous protein/protein-ligand complexes have been examined to identify the conserved water molecules at the ligand-binding sites. Our analysis reveals that there are as many as 16 conserved water molecules at the FAD binding site of glutathione reductase between the crystal structures obtained from human and E. coli. In the remaining four sets of high-resolution crystal structures, 2-4 water molecules have been found to be conserved at the ligand-binding sites. The majority of these conserved water molecules are either bound in deep grooves at the protein-ligand interface or completely buried in cavities between the protein and the ligand. All these water molecules, conserved between the protein/protein-ligand complexes from different species, have identical or similar apolar and polar interactions in a given set. The site residues interacting with the conserved water molecules at the ligand-binding sites have been found to be highly conserved among proteins from different species; they are more conserved compared to the other site residues interacting with the ligand. These water molecules, in general, make multiple polar contacts with protein-site residues.

  8. Ligand docking and binding site analysis with PyMOL and Autodock/Vina.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Daniel; de Groot, Bert L

    2010-05-01

    Docking of small molecule compounds into the binding site of a receptor and estimating the binding affinity of the complex is an important part of the structure-based drug design process. For a thorough understanding of the structural principles that determine the strength of a protein/ligand complex both, an accurate and fast docking protocol and the ability to visualize binding geometries and interactions are mandatory. Here we present an interface between the popular molecular graphics system PyMOL and the molecular docking suites Autodock and Vina and demonstrate how the combination of docking and visualization can aid structure-based drug design efforts.

  9. Ligand docking and binding site analysis with PyMOL and Autodock/Vina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeliger, Daniel; de Groot, Bert L.

    2010-05-01

    Docking of small molecule compounds into the binding site of a receptor and estimating the binding affinity of the complex is an important part of the structure-based drug design process. For a thorough understanding of the structural principles that determine the strength of a protein/ligand complex both, an accurate and fast docking protocol and the ability to visualize binding geometries and interactions are mandatory. Here we present an interface between the popular molecular graphics system PyMOL and the molecular docking suites Autodock and Vina and demonstrate how the combination of docking and visualization can aid structure-based drug design efforts.

  10. mutLBSgeneDB: mutated ligand binding site gene DataBase

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pora; Zhao, Junfei; Lu, Pinyi; Zhao, Zhongming

    2017-01-01

    Mutations at the ligand binding sites (LBSs) can influence protein structure stability, binding affinity with small molecules, and drug resistance in cancer patients. Our recent analysis revealed that ligand binding residues had a significantly higher mutation rate than other parts of the protein. Here, we built mutLBSgeneDB (mutated Ligand Binding Site gene DataBase) available at http://zhaobioinfo.org/mutLBSgeneDB. We collected and curated over 2300 genes (mutLBSgenes) having ∼12 000 somatic mutations at ∼10 000 LBSs across 16 cancer types and selected 744 drug targetable genes (targetable_mutLBSgenes) by incorporating kinases, transcription factors, pharmacological genes, and cancer driver genes. We analyzed LBS mutation information, differential gene expression network, drug response correlation with gene expression, and protein stability changes for all mutLBSgenes using integrated genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, network and functional information. We calculated and compared the binding affinities of 20 carefully selected genes with their drugs in wild type and mutant forms. mutLBSgeneDB provides a user-friendly web interface for searching and browsing through seven categories of annotations: Gene summary, Mutated information, Protein structure related information, Differential gene expression and gene-gene network, Phenotype information, Pharmacological information, and Conservation information. mutLBSgeneDB provides a useful resource for functional genomics, protein structure, drug and disease research communities. PMID:27907895

  11. Predicting absolute ligand binding free energies to a simple model site

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, David L.; Graves, Alan P.; Chodera, John D.; McReynolds, Andrea C.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Dill, Ken A.

    2007-01-01

    A central challenge in structure-based ligand design is the accurate prediction of binding free energies. Here, we apply alchemical free energy calculations in explicit solvent to predict ligand binding in a model cavity in T4 lysozyme. Even in this simple site, there are challenges. We made systematic improvements, beginning with single poses from docking, then including multiple poses, additional protein conformational changes, and using an improved charge model. Computed absolute binding free energies had an RMS error of 1.9 kcal/mol relative to previously determined experimental values. In blind prospective tests, the methods correctly discriminated between several true ligands and decoys in a set of putative binders identified by docking. In these prospective tests, the RMS error in predicted binding free energies relative to those subsequently determined experimentally was only 0.6 kcal/mol. X-ray crystal structures of the new ligands bound in the cavity corresponded closely to predictions from the free energy calculations, but sometimes differed from those predicted by docking. Finally, we examined the impact of holding the protein rigid, as in docking, with a view to learning how approximations made in docking affect accuracy and how they may be improved. PMID:17599350

  12. Proteins and Their Interacting Partners: An Introduction to Protein–Ligand Binding Site Prediction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel Barry; Brackenridge, Danielle Allison; McGuffin, Liam James

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the biological and biochemical roles of proteins, and subsequently determining their interacting partners, can be difficult and time consuming using in vitro and/or in vivo methods, and consequently the majority of newly sequenced proteins will have unknown structures and functions. However, in silico methods for predicting protein–ligand binding sites and protein biochemical functions offer an alternative practical solution. The characterisation of protein–ligand binding sites is essential for investigating new functional roles, which can impact the major biological research spheres of health, food, and energy security. In this review we discuss the role in silico methods play in 3D modelling of protein–ligand binding sites, along with their role in predicting biochemical functionality. In addition, we describe in detail some of the key alternative in silico prediction approaches that are available, as well as discussing the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) and the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) projects, and their impact on developments in the field. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of protein function prediction methods for tackling 21st century problems. PMID:26694353

  13. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  14. Proteins and Their Interacting Partners: An Introduction to Protein-Ligand Binding Site Prediction Methods.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel Barry; Brackenridge, Danielle Allison; McGuffin, Liam James

    2015-12-15

    Elucidating the biological and biochemical roles of proteins, and subsequently determining their interacting partners, can be difficult and time consuming using in vitro and/or in vivo methods, and consequently the majority of newly sequenced proteins will have unknown structures and functions. However, in silico methods for predicting protein-ligand binding sites and protein biochemical functions offer an alternative practical solution. The characterisation of protein-ligand binding sites is essential for investigating new functional roles, which can impact the major biological research spheres of health, food, and energy security. In this review we discuss the role in silico methods play in 3D modelling of protein-ligand binding sites, along with their role in predicting biochemical functionality. In addition, we describe in detail some of the key alternative in silico prediction approaches that are available, as well as discussing the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) and the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) projects, and their impact on developments in the field. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of protein function prediction methods for tackling 21st century problems.

  15. A Common Anesthetic Binding Site for Inhibition of Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kinde, Monica N.; Bu, Weiming; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Yan; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Tang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying functionally relevant anesthetic binding sites in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is an important step toward understanding molecular mechanisms underlying anesthetic action. The anesthetic propofol is known to inhibit cation-conducting pLGICs, including a prokaryotic pLGIC ELIC, but the sites responsible for functional inhibition remain undetermined. Methods We photolabeled ELIC with a light-activated derivative of propofol (AziPm) and performed 19F NMR to support propofol binding to a transmembrane domain (TMD) intra-subunit pocket. To differentiate sites responsible for propofol inhibition from those that are functionally irrelevant, we made an ELIC-GABAAR chimera that replaced the ELIC TMD with the α1β3GABAAR TMD and compared functional responses of ELIC-GABAAR and ELIC to propofol modulations. Results Photolabeling showed multiple AziPm-binding sites in the extracellular domain (ECD), but only one site in the TMD with labeled residues M265 and F308 in the resting state of ELIC. Notably, this TMD site is an intra-subunit pocket that overlaps with binding sites for anesthetics, including propofol, found previously in other pLGICs. 19F NMR supported propofol binding to this TMD intra-subunit pocket only in the absence of agonist. Functional measurements of ELIC-GABAAR showed propofol potentiation of the agonist-elicited current instead of inhibition observed on ELIC. Conclusions The distinctly different responses of ELIC and ELIC-GABAAR to propofol support the functional relevance of propofol binding to the TMD. Combining the newly identified TMD intra-subunit pocket in ELIC with equivalent TMD anesthetic sites found previously in other cationic pLGICs, we propose this TMD pocket as a common site for anesthetic inhibition of pLGICs. PMID:26756520

  16. Ligand binding and proton exchange dynamics in site-specific mutants of human myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Site specific mutagenesis was used to make substitutions of four residues in the distal heme pocket of human myoglobin: Val68, His64, Lys45, and Asp60. Strongly diffracting crystals of the conservative mutation K45R in the met aquo form were grown in the trigonal space group P3[sub 2]21 and the X-ray crystal structure determined at 1.6 [angstrom] resolution. The overall structure is similar to that of sperm whale met aquo myoglobin. Several of the mutant proteins were characterized by 2-D NMR spectroscopy. The NMR data suggest the structural changes are localized to the region of the mutation. The dynamics of ligand binding to myoglobin mutants were studied by transient absorption spectroscopy following photolysis of the CO complexes. Transient absorption kinetics and spectra on the ns to ms timescale were measured in aqueous solution from 280 K to 310 K and in 75% glycerol: water from 250 K to 310 K. Two significant basis spectra were obtained from singular value decomposition of the matrix of time dependent spectra. The information was used to obtain approximations for the extent of ligand rebinding and the kinetics of conformational relaxation. Except for K45R, substitutions at Lys45 or Asp60 produce changes in the kinetics for ligand rebinding. Replacement of Lys45 with Arg increases the rate of ligand rebinding from the protein matrix by a factor of 2, but does not alter the rates for ligand escape or entry into the protein or the dynamics of the conformational relaxation. Substitutions at His64 and Val68 influence the kinetics of ligand rebinding and the dynamics of conformational relaxation. The results do not support the hypothesis that ligand migration between the heme pocket and solvent is determined solely by fluctuations of Arg45 and His64 between open and closed conformations of the heme pocket but can be rationalized if ligand diffusion through the protein matrix involves multiple competing pathways.

  17. One Crystal, Two Temperatures: Cryocooling Penalties Alter Ligand Binding to Transient Protein Sites

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, Marcus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-05-28

    Interrogating fragment libraries by X-ray crystallography is a powerful strategy for discovering allosteric ligands for protein targets. Cryocooling of crystals should theoretically increase the fraction of occupied binding sites and decrease radiation damage. However, it might also perturb protein conformations that can be accessed at room temperature. Using data from crystals measured consecutively at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, we found that transient binding sites could be abolished at the cryogenic temperatures employed by standard approaches. Finally, changing the temperature at which the crystallographic data was collected could provide a deliberate perturbation to the equilibrium of protein conformations andmore » help to visualize hidden sites with great potential to allosterically modulate protein function.« less

  18. One Crystal, Two Temperatures: Cryocooling Penalties Alter Ligand Binding to Transient Protein Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marcus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-05-28

    Interrogating fragment libraries by X-ray crystallography is a powerful strategy for discovering allosteric ligands for protein targets. Cryocooling of crystals should theoretically increase the fraction of occupied binding sites and decrease radiation damage. However, it might also perturb protein conformations that can be accessed at room temperature. Using data from crystals measured consecutively at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, we found that transient binding sites could be abolished at the cryogenic temperatures employed by standard approaches. Finally, changing the temperature at which the crystallographic data was collected could provide a deliberate perturbation to the equilibrium of protein conformations and help to visualize hidden sites with great potential to allosterically modulate protein function.

  19. pMD-Membrane: A Method for Ligand Binding Site Identification in Membrane-Bound Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based or mixed solvent molecular dynamics simulation is a useful approach for the identification and characterization of druggable sites in drug targets. However, thus far the method has been applied only to soluble proteins. A major reason for this is the potential effect of the probe molecules on membrane structure. We have developed a technique to overcome this limitation that entails modification of force field parameters to reduce a few pairwise non-bonded interactions between selected atoms of the probe molecules and bilayer lipids. We used the resulting technique, termed pMD-membrane, to identify allosteric ligand binding sites on the G12D and G13D oncogenic mutants of the K-Ras protein bound to a negatively charged lipid bilayer. In addition, we show that differences in probe occupancy can be used to quantify changes in the accessibility of druggable sites due to conformational changes induced by membrane binding or mutation. PMID:26506102

  20. Condensing position-specific scoring matrixs by the Kidera factors for ligand-binding site prediction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chun; Noguchi, Tamotsu; Yamana, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) has been widely used for identifying protein functional sites. However, it is 20-dimentional and contains many redundant features. The Kidera factors were reported to contain information relating almost all physical properties of amino acids, but it requires appropriate weighting coefficients to express their properties. We developed a novel method, named as KSPSSMpred, which integrated PSSM and the Kidera Factors into a 10-dimensional matrix (KSPSSM) for ligand-binding site prediction. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) was chosen as a representative ligand for this study. When compared with five other feature-based methods on a benchmark dataset, KSPSSMpred performed the best. This study demonstrates that, KSPSSM is an effective feature extraction method which can enrich PSSM with information relating 188 physical properties of residues, and reduce 50% feature dimensions without losing information included in the PSSM.

  1. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yangrong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecular interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. The in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues. PMID:27583834

  2. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Cuong The; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cao, Yangrong; ...

    2016-09-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecularmore » interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. Finally, the in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues.« less

  3. A molecular graphics study exploring a putative ligand binding site of the β-adrenoceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijzerman, Ad. P.; van Vlijmen, Herman W. Th.

    1988-04-01

    The recent elucidation of the primary structure of the cell membrane-bound β-adrenoceptor has prompted us to explore putative ligand binding sites on this physiologically important receptor. By minimizing the energies of the `prototype' ligand propranolol, (part of) the receptor and the proposed ligand-receptor complex with the aid of force field and quantum chemical calculations, we identified amino acid residue Trp313 as a highly probable candidate for interaction with the aromatic moiety of propranolol. The charge distribution on the indole nucleus of another β-blocker, pindolol, with higher affinity for the β-adrenoceptor, enables an even stronger interaction with the tryptophan residue. The carboxylic amino acid residue Glu306, located near the extracellular space of the cell membrane, interacts favorably with the positively charged nitrogen atom in the aliphatic side chain of the ligands. Finally, this putative model is discussed in the light of recent findings in mutagenesis studies, and compared to other ideas with respect to ligand-receptor interactions.

  4. Ligand Binding Site Detection by Local Structure Alignment and Its Performance Complementarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2013-01-01

    Accurate determination of potential ligand binding sites (BS) is a key step for protein function characterization and structure-based drug design. Despite promising results of template-based BS prediction methods using global structure alignment (GSA), there is a room to improve the performance by properly incorporating local structure alignment (LSA) because BS are local structures and often similar for proteins with dissimilar global folds. We present a template-based ligand BS prediction method using G-LoSA, our LSA tool. A large benchmark set validation shows that G-LoSA predicts drug-like ligands’ positions in single-chain protein targets more precisely than TM-align, a GSA-based method, while the overall success rate of TM-align is better. G-LoSA is particularly efficient for accurate detection of local structures conserved across proteins with diverse global topologies. Recognizing the performance complementarity of G-LoSA to TM-align and a non-template geometry-based method, fpocket, a robust consensus scoring method, CMCS-BSP (Complementary Methods and Consensus Scoring for ligand Binding Site Prediction), is developed and shows improvement on prediction accuracy. The G-LoSA source code is freely available at http://im.bioinformatics.ku.edu/GLoSA. PMID:23957286

  5. G-LoSA for Prediction of Protein-Ligand Binding Sites and Structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput structure determination and computational protein structure prediction have significantly enriched the universe of protein structure. However, there is still a large gap between the number of available protein structures and that of proteins with annotated function in high accuracy. Computational structure-based protein function prediction has emerged to reduce this knowledge gap. The identification of a ligand binding site and its structure is critical to the determination of a protein's molecular function. We present a computational methodology for predicting small molecule ligand binding site and ligand structure using G-LoSA, our protein local structure alignment and similarity measurement tool. All the computational procedures described here can be easily implemented using G-LoSA Toolkit, a package of standalone software programs and preprocessed PDB structure libraries. G-LoSA and G-LoSA Toolkit are freely available to academic users at http://compbio.lehigh.edu/GLoSA . We also illustrate a case study to show the potential of our template-based approach harnessing G-LoSA for protein function prediction.

  6. Identification of protein-ligand binding sites by the level-set variational implicit-solvent approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zuojun; Li, Bo; Cheng, Li-Tien; Zhou, Shenggao; McCammon, J Andrew; Che, Jianwei

    2015-02-10

    Protein–ligand binding is a key biological process at the molecular level. The identification and characterization of small-molecule binding sites on therapeutically relevant proteins have tremendous implications for target evaluation and rational drug design. In this work, we used the recently developed level-set variational implicit-solvent model (VISM) with the Coulomb field approximation (CFA) to locate and characterize potential protein–small-molecule binding sites. We applied our method to a data set of 515 protein–ligand complexes and found that 96.9% of the cocrystallized ligands bind to the VISM-CFA-identified pockets and that 71.8% of the identified pockets are occupied by cocrystallized ligands. For 228 tight-binding protein–ligand complexes (i.e, complexes with experimental pKd values larger than 6), 99.1% of the cocrystallized ligands are in the VISM-CFA-identified pockets. In addition, it was found that the ligand binding orientations are consistent with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic descriptions provided by VISM. Quantitative characterization of binding pockets with topological and physicochemical parameters was used to assess the “ligandability” of the pockets. The results illustrate the key interactions between ligands and receptors and can be very informative for rational drug design.

  7. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Haas, Ann-Karin; Neumann, Susanne; Worth, Catherine L.; Hoyer, Inna; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Gershengorn, Marvin C.; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)], a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is endogenously activated by thyrotropin, which binds to the extracellular region of the receptor. We previously identified a low-molecular-weight (LMW) agonist of the TSHR and predicted its allosteric binding pocket within the receptor’s transmembrane domain. Because binding of the LMW agonist probably disrupts interactions or leads to formation of new interactions among amino acid residues surrounding the pocket, we tested whether mutation of residues at these positions would lead to constitutive signaling activity. Guided by molecular modeling, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 24 amino acids in this spatial region, followed by functional characterization of the mutant receptors in terms of expression and signaling, measured as cAMP accumulation. We found that mutations V421I, Y466A, T501A, L587V, M637C, M637W, S641A, Y643F, L645V, and Y667A located in several helices exhibit constitutive activity. Of note is mutation M637W at position 6.48 in transmembrane helix 6, which has a significant effect on the interaction of the receptor with the LMW agonist. In summary, we found that a high proportion of residues in several helices surrounding the allosteric binding site of LMW ligands in the TSHR when mutated lead to constitutively active receptors. Our findings of signaling-sensitive residues in this region of the transmembrane bundle may be of general importance as this domain appears to be evolutionarily retained among GPCRs.—Kleinau, G., Haas, A.-K., Neumann, S., Worth, C. L., Hoyer, I., Furkert, J., Rutz, Gershengorn, M. C., Schülein, R., Krause, G. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor. PMID:20179143

  8. In silico mapping of allosteric ligand binding sites in type-1 cannabinoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Sabatucci, Annalaura; Tortolani, Daniel; Dainese, Enrico; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2017-08-17

    The recent resolution of the crystal structure of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 ), and the discovery of novel modulators for this target open the way to the possibility of elucidating the structural requirements for CB1 binding, and thereby facilitate a rational drug design. Compounds that target the orthosteric site of CB1 in some cases have shown side effects. Allosteric modulators could potentially avoid these side effects by influencing binding and/or efficacy of orthosteric ligands. Here, we summarize and compare previous data on different putative allosteric binding sites observed in CB1 homology models with an in silico docking study of the recently published crystal structure of the same receptor on endogenous and natural hydrophobic ligands that act as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) and negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of CB1 . In particular, a lipid-exposed pocket targeted by most of the tested molecules is reported and discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Conformational changes in tertiary structure near the ligand binding site of an integrin I domain

    PubMed Central

    Oxvig, Claus; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A.

    1999-01-01

    For efficient ligand binding, integrins must be activated. Specifically, a conformational change has been proposed in a ligand binding domain present within some integrins, the inserted (I) domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333–1340]. This proposal remains controversial, however, despite extensive crystal structure studies on the I domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333–1340; Liddington, R. & Bankston, L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 937–938; Qu, A. & Leahy, D. J. (1996) Structure (London) 4, 931–942; and Baldwin, E. T., Sarver, R. W., Bryant, G. L., Jr., Curry, K. A., Fairbanks, M. B., Finzel, B. C., Garlick, R. L., Heinrikson, R. L., Horton, N. C. & Kelly, L. L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 923–935]. By defining the residues present in the epitope of a mAb against the human Mac-1 integrin (αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) that binds only the active receptor, we provide biochemical evidence that the I domain itself undergoes a conformational change with activation. This mAb, CBRM1/5, binds the I domain very close to the ligand binding site in a region that is widely exposed regardless of activation as judged by reactivity with other antibodies. The conformation of the epitope differs in two crystal forms of the I domain, previously suggested to represent active and inactive receptor. Our data suggests that conformational differences in the I domain are physiologically relevant and not merely a consequence of different crystal lattice interactions. We also demonstrate that the transition between the two conformational states depends on species-specific residues at the bottom of the I domain, which are proposed to be in an interface with another integrin domain, and that this transition correlates with functional activity. PMID:10051621

  10. Auto-FACE: An NMR Based Binding Site Mapping Program for Fast Chemical Exchange Protein-Ligand Systems

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Yu, Victor C. K.; Mok, Yu-Keung

    2010-01-01

    Background Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy offers a variety of experiments to study protein-ligand interactions at atomic resolution. Among these experiments, N Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation (HSQC) experiment is simple, less time consuming and highly informative in mapping the binding site of the ligand. The interpretation of N HSQC becomes ambiguous when the chemical shift perturbations are caused by non-specific interactions like allosteric changes and local structural rearrangement. Under such cases, detailed chemical exchange analysis based on chemical shift perturbation will assist in locating the binding site accurately. Methodology/Principal Findings We have automated the mapping of binding sites for fast chemical exchange systems using information obtained from N HSQC spectra of protein serially titrated with ligand of increasing concentrations. The automated program Auto-FACE (Auto-FAst Chemical Exchange analyzer) determines the parameters, e.g. rate of change of perturbation, binding equilibrium constant and magnitude of chemical shift perturbation to map the binding site residues. Interestingly, the rate of change of perturbation at lower ligand concentration is highly sensitive in differentiating the binding site residues from the non-binding site residues. To validate this program, the interaction between the protein and the ligand BH3I-1 was studied. Residues in the hydrophobic BH3 binding groove of were easily identified to be crucial for interaction with BH3I-1 from other residues that also exhibited perturbation. The geometrically averaged equilibrium constant () calculated for the residues present at the identified binding site is consistent with the values obtained by other techniques like isothermal calorimetry and fluorescence polarization assays (). Adjacent to the primary site, an additional binding site was identified which had an affinity of 3.8 times weaker than the former one. Further NMR based model fitting for

  11. Identification of Two Secondary Ligand Binding Sites in 14-3-3 Proteins Using Fragment Screening.

    PubMed

    Sijbesma, Eline; Skora, Lukasz; Leysen, Seppe; Brunsveld, Luc; Koch, Uwe; Nussbaumer, Peter; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Ottmann, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Proteins typically interact with multiple binding partners, and often different parts of their surfaces are employed to establish these protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Members of the class of 14-3-3 adapter proteins bind to several hundred other proteins in the cell. Multiple small molecules for the modulation of 14-3-3 PPIs have been disclosed; however, they all target the conserved phosphopeptide binding channel, so that selectivity is difficult to achieve. Here we report on the discovery of two individual secondary binding sites that have been identified by combining nuclear magnetic resonance-based fragment screening and X-ray crystallography. The two pockets that these fragments occupy are part of at least three physiologically relevant and structurally characterized 14-3-3 PPI interfaces, including those with serotonin N-acetyltransferase and plant transcription factor FT. In addition, the high degree of conservation of the two sites implies their relevance for 14-3-3 PPIs. This first identification of secondary sites on 14-3-3 proteins bound by small molecule ligands might facilitate the development of new chemical tool compounds for more selective PPI modulation.

  12. Identification of Two Secondary Ligand Binding Sites in 14-3-3 Proteins Using Fragment Screening

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Proteins typically interact with multiple binding partners, and often different parts of their surfaces are employed to establish these protein–protein interactions (PPIs). Members of the class of 14-3-3 adapter proteins bind to several hundred other proteins in the cell. Multiple small molecules for the modulation of 14-3-3 PPIs have been disclosed; however, they all target the conserved phosphopeptide binding channel, so that selectivity is difficult to achieve. Here we report on the discovery of two individual secondary binding sites that have been identified by combining nuclear magnetic resonance-based fragment screening and X-ray crystallography. The two pockets that these fragments occupy are part of at least three physiologically relevant and structurally characterized 14-3-3 PPI interfaces, including those with serotonin N-acetyltransferase and plant transcription factor FT. In addition, the high degree of conservation of the two sites implies their relevance for 14-3-3 PPIs. This first identification of secondary sites on 14-3-3 proteins bound by small molecule ligands might facilitate the development of new chemical tool compounds for more selective PPI modulation. PMID:28681606

  13. Inhibiting Helicobacter pylori HtrA protease by addressing a computationally predicted allosteric ligand binding site

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Anna Maria; Reisen, Felix; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Geppert, Tim; Pillong, Max; Weisel, Martin; Hoy, Benjamin; Simister, Philip C.; Feller, Stephan M.; Wessler, Silja; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with inflammatory diseases and can cause gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoma. One of the bacterium’s key proteins is high temperature requirement A (HpHtrA) protein, an extracellular serine protease that cleaves E-cadherin of gastric epithelial cells, which leads to loss of cell-cell adhesion. Inhibition of HpHtrA may constitute an intervention strategy against H. pylori infection. Guided by the computational prediction of hypothetical ligand binding sites on the surface of HpHtrA, we performed residue mutation experiments that confirmed the functional relevance of an allosteric region. We virtually screened for potential ligands addressing this surface cleft located between the catalytic and PDZ1 domains. Our receptor-based computational method represents protein surface pockets in terms of graph frameworks and retrieves small molecules that satisfy the constraints given by the pocket framework. A new chemical entity was identified that blocked E-cadherin cleavage in vitro by direct binding to HpHtrA, and efficiently blocked pathogen transmigration across the gastric epithelial barrier. A preliminary crystal structure of HpHtrA confirms the validity of a comparative “homology” model of the enzyme, which we used for the computational study. The results of this study demonstrate that addressing orphan protein surface cavities of target macromolecules can lead to new bioactive ligands. PMID:26819700

  14. eMatchSite: Sequence Order-Independent Structure Alignments of Ligand Binding Pockets in Protein Models

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Detecting similarities between ligand binding sites in the absence of global homology between target proteins has been recognized as one of the critical components of modern drug discovery. Local binding site alignments can be constructed using sequence order-independent techniques, however, to achieve a high accuracy, many current algorithms for binding site comparison require high-quality experimental protein structures, preferably in the bound conformational state. This, in turn, complicates proteome scale applications, where only various quality structure models are available for the majority of gene products. To improve the state-of-the-art, we developed eMatchSite, a new method for constructing sequence order-independent alignments of ligand binding sites in protein models. Large-scale benchmarking calculations using adenine-binding pockets in crystal structures demonstrate that eMatchSite generates accurate alignments for almost three times more protein pairs than SOIPPA. More importantly, eMatchSite offers a high tolerance to structural distortions in ligand binding regions in protein models. For example, the percentage of correctly aligned pairs of adenine-binding sites in weakly homologous protein models is only 4–9% lower than those aligned using crystal structures. This represents a significant improvement over other algorithms, e.g. the performance of eMatchSite in recognizing similar binding sites is 6% and 13% higher than that of SiteEngine using high- and moderate-quality protein models, respectively. Constructing biologically correct alignments using predicted ligand binding sites in protein models opens up the possibility to investigate drug-protein interaction networks for complete proteomes with prospective systems-level applications in polypharmacology and rational drug repositioning. eMatchSite is freely available to the academic community as a web-server and a stand-alone software distribution at http://www.brylinski.org/ematchsite. PMID

  15. Reproducing Crystal Binding Modes of Ligand Functional Groups using Site-Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Raman, E. Prabhu; Yu, Wenbo; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of a computational method, Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS), to identify regions on a protein surface with which different types of functional groups on low-molecular weight inhibitors interact is demonstrated. The method involves molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a protein in an aqueous solution of chemically diverse small molecules from which probability distributions of fragments types, termed FragMaps, are obtained. In the present application, SILCS simulations are performed with an aqueous solution of 1 M benzene and propane to map the affinity pattern of the protein for aromatic and aliphatic functional groups. In addition, water hydrogen and oxygen atoms serve as probes for hydrogen bond donor and acceptor affinity, respectively. The method is tested using a set of 7 proteins for which crystal structures of complexes with several high affinity inhibitors are known. Good agreement is obtained between FragMaps and the positions of chemically similar functional groups in inhibitors as observed in the X-ray crystallographic structures. Quantitative capabilities of the SILCS approach are demonstrated by converting FragMaps to free energies, termed Grid Free Energies (GFE), and showing correlation between the GFE values and experimental binding affinities. For proteins for which ligand decoy sets are available, GFE values are shown to typically score the crystal conformation and conformations similar to it more favorable than decoys. Additionally, SILCS is tested for its ability to capture the subtle differences in ligand affinity across homologous proteins, information which may be of utility towards specificity-guided drug design. Taken together, our results show that SILCS can recapitulate the known location of functional groups of bound inhibitors for a number of proteins, suggesting that the method may be of utility for rational drug design. PMID:21456594

  16. Lack of Ligand-Selective Binding of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor to Putative DNA Binding Sites Regulating Expression of Bax and Paraoxonase 1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Hayashi, Ai; Denison, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxicological effects of structurally diverse chemicals through its ability to bind specific DNA recognition sites (dioxin responsive elements (DREs)), and activate transcription of adjacent genes. While the DRE has a highly conserved consensus sequence, it has been suggested that the nucleotide specificity of AhR DNA binding may be ligand-dependent. The upstream regulatory regions of the murine Bax and human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genes reportedly contain unique DRE-like sequences that respond to AhRs activated by some ligands but not others. Given the significant implications of this observation to understanding the diversity in AhR responses and that of other ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, a combination of DNA binding, nuclear translocation and gene expression analysis was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these ligand-selective responses. Although known AhR agonists stimulated AhR nuclear translocation, DRE binding and gene expression, the ligand-selective DRE-like DNA elements identified in the Bax and PON1 upstream regulatory regions failed to bind ligand-activated AhR or confer AhR-responsiveness upon a reporter gene. These results argue against the reported ligand-selectivity of AhR DNA binding and suggest DNA binding by ligand activated AhR involves DRE-containing DNA. PMID:24200861

  17. Lack of ligand-selective binding of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor to putative DNA binding sites regulating expression of Bax and paraoxonase 1 genes.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Danica E; Hayashi, Ai; Denison, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxicological effects of structurally diverse chemicals through its ability to bind specific DNA recognition sites (dioxin responsive elements (DREs)), and activate transcription of adjacent genes. While the DRE has a highly conserved consensus sequence, it has been suggested that the nucleotide specificity of AhR DNA binding may be ligand-dependent. The upstream regulatory regions of the murine Bax and human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genes reportedly contain unique DRE-like sequences that respond to AhRs activated by some ligands but not others. Given the significant implications of this observation to understanding the diversity in AhR responses and that of other ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, a combination of DNA binding, nuclear translocation and gene expression analysis was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these ligand-selective responses. Although known AhR agonists stimulated AhR nuclear translocation, DRE binding and gene expression, the ligand-selective DRE-like DNA elements identified in the Bax and PON1 upstream regulatory regions failed to bind ligand-activated AhR or confer AhR-responsiveness upon a reporter gene. These results argue against the reported ligand-selectivity of AhR DNA binding and suggest DNA binding by ligand activated AhR involves DRE-containing DNA.

  18. Computational prediction and in vitro analysis of potential physiological ligands of the bile acid binding site in cytochrome c oxidase†

    PubMed Central

    Buhrow, Leann; Hiser, Carrie; Van Voorst, Jeffrey R.; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh; Kuhn, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    A conserved bile acid site has been crystallographically defined in the membrane domain of mammalian and Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase (RsCcO). Diverse amphipathic ligands were shown previously to bind to this site and affect the electron transfer equilibrium between heme a and a3 cofactors by blocking the K proton uptake path. Current studies identify physiologically relevant ligands for the bile acid site using a novel three-pronged computational approach: ROCS comparison of ligand shape and electrostatics, SimSite3D comparison of ligand binding site features, and SLIDE screening of potential ligands by docking. Identified candidate ligands include steroids, nicotinamides, flavins, nucleotides, retinoic acid, and thyroid hormones, which are predicted to make key protein contacts with the residues involved in bile acid binding. In vitro oxygen consumption and ligand competition assays on RsCcO wildtype and its Glu101Ala mutant support regulatory activity and specificity of some of these ligands. An ATP analog and GDP inhibit RsCcO under low substrate conditions, while fusidic acid, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, retinoic acid, and T3 thyroid hormone are more potent inhibitors under both high and low substrate conditions. The sigmoidal kinetics of RsCcO inhibition in the presence of certain nucleotides is reminiscent of previously reported ATP inhibition of mammalian CcO, suggesting regulation involving the conserved core subunits of both mammalian and bacterial oxidases. Ligand binding to the bile acid site is non-competitive with respect to cytochrome c and appears to arrest CcO in a semi-oxidized state with some resemblance to the “resting” state of the enzyme. PMID:24073649

  19. Computational prediction and in vitro analysis of potential physiological ligands of the bile acid binding site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Buhrow, Leann; Hiser, Carrie; Van Voorst, Jeffrey R; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh; Kuhn, Leslie A

    2013-10-08

    A conserved bile acid site has been crystallographically defined in the membrane domain of mammalian and Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase (RsCcO). Diverse amphipathic ligands were shown previously to bind to this site and affect the electron transfer equilibrium between heme a and a3 cofactors by blocking the K proton uptake path. Current studies identify physiologically relevant ligands for the bile acid site using a novel three-pronged computational approach: ROCS comparison of ligand shape and electrostatics, SimSite3D comparison of ligand binding site features, and SLIDE screening of potential ligands by docking. Identified candidate ligands include steroids, nicotinamides, flavins, nucleotides, retinoic acid, and thyroid hormones, which are predicted to make key protein contacts with the residues involved in bile acid binding. In vitro oxygen consumption and ligand competition assays on RsCcO wildtype and its Glu101Ala mutant support regulatory activity and specificity of some of these ligands. An ATP analog and GDP inhibit RsCcO under low substrate conditions, while fusidic acid, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, retinoic acid, and T3 thyroid hormone are more potent inhibitors under both high and low substrate conditions. The sigmoidal kinetics of RsCcO inhibition in the presence of certain nucleotides is reminiscent of previously reported ATP inhibition of mammalian CcO, suggesting regulation involving the conserved core subunits of both mammalian and bacterial oxidases. Ligand binding to the bile acid site is noncompetitive with respect to cytochrome c and appears to arrest CcO in a semioxidized state with some resemblance to the "resting" state of the enzyme.

  20. Can We Rely on Computational Predictions To Correctly Identify Ligand Binding Sites on Novel Protein Drug Targets? Assessment of Binding Site Prediction Methods and a Protocol for Validation of Predicted Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Broomhead, Neal K; Soliman, Mahmoud E

    2017-03-01

    In the field of medicinal chemistry there is increasing focus on identifying key proteins whose biochemical functions can firmly be linked to serious diseases. Such proteins become targets for drug or inhibitor molecules that could treat or halt the disease through therapeutic action or by blocking the protein function respectively. The protein must be targeted at the relevant biologically active site for drug or inhibitor binding to be effective. As insufficient experimental data is available to confirm the biologically active binding site for novel protein targets, researchers often rely on computational prediction methods to identify binding sites. Presented herein is a short review on structure-based computational methods that (i) predict putative binding sites and (ii) assess the druggability of predicted binding sites on protein targets. This review briefly covers the principles upon which these methods are based, where they can be accessed and their reliability in identifying the correct binding site on a protein target. Based on this review, we believe that these methods are useful in predicting putative binding sites, but as they do not account for the dynamic nature of protein-ligand binding interactions, they cannot definitively identify the correct site from a ranked list of putative sites. To overcome this shortcoming, we strongly recommend using molecular docking to predict the most likely protein-ligand binding site(s) and mode(s), followed by molecular dynamics simulations and binding thermodynamics calculations to validate the docking results. This protocol provides a valuable platform for experimental and computational efforts to design novel drugs and inhibitors that target disease-related proteins.

  1. The heterodimeric sweet taste receptor has multiple potential ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Maillet, Emeline; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric receptor. Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2. In contrast, receptor activity toward the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole depends on residues within the transmembrane domain of human T1R3. Furthermore, receptor activity toward the sweet protein brazzein depends on the cysteine rich domain of human T1R3. Although crystal structures are not available for the sweet taste receptor, useful homology models can be developed based on appropriate templates. The amino terminal domain, cysteine rich domain and transmembrane helix domain of T1R2 and T1R3 have been modeled based on the crystal structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and bovine rhodopsin, respectively. We have used homology models of the sweet taste receptors, molecular docking of sweet ligands to the receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis of the receptors to identify potential ligand binding sites of the sweet taste receptor. These studies have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of this heterodimeric receptor, and can act as a guide for rational structure-based design of novel non-caloric sweeteners, which can be used in the fighting against obesity and diabetes.

  2. Binary image representation of a ligand binding site: its application to efficient sampling of a conformational ensemble.

    PubMed

    Sung, Edon; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Whanchul

    2010-05-18

    Modelling the ligand binding site of a protein is an important component of understanding protein-ligand interactions and is being actively studied. Even if the side chains are restricted to rotamers, a set of commonly-observed low-energy conformations, the exhaustive combinatorial search of ligand binding site conformers is known as NP-hard. Here we propose a new method, ROTAIMAGE, for modelling the plausible conformers for the ligand binding site given a fixed backbone structure. ROTAIMAGE includes a procedure of selecting ligand binding site residues, exhaustively searching rotameric conformers, clustering them by dissimilarities in pocket shape, and suggesting a representative conformer per cluster. Prior to the clustering, the list of conformers generated by exhaustive search can be reduced by pruning the conformers that have near identical pocket shapes, which is done using simple bit operations. We tested our approach by modelling the active-site inhibitor binding pockets of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -13. For both cases, analyzing the conformers based on their pocket shapes substantially reduced the 'computational complexity' (10 to 190 fold). The subsequent clustering revealed that the pocket shapes of both proteins could be grouped into approximately 10 distinct clusters. At this level of clustering, the conformational space spanned by the known crystal structures was well covered. Heatmap analysis identified a few bit blocks that combinatorially dictated the clustering pattern. Using this analytical approach, we demonstrated that each of the bit blocks was associated with a specific pocket residue. Identification of residues that influenced the shape of the pocket is an interesting feature unique to the ROTAIMAGE algorithm. ROTAIMAGE is a novel algorithm that was efficient in exploring the conformational space of the ligand binding site. Its ability to identify 'key' pocket residues also provides further insight into conformational flexibility with

  3. Catalytic residues in hydrolases: analysis of methods designed for ligand-binding site prediction

    PubMed Central

    Jadczyk, Tomasz; Roterman, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The comparison of eight tools applicable to ligand-binding site prediction is presented. The methods examined cover three types of approaches: the geometrical (CASTp, PASS, Pocket-Finder), the physicochemical (Q-SiteFinder, FOD) and the knowledge-based (ConSurf, SuMo, WebFEATURE). The accuracy of predictions was measured in reference to the catalytic residues documented in the Catalytic Site Atlas. The test was performed on a set comprising selected chains of hydrolases. The results were analysed with regard to size, polarity, secondary structure, accessible solvent area of predicted sites as well as parameters commonly used in machine learning (F-measure, MCC). The relative accuracies of predictions are presented in the ROC space, allowing determination of the optimal methods by means of the ROC convex hull. Additionally the minimum expected cost analysis was performed. Both advantages and disadvantages of the eight methods are presented. Characterization of protein chains in respect to the level of difficulty in the active site prediction is introduced. The main reasons for failures are discussed. Overall, the best performance offers SuMo followed by FOD, while Pocket-Finder is the best method among the geometrical approaches. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9402-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21104192

  4. Catalytic residues in hydrolases: analysis of methods designed for ligand-binding site prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prymula, Katarzyna; Jadczyk, Tomasz; Roterman, Irena

    2011-02-01

    The comparison of eight tools applicable to ligand-binding site prediction is presented. The methods examined cover three types of approaches: the geometrical (CASTp, PASS, Pocket-Finder), the physicochemical (Q-SiteFinder, FOD) and the knowledge-based (ConSurf, SuMo, WebFEATURE). The accuracy of predictions was measured in reference to the catalytic residues documented in the Catalytic Site Atlas. The test was performed on a set comprising selected chains of hydrolases. The results were analysed with regard to size, polarity, secondary structure, accessible solvent area of predicted sites as well as parameters commonly used in machine learning (F-measure, MCC). The relative accuracies of predictions are presented in the ROC space, allowing determination of the optimal methods by means of the ROC convex hull. Additionally the minimum expected cost analysis was performed. Both advantages and disadvantages of the eight methods are presented. Characterization of protein chains in respect to the level of difficulty in the active site prediction is introduced. The main reasons for failures are discussed. Overall, the best performance offers SuMo followed by FOD, while Pocket-Finder is the best method among the geometrical approaches.

  5. Spatial Analysis and Quantification of the Thermodynamic Driving Forces in Protein-Ligand Binding: Binding Site Variability

    PubMed Central

    Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic driving forces behind small molecule-protein binding are still not well understood, including the variability of those forces associated with different types of ligands in different binding pockets. To better understand these phenomena we calculate spatially resolved thermodynamic contributions of the different molecular degrees of freedom for the binding of propane and methanol to multiple pockets on the proteins Factor Xa and p38 MAP kinase. Binding thermodynamics are computed using a statistical thermodynamics based end-point method applied on a canonical ensemble comprising the protein-ligand complexes and the corresponding free states in an explicit solvent environment. Energetic and entropic contributions of water and ligand degrees of freedom computed from the configurational ensemble provides an unprecedented level of detail into the mechanisms of binding. Direct protein-ligand interaction energies play a significant role in both non-polar and polar binding, which is comparable to water reorganization energy. Loss of interactions with water upon binding strongly compensates these contributions leading to relatively small binding enthalpies. For both solutes, the entropy of water reorganization is found to favor binding in agreement with the classical view of the “hydrophobic effect”. Depending on the specifics of the binding pocket, both energy-entropy compensation and reinforcement mechanisms are observed. Notable is the ability to visualize the spatial distribution of the thermodynamic contributions to binding at atomic resolution showing significant differences in the thermodynamic contributions of water to the binding of propane versus methanol. PMID:25625202

  6. ABS-Scan: In silico alanine scanning mutagenesis for binding site residues in protein-ligand complex.

    PubMed

    Anand, Praveen; Nagarajan, Deepesh; Mukherjee, Sumanta; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2014-01-01

    Most physiological processes in living systems are fundamentally regulated by protein-ligand interactions. Understanding the process of ligand recognition by proteins is a vital activity in molecular biology and biochemistry. It is well known that the residues present at the binding site of the protein form pockets that provide a conducive environment for recognition of specific ligands. In many cases, the boundaries of these sites are not well defined. Here, we provide a web-server to systematically evaluate important residues in the binding site of the protein that contribute towards the ligand recognition through in silico alanine-scanning mutagenesis experiments. Each of the residues present at the binding site is computationally mutated to alanine. The ligand interaction energy is computed for each mutant and the corresponding ΔΔG values are calculated by comparing it to the wild type protein, thus evaluating individual residue contributions towards ligand interaction. The server will thus provide a ranked list of residues to the user in order to obtain loss-of-function mutations. This web-tool can be freely accessed through the following address: http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/abscan/.

  7. Automatic generation of bioinformatics tools for predicting protein–ligand binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Masaki; Ueki, Kokoro; Saad, Gul; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Predictive tools that model protein–ligand binding on demand are needed to promote ligand research in an innovative drug-design environment. However, it takes considerable time and effort to develop predictive tools that can be applied to individual ligands. An automated production pipeline that can rapidly and efficiently develop user-friendly protein–ligand binding predictive tools would be useful. Results: We developed a system for automatically generating protein–ligand binding predictions. Implementation of this system in a pipeline of Semantic Web technique-based web tools will allow users to specify a ligand and receive the tool within 0.5–1 day. We demonstrated high prediction accuracy for three machine learning algorithms and eight ligands. Availability and implementation: The source code and web application are freely available for download at http://utprot.net. They are implemented in Python and supported on Linux. Contact: shimizu@bi.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26545824

  8. Automatic generation of bioinformatics tools for predicting protein-ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Yusuke; Banno, Masaki; Ueki, Kokoro; Saad, Gul; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-03-15

    Predictive tools that model protein-ligand binding on demand are needed to promote ligand research in an innovative drug-design environment. However, it takes considerable time and effort to develop predictive tools that can be applied to individual ligands. An automated production pipeline that can rapidly and efficiently develop user-friendly protein-ligand binding predictive tools would be useful. We developed a system for automatically generating protein-ligand binding predictions. Implementation of this system in a pipeline of Semantic Web technique-based web tools will allow users to specify a ligand and receive the tool within 0.5-1 day. We demonstrated high prediction accuracy for three machine learning algorithms and eight ligands. The source code and web application are freely available for download at http://utprot.net They are implemented in Python and supported on Linux. shimizu@bi.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Mapping the ligand binding site at protein side-chains in protein-ligand complexes through NOE difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eichmüller, C; Tollinger, M; Kräutler, B; Konrat, R

    2001-07-01

    This report describes a novel NMR approach for mapping the interaction surface between an unlabeled ligand and a 13C,15N-labeled protein. The method relies on the spin inversion properties of the dipolar relaxation pathways and records the differential relaxation of two spin modes, where ligand and protein 1H magnetizations are aligned either in a parallel or anti-parallel manner. Selective inversion of protein protons is achieved in a straightforward manner by exploiting the one-bond heteronuclear scalar couplings (1J(CH), 1J(NH)). Suppression of indirect relaxation pathways mediated by bulk water or rapidly exchanging protons is achieved by selective inversion of the water signal in the middle of the NOESY mixing period. The method does not require deuteration of the protein or well separated spectral regions for the protein and the ligand, respectively. Additionally, in contrast to previous methods, the new experiment identifies side-chain enzyme ligand interactions along the intermolecular binding interface. The method is demonstrated with an application to the B12-binding subunit of glutamate mutase from Clostridium tetanomorphum for which NMR chemical shift changes upon B12-nucleotide loop binding and a high-resolution solution structure are available.

  10. Structural characterization of single nucleotide variants at ligand binding sites and enzyme active sites of human proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunori D.; Nishi, Hafumi; Nakata, Junichi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    Functional sites on proteins play an important role in various molecular interactions and reactions between proteins and other molecules. Thus, mutations in functional sites can severely affect the overall phenotype. Progress of genome sequencing projects has yielded a wealth of information on single nucleotide variants (SNVs), especially those with less than 1% minor allele frequency (rare variants). To understand the functional influence of genetic variants at a protein level, we investigated the relationship between SNVs and protein functional sites in terms of minor allele frequency and the structural position of variants. As a result, we observed that SNVs were less abundant at ligand binding sites, which is consistent with a previous study on SNVs and protein interaction sites. Additionally, we found that non-rare variants tended to be located slightly apart from enzyme active sites. Examination of non-rare variants revealed that most of the mutations resulted in moderate changes of the physico-chemical properties of amino acids, suggesting the existence of functional constraints. In conclusion, this study shows that the mapping of genetic variants on protein structures could be a powerful approach to evaluate the functional impact of rare genetic variations. PMID:27924270

  11. Structural Analyses of the Slm1-PH Domain Demonstrate Ligand Binding in the Non-Canonical Site

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Kanchan; Maeda, Kenji; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains are common membrane-targeting modules and their best characterized ligands are a set of important signaling lipids that include phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs). PH domains recognize PtdInsPs through two distinct mechanisms that use different binding pockets on opposite sides of the β-strands 1 and 2: i) a canonical binding site delimited by the β1-β2 and β3-β4loops and ii) a non-canonical binding site bordered by the β1-β2 and β5-β6loops. The PH domain-containing protein Slm1 from budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for actin cytoskeleton polarization and cell growth. We recently reported that this PH domain binds PtdInsPs and phosphorylated sphingolipids in a cooperative manner. Principal Findings To study the structural basis for the Slm1-PH domain (Slm1-PH) specificity, we co-crystallized this domain with different soluble compounds that have structures analogous to anionic lipid head groups of reported Slm1 ligands: inositol 4-phosphate, which mimics phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), and phosphoserine as a surrogate for dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (DHS1-P). We found electron densities for the ligands within the so-called non-canonical binding site. An additional positively charged surface that contacts a phosphate group was identified next to the canonical binding site. Conclusions Our results suggest that Slm1-PH utilizes a non-canonical binding site to bind PtdInsPs, similar to that described for the PH domains of β-spectrin, Tiam1 and ArhGAP9. Additionally, Slm1-PH may have retained an active canonical site. We propose that the presence of both a canonical and a non-canonical binding pocket in Slm1-PH may account for the cooperative binding to PtdInsPs and DHS-1P. PMID:22574179

  12. Binding site on human immunoglobulin G for the affinity ligand HWRGWV

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiou; Gurgel, Patrick V.; Williams, D. Keith; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Cavanagh, John; Muddiman, David C.; Carbonell, Ruben G.

    2014-01-01

    Affinity ligand HWRGWV has demonstrated the ability to isolate human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from mammalian cell culture media. The ligand specifically binds hIgG through its Fc portion. This work shows that deglycosylation of hIgG has no influence on its binding to the HWRGWV ligand and the ligand does not compete with Protein A or Protein G in binding hIgG. It is suggested by the mass spectrometry (MS) data and docking simulation that HWRGWV binds to the pFc portion of hIgG and interacts with the amino acids in the loop Ser383–Asn389 (SNGQPEN) located in the CH3 domain. Subsequent modeling has suggested a possible three-dimensional minimized solution structure for the interaction of hIgG and the HWRGWV ligand. The results support the fact that a peptide as small as a hexamer can have specific interactions with large proteins such as hIgG. PMID:20049844

  13. Allosteric binding site in a Cys-loop receptor ligand-binding domain unveiled in the crystal structure of ELIC in complex with chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Nys, Mieke; Wijckmans, Eveline; Farinha, Ana; Yoluk, Özge; Andersson, Magnus; Brams, Marijke; Spurny, Radovan; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Lindahl, Erik; Ulens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels or Cys-loop receptors are responsible for fast inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission. The antipsychotic compound chlorpromazine is a widely used tool to probe the ion channel pore of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is a prototypical Cys-loop receptor. In this study, we determine the molecular determinants of chlorpromazine binding in the Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC). We report the X-ray crystal structures of ELIC in complex with chlorpromazine or its brominated derivative bromopromazine. Unexpectedly, we do not find a chlorpromazine molecule in the channel pore of ELIC, but behind the β8–β9 loop in the extracellular ligand-binding domain. The β8–β9 loop is localized downstream from the neurotransmitter binding site and plays an important role in coupling of ligand binding to channel opening. In combination with electrophysiological recordings from ELIC cysteine mutants and a thiol-reactive derivative of chlorpromazine, we demonstrate that chlorpromazine binding at the β8–β9 loop is responsible for receptor inhibition. We further use molecular-dynamics simulations to support the X-ray data and mutagenesis experiments. Together, these data unveil an allosteric binding site in the extracellular ligand-binding domain of ELIC. Our results extend on previous observations and further substantiate our understanding of a multisite model for allosteric modulation of Cys-loop receptors. PMID:27791038

  14. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H.F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites. PMID:24053696

  15. Low affinity glucocorticoid binding site ligands as potential anti-fibrogenics

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Carylyn J; Wallace, Karen; Durward, Elaine; Koruth, Matthew; Leel, Val; Leiper, Lucy J; Wright, Matthew C

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonists inhibit liver fibrosis. However, the rodent PXR activator pregnenolone 16α carbonitrile (PCN) blocks, in vitro, hepatic stellate cell-to-myofibroblast trans-differentiation and proliferation in cells from mice with a disrupted PXR gene, suggesting there is an additional anti-fibrogenic drug target for PCN. The role of the low affinity glucocorticoid binding site (LAGS) – which may be identical or associated with the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) – in mediating this anti-fibrogenic effect has been examined, since binding of dexamethasone to the LAGS in liver microsomal membranes has previously been shown to be inhibited by PCN. Results Quiescent rat and human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) were isolated from livers and cultured to generate liver myofibroblasts. HSC and myofibroblasts expressed PGRMC1 as determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Quiescent rat HSC also expressed the truncated HC5 variant of rPGRMC1. Rat PGRMC1 was cloned and expression in COS-7 cells gave rise to specific binding of radiolabelled dexamethasone in cell extracts that was inhibited by PCN, suggesting that PGRMC1 may be identical to LAGS or activates LAGS binding activity. Liver microsomes were used to screen a range of structurally related compounds for their ability to inhibit radiolabelled dexamethasone binding to rat LAGS. These compounds were also screened for their ability to activate rat and human PXR and to inhibit rat HSC-to-myofibroblast trans-differentiation/proliferation. A compound (4 androstene-3-one 17β-carboxylic acid methyl ester) was identified which bound rat LAGS with high affinity and inhibited both rat and human HSC trans-differentiation/proliferation to fibrogenic myofibroblasts without showing evidence of rat or human PXR agonism. However, despite potent anti-fibrogenic effects in vitro, this compound did not modulate liver fibrosis severity in a rat model of liver fibrosis

  16. Detection of site-specific binding and co-binding of ligands to macromolecules using sup 19 F NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Study of ligand-macromolecular interactions by {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy affords many opportunities for obtaining molecular biochemical and pharmaceutical information. This is due to the absence of a background fluorine signal, as well as the relatively high sensitivity of {sup 19}F NMR. Use of fluorine-labeled ligands enables one to probe not only binding and co-binding phenomena to macromolecules, but also can provide data on binding constants, stoichiometries, kinetics, and conformational properties of these complexes. Under conditions of slow exchange and macromolecule-induced chemical shifts, multiple {sup 19}F NMR resonances can be observed for free and bound ligands. These shifted resonances are a direct correlate of the concentration of ligand bound in a specific state rather than the global concentrations of bound or free ligand which are usually determined using other techniques such as absorption spectroscopy or equilibrium dialysis. Examples of these interactions are demonstrated both from the literature and from interactions of 5-fluorotryptophan, 5-fluorosalicylic acid, flurbiprofen, and sulindac sulfide with human serum albumin. Other applications of {sup 19}F NMR to study of these interactions in vivo, as well for receptor binding and metabolic tracing of fluorinated drugs and proteins are discussed.

  17. Usefulness of molecular modeling in characterizing the ligand-binding sites of proteins: experience with human PDI, PDIp and COX.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed our recent experience with the use of computational modeling tools in studying the binding interaction of small molecular weight ligands with their protein targets. Specific examples discussed here include the interaction of estrogens with human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its pancreas-specific homolog (PDIp), and the interaction of dietary flavonoids with human cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II. Using human PDIp as an example, biochemical analysis revealed that the estrogen-binding activity is only associated with PDIp's b-b´ domain combination but not associated with the single b or b´ domain or any other domains. Homology modeling was then used to build a threedimensional structure of the human PDIp's b-b´ fragment. Docking analyses predicted that a hydrogen bond, formed between the 3-hydroxyl group of estradiol and His278 of PDIp's E2-binding site, is critical for the binding interaction. This binding model was then experimentally confirmed by a series of experiments, such as selective mutations of the predicted binding site amino acid residues and the selective modifications of the functional groups of the ligands. Similar combinatorial approaches were used successfully to identify the binding site structure of human PDI for estradiol and the binding site structures of human COX I and II for their phenolic co-substrates. The success with these combinatorial approaches provides the basis for using computational modeling-guided approaches in characterizing the ligand binding site structures of complex proteins whose structures are difficult to decipher with crystallographic studies.

  18. Spatial orientation of the antagonist granisetron in the ligand-binding site of the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; White, Michael M

    2005-08-01

    The serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT(3)R) is a member of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) superfamily. Like almost all membrane proteins, high-resolution structural data are unavailable for this class of receptors. We have taken advantage of the high degree of homology between LGICs and the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from the freshwater snail Lymnea stagnalis, for which high-resolution structural data are available, to create a structural model for the extracellular (i.e., ligand-binding) domain of the 5-HT(3)R and to perform a series of ligand docking experiments to delineate the architecture of the ligand-binding site. Structural models were created using homology modeling with the AChBP as a template. Docking of the antagonist granisetron was carried out using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm to produce models of ligand-receptor complexes. Two energetically similar conformations of granisetron in the binding site were obtained from the docking simulations. In one model, the indazole ring of granisetron is near Trp90 and the tropane ring is near Arg92; in the other, the orientation is reversed. We used double-mutant cycle analysis to determine which of the two orientations is consistent with experimental data and found that the data are consistent with the model in which the indazole ring of granisetron interacts with Arg92 and the tropane ring interacts with Trp90. The combination of molecular modeling with double-mutant cycle analysis offers a powerful approach for the delineation of the architecture of the ligand-binding site.

  19. Two ligand-binding sites in the O2-sensing signal transducer HemAT: Implications for ligand recognition/discrimination and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pinakoulaki, Eftychia; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Yoshioka, Shiro; Aono, Shigetoshi; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2006-01-01

    We have identified a ligand (CO) accommodation cavity in the signal transducer sensor protein HemAT (heme-based aerotactic transducer) that allows us to gain single-molecule insights into the mechanism of gas sensor proteins. Specific mutations that are distal and proximal to the heme were designed to perturb the electrostatic field near the ligand that is bound to the heme and near the accommodated ligand in the cavity. We report the detection of a second site in heme proteins in which the exogenous ligand is accommodated in an internal cavity. The conformational gate that directs the ligand-migration pathway from the distal to the proximal site of the heme, where the ligand is trapped, has been identified. The data provide evidence that the heme pocket is the specific ligand trap and suggest that the regulatory mechanism may be tackled starting from more than one position in the protein. Based on the results, we propose a dynamic coupling between the two distinct binding sites as the underlying allosteric mechanism for gas recognition/discrimination that triggers a conformational switch for signaling by the oxygen sensor protein HemAT. PMID:17003124

  20. Model of the whole rat AT1 receptor and the ligand-binding site.

    PubMed

    Baleanu-Gogonea, Camelia; Karnik, Sadashiva

    2006-02-01

    We present a three-dimensional model of the rat type 1 receptor (AT1) for the hormone angiotensin II (Ang II). Ang II and the AT1 receptor play a critical role in the cell-signaling process responsible for the actions of renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of blood pressure, water-electrolyte homeostasis and cell growth. Development of improved therapeutics would be significantly enhanced with the availability of a 3D-structure model for the AT1 receptor and of the binding site for agonists and antagonists. This model was constructed using a combination of computation and homology-modeling techniques starting with the experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of bovine rhodopsin (PDB#1F88) as a template. All 359 residues and two disulfide bonds in the rat AT1 receptor have been accounted for in this model. Ramachandran-map analysis and a 1 nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of the solvated receptor with and without the bound ligand, Ang II, lend credence to the validity of the model. Docking calculations were performed with the agonist, Ang II and the antihypertensive antagonist, losartan. [Figure: see text].

  1. A general technique to rank protein-ligand binding affinities and determine allosteric versus direct binding site competition in compound mixtures.

    PubMed

    Annis, D Allen; Nazef, Naim; Chuang, Cheng-Chi; Scott, Margaret Porter; Nash, Huw M

    2004-12-01

    To realize the full potential of combinatorial chemistry-based drug discovery, generic and efficient tools must be developed that apply the strengths of diversity-oriented chemical synthesis to the identification and optimization of lead compounds for disease-associated protein targets. We report an affinity selection-mass spectrometry (AS-MS) method for protein-ligand affinity ranking and the classification of ligands by binding site. The method incorporates the following steps: (1) an affinity selection stage, where protein-binding compounds are selected from pools of ligands in the presence of varying concentrations of a competitor ligand, (2) a first chromatography stage to separate unbound ligands from protein-ligand complexes, and (3) a second chromatography stage to dissociate the ligands from the complexes for identification and quantification by MS. The ability of the competitor ligand to displace a target-bound library member, as measured by MS, reveals the binding site classification and affinity ranking of the mixture components. The technique requires no radiolabel incorporation or direct biochemical assay, no modification or immobilization of the compounds or target protein, and all reaction components, including any buffers or cofactors required for protein stability, are free in solution. We demonstrate the method for several compounds of wide structural variety against representatives of the most important protein classes in contemporary drug discovery, including novel ATP-competitive and allosteric inhibitors of the Akt-1 (PKB) and Zap-70 kinases, and previously undisclosed antagonists of the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). The theoretical basis of the technique is analyzed mathematically, allowing quantitative estimation of binding affinities and, in the case of allosteric interaction, absolute determination of binding cooperativity. The method is readily applicable to high-throughput screening hit

  2. DNA cleavage at the AP site via β-elimination mediated by the AP site-binding ligands.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukiko S; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2016-02-15

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidation and alkylation. In the base excision repair pathway, the damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase to form the abasic sites (AP sites). The alkylating antitumor agent exhibits cytotoxicity through the formation of the AP site. Therefore blockage or modulation of the AP site repair pathway may enhance the antitumor efficacy of DNA alkylating agents. In this study, we have examined the effects of the nucleobase-polyamine conjugated ligands (G-, A-, C- and T-ligands) on the cleavage of the AP site. The G- and A-ligands cleaved DNA at the AP site by promoting β-elimination in a non-selective manner by the G-ligand, and in a selective manner for the opposing dT by the A-ligand. These results suggest that the nucleobase-polyamine conjugate ligands may have the potential for enhancement of the cytotoxicities of the AP site.

  3. Computational design of an endo-1,4-[beta]-xylanase ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, Andrew; Kaufmann, Kristian W.; Fortenberry, Carie; Harp, Joel M.; Mizoue, Laura S.; Meiler, Jens

    2012-09-05

    The field of computational protein design has experienced important recent success. However, the de novo computational design of high-affinity protein-ligand interfaces is still largely an open challenge. Using the Rosetta program, we attempted the in silico design of a high-affinity protein interface to a small peptide ligand. We chose the thermophilic endo-1,4-{beta}-xylanase from Nonomuraea flexuosa as the protein scaffold on which to perform our designs. Over the course of the study, 12 proteins derived from this scaffold were produced and assayed for binding to the target ligand. Unfortunately, none of the designed proteins displayed evidence of high-affinity binding. Structural characterization of four designed proteins revealed that although the predicted structure of the protein model was highly accurate, this structural accuracy did not translate into accurate prediction of binding affinity. Crystallographic analyses indicate that the lack of binding affinity is possibly due to unaccounted for protein dynamics in the 'thumb' region of our design scaffold intrinsic to the family 11 {beta}-xylanase fold. Further computational analysis revealed two specific, single amino acid substitutions responsible for an observed change in backbone conformation, and decreased dynamic stability of the catalytic cleft. These findings offer new insight into the dynamic and structural determinants of the {beta}-xylanase proteins.

  4. Computational design of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase ligand binding site

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Andrew; Kaufmann, Kristian W.; Fortenberry, Carie; Harp, Joel M.; Mizoue, Laura S.; Meiler, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The field of computational protein design has experienced important recent success. However, the de novo computational design of high-affinity protein–ligand interfaces is still largely an open challenge. Using the Rosetta program, we attempted the in silico design of a high-affinity protein interface to a small peptide ligand. We chose the thermophilic endo-1,4-β-xylanase from Nonomuraea flexuosa as the protein scaffold on which to perform our designs. Over the course of the study, 12 proteins derived from this scaffold were produced and assayed for binding to the target ligand. Unfortunately, none of the designed proteins displayed evidence of high-affinity binding. Structural characterization of four designed proteins revealed that although the predicted structure of the protein model was highly accurate, this structural accuracy did not translate into accurate prediction of binding affinity. Crystallographic analyses indicate that the lack of binding affinity is possibly due to unaccounted for protein dynamics in the ‘thumb’ region of our design scaffold intrinsic to the family 11 β-xylanase fold. Further computational analysis revealed two specific, single amino acid substitutions responsible for an observed change in backbone conformation, and decreased dynamic stability of the catalytic cleft. These findings offer new insight into the dynamic and structural determinants of the β-xylanase proteins. PMID:21349882

  5. Ligand-binding specificity and promiscuity of the main lignocellulolytic enzyme families as revealed by active-site architecture analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Liu, Shijia; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    Biomass can be converted into sugars by a series of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families summarized in CAZy databases. Here, using a structural bioinformatics method, we analyzed the active site architecture of the main lignocellulolytic enzyme families. The aromatic amino acids Trp/Tyr and polar amino acids Glu/Asp/Asn/Gln/Arg occurred at higher frequencies in the active site architecture than in the whole enzyme structure. And the number of potential subsites was significantly different among different families. In the cellulase and xylanase families, the conserved amino acids in the active site architecture were mostly found at the −2 to +1 subsites, while in β-glucosidase they were mainly concentrated at the −1 subsite. Families with more conserved binding amino acid residues displayed strong selectivity for their ligands, while those with fewer conserved binding amino acid residues often exhibited promiscuity when recognizing ligands. Enzymes with different activities also tended to bind different hydroxyl oxygen atoms on the ligand. These results may help us to better understand the common and unique structural bases of enzyme-ligand recognition from different families and provide a theoretical basis for the functional evolution and rational design of major lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:27009476

  6. Binding Sites for Acylated Trehalose Analogs of Glycolipid Ligands on an Extended Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of the Macrophage Receptor Mincle*

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Hadar; Rambaruth, Neela D. S.; Jégouzo, Sabine A. F.; Jacobsen, Kristian M.; Djurhuus, Rasmus; Poulsen, Thomas B.; Weis, William I.; Taylor, Maureen E.; Drickamer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage receptor mincle binds to trehalose dimycolate on the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Signaling initiated by this interaction leads to cytokine production, which underlies the ability of mycobacteria to evade the immune system and also to function as adjuvants. In previous work the mechanism for binding of the sugar headgroup of trehalose dimycolate to mincle has been elucidated, but the basis for enhanced binding to glycolipid ligands, in which hydrophobic substituents are attached to the 6-hydroxyl groups, has been the subject of speculation. In the work reported here, the interaction of trehalose derivatives with bovine mincle has been probed with a series of synthetic mimics of trehalose dimycolate in binding assays, in structural studies by x-ray crystallography, and by site-directed mutagenesis. Binding studies reveal that, rather than reflecting specific structural preference, the apparent affinity of mincle for ligands with hydrophobic substituents correlates with their overall size. Structural and mutagenesis analysis provides evidence for interaction of the hydrophobic substituents with multiple different portions of the surface of mincle and confirms the presence of three Ca2+-binding sites. The structure of an extended portion of the extracellular domain of mincle, beyond the minimal C-type carbohydrate recognition domain, also constrains the way the binding domains may interact on the surface of macrophages. PMID:27542410

  7. Crystal structure, exogenous ligand binding, and redox properties of an engineered diiron active site in a bacterial hemerythrin.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasunori; Onoda, Akira; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Takano, Yu; Hirota, Shun; Kurtz, Donald M; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Takashi

    2013-11-18

    A nonheme diiron active site in a 13 kDa hemerythrin-like domain of the bacterial chemotaxis protein DcrH-Hr contains an oxo bridge, two bridging carboxylate groups from Glu and Asp residues, and five terminally ligated His residues. We created a unique diiron coordination sphere containing five His and three Glu/Asp residues by replacing an Ile residue with Glu in DcrH-Hr. Direct coordination of the carboxylate group of E119 to Fe2 of the diiron site in the I119E variant was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The substituted Glu is adjacent to an exogenous ligand-accessible tunnel. UV-vis absorption spectra indicate that the additional coordination of E119 inhibits the binding of the exogenous ligands azide and phenol to the diiron site. The extent of azide binding to the diiron site increases at pH ≤ 6, which is ascribed to protonation of the carboxylate ligand of E119. The diferrous state (deoxy form) of the engineered diiron site with the extra Glu residue is found to react more slowly than wild type with O2 to yield the diferric state (met form). The additional coordination of E119 to the diiron site also slows the rate of reduction from the met form. All these processes were found to be pH-dependent, which can be attributed to protonation state and coordination status of the E119 carboxylate. These results demonstrate that modifications of the endogenous coordination sphere can produce significant changes in the ligand binding and redox properties in a prototypical nonheme diiron-carboxylate protein active site.

  8. Interaction of tryptamine and ergoline compounds with threonine 196 in the ligand binding site of the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Boess, F G; Monsma, F J; Meyer, V; Zwingelstein, C; Sleight, A J

    1997-09-01

    We examined the ligand-binding site of the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor using site-directed mutagenesis. Interactions with residues in two characteristic positions of trans-membrane region V are important for ligand binding in several bioamine receptors. In the 5-HT6 receptor, one of these residues is a threonine (Thr196), whereas in most other mammalian 5-HT receptors, the corresponding residue is alanine. After transient expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, we determined the effects of the mutation T196A on [3H]d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding and adenylyl cyclase stimulation. This mutation produced a receptor with a 10-fold reduced affinity for [3H]LSD and a 6-fold reduced affinity for 5-HT. The potency of both LSD and 5-HT for stimulation of adenylyl cyclase was also reduced by 18- and 7-fold, respectively. The affinity of other N1-unsubstituted ergolines (e.g., ergotamine, lisuride) was reduced 10-30 fold, whereas the affinity of N1-methylated ergolines (e.g., metergoline, methysergide, mesulergine) and other ligands, such as methiothepine, clozapine, ritanserin, amitriptyline, and mainserin, changed very little or increased. This indicates that in wild-type 5-HT6 receptor, Thr196 interacts with the N1 of N1-unsubstituted ergolines and tryptamines, probably forming a hydrogen bond. Based on molecular modeling, a serine residue in transmembrane region IV of the 5-HT2A receptor has previously been proposed to interact with the N1-position of 5-HT. When the corresponding residue of the 5-HT6 receptor (Ala154) was converted to serine, no change in the affinity of twelve 5-HT6 receptor ligands or in the potency of 5-HT and LSD could be detected, suggesting that this position does not contribute to the ligand binding site of the 5-HT6 receptor.

  9. A fluorescent reporter detects details of aromatic ligand interference in drug-binding sites of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Gennady; Smolina, Natalia; Syrejshchikova, Tatiana; Brilliantova, Varvara; Uzbekov, Marat

    2016-09-09

    Human serum albumin (HSA) transports many ligands including small aromatic molecules: metabolites, drugs etc. Phenylbutazone is an anti-inflammatory drug, which binds to the drug-binding site I of HSA. Its interaction with this site has been studied using a fluorescent dye, CAPIDAN, whose fluorescence in serum originates from HSA and is sensitive to the changes in HSA site I in some diseases. Its fluorescence in HSA solutions is strongly suppressed by phenylbutazone. This phenomenon seems to be a basic sign of a simple drug-dye competition. However, a more detailed study of the time-resolved fluorescence decay of CAPIDAN has shown that phenylbutazone lowers fluorescence without changing the total amount of bound dye. In brief, the HSA-bound dye forms three populations due to three types of environment at the binding sites. The first two populations probably have a rather strong Coulomb interaction with the positive charge of residues Arginine 218 or Arginine 222 in site I and are responsible for approximately 90% of the total fluorescence. Phenylbutazone blocks this interaction and therefore lowers this fluorescence. At the same time the binding of the third population increases considerably in the presence of phenylbutazone, and, as a result, the actual number of bound dye molecules remains almost unchanged despite the ligand competition. So, time resolved fluorescence of the reporter allows to observe details of interactions and interference of aromatic ligands in drug binding site I of HSA both in isolated HSA and in serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Small Molecule Ligands Targeting the HIV-1 Matrix Protein-RNA Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; McNett, Henry; Eccles, Jacob; Tsagli, Seyram; Noviello, Colleen; Sloan, Rachel; López, Claudia S.; Peyton, David H.; Barklis, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The matrix domain (MA) of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (PrGag) protein directs PrGag proteins to assembly sites at the plasma membrane by virtue of its affinity to the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). MA also binds to RNA at a site that overlaps its PI(4,5)P2 site, suggesting that RNA binding may protect MA from associating with inappropriate cellular membranes prior to PrGag delivery to the PM. Based on this, we have developed an assay in which small molecule competitors to MA-RNA binding can be characterized, with the assumption that such compounds might interfere with essential MA functions and help elucidate additional features of MA binding. Following this approach, we have identified four compounds, including three thiadiazolanes, that compete with RNA for MA binding. We also have identified MA residues involved in thiadiazolane binding and found that they overlap the MA PI(4,5)P2 and RNA sites. Cell culture studies demonstrated that thiadiazolanes inhibit HIV-1 replication but are associated with significant levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, these observations provide new insights into MA binding and pave the way for the development of antivirals that target the HIV-1 matrix domain. PMID:23135280

  11. AutoDockFR: Advances in Protein-Ligand Docking with Explicitly Specified Binding Site Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranath, Pradeep Anand; Forli, Stefano; Goodsell, David S.; Olson, Arthur J.; Sanner, Michel F.

    2015-01-01

    Automated docking of drug-like molecules into receptors is an essential tool in structure-based drug design. While modeling receptor flexibility is important for correctly predicting ligand binding, it still remains challenging. This work focuses on an approach in which receptor flexibility is modeled by explicitly specifying a set of receptor side-chains a-priori. The challenges of this approach include the: 1) exponential growth of the search space, demanding more efficient search methods; and 2) increased number of false positives, calling for scoring functions tailored for flexible receptor docking. We present AutoDockFR–AutoDock for Flexible Receptors (ADFR), a new docking engine based on the AutoDock4 scoring function, which addresses the aforementioned challenges with a new Genetic Algorithm (GA) and customized scoring function. We validate ADFR using the Astex Diverse Set, demonstrating an increase in efficiency and reliability of its GA over the one implemented in AutoDock4. We demonstrate greatly increased success rates when cross-docking ligands into apo receptors that require side-chain conformational changes for ligand binding. These cross-docking experiments are based on two datasets: 1) SEQ17 –a receptor diversity set containing 17 pairs of apo-holo structures; and 2) CDK2 –a ligand diversity set composed of one CDK2 apo structure and 52 known bound inhibitors. We show that, when cross-docking ligands into the apo conformation of the receptors with up to 14 flexible side-chains, ADFR reports more correctly cross-docked ligands than AutoDock Vina on both datasets with solutions found for 70.6% vs. 35.3% systems on SEQ17, and 76.9% vs. 61.5% on CDK2. ADFR also outperforms AutoDock Vina in number of top ranking solutions on both datasets. Furthermore, we show that correctly docked CDK2 complexes re-create on average 79.8% of all pairwise atomic interactions between the ligand and moving receptor atoms in the holo complexes. Finally, we show that

  12. AutoDockFR: Advances in Protein-Ligand Docking with Explicitly Specified Binding Site Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Pradeep Anand; Forli, Stefano; Goodsell, David S; Olson, Arthur J; Sanner, Michel F

    2015-12-01

    Automated docking of drug-like molecules into receptors is an essential tool in structure-based drug design. While modeling receptor flexibility is important for correctly predicting ligand binding, it still remains challenging. This work focuses on an approach in which receptor flexibility is modeled by explicitly specifying a set of receptor side-chains a-priori. The challenges of this approach include the: 1) exponential growth of the search space, demanding more efficient search methods; and 2) increased number of false positives, calling for scoring functions tailored for flexible receptor docking. We present AutoDockFR-AutoDock for Flexible Receptors (ADFR), a new docking engine based on the AutoDock4 scoring function, which addresses the aforementioned challenges with a new Genetic Algorithm (GA) and customized scoring function. We validate ADFR using the Astex Diverse Set, demonstrating an increase in efficiency and reliability of its GA over the one implemented in AutoDock4. We demonstrate greatly increased success rates when cross-docking ligands into apo receptors that require side-chain conformational changes for ligand binding. These cross-docking experiments are based on two datasets: 1) SEQ17 -a receptor diversity set containing 17 pairs of apo-holo structures; and 2) CDK2 -a ligand diversity set composed of one CDK2 apo structure and 52 known bound inhibitors. We show that, when cross-docking ligands into the apo conformation of the receptors with up to 14 flexible side-chains, ADFR reports more correctly cross-docked ligands than AutoDock Vina on both datasets with solutions found for 70.6% vs. 35.3% systems on SEQ17, and 76.9% vs. 61.5% on CDK2. ADFR also outperforms AutoDock Vina in number of top ranking solutions on both datasets. Furthermore, we show that correctly docked CDK2 complexes re-create on average 79.8% of all pairwise atomic interactions between the ligand and moving receptor atoms in the holo complexes. Finally, we show that down

  13. MEDock: a web server for efficient prediction of ligand binding sites based on a novel optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chang, Darby Tien-Hau; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2005-07-01

    The prediction of ligand binding sites is an essential part of the drug discovery process. Knowing the location of binding sites greatly facilitates the search for hits, the lead optimization process, the design of site-directed mutagenesis experiments and the hunt for structural features that influence the selectivity of binding in order to minimize the drug's adverse effects. However, docking is still the rate-limiting step for such predictions; consequently, much more efficient algorithms are required. In this article, the design of the MEDock web server is described. The goal of this sever is to provide an efficient utility for predicting ligand binding sites. The MEDock web server incorporates a global search strategy that exploits the maximum entropy property of the Gaussian probability distribution in the context of information theory. As a result of the global search strategy, the optimization algorithm incorporated in MEDock is significantly superior when dealing with very rugged energy landscapes, which usually have insurmountable barriers. This article describes four different benchmark cases that span a diverse set of different types of ligand binding interactions. These benchmarks were compared with the use of the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA), which is the major workhorse of the well-known AutoDock program. These results demonstrate that MEDock consistently converged to the correct binding modes with significantly smaller numbers of energy evaluations than the LGA required. When judged by a threshold of the number of energy evaluations consumed in the docking simulation, MEDock also greatly elevates the rate of accurate predictions for all benchmark cases. MEDock is available at http://medock.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ and http://bioinfo.mc.ntu.edu.tw/medock/.

  14. Pharmacology and Structural Analysis of Ligand Binding to the Orthosteric Site of Glutamate-Like GluD2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Anders S.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Naur, Peter; Olsen, Lars; Kurtkaya, Natalie L.; Dravid, Shashank M.; Kvist, Trine; Yi, Feng; Pøhlsgaard, Jacob; Clausen, Rasmus P.; Gajhede, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The GluD2 receptor is a fundamental component of postsynaptic sites in Purkinje neurons, and is required for normal cerebellar function. GluD2 and the closely related GluD1 are classified as members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) superfamily on the basis of sequence similarity, but do not bind l-glutamate. The amino acid neurotransmitter D-Ser is a GluD2 receptor ligand, and endogenous D-Ser signaling through GluD2 has recently been shown to regulate endocytosis of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid–type iGluRs during synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum, such as long-term depression. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of the orthosteric binding site in GluD2 by examining the activity of analogs of D-Ser and GluN1 glycine site competitive antagonists at GluD2 receptors containing the lurcher mutation (GluD2LC), which promotes spontaneous channel activation. We identify several compounds that modulate GluD2LC, including a halogenated alanine analog as well as the kynurenic acid analog 7-chloro-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxylic acid (7-chlorokynurenic acid; 7-CKA). By correlating thermodynamic and structural data for 7-CKA binding to the isolated GluD2 ligand binding domain (GluD2-LBD), we find that binding 7-CKA to GluD2-LBD differs from D-Ser by inducing an intermediate cleft closure of the clamshell-shaped LBD. The GluD2 ligands identified here can potentially serve as a starting point for development of GluD2-selective ligands useful as tools in studies of the signaling role of the GluD2 receptor in the brain. PMID:26661043

  15. Characterization of a second ligand binding site of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Caili; Whittaker, Linda; Whittaker, Jonathan . E-mail: jonathan.whittaker@case.edu

    2006-08-18

    Insulin binding to its receptor is characterized by high affinity, curvilinear Scatchard plots, and negative cooperativity. These properties may be the consequence of binding of insulin to two receptor binding sites. The N-terminal L1 domain and the C-terminus of the {alpha} subunit contain one binding site. To locate a second site, we examined the binding properties of chimeric receptors in which the L1 and L2 domains and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor were replaced by corresponding regions of the insulin receptor. Substitutions of the L2 domain and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat together with the L1 domain produced 80- and 300-fold increases in affinity for insulin. Fusion of these domains to human immunoglobulin Fc fragment produced a protein which bound insulin with a K {sub d} of 2.9 nM. These data strongly suggest that these domains contain an insulin binding site.

  16. How different are structurally flexible and rigid binding sites? Sequence and structural features discriminating proteins that do and do not undergo conformational change upon ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Kannan; Nussinov, Ruth

    2007-01-05

    Proteins are dynamic molecules and often undergo conformational change upon ligand binding. It is widely accepted that flexible loop regions have a critical functional role in enzymes. Lack of consideration of binding site flexibility has led to failures in predicting protein functions and in successfully docking ligands with protein receptors. Here we address the question: which sequence and structural features distinguish the structurally flexible and rigid binding sites? We analyze high-resolution crystal structures of ligand bound (holo) and free (apo) forms of 41 proteins where no conformational change takes place upon ligand binding, 35 examples with moderate conformational change, and 22 cases where a large conformational change has been observed. We find that the number of residue-residue contacts observed per-residue (contact density) does not distinguish flexible and rigid binding sites, suggesting a role for specific interactions and amino acids in modulating the conformational changes. Examination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions reveals that cases that do not undergo conformational change have high polar interactions constituting the binding pockets. Intriguingly, the large, aromatic amino acid tryptophan has a high propensity to occur at the binding sites of examples where a large conformational change has been noted. Further, in large conformational change examples, hydrophobic-hydrophobic, aromatic-aromatic, and hydrophobic-polar residue pair interactions are dominant. Further analysis of the Ramachandran dihedral angles (phi, psi) reveals that the residues adopting disallowed conformations are found in both rigid and flexible cases. More importantly, the binding site residues adopting disallowed conformations clustered narrowly into two specific regions of the L-Ala Ramachandran map. Examination of the dihedral angles changes upon ligand binding shows that the magnitude of phi, psi changes are in general minimal, although some large

  17. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  18. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein–ligand and protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation. PMID:27848959

  19. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G; Moses, John E; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-11-16

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  20. Antiestrogen-binding site ligands induce autophagy in myeloma cells that proceeds through alteration of cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Brigitte; Poirot, Marc; de Medina, Philippe; Bustany, Sophie; Marsaud, Véronique; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Renoir, Jack-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite extensive efforts to design drugs targeting tumoral cells and their microenvironment, MM remains an incurable disease for which new therapeutic strategies are needed. We demonstrated here that antiestrogens (AEs) belonging to selective estrogen receptor modulators family induce a caspase-dependent apoptosis and trigger a protective autophagy. Autophagy was recognized by monodansylcadaverin staining, detection of autophagosomes by electronic microscopy, and detection of the cleaved form of the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3. Moreover, autophagy was inhibited by drugs such as bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenosine. Autophagy was mediated by the binding of AEs to a class of receptors called the antiestrogen binding site (AEBS) different from the classical estrogen nuclear receptors. The binding of specific ligands to the AEBS was accompanied by alteration of cholesterol metabolism and in particular accumulation of sterols: zymostenol or desmosterol depending on the ligand. This was due to the inhibition of the cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase activity borne by the AEBS. We further showed that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway mediated autophagy signaling. Moreover, AEBS ligands restored sensitivity to dexamethasone in resistant MM cells. Since we showed previously that AEs arrest MM tumor growth in xenografted mice, we propose that AEBS ligands may have a potent antimyeloma activity alone or in combination with drugs used in clinic. PMID:23978789

  1. Ligand binding to the AMP-activated protein kinase active site mediates protection of the activation loop from dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini G; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2013-01-04

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved signaling molecule in a pathway that maintains adenosine triphosphate homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that low energy adenylate ligands bound to one or more sites in the γ subunit of AMPK promote the formation of an active, phosphatase-resistant conformation. We propose an alternative model in which the kinase domain association with the heterotrimer core results in activation of the kinase catalytic activity, whereas low energy adenylate ligands bound in the kinase active site promote phosphatase resistance. Purified Snf1 α subunit with a conservative, single amino acid substitution in the kinase domain is protected from dephosphorylation by adenosine diphosphate in the complete absence of the β and γ subunits. Staurosporine, a compound known to bind to the active site of many protein kinases, mediates strong protection from dephosphorylation to yeast and mammalian AMPK enzymes. The analog-sensitive Snf1-I132G protein but not wild type Snf1 exhibits protection from dephosphorylation when bound by the adenosine analog 2NM-PP1 in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that ligand binding to the Snf1 active site can mediate phosphatase resistance. Finally, Snf1 kinase with an amino acid substitution at the interface of the kinase domain and the heterotrimer core exhibits normal regulation of phosphorylation in vivo but greatly reduced Snf1 kinase activity, supporting a model in which kinase domain association with the heterotrimer core is needed for kinase activation.

  2. Validation of a computational docking methodology to identify the non-covalent binding site of ligands to DNA.

    PubMed

    Deligkaris, Christos; Ascone, Anthony Thomas; Sweeney, Kevin Joseph; Greene, Alan Jonathan Quentin

    2014-08-01

    Despite the biomedical consequences of carcinogen-DNA interactions and the potential of DNA as a drug target in medicinal chemistry, only a small number of studies have validated or used docking methods for the prediction of the physical binding of small molecules to DNA. Knowledge of the DNA-physically-bound ligand geometry can lead to the elucidation of the molecular-level mechanism of drugs as well as predicting the subsequent chemical interactions that lead to DNA damage from carcinogens. We sought to validate AutoDock 4.2, a docking method that includes a physics-based free energy function and a Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, for the prediction of ligand geometries upon physical binding to DNA. We performed simulations by systematically changing the length of the search process for a comprehensive set of 32 ligand-DNA molecular systems with different physico-chemical properties, and we used a free-energy-based convergence criterion to terminate our simulations. For 11 out of 28 molecular systems for which convergence was achieved, the lowest binding free energy geometries were within 2 Å of the experimentally determined geometry. Considering all predicted sites with free energy changes within 20% of the lowest binding free energy site, we found a site within 2 Å of the experimentally determined geometry for 24 out of the 28 systems. However, the predicted hydrogen bonding interactions were different for most molecular systems compared to the same interactions in the experimentally determined geometry. We discuss reasons for the successes and failures, implications, and the importance of ensuring an adequate search in docking calculations. Overall, we concluded that AutoDock 4.2 can be used to predict the non-covalent binding geometry of a small molecule to DNA with some limitations.

  3. Mapping the Anopheles gambiae Odorant Binding Protein 1 (AgamOBP1) using modeling techniques, site directed mutagenesis, circular dichroism and ligand binding assays

    PubMed Central

    Rusconi, B; Maranhao, AC; Fuhrer, JP; Krotee, P; Choi, SH; Grun, F; Thireou, T; Dimitratos, SD; Woods, DF; Marinotti, O; Walter, MF; Eliopoulos, E

    2012-01-01

    The major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa is the Anopheles gambiae mosquito. This species is a key target of malaria control measures. Mosquitoes find humans primarily through olfaction, yet the molecular mechanisms associated with host-seeking behavior remain largely unknown. To further understand the functionality of A. gambiae odorant binding protein 1 (AgamOBP1), we combined in silico protein structure modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to generate 16 AgamOBP1 protein analogues containing single point mutations of interest. Circular dichroism (CD) and ligand-binding assays provided data necessary to probe the effects of the point mutations on ligand binding and the overall structure of AgamOBP1. Far-UV CD spectra of mutated AgamOBP1 variants displayed both substantial decreases to ordered α-helix structure (up to 22%) and increases to disordered α-helix structure(up to 15%) with only minimal changes in random coil (unordered) structure. In mutations Y54A, Y122A and W114Q, aromatic side chain removal from the binding site significantly reduced N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine binding. Several non-aromatic mutations (L15T, L19T, L58T, L58Y, M84Q, M84K, H111A, Y122A and L124T) elicited changes to protein conformation with subsequent effects on ligand binding. This study provides empirical evidence for the in silico predicted functions of specific amino acids in AgamOBP1 folding and ligand binding characteristics. PMID:22564768

  4. Sites within the complement C3b/C4b receptor important for the specificity of ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Krych, M; Hourcade, D; Atkinson, J P

    1991-01-01

    Cysteine-rich repeated units of 40-70 amino acids are building blocks of many mammalian proteins, including 12 proteins of the complement system. Human complement arranged motifs, designated short consensus repeats (SCRs), which constitute the entire extracellular portion of this protein. Klickstein et al. [Klickstein, L. B., Bartow, T. J., Miletic, V., Rabson, L. D., Smith, J. A. & Fearon, D. T. (1988) J. Exp. Med. 168, 1699-1717 (abstr.)] localized a C4b binding domain to SCR-1 and/or SCR-2 and a C3b binding domain to SCR-8 and/or SCR-9. These SCRs bind different ligands, although SCR-1 and SCR-8 are 55% homologous and SCR-2 and SCR-9 are 70% homologous. To examine if one or two SCRs are required for ligand binding and to define sites within the SCRs that determine specificity of binding, mutagenesis analysis of a truncated, secreted form of CR1, called CR1-4 by Hourcade et al. [Hourcade, D., Meisner, D. R., Atkinson, J. P. & Holers, V. M. (1988) J. Exp. Med. 168, 1255-1270], was undertaken. The latter, composed of the first eight and one-half amino-terminal SCRs of CR1, efficiently bound C4b but not iC3. SCR-1 and SCR-2 were necessary for this interaction. Analysis of the mutant CR1-4 proteins, in which amino acids in SCR-1 and SCR-2 were substituted a few at a time with the homologous amino acids of SCR-8 and SCR-9, led to the identification of one amino acid in SCR-1 and three amino acids in SCR-2 important for C4b binding. Furthermore, five amino acids at the end of SCR-9, if placed in the homologous positions of SCR-2, conferred iC3 binding and are likely essential for ligand binding activity of SCR-8 and SCR-9. This iC3 binding occurred only if SCR-1 was present, indicating that two contiguous SCRs are necessary for this interaction. These results provide identification of amino acids within SCRs that are important for ligand binding. Images PMID:1827918

  5. Thermodynamic Characterization of Hydration Sites from Integral Equation-Derived Free Energy Densities: Application to Protein Binding Sites and Ligand Series.

    PubMed

    Güssregen, Stefan; Matter, Hans; Hessler, Gerhard; Lionta, Evanthia; Heil, Jochen; Kast, Stefan M

    2017-07-24

    Water molecules play an essential role for mediating interactions between ligands and protein binding sites. Displacement of specific water molecules can favorably modulate the free energy of binding of protein-ligand complexes. Here, the nature of water interactions in protein binding sites is investigated by 3D RISM (three-dimensional reference interaction site model) integral equation theory to understand and exploit local thermodynamic features of water molecules by ranking their possible displacement in structure-based design. Unlike molecular dynamics-based approaches, 3D RISM theory allows for fast and noise-free calculations using the same detailed level of solute-solvent interaction description. Here we correlate molecular water entities instead of mere site density maxima with local contributions to the solvation free energy using novel algorithms. Distinct water molecules and hydration sites are investigated in multiple protein-ligand X-ray structures, namely streptavidin, factor Xa, and factor VIIa, based on 3D RISM-derived free energy density fields. Our approach allows the semiquantitative assessment of whether a given structural water molecule can potentially be targeted for replacement in structure-based design. Finally, PLS-based regression models from free energy density fields used within a 3D-QSAR approach (CARMa - comparative analysis of 3D RISM Maps) are shown to be able to extract relevant information for the interpretation of structure-activity relationship (SAR) trends, as demonstrated for a series of serine protease inhibitors.

  6. Identification and reconstruction of the binding site within alphaMbeta2 for a specific and high affinity ligand, NIF.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Plow, E F

    1997-07-11

    Engagement of the alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1) integrin on neutrophils supports adhesion and induces various cellular responses. These responses can be blocked by a specific ligand of alphaMbeta2, neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF). The molecular basis of alphaMbeta2-NIF interactions was studied. The single chain alphaM subunit, expressed on the surface of human 293 cells, bound NIF with an affinity equivalent to that of alphaMbeta2 heterodimer. This observation, coupled with previous data showing that the alphaMI domain alone supported high affinity NIF binding, indicated that the binding site for NIF is restricted to the I domain. Guided by the crystal structure of the alphaMI domain, 16 segments corresponding to the entire outer hydrated surface of alphaMI domain were switched to their counterparts sequences in alphaL, which does not bind NIF. Surface expression and heterodimer formation were achieved for all mutants, and correct folding was confirmed. Of the 16 switches, only 5 affected NIF binding substantially, reducing affinity by 8-300-fold. These data confined the NIF-binding site to a narrow region composed of Pro147-Arg152, Pro201-Lys217, and Asp248-Arg261 of alphaM. Verifying this localization, when these segments were introduced into the alphaXI-domain, the resulting chimeric receptor was converted into a high affinity NIF-binding protein.

  7. Ligand Migration in the Gaseous Insulin-CB7 Complex—A Cautionary Tale About the Use of ECD-MS for Ligand Binding Site Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Brittany L.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge of the structure of protein-ligand complexes can aid in understanding their roles within complex biological processes. Here we use electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer to investigate the noncovalent binding of the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) to bovine insulin. Recent condensed-phase experiments (Chinai et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133:8810-8813, 2011) indicate that CB7 binds selectively to the N-terminal phenylalanine of the insulin B-chain. Competition experiments employing ESI mass spectrometry to assess complex formation between CB7 and wild type insulin B-chain vs. a mutant B-chain, confirm that the N-terminal phenylalanine plays in important role in solution-phase binding. However, analysis of fragment ions produced by electron capture dissociation (ECD) of CB7 complexed to intact insulin and to the insulin B-chain suggests a different picture. The apparent gas-phase binding site, as identified by the ECD, lies further along the insulin B-chain. Together, these studies thus indicate that the CB7 ligand migrates in the ESI mass spectrometry analysis. Migration is likely aided by the presence of additional interactions between CB7 and the insulin B-chain, which are not observed in the crystal structure. While this conformational difference may result simply from the removal of solvent and addition of excess protons by the ESI, we propose that the migration may be enhanced by charge reduction during the ECD process itself because ion-dipole interactions are key to CB7 binding. The results of this study caution against using ECD-MS as a stand-alone structural probe for the determination of solution-phase binding sites.

  8. Binding hotspots on K-Ras: consensus ligand binding sites and other reactive regions from probe-based molecular dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Priyanka; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used probe-based molecular dynamics (pMD) simulations to search for interaction hotspots on the surface of the therapeutically highly relevant oncogenic K-Ras G12D. Combining the probe-based query with an ensemble-based pocket identification scheme and an analysis of existing Ras-ligand complexes, we show that (i) pMD is a robust and cost-effective strategy for binding site identification, (ii) all four of the previously reported ligand binding sites are suitable for structure-based ligand design, and (iii) in some cases probe binding and expanded sampling of configurational space enable pocket expansion and increase the likelihood of site identification. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution of hotspots in non-pocket-like regions with known protein- and membrane-interacting interfaces, we propose that pMD has the potential to predict surface patches responsible for protein-biomolecule interactions. These observations have important implications for future drug design efforts and will facilitate the search for potential interfaces responsible for the proposed transient oligomerization or interaction of Ras with other biomolecules in the cellular milieu. PMID:25740554

  9. Binding hotspots on K-ras: consensus ligand binding sites and other reactive regions from probe-based molecular dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Priyanka; Hancock, John F; Gorfe, Alemayehu A

    2015-05-01

    We have used probe-based molecular dynamics (pMD) simulations to search for interaction hotspots on the surface of the therapeutically highly relevant oncogenic K-Ras G12D. Combining the probe-based query with an ensemble-based pocket identification scheme and an analysis of existing Ras-ligand complexes, we show that (i) pMD is a robust and cost-effective strategy for binding site identification, (ii) all four of the previously reported ligand binding sites are suitable for structure-based ligand design, and (iii) in some cases probe binding and expanded sampling of configurational space enable pocket expansion and increase the likelihood of site identification. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution of hotspots in nonpocket-like regions with known protein- and membrane-interacting interfaces, we propose that pMD has the potential to predict surface patches responsible for protein-biomolecule interactions. These observations have important implications for future drug design efforts and will facilitate the search for potential interfaces responsible for the proposed transient oligomerization or interaction of Ras with other biomolecules in the cellular milieu.

  10. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF THE BINDING OF LIGANDS TO THE DICARBOXYLATE SITE OF COMPLEX II, AND THE IDENTITY OF THE LIGAND IN THE “OXALOACETATE-INHIBITED” STATE.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Shar; Shen, John T.; Wang, Andy C.; Berry., Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial Complex II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is purified in a partially innactivated state, which can be activated by removal of tightly bound oxaloacetate (Kearney, E. B. et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 49, 1115–1121). We crystallized Complex II in the presence of oxaloacetate or with the endogenous inhibitor bound. The structure showed a ligand essentially identical to the “malate-like intermediate” found in Shewanella Flavocytochrome c crystallized with fumarate (Taylor, P. et al. Nat Struct Biol 6, 1108–1112.) Crystallization of Complex II in the presence of excess fumarate also gave the malate-like intermediate or a mixture of that and fumarate at the active site. In order to more conveniently monitor the occupation state of the dicarboxylate site, we are developing a library of UV/Vis spectral effects induced by binding different ligands to the site. Treatment with fumarate results in rapid development of the fumarate difference spectrum and then a very slow conversion into a species spectrally similar to the OAA-liganded complex. Complex II is known to be capable of oxidizing malate to the enol form of oxaloacetate (Belikova, Y. O. et al. Biochim Biophys Acta 936, 1–9). The observations above suggest it may also be capable of interconverting fumarate and malate. It may be useful for understanding the mechanism and regulation of the enzyme to identify the malate-like intermediate and its pathway of formation from oxaloacetate or fumarate. PMID:16935256

  11. Flavonol Activation Defines an Unanticipated Ligand-Binding Site in the Kinase-RNase Domain of IRE1

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, R. Luke; Zhang, Yuhong; Lee, Kenneth P.K.; Harding, Heather P.; Haynes, Cole M.; Price, Joshua; Sicheri, Frank; Ron, David

    2010-08-18

    Signaling in the most conserved branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) is initiated by sequence-specific cleavage of the HAC1/XBP1 mRNA by the ER stress-induced kinase-endonuclease IRE1. We have discovered that the flavonol quercetin activates yeast IRE1's RNase and potentiates activation by ADP, a natural activating ligand that engages the IRE1 nucleotide-binding cleft. Enzyme kinetics and the structure of a cocrystal of IRE1 complexed with ADP and quercetin reveal engagement by quercetin of an unanticipated ligand-binding pocket at the dimer interface of IRE1's kinase extension nuclease (KEN) domain. Analytical ultracentrifugation and crosslinking studies support the preeminence of enhanced dimer formation in quercetin's mechanism of action. These findings hint at the existence of endogenous cytoplasmic ligands that may function alongside stress signals from the ER lumen to modulate IRE1 activity and at the potential for the development of drugs that modify UPR signaling from this unanticipated site.

  12. Active site restructuring regulates ligand recognition in class A penicillin-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Macheboeuf, Pauline; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Job, Viviana; Vernet, Thierry; Dideberg, Otto; Dessen, Andréa

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is a complex, multimolecular process that requires biosynthesis of new peptidoglycan by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) during cell wall elongation and septum formation steps. Streptococcus pneumoniae has three bifunctional (class A) PBPs that catalyze both polymerization of glycan chains (glycosyltransfer) and cross-linking of pentapeptidic bridges (transpeptidation) during the peptidoglycan biosynthetic process. In addition to playing important roles in cell division, PBPs are also the targets for β-lactam antibiotics and thus play key roles in drug-resistance mechanisms. The crystal structure of a soluble form of pneumococcal PBP1b (PBP1b*) has been solved to 1.9 Å, thus providing previously undescribed structural information regarding a class A PBP from any organism. PBP1b* is a three-domain molecule harboring a short peptide from the glycosyltransferase domain bound to an interdomain linker region, the transpeptidase domain, and a C-terminal region. The structure of PBP1b* complexed with β-lactam antibiotics reveals that ligand recognition requires a conformational modification involving conserved elements within the cleft. The open and closed structures of PBP1b* suggest how class A PBPs may become activated as novel peptidoglycan synthesis becomes necessary during the cell division process. In addition, this structure provides an initial framework for the understanding of the role of class A PBPs in the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:15637155

  13. Density functional theory calculations on the mononuclear non-heme iron active site of Hmd hydrogenase: role of the internal ligands in tuning external ligand binding and driving H2 heterolysis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Abhishek

    2010-10-06

    DFT calculations on active-site models of the non-heme Fe site of Hmd hydrogenase are reported. Binding of several biologically relevant ligands (e.g., CN(-), CO, H(-), H(2), and O(2)) to the active site of Hmd was investigated using a method that reproduced the geometric and vibrational properties of the resting site. The results indicate that this neutral ferrous active site has higher affinity toward anionic ligands (e.g., H(-) and CN(-)) than π-acidic ligands (e.g., CO and O(2)). Natural population analysis and molecular orbital analysis revealed that this is due to extensive delocalization of electron density into the low-lying unoccupied orbitals of the CO, acyl, and pyridinol ligands present in the active site. In addition to normal d-π back-bonding, metal 3d orbital-mediated charge transfer from occupied ligand orbitals to the unoccupied orbitals of the internal ligands was observed. This charge transfer leads to systematic variations in the experimentally observed C-O stretching frequencies. Protonation of the thiolate ligand present in the active site significantly enhances these anion ligand binding affinities. In fact, the calculated vibrational frequencies indicate that CN(-) binding is possibly associated with protonation of the thiolate ligand. The high affinity for binding of the anionic H(-) ligand (where 81% of the electron density of H(-) is delocalized into the active site) is calculated to play a dominating role in the H-H bond heterolysis step during catalysis. The binding energies of these ligands relative to the substrate, H(2), highlight the importance of a proposed structural reorganization during catalysis.

  14. Constructing query-driven dynamic machine learning model with application to protein-ligand binding sites prediction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Jun; Hu, Jun; Li, Qian-Mu; Tang, Zhen-Min; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We are facing an era with annotated biological data rapidly and continuously generated. How to effectively incorporate new annotated data into the learning step is crucial for enhancing the performance of a bioinformatics prediction model. Although machine-learning-based methods have been extensively used for dealing with various biological problems, existing approaches usually train static prediction models based on fixed training datasets. The static approaches are found having several disadvantages such as low scalability and impractical when training dataset is huge. In view of this, we propose a dynamic learning framework for constructing query-driven prediction models. The key difference between the proposed framework and the existing approaches is that the training set for the machine learning algorithm of the proposed framework is dynamically generated according to the query input, as opposed to training a general model regardless of queries in traditional static methods. Accordingly, a query-driven predictor based on the smaller set of data specifically selected from the entire annotated base dataset will be applied on the query. The new way for constructing the dynamic model enables us capable of updating the annotated base dataset flexibly and using the most relevant core subset as the training set makes the constructed model having better generalization ability on the query, showing "part could be better than all" phenomenon. According to the new framework, we have implemented a dynamic protein-ligand binding sites predictor called OSML (On-site model for ligand binding sites prediction). Computer experiments on 10 different ligand types of three hierarchically organized levels show that OSML outperforms most existing predictors. The results indicate that the current dynamic framework is a promising future direction for bridging the gap between the rapidly accumulated annotated biological data and the effective machine-learning-based predictors. OSML

  15. Lumazine proteins from photobacteria: localization of the single ligand binding site to the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Illarionov, Boris; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wirth, Martina; Yong Lee, Chan; Eun Woo, Young; Bacher, Adelbert; Fischer, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Lumazine protein is believed to serve as an optical transponder in bioluminescence emission by certain marine bacteria. Sequence arguments suggest that the protein comprises two similarly folded riboflavin synthase-type domains, but earlier work also suggested that only one domain binds 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL). We show that the replacement of serine-48 or threonine-50 in the N-terminal domain of lumazine protein of Photobacterium leiognathi modulates the absorbance and fluorescence properties of bound DMRL or riboflavin. Moreover, the replacement of these amino acids is accompanied by reduced ligand affinity. Replacement of serine-48 by tryptophan shifts the (13)C NMR signal of the 6-methyl group in bound DMRL upfield by 2.9 ppm as compared to the wild-type protein complex. Replacement of threonine-50 causes a downfield shift of approximately 20 ppm for the (15)N NMR signal of N-5, as well as an upfield shift of 3 ppm for the (13)C NMR signal of C-7 in bound DMRL, respectively. The replacement of the topologically equivalent serine-144 and proline-146 in the C-terminal domain had no significant impact on optical properties, chemical shifts and apparent binding constants of bound DMRL. These data show that the N-terminal domain is the unique site for ligand binding in lumazine protein.

  16. Conserved residues in RF-NH₂ receptor models identify predicted contact sites in ligand-receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Bass, C; Katanski, C; Maynard, B; Zurro, I; Mariane, E; Matta, M; Loi, M; Melis, V; Capponi, V; Muroni, P; Setzu, M; Nichols, R

    2014-03-01

    Peptides in the RF-NH2 family are grouped together based on an amidated dipeptide C terminus and signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to influence diverse physiological functions. By determining the mechanisms underlying RF-NH2 signaling targets can be identified to modulate physiological activity; yet, how RF-NH2 peptides interact with GPCRs is relatively unexplored. We predicted conserved residues played a role in Drosophila melanogaster RF-NH2 ligand-receptor interactions. In this study D. melanogaster rhodopsin-like family A peptide GPCRs alignments identified eight conserved residues unique to RF-NH2 receptors. Three of these residues were in extra-cellular loops of modeled RF-NH2 receptors and four in transmembrane helices oriented into a ligand binding pocket to allow contact with a peptide. The eighth residue was unavailable for interaction; yet its conservation suggested it played another role. A novel hydrophobic region representative of RF-NH2 receptors was also discovered. The presence of rhodopsin-like family A GPCR structural motifs including a toggle switch indicated RF-NH2s signal classically; however, some features of the DMS receptors were distinct from other RF-NH2 GPCRs. Additionally, differences in RF-NH2 receptor structures which bind the same peptide explained ligand specificity. Our novel results predicted conserved residues as RF-NH2 ligand-receptor contact sites and identified unique and classic structural features. These discoveries will aid antagonist design to modulate RF-NH2 signaling.

  17. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-09-13

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction.

  18. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-01-01

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction. PMID:27619067

  19. The ligand-binding profile of HARE: hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates A, C, and D bind to overlapping sites distinct from the sites for heparin, acetylated low-density lipoprotein, dermatan sulfate, and CS-E

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Edward N.; Weigel, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    The hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE)/ Stabilin-2 is the primary systemic scavenger receptor for hyaluronan (HA), the chondroitin sulfates (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and nonglycosaminoglycan (GAG) ligands such as acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), pro-collagen propeptides, and advanced glycation end products. We recently discovered that HARE is also a systemic scavenger receptor for heparin (Hep) (Harris EN, Weigel JA, Weigel PH. 2008. The human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis [HARE/Stabilin-2] is a systemic clearance receptor for heparin. J Biol Chem. 283:17341–17350). Our goal was to map the binding sites of eight different ligands within HARE. We used biotinylated GAGs and radio-iodinated streptavidin or AcLDL to assess the binding activities of ligands directly or indirectly (by competition with unlabeled ligands) in endocytosis assays using stable cell lines expressing the 315 or 190 kDa HA receptor for endocytosis (315- or 190-HARE) isoforms, and ELISA-like assays, with purified recombinant soluble 190-HARE ecto-domain. For example, Hep binding to HARE was competed by DS, CS-E, AcLDL, and dextran sulfate, but not by other CS types, HA, dextran, or heparosan. 125I-AcLDL binding to HARE was partially competed by Hep and dextran sulfate, but not competed by HA. Two ligands, DS and CS-E, competed with both Hep and HA to some degree. Hep and HA binding or endocytosis is mutually inclusive; binding of these two GAGs occurs with functionally separate, noncompetitive, and apparently noninteracting domains. Thus, HARE binds to HA and Hep simultaneously. Although the domain(s) responsible for Hep binding remains unknown, the Link domain was required for HARE binding to HA, CS-A, CS-C, and CS-D. These results enable us to outline, for the first time, a binding activity map for multiple ligands of HARE. PMID:18499864

  20. Identification of residues in transmembrane regions III and VI that contribute to the ligand binding site of the serotonin 5-HT6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Boess, F G; Monsma, F J; Sleight, A J

    1998-11-01

    We have examined the ligand binding site of the serotonin 5-HT6 receptor using site-directed mutagenesis. Replacing the highly conserved Asp106 in transmembrane region III by asparagine eliminated D-[3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding to the mutant receptor transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. The potency of 5-HT and LSD to stimulate adenylyl cyclase was reduced by 3,600- and 500-fold, respectively, suggesting that an ionic interaction between the positively charged amino group of 5-HT and D106 is essential for high-affinity binding and important for receptor activation. In addition, basal cyclic AMP levels in cells expressing this mutant were increased. Mutation of a tryptophan residue one helix turn toward the extracellular side of transmembrane region III (Trp102) to phenylalanine produced significant changes in the binding affinity and potency of several ligands, consistent with a role of this residue in the formation of the ligand binding site. The exchange of two neighboring residues in the carboxy-terminal half of transmembrane region VI (Ala287 and Asn288) for leucine and serine resulted in a mutant receptor with increased affinities (seven- to 30-fold) for sumatriptan and several ergopeptine ligands. The identification of these interactions will help to improve models of the 5-HT6 receptor ligand binding site.

  1. Effects of continuous administration of paroxetine on ligand binding site and expression of serotonin transporter protein in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kazufumi; Seki, Takahiro; Sakai, Norio; Kato, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Hisakuni; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-08-16

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine, are utilized in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Although SSRIs potently interfere with the activity of brain serotonin transporter (SERT) after acute treatment, clinical improvement of psychiatric diseases is observed only after the repeated administration for several weeks (2-6 weeks). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of continuous administration of paroxetine on specific [3H]paroxetine binding sites and expression of SERT protein in mouse brain. Mice continuously and subcutaneously received paroxetine at doses of 2.67 or 13.3 mumol/kg/day for 21 days by using osmotic minipumps, and the steady-state plasma drug levels were within the range of reported concentrations in the clinical therapy. Continuous administration of paroxetine at theses doses produced significant (25-46%) reduction of [3H]paroxetine binding in each brain region (cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, midbrain) of mice. In Western blot analysis, expression levels of SERT protein in the thalamus and midbrain of mice were significantly (51% and 61%, respectively) decreased on day 21 after the implantation of minipumps at the higher dose. In conclusion, this study has firstly shown that continuous administration of paroxetine induces significant reduction of not only ligand binding sites of SERT but the protein expression level in mouse brain. Such down-regulation of SERT may partly underlie the therapeutic effect of long-term treatment with SSRIs in human.

  2. The ligand binding site of NPY at the rat Y1 receptor investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Robin-Jagerschmidt, C; Sylte, I; Bihoreau, C; Hendricksen, L; Calvet, A; Dahl, S G; Bénicourt, C

    1998-04-30

    The ligand binding site of neuropeptide Y (NPY) at the rat Y1 (rY1,) receptor was investigated by construction of mutant receptors and [3H]NPY binding studies. Expression levels of mutant receptors that did not bind [3H]NPY were examined by an immunological method. The single mutations Asp85Asn, Asp85Ala, Asp85Glu and Asp103Ala completely abolished [3H]NPY binding without impairing the membrane expression. The single mutation Asp286Ala completely abolished [3H]NPY binding. Similarly, the double mutation Leu34Arg/Asp199Ala totally abrogated the binding of [3H]NPY, whereas the single mutations Leu34Arg and Asp199Ala decreased the binding of [3H]NPY 2.7- and 5.2-fold, respectively. The mutants Leu34Glu, Pro35His as well as Asp193Ala only slightly affected [3H]NPY binding. A receptor with a deletion of the segment Asn2-Glu20 or with simultaneous mutations of the three putative N-terminal glycosylation sites, displayed no detectable [3H]NPY binding, due to abolished expression of the receptor at the cell surface. Taken together, these results suggest that amino acids in the N-terminal part as well as in the first and second extracellular loops are important for binding of NPY, and that Asp85 in transmembrane helix 2 is pivotal to a proper functioning of the receptor. Moreover, these studies suggest that the putative glycosylation sites in the N-terminal part are crucial for correct expression of the rY1 receptor at the cell surface.

  3. Constraints of opsin structure on the ligand-binding site: studies with ring-fused retinals.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takahiro; Lim, In Taek; Kim, Don Moon; Zheng, Xiang-Guo; Yoshihara, Kazuo; Oyama, Yoshiaki; Imai, Hiroo; Shichida, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Masaji

    2002-12-01

    Ring-fused retinal analogs were designed to examine the hula-twist mode of the photoisomerization of the 9-cis retinylidene chromophore. Two 9-cis retinal analogs, the C11-C13 five-membered ring-fused and the C12-C14 five-membered ring-fused retinal derivatives, formed the pigments with opsin. The C11-C13 ring-fused analog was isomerized to a relaxed all-trans chromophore (lambda(max) > 400 nm) at even -269 degrees C and the Schiff base was kept protonated at 0 degrees C. The C12-C14 ring-fused analog was converted photochemically to a bathorhodopsin-like chromophore (lambda(max) = 583 nm) at -196 degrees C, which was further converted to the deprotonated Schiff base at 0 degrees C. The model-building study suggested that the analogs do not form pigments in the retinal-binding site of rhodopsin but form pigments with opsin structures, which have larger binding space generated by the movement of transmembrane helices. The molecular dynamics simulation of the isomerization of the analog chromophores provided a twisted C11-C12 double bond for the C12-C14 ring-fused analog and all relaxed double bonds with a highly twisted C10-C11 bond for the C11-C13 ring-fused analog. The structural model of the C11-C13 ring-fused analog chromophore showed a characteristic flip of the cyclohexenyl moiety toward transmembrane segments 3 and 4. The structural models suggested that hula twist is a primary process for the photoisomerization of the analog chromophores.

  4. The thermodynamic signature of ligand binding to histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolases is most sensitive to the flexibility in the L2-loop lining the active site pocket.

    PubMed

    Meyners, Christian; Krämer, Andreas; Yildiz, Özkan; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of the thermodynamic driving forces of ligand-protein binding has been suggested to be a key component for the selection and optimization of active compounds into drug candidates. The binding enthalpy as deduced from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is usually interpreted assuming single-step binding of a ligand to one conformation of the target protein. Although successful in many cases, these assumptions are oversimplified approximations of the reality with flexible proteins and complicated binding mechanism in many if not most cases. The relationship between protein flexibility and thermodynamic signature of ligand binding is largely understudied. Directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetics and ITC methods were combined to dissect the influence of loop flexibility on the thermodynamics and mechanism of ligand binding to histone deacetylase (HDAC)-like amidohydrolases. The general ligand-protein binding mechanism comprises an energetically demanding gate opening step followed by physical binding. Increased flexibility of the L2-loop in HDAC-like amidohydrolases facilitates access of ligands to the binding pocket resulting in predominantly enthalpy-driven complex formation. The study provides evidence for the great importance of flexibility adjacent to the active site channel for the mechanism and observed thermodynamic driving forces of molecular recognition in HDAC like enzymes. The flexibility or malleability in regions adjacent to binding pockets should be given more attention when designing better drug candidates. The presented case study also suggests that the observed binding enthalpy of protein-ligand systems should be interpreted with caution, since more complicated binding mechanisms may obscure the significance regarding potential drug likeness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A strategy for the incorporation of water molecules present in a ligand binding site into a three-dimensional quantitative structure--activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M; Cruciani, G; Watson, K A

    1997-12-05

    Water present in a ligand binding site of a protein has been recognized to play a major role in ligand-protein interactions. To date, rational drug design techniques do not usually incorporate the effect of these water molecules into the design strategy. This work represents a new strategy for including water molecules into a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using a set of glucose analogue inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). In this series, the structures of the ligand-enzyme complexes have been solved by X-ray crystallography, and the positions of the ligands and the water molecules at the ligand binding site are known. For the structure-activity analysis, some water molecules adjacent to the ligands were included into an assembly which encompasses both the inhibitor and the water involved in the ligand-enzyme interaction. The mobility of some water molecules at the ligand binding site of GP gives rise to differences in the ligand-water assembly which have been accounted for using a simulation study involving force-field energy calculations. The assembly of ligand plus water was used in a GRID/GOLPE analysis, and the models obtained compare favorably with equivalent models when water was excluded. Both models were analyzed in detail and compared with the crystallographic structures of the ligand-enzyme complexes in order to evaluate their ability to reproduce the experimental observations. The results demonstrate that incorporation of water molecules into the analysis improves the predictive ability of the models and makes them easier to interpret. The information obtained from interpretation of the models is in good agreement with the conclusions derived from the structural analysis of the complexes and offers valuable insights into new characteristics of the ligands which may be exploited for the design of more potent inhibitors.

  6. Metal and ligand binding to the HIV-RNase H active site are remotely monitored by Ile556.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xunhai; Mueller, Geoffrey A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2012-11-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) contains a C-terminal ribonuclease H (RH) domain on its p66 subunit that can be expressed as a stable, although inactive protein. Recent studies of several RH enzymes demonstrate that substrate binding plays a major role in the creation of the active site. In the absence of substrate, the C-terminal helix E of the RT RNase H domain is dynamic, characterized by severe exchange broadening of its backbone amide resonances, so that the solution characterization of this region of the protein has been limited. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 13C-labeled RH as a function of experimental conditions reveal that the δ1 methyl resonance of Ile556, located in a short, random coil segment following helix E, experiences a large 13C shift corresponding to a conformational change of Ile556 that results from packing of helix E against the central β-sheet. This shift provides a useful basis for monitoring the effects of various ligands on active site formation. Additionally, we report that the RNase H complexes formed with one or both divalent ions can be individually observed and characterized using diamagnetic Zn2+ as a substitute for Mg2+. Ordering of helix E results specifically from the interaction with the lower affinity binding to the A divalent ion site.

  7. Building complexity in O2-binding copper complexes. Site-selective metalation and intermolecular O2-binding at dicopper and heterometallic complexes derived from an unsymmetric ligand.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Costas, Miquel; Company, Anna

    2014-12-15

    A novel unsymmetric dinucleating ligand (L(N3N4)) combining a tridentate and a tetradentate binding sites linked through a m-xylyl spacer was synthesized as ligand scaffold for preparing homo- and dimetallic complexes, where the two metal ions are bound in two different coordination environments. Site-selective binding of different metal ions is demonstrated. L(N3N4) is able to discriminate between Cu(I) and a complementary metal (M' = Cu(I), Zn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II), or Ga(III)) so that pure heterodimetallic complexes with a general formula [Cu(I)M'(L(N3N4))](n+) are synthesized. Reaction of the dicopper(I) complex [Cu(I)2(L(N3N4))](2+) with O2 leads to the formation of two different copper-dioxygen (Cu2O2) intermolecular species (O and (T)P) between two copper atoms located in the same site from different complex molecules. Taking advantage of this feature, reaction of the heterodimetallic complexes [CuM'(L(N3N4))](n+) with O2 at low temperature is used as a tool to determine the final position of the Cu(I) center in the system because only one of the two Cu2O2 species is formed.

  8. Variation in One Residue Associated with the Metal Ion-Dependent Adhesion Site Regulates αIIbβ3 Integrin Ligand Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xue; Xiu, Zhilong; Li, Guohui; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the β I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the β3 residue Ala252 and corresponding Ala in the β1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the β2 and β7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) of integrins α4β7 and αLβ2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the α2β1, α5β1, αVβ3, and αIIbβ3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the αIIbβ3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala252 to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant αIIbβ3 integrin β I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion. PMID:24116162

  9. A new search subspace to compensate failure of cavity-based localization of ligand-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kalpana; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2017-01-31

    The common exercise adopted in almost all the ligand-binding sites (LBS) predictive methods is to considerably reduce the search space up to a meager fraction of the whole protein. In this exercise it is assumed that the LBS are mostly localized within a search subspace, cavities, which topologically appear to be valleys within a protein surface. Therefore, extraction of cavities is considered as a most important preprocessing step for finally predicting LBS. However, prediction of LBS based on cavity search subspace is found to fail for some proteins. To solve this problem a new search subspace was introduced which was found successful to localize LBS in most of the proteins used in this work for which cavity-based method MetaPocket 2.0 failed. Therefore this work appeared to augment well the existing binding site predictive methods through its applicability for complementary set of proteins for which cavity-based methods might fail. Also, to decide on the proteins for which instead of cavity-subspace the new subspace should be explored, a decision framework based on simple heuristic is made which uses geometric parameters of cavities extracted through MetaPocket 2.0. It is found that option for selecting the new or cavity-search subspace can be predicted correctly for nearly 87.5% of test proteins.

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors target family landscape: A chemometrical approach to ligand selectivity based on protein binding site analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirard, Bernard

    2003-11-01

    The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors which over the last couple of years have been the focus of considerable research efforts aiming to identify compounds with well-defined selectivity profiles for the treatment of metabolic diseases. The ligand binding domains (LBD) of the three known PPAR subtypes exhibit between 60 and 70% sequence identity. To gain insight into the structural determinants of selectivity for the PPAR subtypes, a set of 13 crystal structures of PPAR LBD were classified, using the GRID/CPCA approach. As a result, nearly all of the crystal structures of each different PPAR subtype were found clustered in different regions of the CPCA score plots, and hydrophobic as well as steric interactions were identified as the major determinants of PPAR subtypes selectivity. Furthermore, interpretation of the GRID/CPCA model in structural terms led to the identification of LBD regions which could be targeted to improve the selectivity for a given PPAR subtype. Our findings are consistent with published structure-activity relationships for PPAR ligands as well as with site-directed mutagenesis results.

  11. Exploration of the ligand binding site of the human 5-HT(4) receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Mialet, J; Dahmoune, Y; Lezoualc'h, F; Berque-Bestel, I; Eftekhari, P; Hoebeke, J; Sicsic, S; Langlois, M; Fischmeister, R

    2000-06-01

    Among the five human 5-HT(4) (h5-HT(4)) receptor isoforms, the h5-HT(4(a)) receptor was studied with a particular emphasis on the molecular interactions involved in ligand binding. For this purpose, we used site-directed mutagenesis of the transmembrane domain. Twelve mutants were constructed with a special focus on the residue P4.53 of helix IV which substitutes in h5-HT(4) receptors the highly conserved S residue among the rhodopsin family receptors. The mutated receptors were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Ligand binding or competition studies with two h5-HT(4) receptor agonists, serotonin and ML10302 and two h5-HT(4) receptor antagonists, [(3)H]-GR113808 and ML10375 were performed on wild type and mutant receptors. Functional activity of the receptors was evaluated by measuring the ability of serotonin to stimulate adenylyl cyclase. Ligand binding experiments revealed that [(3)H]-GR113808 did not bind to mutants P4.53A, S5.43A, F6.51A, Y7.43A and to double mutant F6.52V/N6.55L. On the other hand mutations D3.32N, S5.43A and Y7.43A appeared to promote a dramatic decrease of h5-HT(4(a)) receptor functional activity. From these studies, S5.43 and Y7.43 clearly emerged as common anchoring sites to antagonist [(3)H]-GR113808 and to serotonin. According to these results, we propose ligand-receptor complex models with serotonin and [(3)H]-GR113808. For serotonin, three interaction points were selected including ionic interaction with D3.32, a stabilizing interaction of this ion pair by Y7.43 and a hydrogen bond with S5.43. [(3)H]-GR113808 was also docked, based on the same type of interactions with S5.43 and D3.32: the proposed model suggested a possible role of P4.53 in helix IV structure allowing the involvement of a close hydrophobic residue, W4.50, in a hydrophobic pocket for hydrophobic interactions with the indole ring of [(3)H]-GR113808.

  12. Al(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodupe, M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structure and determine the binding energies of Al(+) to a series of ligands. For Al(+)-CN, the bonding was found to have a large covalent component. For the remaining ligands, the bonding is shown to be electrostatic in origin. The results obtained for Al(+) are compared with those previously reported for Mg(+).

  13. Aromatic side-chain cluster of biotin binding site of avidin allows circular dichroism spectroscopic investigation of its ligand binding properties.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Promiscuous ligand binding by hen egg-white avidin has been demonstrated and studied by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy complemented by molecular docking calculations. It has been shown that the biotin-binding pocket of avidin is able to accommodate a wide variety of chemical compounds including therapeutic drugs (e.g., thalidomide, NSAIDs, antihistamines), natural compounds (bilirubin, myristic acid), and synthetic agents (xanthenone dyes). The cluster of aromatic residues located at the biotin-binding pocket renders the intrinsic CD spectrum of avidin sensitive to ligand binding that results in the increase of the vibronic components of the (1) L(b) transition of the Trp residues. Extrinsic (induced) CD bands measured with chemically diverse avidin ligands are generated by intramolecular coupled oscillator (e.g., bilirubin) or by intermolecular ligand-Trp exciton coupling mechanism [e.g., 2-(4'-hydroxyazobenzene)-benzoic acid (HABA)]. Among the compounds of which avidin-binding affinity constants have been calculated, two novel high-affinity ligands, flufenamic acid and an enzyme inhibitor thiazole derivative have been identified (K(d) ≈ 1 μM). Avidin binding mode of the ligand molecules has been discussed in the light of docking results. The induced CD profile of the thiazole derivative has been correlated with the stereochemistry of its docked conformation. The important role in the ligand binding of a polar side-chain cluster at the bottom of the biotin-binding cavity as well as the analogous avidin-binding mode of HABA and fenamic acid type NSAIDs have been proposed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Predicted structure of the extracellular region of ligand-gated ion-channel receptors shows SH2-like and SH3-like domains forming the ligand-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gready, J. E.; Ranganathan, S.; Schofield, P. R.; Matsuo, Y.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast synaptic neurotransmission is mediated by ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) receptors, which include receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glycine, and glutamate. LGICs are pentamers with extracellular ligand-binding domains and form integral membrane ion channels that are selective for cations (acetylcholine and serotonin 5HT3 receptors) or anions (GABAA and glycine receptors and the invertebrate glutamate-binding chloride channel). They form a protein superfamily with no sequence similarity to any protein of known structure. Using a 1D-3D structure mapping approach, we have modeled the extracellular ligand-binding domain based on a significant match with the SH2 and SH3 domains of the biotin repressor structure. Refinement of the model based on knowledge of the large family of SH2 and SH3 structures, sequence alignments, and use of structure templates for loop building, allows the prediction of both monomer and pentamer models. These are consistent with medium-resolution electron microscopy structures and with experimental structure/function data from ligand-binding, antibody-binding, mutagenesis, protein-labeling and subunit-linking studies, and glycosylation sites. Also, the predicted polarity of the channel pore calculated from electrostatic potential maps of pentamer models of superfamily members is consistent with known ion selectivities. Using the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit, which forms homopentamers, the monomeric and pentameric models define the agonist and antagonist (strychnine) binding sites to a deep crevice formed by an extended loop, which includes the invariant disulfide bridge, between the SH2 and SH3 domains. A detailed binding site for strychnine is reported that is in strong agreement with known structure/function data. A site for interaction of the extracellular ligand-binding domain with the activation of the M2 transmembrane helix is also suggested. PMID:9144769

  15. High throughput screening of high-affinity ligands for proteins with anion-binding sites using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Ning, Baoming; He, Dacheng; Huang, Lingyun; Yue, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qiming; Huang, Haiwei; Liu, Yang; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2014-03-01

    A high throughput screening system involving a linear ion trap (LTQ) analyzer, a house-made platform and a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source was established to screen ligands with a high affinity for proteins with anion-binding sites. The complexes were analyzed after incubation, ultrafiltration, washing, and displacement. A new anionic region inhibited dissociation (ARID) mechanism that was suitable for a protein with anion-binding site was proposed. We utilized the differences in detectable dissociation of protein-ligand complexes, combined with displacement experiments, to distinguish free ligands displaced from anion-binding sites from liberated ligands dissociated from nonspecific interactions. The method was validated by α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and (R), (S)-amlodipine. Site-specific enantioselectivity shown in our experiments was consistent with earlier studies. Obtaining all of the qualitative information of 15*3 samples in 2.3 min indicates that the analysis process is no longer the time-limiting step in the initial stage of drug discovery. Quantitative information verified that our method was at least a semiquantitative method.

  16. High Throughput Screening of High-Affinity Ligands for Proteins with Anion-Binding Sites using Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Ning, Baoming; He, Dacheng; Huang, Lingyun; Yue, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qiming; Huang, Haiwei; Liu, Yang; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2014-03-01

    A high throughput screening system involving a linear ion trap (LTQ) analyzer, a house-made platform and a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source was established to screen ligands with a high affinity for proteins with anion-binding sites. The complexes were analyzed after incubation, ultrafiltration, washing, and displacement. A new anionic region inhibited dissociation (ARID) mechanism that was suitable for a protein with anion-binding site was proposed. We utilized the differences in detectable dissociation of protein-ligand complexes, combined with displacement experiments, to distinguish free ligands displaced from anion-binding sites from liberated ligands dissociated from nonspecific interactions. The method was validated by α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and (R), (S)-amlodipine. Site-specific enantioselectivity shown in our experiments was consistent with earlier studies. Obtaining all of the qualitative information of 15*3 samples in 2.3 min indicates that the analysis process is no longer the time-limiting step in the initial stage of drug discovery. Quantitative information verified that our method was at least a semiquantitative method.

  17. Influence of the H-site residue 108 on human glutathione transferase P1-1 ligand binding: structure-thermodynamic relationships and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; Parker, Lorien J; Primavera, Alessandra; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; Barón, Carmen; Morton, Craig J; Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Lo Bello, Mario; Parker, Michael W; García-Fuentes, Luis

    2009-12-01

    The effect of the Y108V mutation of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (hGST P1-1) on the binding of the diuretic drug ethacrynic acid (EA) and its glutathione conjugate (EASG) was investigated by calorimetric, spectrofluorimetric, and crystallographic studies. The mutation Tyr 108 --> Val resulted in a 3D-structure very similar to the wild type (wt) enzyme, where both the hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site) and glutathione binding site (G-site) are unchanged except for the mutation itself. However, due to a slight increase in the hydrophobicity of the H-site, as a consequence of the mutation, an increase in the entropy was observed. The Y108V mutation does not affect the affinity of EASG for the enzyme, which has a higher affinity (K(d) approximately 0.5 microM) when compared with those of the parent compounds, K(d) (EA) approximately 13 microM, K(d) (GSH) approximately 25 microM. The EA moiety of the conjugate binds in the H-site of Y108V mutant in a fashion completely different to those observed in the crystal structures of the EA or EASG wt complex structures. We further demonstrate that the Delta C(p) values of binding can also be correlated with the potential stacking interactions between ligand and residues located in the binding sites as predicted from crystal structures. Moreover, the mutation does not significantly affect the global stability of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that calorimetric measurements maybe useful in determining the preference of binding (the binding mode) for a drug to a specific site of the enzyme, even in the absence of structural information.

  18. Influence of the H-site residue 108 on human glutathione transferase P1-1 ligand binding: Structure-thermodynamic relationships and thermal stability

    PubMed Central

    Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; Parker, Lorien J; Primavera, Alessandra; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; Barón, Carmen; Morton, Craig J; Paola Mazzetti, Anna; Lo Bello, Mario; Parker, Michael W; García-Fuentes, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the Y108V mutation of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (hGST P1-1) on the binding of the diuretic drug ethacrynic acid (EA) and its glutathione conjugate (EASG) was investigated by calorimetric, spectrofluorimetric, and crystallographic studies. The mutation Tyr 108 → Val resulted in a 3D-structure very similar to the wild type (wt) enzyme, where both the hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site) and glutathione binding site (G-site) are unchanged except for the mutation itself. However, due to a slight increase in the hydrophobicity of the H-site, as a consequence of the mutation, an increase in the entropy was observed. The Y108V mutation does not affect the affinity of EASG for the enzyme, which has a higher affinity (Kd ∼ 0.5 μM) when compared with those of the parent compounds, , . The EA moiety of the conjugate binds in the H-site of Y108V mutant in a fashion completely different to those observed in the crystal structures of the EA or EASG wt complex structures. We further demonstrate that the ΔCp values of binding can also be correlated with the potential stacking interactions between ligand and residues located in the binding sites as predicted from crystal structures. Moreover, the mutation does not significantly affect the global stability of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that calorimetric measurements maybe useful in determining the preference of binding (the binding mode) for a drug to a specific site of the enzyme, even in the absence of structural information. PMID:19780048

  19. Structural Insights into a Novel Interkingdom Signaling Circuit by Cartography of the Ligand-Binding Sites of the Homologous Quorum Sensing LuxR-Family

    PubMed Central

    Covaceuszach, Sonia; Degrassi, Giuliano; Venturi, Vittorio; Lamba, Doriano

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a novel interkingdom signaling circuit, via plant signaling molecules, and a bacterial sub-family of LuxR proteins, bridging eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Indeed pivotal plant-bacteria interactions are regulated by the so called Plant Associated Bacteria (PAB) LuxR solo regulators that, although closely related to the quorum sensing (QS) LuxR family, do not bind or respond to canonical quorum sensing N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), but only to specific host plant signal molecules. The large body of structural data available for several members of the QS LuxR family complexed with different classes of ligands (AHLs and other compounds), has been exploited to dissect the cartography of their regulatory domains through structure-based multiple sequence alignments, structural superimposition and a comparative analysis of the contact residues involved in ligand binding. In the absence of experimentally determined structures of members of the PAB LuxR solos subfamily, an homology model of its prototype OryR is presented, aiming to elucidate the architecture of its ligand-binding site. The obtained model, in combination with the cartography of the regulatory domains of the homologous QS LuxRs, provides novel insights into the 3D structure of its ligand-binding site and unveils the probable molecular determinants responsible for differences in selectivity towards specific host plant signal molecules, rather than to canonical QS compounds. PMID:24132148

  20. Structural insights into a novel interkingdom signaling circuit by cartography of the ligand-binding sites of the homologous quorum sensing LuxR-family.

    PubMed

    Covaceuszach, Sonia; Degrassi, Giuliano; Venturi, Vittorio; Lamba, Doriano

    2013-10-15

    Recent studies have identified a novel interkingdom signaling circuit, via plant signaling molecules, and a bacterial sub-family of LuxR proteins, bridging eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Indeed pivotal plant-bacteria interactions are regulated by the so called Plant Associated Bacteria (PAB) LuxR solo regulators that, although closely related to the quorum sensing (QS) LuxR family, do not bind or respond to canonical quorum sensing N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), but only to specific host plant signal molecules. The large body of structural data available for several members of the QS LuxR family complexed with different classes of ligands (AHLs and other compounds), has been exploited to dissect the cartography of their regulatory domains through structure-based multiple sequence alignments, structural superimposition and a comparative analysis of the contact residues involved in ligand binding. In the absence of experimentally determined structures of members of the PAB LuxR solos subfamily, an homology model of its prototype OryR is presented, aiming to elucidate the architecture of its ligand-binding site. The obtained model, in combination with the cartography of the regulatory domains of the homologous QS LuxRs, provides novel insights into the 3D structure of its ligand-binding site and unveils the probable molecular determinants responsible for differences in selectivity towards specific host plant signal molecules, rather than to canonical QS compounds.

  1. Ligand binding reduces conformational flexibility in the active site of tyrosine phosphatase related to biofilm formation A (TpbA) from Pseudomonasaeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Koveal, Dorothy; Clarkson, Michael W; Wood, Thomas K; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2013-06-26

    Tyrosine phosphatase related to biofilm formation A (TpbA) is a periplasmic dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP) that controls biofilm formation in the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While DUSPs are known to regulate important cellular functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, very few structures of bacterial DUSPs are available. Here, we present the solution structure of TpbA in the ligand-free open conformation, along with an analysis of the structural and dynamic changes that accompany ligand/phosphate binding. While TpbA adopts a typical DUSP fold, it also possesses distinct structural features that distinguish it from eukaryotic DUSPs. These include additional secondary structural elements, β0 and α6, and unique conformations of the variable insert, the α4-α5 loop and helix α5 that impart TpbA with a flat active-site surface. In the absence of ligand, the protein tyrosine phosphatase loop is disordered and the general acid loop adopts an open conformation, placing the catalytic aspartate, Asp105, more than 11Å away from the active site. Furthermore, the loops surrounding the active site experience motions on multiple timescales, consistent with a combination of conformational heterogeneity and fast (picosecond to nanosecond) timescale dynamics, which are significantly reduced upon ligand binding. Taken together, these data structurally distinguish TpbA and possibly other bacterial DUSPs from eukaryotic DUSPs and provide a rich picture of active-site dynamics in the ligand-free state that are lost upon ligand binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative residue interaction analysis (CoRIA): a 3D-QSAR approach to explore the binding contributions of active site residues with ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datar, Prasanna A.; Khedkar, Santosh A.; Malde, Alpeshkumar K.; Coutinho, Evans C.

    2006-06-01

    A novel approach termed comparative residue-interaction analysis (CoRIA), emphasizing the trends and principles of QSAR in a ligand-receptor environment has been developed to analyze and predict the binding affinity of enzyme inhibitors. To test this new approach, a training set of 36 COX-2 inhibitors belonging to nine families was selected. The putative binding (bioactive) conformations of inhibitors in the COX-2 active site were searched using the program DOCK. The docked configurations were further refined by a combination of Monte Carlo and simulated annealing methods with the Affinity program. The non-bonded interaction energies of the inhibitors with the individual amino acid residues in the active site were then computed. These interaction energies, plus specific terms describing the thermodynamics of ligand-enzyme binding, were correlated to the biological activity with G/PLS. The various QSAR models obtained were validated internally by cross validation and boot strapping, and externally using a test set of 13 molecules. The QSAR models developed on the CoRIA formalism were robust with good r 2, q 2 and r pred 2 values. The major highlights of the method are: adaptation of the QSAR formalism in a receptor setting to answer both the type (qualitative) and the extent (quantitative) of ligand-receptor binding, and use of descriptors that account for the complete thermodynamics of the ligand-receptor binding. The CoRIA approach can be used to identify crucial interactions of inhibitors with the enzyme at the residue level, which can be gainfully exploited in optimizing the inhibitory activity of ligands. Furthermore, it can be used with advantage to guide point mutation studies. As regards the COX-2 dataset, the CoRIA approach shows that improving Coulombic interaction with Pro528 and reducing van der Waals interaction with Tyr385 will improve the binding affinity of inhibitors.

  3. Identification of putative ligand-binding sites of the integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29)

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, T; Puzon, W; Takada, Y

    1995-01-01

    Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 recognizes both fibronectin (CS-1 sequence) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). To localize the ligand-binding sites of alpha 4, we located the epitopes for function-blocking anti-alpha 4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including those that recognize previously described (but not yet physically localized) functional epitopes (A, B1, B2 and C) using interspecies alpha 4 chimeras expressed in mammalian cells. Epitopes B1 and B2 were associated with ligand binding, and epitopes A and B2 with homotypic cellular aggregation. mAbs P4C2 (epitope B2), 20E4 and PS/2 were mapped within residues 108-182; mAbs HP2/1 (epitope B1), SG/73 and R1-2 within residues 195-268; mAbs HP1/3 (epitope A) and P4G9 within residues 1-52; and B5G10 (epitope C) within residues 269-548. The data suggest that residues 108-268, which do not include bivalent-cation-binding motifs, are related to VCAM-1 and CS-1 binding, and more N-terminal portions of alpha 4 (residues 1 and 52 and 108-182) to homotypic aggregation. Since mAbs PS/2 and HP2/1 block alpha 4 beta 7 binding to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), the MAdCAM-1-binding site is close to, or overlapping with, VCAM-1- and CS-1-binding sites. The role of Asp-130 of beta 1 in the binding to VCAM-1 and CS-1 peptide was examined. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta 1 (D130A) (Asp-130 to Ala mutant of beta 1) and alpha 4 showed much less binding to both ligands than CHO cells expressing wild-type beta 1 and alpha 4 [a dominant negative effects of beta 1 (D130A)], suggesting that Asp-130 of beta 1 is critical for binding to both ligands and that the two ligand share common binding mechanisms [corrected]. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7531439

  4. LigandRFs: random forest ensemble to identify ligand-binding residues from sequence information alone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Huang, Jianhua Z; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Protein-ligand binding is important for some proteins to perform their functions. Protein-ligand binding sites are the residues of proteins that physically bind to ligands. Despite of the recent advances in computational prediction for protein-ligand binding sites, the state-of-the-art methods search for similar, known structures of the query and predict the binding sites based on the solved structures. However, such structural information is not commonly available. In this paper, we propose a sequence-based approach to identify protein-ligand binding residues. We propose a combination technique to reduce the effects of different sliding residue windows in the process of encoding input feature vectors. Moreover, due to the highly imbalanced samples between the ligand-binding sites and non ligand-binding sites, we construct several balanced data sets, for each of which a random forest (RF)-based classifier is trained. The ensemble of these RF classifiers forms a sequence-based protein-ligand binding site predictor. Experimental results on CASP9 and CASP8 data sets demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art protein-ligand binding site prediction methods.

  5. Differential Effects of Structural Modifications on the Competition of Chalcones for the PIB Amyloid Imaging Ligand-Binding Site in Alzheimer's Disease Brain and Synthetic Aβ Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Fosso, Marina Y; McCarty, Katie; Head, Elizabeth; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; LeVine, Harry

    2016-02-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex brain disorder that still remains ill defined. In order to understand the significance of binding of different clinical in vivo imaging ligands to the polymorphic pathological features of AD brain, the molecular characteristics of the ligand interacting with its specific binding site need to be defined. Herein, we observed that tritiated Pittsburgh Compound B ((3)H-PIB) can be displaced from synthetic Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) fibrils and from the PIB binding complex purified from human AD brain (ADPBC) by molecules containing a chalcone structural scaffold. We evaluated how substitution on the chalcone scaffold alters its ability to displace (3)H-PIB from the synthetic fibrils and ADPBC. By comparing unsubstituted core chalcone scaffolds along with the effects of bromine and methyl substitution at various positions, we found that attaching a hydroxyl group on the ring adjacent to the carbonyl group (ring I) of the parent member of the chalcone family generally improved the binding affinity of chalcones toward ADPBC and synthetic fibrils F40 and F42. Furthermore, any substitution on ring I at the ortho-position of the carbonyl group greatly decreases the binding affinity of the chalcones, potentially as a result of steric hindrance. Together with the finding that neither our chalcones nor PIB interact with the Congo Red/X-34 binding site, these molecules provide new tools to selectively probe the PIB binding site that is found in human AD brain, but not in brains of AD pathology animal models. Our chalcone derivatives also provide important information on the effects of fibril polymorphism on ligand binding.

  6. The location of the high- and low-affinity bilirubin-binding sites on serum albumin: ligand-competition analysis investigated by circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Iryna; Orlov, Sergey; Urbanová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The locations of three bilirubin (BR)-binding sites with different affinities were identified as subdomains IB, IIA and IIIA for five mammalian serum albumins (SAs): human (HSA), bovine (BSA), rat, (RSA), rabbit (RbSA) and sheep (SSA). The stereoselectivity of a high-affinity BR-binding site was identified in the BR/SA=1/1 system by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, the sites with low affinity to BR were analyzed using difference CD. Site-specific ligand-competition experiments with ibuprofen (marker for subdomain IIIA) and hemin (marker for subdomain IB) did not reveal any changes for the BR/SA=1/1 system and showed a decrease of the bound BR at BR/SA=3/1. Both sites were identified as sites with low affinity to BR. The correlation between stereoselectivity and the arrangement of Arg-Lys residues indicated similarity between the BR-binding sites in subdomain IIIA for all of the SAs studied. Subdomain IB in HSA, BSA, SSA and RbSA has P-stereoselectivity while in RSA it has M-selectivity toward BR. A ligand-competition experiment with gossypol shows a decrease of the CD signal of bound BR for the BR/SA=1/1 system as well as for BR/SA=3/1. Subdomain IIA was assigned as a high-affinity BR-binding site. The P-stereoselectivity of this site in HSA (and RSA, RbSA) was caused by the right-hand localization of charged residues R257/R218-R222, whereas the left-hand orientation of R257/R218-R199 led to the M-stereoselectivity of the primary binding site in BSA (and SSA).

  7. Identification of a Ligand-Binding Site on the Staphylococcus aureus DnaG Primase C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Catazaro, Jonathan; Periago, Jessica; Shortridge, Matthew D; Worley, Bradley; Kirchner, Andrew; Powers, Robert; Griep, Mark A

    2017-02-21

    The interface between the DnaG primase C-terminal domain (CTD) and the N-terminal domain of DnaB helicase is essential for bacterial DNA replication because it allows coordinated priming of DNA synthesis at the replication fork while the DNA is being unwound. Because these two proteins are conserved in all bacteria and distinct from those in eukaryotes, their interface is an attractive antibiotic target. To learn more about this interface, we determined the solution structure and dynamics of the DnaG primase CTD from Staphylococcus aureus, a medically important bacterial species. Comparison with the known primase CTD structures shows there are two biologically relevant conformations, an open conformation that likely binds to DnaB helicase and a closed conformation that does not. The S. aureus primase CTD is in the closed conformation, but nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) dynamic studies indicate there is considerable movement in the linker between the two subdomains and that N564 is the most dynamic residue within the linker. A high-throughput NMR ligand affinity screen identified potential binding compounds, among which were acycloguanosine and myricetin. Although the affinity for these compounds and adenosine was in the millimolar range, all three bind to a common pocket that is present only on the closed conformation of the CTD. This binding pocket is at the opposite end of helices 6 and 7 from N564, the key hinge residue. The identification of this binding pocket should allow the development of stronger-binding ligands that can prevent formation of the CTD open conformation that binds to DnaB helicase.

  8. Ligand binding by antibody IgE Lb4: assessment of binding site preferences using microcalorimetry, docking, and free energy simulations.

    PubMed Central

    Sotriffer, C A; Flader, W; Cooper, A; Rode, B M; Linthicum, D S; Liedl, K R; Varga, J M

    1999-01-01

    Antibody IgE Lb4 interacts favorably with a large number of different compounds. To improve the current understanding of the structural basis of this vast cross-reactivity, the binding of three dinitrophenyl (DNP) amino acids (DNP-alanine, DNP-glycine, and DNP-serine) is investigated in detail by means of docking and molecular dynamics free energy simulations. Experimental binding energies obtained by isothermal titration microcalorimetry are used to judge the results of the computational studies. For all three ligands, the docking procedure proposes two plausible subsites within the binding region formed by the antibody CDR loops. By subsequent molecular dynamics simulations and calculations of relative free energies of binding, one of these subsites, a tyrosine-surrounded pocket, is revealed as the preferred point of complexation. For this subsite, results consistent with experimental observations are obtained; DNP-glycine is found to bind better than DNP-serine, and this, in turn, is found to bind better than DNP-alanine. The suggested binding mode makes it possible to explain both the moderate binding affinity and the differences in binding energy among the three ligands. PMID:10354424

  9. Characterization and distribution of binding sites for a new neurotensin receptor antagonist ligand, [3H]SR 48692, in the guinea pig brain1

    PubMed Central

    Betancur, Catalina; Canton, Maryse; Gully, Danielle; Vela, Gema; Pélaprat, Didier; Rostène, William

    1995-01-01

    SR 48692, a selective non-peptide antagonist of neurotensin (NT) receptors was recently developed. In the present work we studied the binding properties of the corresponding radioligand, 3H-SR 48692, in the adult guinea-pig brain. The characterization of 3H-SR 48692 binding was carried out on brain membrane preparations and the distribution of 3H-SR 48692 binding sites was determined by receptor autoradiography, and compared to that of 125I-NT binding sites. In brain homogenates, 3H-SR 48692 bound to a single population of sites with a Kd of 2.19 nM and a Bmax of 1.15 pmol/mg protein. This Bmax value was 20 times higher than that observed for 125I-NT. NT agonists were able to competitively interact with the entire population of binding sites labeled by 3H-SR 48692, but their affinities were much lower than those observed for 125I-NT. By contrast, NT antagonists exhibited similar abilities to inhibit the binding of both radioligands. The addition of unlabeled NT in saturation assays revealed a competitive inhibition of 3H-SR 48692 binding, suggesting that agonist and antagonists ligands bind to overlapping domains of the NT receptor. The autoradiographic distribution of the low-affinity NT binding sites detected by 3H-SR 48692 (96% of the receptors) was very similar to the distribution of high-affinity receptors labeled with 125I-NT (4% of the receptors). In addition, the binding of 3H-SR 48692 was insensitive to guanyl nucleotides. Taken together, these findings suggest that the binding sites detected by 3H-SR 48692 in the guinea-pig brain mainly represent the uncoupled form of the NT receptor. PMID:7791120

  10. Water participation in molecular recognition and protein-ligand association: Probing the drug binding site "Sudlow I" in human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Lawatia, Najla; Steinbrecher, Thomas; Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2012-03-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) plays an important role in the transport and disposition of endogenous and exogenous ligands present in blood. Its capacity to reversibly bind a large variety of drugs results in its prevailing role in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In this work, we used 7-hydroxyquinoline (7HQ) as a probe to study the binding nature of one of the major drug binding sites of HSA (Sudlow I) and to reveal the local environment around the probe in the binding site. The interaction between 7HQ and HSA at a physiological pH of 7.2 was investigated using steady-state and lifetime spectroscopic measurements, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations methods. The fluorescence results indicate a selective interaction between 7HQ and the Trp214 residue. The reduction in both the intensity and lifetime of the Trp214 fluorescence upon probe binding indicates the dominant role of static quenching. Molecular docking and MD simulations show that 7HQ binds in Sudlow site I close to Trp214, confirming the experimental results, and pinpoint the dominant role of hydrophobic interaction in the binding site. Electrostatic interactions were also found to be important in which two water molecules form strong hydrogen bonds with the polar groups of 7HQ. Detection of water in the binding site agrees with the absorption and fluorescence results that show the formation of a zwitterion tautomer of 7HQ. The unique spectral signatures of 7HQ in water make this molecule a potential probe for detecting the presence of water in nanocavities of proteins. Interaction of 7HQ with water in the binding site shows that water molecules can be crucial for molecular recognition and association in protein binding sites.

  11. Derivatization of (+/-)-5-[(2-methylphenoxy)methyl]-2-amino-2-oxazoline, an imidazoline binding sites ligand, with (+)-(R)-alpha-methylbenzyl isocyanate for drug monitoring purposes.

    PubMed

    Matoga, Myriam; Forfar, Isabelle; Chaimbault, Corinne; Guillon, Jean; Péhourcq, Fabienne; Bosc, Jean-Jacques; Rettori, Marie-Claire; Jarry, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The derivatization of racemic 5-[(2-methylphenoxy)methyl]-2-amino-2-oxazoline, developed as an imidazoline binding sites ligand, with (+)-(R)-alpha-methylbenzyl isocyanate was performed in chloroform. The reaction led to two pairs of diastereomers, which were separated by RP-HPLC. A kinetic study of the derivatization reaction was achieved in order to establish conditions suitable for experimental drug monitoring.

  12. Development and utilization of a fluorescence-based receptor-binding assay for the site 5 voltage-sensitive sodium channel ligands brevetoxin and ciguatoxin.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jennifer R; Jacocks, Henry M; Niven, Susan C; Poli, Mark A; Baden, Daniel G; Bourdelais, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-frame polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Consumption of fish exposed to K. brevis blooms can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are due to activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. Binding of toxins has historically been measured using a radioligand competition assay that is fraught with difficulty. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence-based binding assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Several fluorophores were conjugated to polyether brevetoxin-2 and used as the labeled ligand. Brevetoxin analogs were able to compete for binding with the fluorescent ligands. This assay was qualified against the standard radioligand receptor assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Furthermore, the fluorescence-based assay was used to determine relative concentrations of toxins in raw extracts of K. brevis culture, and to determine ciguatoxin affinity to site 5 of VSSCs. The fluorescence-based assay was quicker, safer, and far less expensive. As such, this assay can be used to replace the current radioligand assay and will be a vital tool for future experiments examining the binding affinity of various ligands for site 5 on sodium channels.

  13. Statistical Mechanics of Ligand-Receptor Noncovalent Association, Revisited: Binding Site and Standard State Volumes in Modern Alchemical Theories.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero; Chelli, Riccardo

    2017-05-09

    The present paper is intended to be a comprehensive assessment and rationalization, from a statistical mechanics perspective, of existing alchemical theories for binding free energy calculations of ligand-receptor systems. In detail, the statistical mechanics foundation of noncovalent interactions in ligand-receptor systems is revisited, providing a unifying treatment that encompasses the most important variants in the alchemical approaches from the seminal double annihilation method [ Jorgensen et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1988 ; 89 , 3742 ] to the double decoupling method [ Gilson et al. Biophys. J. 1997 ; 72 , 1047 ] and the Deng and Roux alchemical theory [ Deng and Roux J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2006 ; 2 , 1255 ]. Connections and differences between the various alchemical approaches are highlighted and discussed.

  14. Application of phenol red as a marker ligand for bilirubin binding site at subdomain IIA on human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sochacka, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The drug-bilirubin interaction for all drugs administered especially to infants with hyperbilirubinemia should be evaluated for their ability to displace bilirubin and vice versa. In order to examine whether phenol red (PhRed) can be used as a marker for bilirubin binding site located in subdomain IIA the interaction between PhRed and human serum albumin (HSA) in buffer solution or in normal and pathological sera solutions with different HSA:bilirubin molar ratio was investigated using absorption/absorption difference spectroscopy and molecular docking method. Six sulfonamides representing the binding site in the subdomain IIA and known to influence the binding of bilirubin were used for the PhRed displacement studies. The absorption spectra for PhRed completely bound to HSA showed significant differences in the spectral characteristic relative to the spectral profile of free PhRed. The intensity of the peak originating from the bivalent anionic form of dye was strongly reduced and the maximum peak position was red-shifted by 12 nm. The binding constant (K) of the bivalent anionic form of PhRed, calculated from absorbance data, was 1.61 · 10(4) L mol(-1). The variations of the absorption and absorption difference spectra of PhRed in the presence of HSA-bilirubin complex were indicative of the inhibition of PhRed binding process by bilirubin. Binding of PhRed carried out in the presence of sulfonamides showed that drugs and PhRed have a common site which also involves bilirubin. In agreement with the results of the spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking it was concluded that PhRed may be applied as a marker in the study of the binding of drugs to high-affinity bilirubin binding site.

  15. Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Gabrielsen, Mads; Franchini, Gisela R.; Roe, Andrew J.; Griffiths, Kate; Zhan, Bin; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein–ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male. PMID:26318523

  16. Landscape of protein–small ligand binding modes

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Elucidating the mechanisms of specific small‐molecule (ligand) recognition by proteins is a long‐standing conundrum. While the structures of these molecules, proteins and ligands, have been extensively studied, protein–ligand interactions, or binding modes, have not been comprehensively analyzed. Although methods for assessing similarities of binding site structures have been extensively developed, the methods for the computational treatment of binding modes have not been well established. Here, we developed a computational method for encoding the information about binding modes as graphs, and assessing their similarities. An all‐against‐all comparison of 20,040 protein–ligand complexes provided the landscape of the protein–ligand binding modes and its relationships with protein‐ and chemical spaces. While similar proteins in the same SCOP Family tend to bind relatively similar ligands with similar binding modes, the correlation between ligand and binding similarities was not very high (R 2 = 0.443). We found many pairs with novel relationships, in which two evolutionally distant proteins recognize dissimilar ligands by similar binding modes (757,474 pairs out of 200,790,780 pairs were categorized into this relationship, in our dataset). In addition, there were an abundance of pairs of homologous proteins binding to similar ligands with different binding modes (68,217 pairs). Our results showed that many interesting relationships between protein–ligand complexes are still hidden in the structure database, and our new method for assessing binding mode similarities is effective to find them. PMID:27327045

  17. Kinetics of binding of dihydropyridine calcium channel ligands to skeletal muscle membranes: Evidence for low-affinity sites and for the involvement of G proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.M.J.; Bladen, C. )

    1991-06-11

    Detailed kinetic studies of the binding of the calcium channel antagonist (+)-({sup 3}H)PN200-110 to membrane preparations form rabbit skeletal muscle have demonstrated that, in addition to the high-affinity sites that are readily measured in equilibrium and kinetic experiments, there are also dihydropyridine binding sites with much lower affinities. These sites were detected by the ability of micromolar concentrations of several dihydropyridines to accelerate the rate of dissociation of (+)-({sup 3}H)PN200-110 from its high-affinity sites. The observed increase in rate was dependent on the concentration of competing ligand, and half-maximal effects occurred at approximately 10 {mu}M for the agonist ({plus minus})-Bay K8644 and for the antagonists nifedipine, ({plus minus})-nitrendipine, and (+)-PN200-110. The low-affinity sites appear to be stereospecific since ({minus})-PN200-110 (1-200 {mu}M) did not affect the dissociation rate. The possible involvement of guanine nucleotide binding proteins in dihydropyridine binding has been investigated by studying the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP{gamma}S) and guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP{beta}S) on binding parameters. GTP{gamma}S did increase the ability of ({plus minus})-({sup 3}H)PN200-110. These results suggest that skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptors have low-affinity binding sites that may be involved in the regulation of calcium channel function and that activation of a guanine nucleotide binding protein may modulate the binding of agonists but not of antagonists to these sites.

  18. Correcting binding parameters for interacting ligand-lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervy, Jordan; Bicout, Dominique J.

    2017-07-01

    Binding of ligands to macromolecules is central to many functional and regulatory biological processes. Key parameters characterizing ligand-macromolecule interactions are the stoichiometry, inducing the number of ligands per macromolecule binding site, and the dissociation constant, quantifying the ligand-binding site affinity. Both these parameters can be obtained from analyses of classical saturation experiments using the standard binding equation that offers the great advantage of mathematical simplicity but becomes an approximation for situations of interest when a ligand binds and covers more than one single binding site on the macromolecule. Using the framework of car-parking problem with latticelike macromolecules where each ligand can cover simultaneously several consecutive binding sites, we showed that employing the standard analysis leads to underestimation of binding parameters, i.e., ligands appear larger than they actually are and their affinity is also greater than it is. Therefore, we have derived expressions allowing to determine the ligand size and true binding parameters (stoichiometry and dissociation constant) as a function of apparent binding parameters retrieved from standard saturation experiments.

  19. Copper(II) complexes with peptides based on the second cell binding site of fibronectin: metal coordination and ligand exchange kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pizzanelli, Silvia; Forte, Claudia; Pinzino, Calogero; Magrì, Antonio; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-02-07

    Copper(ii) complexes with short peptides based on the second cell binding site of fibronectin, PHSFN and PHSEN, have been characterized by potentiometric, UV-vis, CD, EPR and NMR spectroscopic methods. The histidine imidazole nitrogen is the anchoring site for the metal ion binding. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic evidence is given that the side chain oxygen donor atom of glutamyl residue in Ac-PHSEN-NH2 is also involved in the binding up to physiological pH. To determine ligand exchange kinetic parameters after the imidazole nitrogen anchoring, proton relaxation enhancement NMR data have been collected for the two hydrogen atoms of the imidazole ring in the temperature range 293-315 K at pH 5.2 and globally treated within different kinetic models for ligand exchange. The best fitting model involves two steps. In the first one, which is slow, a water molecule disengages a carbonyl or a carboxylate group coordinated to the metal ion in the complex formed by PHSFN or PHSEN, respectively. This stage is one order of magnitude slower for PHSEN, due to entropic effects. In the second step, which is fast, the complex just formed exchanges with the ligand. In this step, no appreciable differences are found for the two cases examined.

  20. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for ( sup 125 I) iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W. )

    1991-05-01

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide (N-(2-((((cyclohexylamino)carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl)ethyl)-5-{sup 125}I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels.

  1. Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structures and determine the binding energies of Mg(+) to a series of ligands. Mg(+) bonds electrostatically with benzene, acetone, H2, CO, and NH3 and a self-consistent-field treatment gives a good description of the bonding. The bonding in MgCN(+) and MgCH3(+) is largely covalent and a correlated treatment is required.

  2. Calculation of vibrational shifts of nitrile probes in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase upon ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Joshua P; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-01-16

    The vibrational Stark effect provides insight into the roles of hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, and conformational motions in enzyme catalysis. In a recent application of this approach to the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), thiocyanate probes were introduced in site-specific positions throughout the active site. This paper implements a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach for calculating the vibrational shifts of nitrile (CN) probes in proteins. This methodology is shown to reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational shifts upon binding of the intermediate analogue equilinen to KSI for two different nitrile probe positions. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations provides atomistic insight into the roles that key residues play in determining the electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bonding interactions experienced by the nitrile probe. For the M116C-CN probe, equilinen binding reorients an active-site water molecule that is directly hydrogen-bonded to the nitrile probe, resulting in a more linear C≡N--H angle and increasing the CN frequency upon binding. For the F86C-CN probe, equilinen binding orients the Asp103 residue, decreasing the hydrogen-bonding distance between the Asp103 backbone and the nitrile probe and slightly increasing the CN frequency. This QM/MM methodology is applicable to a wide range of biological systems and has the potential to assist in the elucidation of the fundamental principles underlying enzyme catalysis.

  3. FK506-binding protein mutational analysis: defining the active-site residue contributions to catalysis and the stability of ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    DeCenzo, M T; Park, S T; Jarrett, B P; Aldape, R A; Futer, O; Murcko, M A; Livingston, D J

    1996-02-01

    The 12 kDa FK506-binding protein FKBP12 is a cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that binds the macrolides FK506 and rapamycin. We have examined the role of the binding pocket residues of FKBP12 in protein-ligand interactions by making conservative substitutions of 12 of these residues by site-directed mutagenesis. For each mutant FKBP12, we measured the affinity for FK506 and rapamycin and the catalytic efficiency in the cis-frans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase reaction. The mutation of Trp59 or Phe99 generates an FKBP12 with a significantly lower affinity for FK506 than wild-type protein. Tyr26 and Tyr82 mutants are enzymatically active, demonstrating that hydrogen bonding by these residues is not required for catalysis of the cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase reaction, although these mutations alter the substrate specificity of the enzyme. We conclude that hydrophobic interactions in the active site dominate in the stabilization of FKBP12 binding to macrolide ligands and to the twisted-amide peptidyl-prolyl substrate intermediate.

  4. Ligand Binding at the α4-α4 Agonist-Binding Site of the α4β2 nAChR Triggers Receptor Activation through a Pre-Activated Conformational State

    PubMed Central

    Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Lewis, Trevor M.; Ahring, Philip K.; Balle, Thomas; Chebib, Mary; Absalom, Nathan L.

    2016-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant subtype in the brain and exists in two functional stoichiometries: (α4)3(β2)2 and (α4)2(β2)3. A distinct feature of the (α4)3(β2)2 receptor is the biphasic activation response to the endogenous agonist acetylcholine, where it is activated with high potency and low efficacy when two α4-β2 binding sites are occupied and with low potency/high efficacy when a third α4-α4 binding site is occupied. Further, exogenous ligands can bind to the third α4-α4 binding site and potentiate the activation of the receptor by ACh that is bound at the two α4-β2 sites. We propose that perturbations of the recently described pre-activation step when a third binding site is occupied are a key driver of these distinct activation properties. To investigate this, we used a combination of simple linear kinetic models and voltage clamp electrophysiology to determine whether transitions into the pre-activated state were increased when three binding sites were occupied. We separated the binding at the two different sites with ligands selective for the α4-β2 site (Sazetidine-A and TC-2559) and the α4-α4 site (NS9283) and identified that when a third binding site was occupied, changes in the concentration-response curves were best explained by an increase in transitions into a pre-activated state. We propose that perturbations of transitions into a pre-activated state are essential to explain the activation properties of the (α4)3(β2)2 receptor by acetylcholine and other ligands. Considering the widespread clinical use of benzodiazepines, this discovery of a conserved mechanism that benzodiazepines and ACh potentiate receptor activation via a third binding site can be exploited to develop therapeutics with similar properties at other cys-loop receptors. PMID:27552221

  5. Structural evidence for asymmetric ligand binding to transthyretin.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Zonta, Francesco; Florio, Paola; Berni, Rodolfo; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Human transthyretin (TTR) represents a notable example of an amyloidogenic protein, and several compounds that are able to stabilize its native state have been proposed as effective drugs in the therapy of TTR amyloidosis. The two thyroxine (T4) binding sites present in the TTR tetramer display negative binding cooperativity. Here, structures of TTR in complex with three natural polyphenols (pterostilbene, quercetin and apigenin) have been determined, in which this asymmetry manifests itself as the presence of a main binding site with clear ligand occupancy and related electron density and a second minor site with a much lower ligand occupancy. The results of an analysis of the structural differences between the two binding sites are consistent with such a binding asymmetry. The different ability of TTR ligands to saturate the two T4 binding sites of the tetrameric protein can be ascribed to the different affinity of ligands for the weaker binding site. In comparison, the high-affinity ligand tafamidis, co-crystallized under the same experimental conditions, was able to fully saturate the two T4 binding sites. This asymmetry is characterized by the presence of small but significant differences in the conformation of the cavity of the two binding sites. Molecular-dynamics simulations suggest the presence of even larger differences in solution. Competition binding assays carried out in solution revealed the presence of a preferential binding site in TTR for the polyphenols pterostilbene and quercetin that was different from the preferential binding site for T4. The TTR binding asymmetry could possibly be exploited for the therapy of TTR amyloidosis by using a cocktail of two drugs, each of which exhibits preferential binding for a distinct binding site, thus favouring saturation of the tetrameric protein and consequently its stabilization.

  6. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) prevents retinal cell death via PEDF Receptor (PEDF-R): identification of a functional ligand binding site.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Preeti; Locatelli-Hoops, Silvia; Kenealey, Jason; DesJardin, Jacqueline; Notari, Luigi; Becerra, S Patricia

    2013-08-16

    The extracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) displays retina survival activity by interacting with receptor proteins on cell surfaces. We have previously reported that PEDF binds and stimulates PEDF receptor (PEDF-R), a transmembrane phospholipase. However, the PEDF binding site of PEDF-R and its involvement in survival activity have not been identified. The purpose of this work is to identify a biologically relevant ligand-binding site on PEDF-R. PEDF bound the PEDF-R ectodomain L4 (Leu(159)-Met(325)) with affinity similar to the full-length PEDF-R (Met(1)-Leu(504)). Binding assays using synthetic peptides spanning L4 showed that PEDF selectively bound E5b (Ile(193)-Leu(232)) and P1 (Thr(210)-Leu(249)) peptides. Recombinant C-terminal truncated PEDF-R4 (Met(1)-Leu(232)) and internally truncated PEDF-R and PEDF-R4 (ΔHis(203)-Leu(232)) retained phospholipase activity of the full-length PEDF-R. However, PEDF-R polypeptides without the His(203)-Leu(232) region lost the PEDF affinity that stimulated their enzymatic activity. Cell surface labeling showed that PEDF-R is present in the plasma membranes of retina cells. Using siRNA to selectively knock down PEDF-R in retina cells, we demonstrated that PEDF-R is essential for PEDF-mediated cell survival and antiapoptotic activities. Furthermore, preincubation of PEDF with P1 and E5b peptides blocked the PEDF·PEDF-R-mediated retina cell survival activity, implying that peptide binding to PEDF excluded ligand-receptor interactions on the cell surface. Our findings establish that PEDF-R is required for the survival and antiapoptotic effects of PEDF on retina cells and has determinants for PEDF binding within its L4 ectodomain that are critical for enzymatic stimulation.

  7. High resolution structures of Plasmodium falciparum GST complexes provide novel insights into the dimer-tetramer transition and a novel ligand-binding site.

    PubMed

    Perbandt, Markus; Eberle, Raphael; Fischer-Riepe, Lena; Cang, Huaixing; Liebau, Eva; Betzel, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Protection from oxidative stress and efficient redox regulation are essential for malarial parasites which have to grow and multiply rapidly in pro-oxidant rich environments. Therefore, redox active proteins currently belong to the most attractive antimalarial drug targets. The glutathione S-transferase from Plasmodium falciparum (PfGST) is a redox active protein displaying a peculiar dimer-tetramer transition that causes full enzyme-inactivation. This distinct structural feature is absent in mammalian GST isoenzyme counterparts. A flexible loop between residues 113-119 has been reported to be necessary for this tetramerization process. However, here we present structural data of a modified PfGST lacking loop 113-119 at 1.9 Å resolution. Our results clearly show that this loop is not essential for the formation of stable tetramers. Moreover we present for the first time the structures of both, the inactive and tetrameric state at 1.7 Å and the active dimeric state in complex with reduced glutathione at 2.4 Å resolution. Surprisingly, the structure of the inactive tetrameric state reveals a novel non-substrate binding-site occupied by a 2-(N-morpholino) ethane sulfonic acid (MES) molecule in each monomer. Although it is known that the PfGST has the ability to bind lipophilic anionic ligands, the location of the PfGST ligand-binding site remained unclear up to now. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The ligand specificities of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor I receptor reside in different regions of a common binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldsen, T.; Andersen, A.S.; Wiberg, F.C.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Schaeffer, L.; Balschmidt, P.; Moller, K.B.; Moller, N.P.H. )

    1991-05-15

    To identify the region(s) of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor responsible for ligand specificity (high-affinity binding), expression vectors encoding soluble chimeric insulin/IGF-I receptors were prepared. The chimeric receptors were expressed in mammalian cells and partially purified. Binding studies revealed that a construct comprising an IGF-I receptor in which the 68 N-terminal amino acids of the insulin receptor {alpha}-subunit had replaced the equivalent IGF-I receptor segment displayed a markedly increased affinity for insulin. In contrast, the corresponding IGF-I receptor sequence is not critical for high-affinity IGF-I binding. It is shown that part of the cysteine-rich domain determines IGF-I specificity. The authors have previously shown that exchanging exons 1, 2, and 3 of the insulin receptor with the corresponding IGF-I receptor sequence results in loss of high affinity for insulin and gain of high affinity for IGF-I. Consequently, it is suggested that the ligand specificities of the two receptors (i.e., the sequences that discriminate between insulin and IGF-I) reside in different regions of a binding site with common features present in both receptors.

  9. Site-specific N-linked glycosylation of receptor guanylyl cyclase C regulates ligand binding, ligand-mediated activation and interaction with vesicular integral membrane protein 36, VIP36.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Najla; Ballal, Suhas; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2013-02-08

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is a multidomain, membrane-associated receptor guanylyl cyclase. GC-C is primarily expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, where it mediates fluid-ion homeostasis, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner, following activation by its ligands guanylin, uroguanylin, or the heat-stable enterotoxin peptide (ST). GC-C is also expressed in neurons, where it plays a role in satiation and attention deficiency/hyperactive behavior. GC-C is glycosylated in the extracellular domain, and differentially glycosylated forms that are resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (130 kDa) and the plasma membrane (145 kDa) bind the ST peptide with equal affinity. When glycosylation of human GC-C was prevented, either by pharmacological intervention or by mutation of all of the 10 predicted glycosylation sites, ST binding and surface localization was abolished. Systematic mutagenesis of each of the 10 sites of glycosylation in GC-C, either singly or in combination, identified two sites that were critical for ligand binding and two that regulated ST-mediated activation. We also show that GC-C is the first identified receptor client of the lectin chaperone vesicular integral membrane protein, VIP36. Interaction with VIP36 is dependent on glycosylation at the same sites that allow GC-C to fold and bind ligand. Because glycosylation of proteins is altered in many diseases and in a tissue-dependent manner, the activity and/or glycan-mediated interactions of GC-C may have a crucial role to play in its functions in different cell types.

  10. Site-specific N-Linked Glycosylation of Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase C Regulates Ligand Binding, Ligand-mediated Activation and Interaction with Vesicular Integral Membrane Protein 36, VIP36*

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Najla; Ballal, Suhas; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is a multidomain, membrane-associated receptor guanylyl cyclase. GC-C is primarily expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, where it mediates fluid-ion homeostasis, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner, following activation by its ligands guanylin, uroguanylin, or the heat-stable enterotoxin peptide (ST). GC-C is also expressed in neurons, where it plays a role in satiation and attention deficiency/hyperactive behavior. GC-C is glycosylated in the extracellular domain, and differentially glycosylated forms that are resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (130 kDa) and the plasma membrane (145 kDa) bind the ST peptide with equal affinity. When glycosylation of human GC-C was prevented, either by pharmacological intervention or by mutation of all of the 10 predicted glycosylation sites, ST binding and surface localization was abolished. Systematic mutagenesis of each of the 10 sites of glycosylation in GC-C, either singly or in combination, identified two sites that were critical for ligand binding and two that regulated ST-mediated activation. We also show that GC-C is the first identified receptor client of the lectin chaperone vesicular integral membrane protein, VIP36. Interaction with VIP36 is dependent on glycosylation at the same sites that allow GC-C to fold and bind ligand. Because glycosylation of proteins is altered in many diseases and in a tissue-dependent manner, the activity and/or glycan-mediated interactions of GC-C may have a crucial role to play in its functions in different cell types. PMID:23269669

  11. Kinetics of ligand binding to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Arakelyan, V B; Babayan, S Y; Tairyan, V I; Arakelyan, A V; Parsadanyan, M A; Vardevanyan, P O

    2006-02-01

    Ligand binding to nucleic acids (NA) is considered as a stationary Markov process. It is shown that the probabilistic description of ligand-NA binding allows one to describe not only the kinetics of the change of number of bound ligands at arbitrary fillings but also to calculate stationary values of the number of bound ligands and its dispersion. The general analysis of absorption isotherms and kinetics of ligand binding to NA make it possible to determine of rate constants of ligand-NA complex formation and dissociation.

  12. Mapping of the C3d ligand binding site on complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) using nuclear magnetic resonance and chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, James M; Hannan, Jonathan P; Eisenmesser, Elan Z; Holers, V Michael

    2009-04-03

    Complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) is a cell membrane protein, with 15 or 16 extracellular short consensus repeats (SCRs), that promotes B lymphocyte responses and bridges innate and acquired immunity. The most distally located SCRs (SCR1-2) mediate the interaction of CR2 with its four known ligands (C3d, Epstein-Barr virus gp350, interferon-alpha, and CD23). Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against SCR1-2 block binding of all ligands. To develop ligand-specific inhibitors that would also assist in identifying residues unique to each receptor-ligand interaction, phage were selected from randomly generated libraries by panning with recombinant SCR1-2, followed by specific ligand-driven elution. Derived peptides were tested by competition ELISA. One peptide, C3dp1 (APQHLSSQYSRT) exhibited ligand-specific inhibition at midmicromolar IC(50). C3d was titrated into (15)N-labeled SCR1-2, which revealed chemical shift changes indicative of specific intermolecular interactions. With backbone assignments made, the chemical shift changes were mapped onto the crystal structure of SCR1-2. With regard to C3d, the binding surface includes regions of SCR1, SCR2, and the inter-SCR linker, specifically residues Arg(13), Tyr(16), Arg(28), Tyr(29), Ser(32), Thr(34), Lys(48), Asp(56), Lys(57), Tyr(68), Arg(83), Gly(84), Asn(101), Asn(105), and Ser(109). SCR1 and SCR2 demonstrated distinct binding modes. The CR2 binding surface incorporating SCR1 is inconsistent with a previous x-ray CR2-C3d co-crystal analysis but consistent with mutagenesis, x-ray neutron scattering, and inhibitory monoclonal antibody epitope mapping. Titration with C3dp1 yielded chemical shift changes (Arg(13), Tyr(16), Thr(34), Lys(48), Asp(56), Lys(57), Tyr(68), Arg(83), Gly(84), Asn(105), and Ser(109)) overlapping with C3d, indicating that C3dp1 interacts at the same CR2 site as C3d.

  13. The GC-selective ligand mithramycin alters the structure of (AT)n sequences flanking its binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cons, B M; Fox, K R

    1990-05-07

    DNA fragments containing (AT)n inserts cloned adjacent to putative mithramycin binding sites have been examined by footprinting experiments using a variety of nucleases in the presence of the drug. The results demonstrate that mithramycin induces a DNA structural change which renders adjacent (AT)n sequences sensitive to attack by DNase II. Significant changes are also revealed with DNase I and micrococcal nuclease. The results are consistent with a model in which mithramycin opens the DNA minor groove changing it to a structure which is locally more like A-DNA.

  14. Computational and Biochemical Docking of the Irreversible Cocaine Analog RTI 82 Directly Demonstrates Ligand Positioning in the Dopamine Transporter Central Substrate-binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Rejwi Acharya; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sharma, Babita; Krout, Danielle; Foster, James D.; Cha, Joo Hwan; Cao, Jianjing; Newman, Amy Hauck; Lever, John R.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) functions as a key regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission via re-uptake of synaptic dopamine (DA). Cocaine binding to DAT blocks this activity and elevates extracellular DA, leading to psychomotor stimulation and addiction, but the mechanisms by which cocaine interacts with DAT and inhibits transport remain incompletely understood. Here, we addressed these questions using computational and biochemical methodologies to localize the binding and adduction sites of the photoactivatable irreversible cocaine analog 3β-(p-chlorophenyl)tropane-2β-carboxylic acid, 4′-azido-3′-iodophenylethyl ester ([125I]RTI 82). Comparative modeling and small molecule docking indicated that the tropane pharmacophore of RTI 82 was positioned in the central DA active site with an orientation that juxtaposed the aryliodoazide group for cross-linking to rat DAT Phe-319. This prediction was verified by focused methionine substitution of residues flanking this site followed by cyanogen bromide mapping of the [125I]RTI 82-labeled mutants and by the substituted cysteine accessibility method protection analyses. These findings provide positive functional evidence linking tropane pharmacophore interaction with the core substrate-binding site and support a competitive mechanism for transport inhibition. This synergistic application of computational and biochemical methodologies overcomes many uncertainties inherent in other approaches and furnishes a schematic framework for elucidating the ligand-protein interactions of other classes of DA transport inhibitors. PMID:25179220

  15. Computational and biochemical docking of the irreversible cocaine analog RTI 82 directly demonstrates ligand positioning in the dopamine transporter central substrate-binding site.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Rejwi Acharya; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sharma, Babita; Krout, Danielle; Foster, James D; Cha, Joo Hwan; Cao, Jianjing; Newman, Amy Hauck; Lever, John R; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Henry, L Keith

    2014-10-24

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) functions as a key regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission via re-uptake of synaptic dopamine (DA). Cocaine binding to DAT blocks this activity and elevates extracellular DA, leading to psychomotor stimulation and addiction, but the mechanisms by which cocaine interacts with DAT and inhibits transport remain incompletely understood. Here, we addressed these questions using computational and biochemical methodologies to localize the binding and adduction sites of the photoactivatable irreversible cocaine analog 3β-(p-chlorophenyl)tropane-2β-carboxylic acid, 4'-azido-3'-iodophenylethyl ester ([(125)I]RTI 82). Comparative modeling and small molecule docking indicated that the tropane pharmacophore of RTI 82 was positioned in the central DA active site with an orientation that juxtaposed the aryliodoazide group for cross-linking to rat DAT Phe-319. This prediction was verified by focused methionine substitution of residues flanking this site followed by cyanogen bromide mapping of the [(125)I]RTI 82-labeled mutants and by the substituted cysteine accessibility method protection analyses. These findings provide positive functional evidence linking tropane pharmacophore interaction with the core substrate-binding site and support a competitive mechanism for transport inhibition. This synergistic application of computational and biochemical methodologies overcomes many uncertainties inherent in other approaches and furnishes a schematic framework for elucidating the ligand-protein interactions of other classes of DA transport inhibitors.

  16. Plasmon resonance enhanced mechanical detection of ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2015-01-05

    Small molecule binding to the active site of enzymes typically modifies the mechanical stiffness of the enzyme. We exploit this effect, in a setup which combines nano-mechanics and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced optics, for the label free detection of ligand binding to an enzyme. The large dynamic range of the signal allows to easily obtain binding curves for small ligands, in contrast to traditional SPR methods which rely on small changes in index of refraction. Enzyme mechanics, assessed by nano-rheology, thus emerges as an alternative to electronic and spin resonances, assessed by traditional spectroscopies, for detecting ligand binding.

  17. Growth-regulatory human galectin-1: crystallographic characterisation of the structural changes induced by single-site mutations and their impact on the thermodynamics of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    López-Lucendo, María F; Solís, Dolores; André, Sabine; Hirabayashi, Jun; Kasai, Ken-ichi; Kaltner, Herbert; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2004-10-29

    Human galectin-1 is a potent multifunctional effector that participates in specific protein-carbohydrate and protein-protein (lipid) interactions. By determining its X-ray structure, we provide the basis to define the structure of its ligand-binding pocket and to perform rational drug design. We have also analysed whether single-site mutations introduced at some distance from the carbohydrate recognition domain can affect the lectin fold and influence sugar binding. Both the substitutions introduced in the C2S and R111H mutants altered the presentation of the loop, harbouring Asp123 in the common "jelly-roll" fold. The orientation of the side-chain was inverted 180 degrees and the positions of two key residues in the sugar-binding site of the R111H mutant were notably shifted, i.e. His52 and Trp68. Titration calorimetry was used to define the decrease in ligand affinity in both mutants and a significant increase in the entropic penalty was found to outweigh a slight enhancement of the enthalpic contribution. The position of the SH-groups in the galectin appeared to considerably restrict the potential to form intramolecular disulphide bridges and was assumed to be the reason for the unstable lectin activity in the absence of reducing agent. However, this offers no obvious explanation for the improved stability of the C2S mutant under oxidative conditions. The noted long-range effects in single-site mutants are relevant for the functional divergence of closely related galectins and in more general terms, the functionality definition of distinct amino acids.

  18. Ligand-bound Structures and Site-directed Mutagenesis Identify the Acceptor and Secondary Binding Sites of Streptomyces coelicolor Maltosyltransferase GlgE.

    PubMed

    Syson, Karl; Stevenson, Clare E M; Miah, Farzana; Barclay, J Elaine; Tang, Minhong; Gorelik, Andrii; Rashid, Abdul M; Lawson, David M; Bornemann, Stephen

    2016-10-07

    GlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis in bacteria that has been genetically validated as a target for tuberculosis therapies. Crystals of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme diffract at low resolution so most structural studies have been with the very similar Streptomyces coelicolor GlgE isoform 1. Although the donor binding site for α-maltose 1-phosphate had been previously structurally defined, the acceptor site had not. Using mutagenesis, kinetics, and protein crystallography of the S. coelicolor enzyme, we have now identified the +1 to +6 subsites of the acceptor/product, which overlap with the known cyclodextrin binding site. The sugar residues in the acceptor subsites +1 to +5 are oriented such that they disfavor the binding of malto-oligosaccharides that bear branches at their 6-positions, consistent with the known acceptor chain specificity of GlgE. A secondary binding site remote from the catalytic center was identified that is distinct from one reported for the M. tuberculosis enzyme. This new site is capable of binding a branched α-glucan and is most likely involved in guiding acceptors toward the donor site because its disruption kinetically compromises the ability of GlgE to extend polymeric substrates. However, disruption of this site, which is conserved in the Streptomyces venezuelae GlgE enzyme, did not affect the growth of S. venezuelae or the structure of the polymeric product. The acceptor subsites +1 to +4 in the S. coelicolor enzyme are well conserved in the M. tuberculosis enzyme so their identification could help inform the design of inhibitors with therapeutic potential. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Ligand-bound Structures and Site-directed Mutagenesis Identify the Acceptor and Secondary Binding Sites of Streptomyces coelicolor Maltosyltransferase GlgE*

    PubMed Central

    Syson, Karl; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Miah, Farzana; Barclay, J. Elaine; Tang, Minhong; Gorelik, Andrii; Rashid, Abdul M.; Lawson, David M.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    GlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis in bacteria that has been genetically validated as a target for tuberculosis therapies. Crystals of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme diffract at low resolution so most structural studies have been with the very similar Streptomyces coelicolor GlgE isoform 1. Although the donor binding site for α-maltose 1-phosphate had been previously structurally defined, the acceptor site had not. Using mutagenesis, kinetics, and protein crystallography of the S. coelicolor enzyme, we have now identified the +1 to +6 subsites of the acceptor/product, which overlap with the known cyclodextrin binding site. The sugar residues in the acceptor subsites +1 to +5 are oriented such that they disfavor the binding of malto-oligosaccharides that bear branches at their 6-positions, consistent with the known acceptor chain specificity of GlgE. A secondary binding site remote from the catalytic center was identified that is distinct from one reported for the M. tuberculosis enzyme. This new site is capable of binding a branched α-glucan and is most likely involved in guiding acceptors toward the donor site because its disruption kinetically compromises the ability of GlgE to extend polymeric substrates. However, disruption of this site, which is conserved in the Streptomyces venezuelae GlgE enzyme, did not affect the growth of S. venezuelae or the structure of the polymeric product. The acceptor subsites +1 to +4 in the S. coelicolor enzyme are well conserved in the M. tuberculosis enzyme so their identification could help inform the design of inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:27531751

  20. Ligand binding by PDZ domains.

    PubMed

    Chi, Celestine N; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian; Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per

    2012-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context.

  1. Kinetic analysis of ligand binding to the Ehrlich cell nucleoside transporter: Pharmacological characterization of allosteric interactions with the sup 3 Hnitrobenzylthioinosine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic analysis of the binding of {sup 3}Hnitrobenzylthioinosine ({sup 3}H NBMPR) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cell plasma membranes was conducted in the presence and absence of a variety of nucleoside transport inhibitors and substrates. The association of {sup 3}H NBMPR with Ehrlich cell membranes occurred in two distinct phases, possibly reflecting functional conformation changes in the {sup 3}HNBMPR binding site/nucleoside transporter complex. Inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR, tested at submaximal inhibitory concentrations, generally decreased the rate of association of {sup 3}HNBMPR, but the magnitude of this effect varied significantly with the agent tested. Adenosine and diazepam had relatively minor effects on the association rate, whereas dipyridamole and mioflazine slowed the rate dramatically. Inhibitors of nucleoside transport also decreased the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR, with an order of potency significantly different from their relative potencies as inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR. Dilazep, dipyridamole, and mioflazine were effective inhibitors of both {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation and equilibrium binding. The lidoflazine analogue R75231, on the other hand, had no effect on the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR at concentrations below 300 microM, even though it was one of the most potent inhibitors of {sup 3}HNBMPR binding tested (Ki less than 100 nM). In contrast, a series of natural substrates for the nucleoside transport system enhanced the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR with an order of effectiveness that paralleled their relative affinities for the permeant site of the transporter. The most effective enhancers of {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation, however, were the benzodiazepines diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and triazolam.

  2. Characterizing ligand-microtubule binding by competition methods.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Fernando; Buey, Rubén Martínez

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of the thermodynamics and kinetics of drug-microtubule interaction is essential to understand the structure/affinity relationship of a given ligand family. When a ligand does not show an appropriate signal change (absorbance or fluorescence) upon binding, the extensive direct characterization of its binding affinities and kinetic rate constants of association and dissociation becomes a complex task. In those cases it is possible to obtain these parameters by competition of the ligand with a reference one of the same binding site that shows such change. Nevertheless, although the experimental setup of the competition measurements is easier, the treatment of the data is complex because simultaneous equilibrium/kinetic equations have to be solved. In this chapter, the taxoid-binding site of the microtubules will be used as an example to describe experimental competition and data analysis methods to determine the binding constants and kinetic rates of association and dissociation of ligands for microtubules.

  3. Design and characterization of a mutation outside the active site of human thymidylate synthase that affects ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, D; Salo-Ahen, O M H; Guaitoli, G; Ferrari, S; Venturelli, A; Franchini, S; Battini, R; Ponterini, G; Wade, R C; Costi, M P

    2010-02-01

    Owing to its central role in DNA synthesis, human thymidylate synthase (hTS) is a well-established target for chemotherapeutic agents, such as fluoropyrimidines. The use of hTS inhibitors in cancer therapy is limited by their toxicity and the development of cellular drug resistance. Here, with the aim of shedding light on the structural role of the A-helix in fluoropyrimidine resistance, we have created a fluoropyrimidine-resistant mutant by making a single point mutation, Glu30Trp. We postulated that residue 30, which is located in the A-helix, close to but outside the enzyme active site, could have a long-range effect on inhibitor binding. The mutant shows 100 times lower specific activity with respect to the wild-type hTS and is resistant to the classical inhibitor, FdUMP, as shown by a 6-fold higher inhibition constant. Circular dichroism experiments show that the mutant is folded. The results of molecular modeling and simulation suggest that the Glu30Trp mutation gives rise to resistance by altering the hydrogen-bond network between residue 30 and the active site.

  4. Three-dimensional distribution function theory for the prediction of protein-ligand binding sites and affinities: application to the binding of noble gases to hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takashi; Hiraoka, Ryusuke; Seto, Tomoyoshi; Kovalenko, Andriy; Hirata, Fumio

    2007-10-04

    The three-dimensional distribution function theory of molecular liquids is applied to lysozyme in mixtures of water and noble gases. The results indicate that the theory has the capability of predicting the protein-ligand binding sites and affinities. First, it is shown that the theory successfully reproduces the binding sites of xenon found by X-ray crystallography. Then, the ability of the theory to predict the size selectivity of noble gases is demonstrated. The effect of water on the selectivity is clarified by a theoretical analysis. Finally, it is demonstrated that the dose-response curve, which is employed in experiments for examining the binding affinity, is realized by the theory.

  5. Molecular and Electronic Mechanism in the Control of Na(+) and (K+) Permeability of Excitable Cell Membrane by Ligand Binding on Receptor Sites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-12

    investigate the control of cell membrane permeability toNa + K and other ions by transmitters, drugs, and other biologically potent ligands: to extend and test ...potent ligands: to ex- tend and test a general electronic theory of the control of physiological activities. Progress: (Year 1 and 2): In 1962, a new...c-value changes of 0- and Y-carboxyl groups in response to the binding of drugs or other ligands has opened the door toward further testing the

  6. EGFR kinase possesses a broad specificity for ErbB phosphorylation sites, and ligand increases catalytic-centre activity without affecting substrate binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We previously found that EGF (epidermal growth factor) increases the EGFR (EGF receptor) kinase-binding affinity towards the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites in downstream adaptor proteins such as Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1) and Shc [Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and collagen containing protein], but not that towards EGFR autophosphorylation sites [Fan, Wong, Deb and Johnson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38143–38150]. EGFR activation can also result in transphosphorylation of tyrosine resides in the C-terminal region of the related receptors ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in heterodimers which are formed upon ligand stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of EGFR kinase by comparing the steady state kinetic parameters for peptides derived from all four ErbBs in the absence or presence of EGF. Our results demonstrated that (i) EGFR kinase can efficiently phosphorylate a broad range of diverse peptide sequences representing ErbB sites; (ii) certain ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 sites had higher specificity constants than any EGFR sequence and (iii) EGF stimulation consistently increases the kcat approx. 5-fold, but does not significantly alter the Km for any ErbB peptides. Furthermore, peptides containing lysine at position −2 or −3 N-terminal to the target tyrosine were found to be poor EGFR kinase substrates, and substitution of these lysines with glutamine decreased the Km and increased the kcat for these substrates. We conclude that EGFR kinase-mediated ErbB transphosphorylations are mostly controlled at the level of oligomerization, and not by a preference of the EGFR kinase for phosphorylation sites in any particular ErbB. The results also demonstrated that, unlike phosphorylation sites in select downstream targets, EGF does not regulate the recognition of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of any of the ErbBs. PMID:16122376

  7. CLiBE: a database of computed ligand binding energy for ligand-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Ji, Z L; Zhi, D G; Chen, Y Z

    2002-11-01

    Consideration of binding competitiveness of a drug candidate against natural ligands and other drugs that bind to the same receptor site may facilitate the rational development of a candidate into a potent drug. A strategy that can be applied to computer-aided drug design is to evaluate ligand-receptor interaction energy or other scoring functions of a designed drug with that of the relevant ligands known to bind to the same binding site. As a tool to facilitate such a strategy, a database of ligand-receptor interaction energy is developed from known ligand-receptor 3D structural entries in the Protein Databank (PDB). The Energy is computed based on a molecular mechanics force field that has been used in the prediction of therapeutic and toxicity targets of drugs. This database also contains information about ligand function and other properties and it can be accessed at http://xin.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/CLiBE.asp. The computed energy components may facilitate the probing of the mode of action and other profiles of binding. A number of computed energies of some PDB ligand-receptor complexes in this database are studied and compared to experimental binding affinity. A certain degree of correlation between the computed energy and experimental binding affinity is found, which suggests that the computed energy may be useful in facilitating a qualitative analysis of drug binding competitiveness.

  8. Peptidomimetic Escape Mechanisms Arise via Genetic Diversity in the Ligand-Binding Site of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Christoph; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Hartmann, Christoph; Yang, Yan; Domingues, Francisco S.; Lengauer, Thomas; Zeuzem, Stefan; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims It is a challenge to develop direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) that target the NS3/4A protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) because resistant variants develop. Ketoamide compounds, designed to mimic the natural protease substrate, have been developed as inhibitors. However, clinical trials have revealed rapid selection of resistant mutants, most of which are considered to be pre-existing variants. Methods We identified residues near the ketoamide-binding site in X-ray structures of the genotype 1a protease, co-crystallized with boceprevir or a telaprevir-like ligand, and then identified variants at these positions in 219 genotype 1 sequences from a public database. We used side-chain modeling to assess the potential effects of these variants on the interaction between ketoamide and the protease, and compared these results with the phenotypic effects on ketoamide resistance, RNA replication capacity, and infectious virus yields in a cell culture model of infection. Results Thirteen natural binding-site variants with potential for ketoamide resistance were identified at 10 residues in the protease, near the ketoamide binding site. Rotamer analysis of amino acid side-chain conformations indicated that 2 variants (R155K and D168G) could affect binding of telaprevir more than boceprevir. Measurements of antiviral susceptibility in cell culture studies were consistent with this observation. Four variants (Q41H, I132V, R155K, and D168G) caused low-to-moderate levels of ketoamide resistance; 3 of these were highly fit (Q41H, I132V, and R155K). Conclusions Using a comprehensive sequence and structure-based analysis, we showed how natural variation in the HCV protease NS3/4A sequences might affect susceptibility to first-generation DAAs. These findings increase our understanding of the molecular basis of ketoamide resistance among naturally existing viral variants. PMID:22155364

  9. Insights into Regulated Ligand Binding Sites from the Structure of ZO-1 Src Homology 3-Guanylate Kinase Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, Ming F.; Fanning, Alan S.; Su, Ying; Anderson, James M.; Lavie, Arnon

    2010-11-09

    Tight junctions are dynamic components of epithelial and endothelial cells that regulate the paracellular transport of ions, solutes, and immune cells. The assembly and permeability of these junctions is dependent on the zonula occludens (ZO) proteins, members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homolog (MAGUK) protein family, which are characterized by a core Src homology 3 (SH3)-GUK module that coordinates multiple protein-protein interactions. The structure of the ZO-1 SH3-GUK domain confirms that the interdependent folding of the SH3 and GUK domains is a conserved feature of MAGUKs, but differences in the orientation of the GUK domains in three different MAGUKs reveal interdomain flexibility of the core unit. Using pull-down assays, we show that an effector loop, the U6 region in ZO-1, forms a novel intramolecular interaction with the core module. This interaction is divalent cation-dependent and overlaps with the binding site for the regulatory molecule calmodulin on the GUK domain. These findings provide insight into the previously observed ability of the U6 region to regulate TJ assembly in vivo and the structural basis for the complex protein interactions of the MAGUK family.

  10. Amino acids outside of the loops that define the agonist binding site are important for ligand binding to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zewen; Han, Zhaojun; Liu, Shuhua; Zhang, Yixi; Song, Feng; Yao, Xiangmei; Gu, Jianhua

    2008-07-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of several kinds of insecticides. Based on the mutagenesis studies of Torpedo californica nAChRs and solved structure of a molluscan, glial-derived soluble ACh-binding protein, a model of the agonist site was constructed with contributing amino acids from three distinct loops (A, B, and C) of the alpha subunits and another three loops (D, E, and F) of the non-alpha subunits. According to this model, most insect nAChR subunits can form the functional heteromeric or homomeric receptors. Actually, insect subunits themselves did not form any functional receptor at various combinations as yet, and only part of them can form the functional receptors with vertebrate non-alpha subunits. These findings suggested that the agonist binding for insect nAChRs was not only contributed by those key amino acids in six loops, but also some unidentified amino acids from other regions. In our previous studies on nAChRs for Nilaparvata lugens, a target-site mutation (Y151S) was found within two alpha subunits (Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3). In Drosophila S2 cells and Xenopus oocytes, Nlalpha1 can form functional receptors with rat beta2 subunit. However, the same thing was not observed in Nlalpha3. In the present paper, by exchanging the corresponding regions between Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3 to generate different chimeras, amino acid residues or residue clusters in the regions outside the six loops were found to play essential roles in agonist binding, especially for the amino acid clusters between loop B and C. This result indicated that the residues in the six loops could be necessary, but not enough for the activity of agonist binding.

  11. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand (/sup 3/H)PK 14105

    SciTech Connect

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-04-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with (/sup 3/H)PK 14105. In thymus sections, (/sup 3/H)PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands.

  12. The second domain of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) maintains the structural integrity of the leucocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ligand-binding site in the first domain.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, P; McDowall, A; Bates, P A; Brashaw, J; Hogg, N

    2000-01-01

    The first domain of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) binds to the leucocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) I domain, which contains the principal ligand-binding site of this leucocyte integrin. Whether the function of the second domain is also to directly bind LFA-1 has been unclear. Our data show that mutation in the hydrophilic EF loop of ICAM-1 domain 2 resulted in impaired binding of the isolated I domain when compared with wild-type ICAM-1. LFA-1 on T-cells also binds with reduced affinity to this ICAM-1 mutant. A hybrid construct containing the first domain of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 joined to domains 2-5 of ICAM-1 was unable to bind to the I domain, showing that there is no direct interaction between the second domain of ICAM-1 and the I domain. This construct was also not bound by LFA-1 expressed in T-cells. Function-blocking monoclonal antibodies that map to domain 2 of ICAM-1, implicating this domain in ligand binding, were found to act indirectly. In summary our data suggest that the second domain of ICAM-1 has a role in maintaining the structure of the LFA-1 ligand-binding site in the first domain of ICAM-1 but does not appear to have a direct role in ligand binding. PMID:10998349

  13. NMR Reveals Double Occupancy of Quinone-type Ligands in the Catalytic Quinone Binding Site of the Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Nedielkov, Ruslan; Steffen, Wojtek; Steuber, Julia; Möller, Heiko M.

    2013-01-01

    The sodium ion-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae exploits the free energy liberated during oxidation of NADH with ubiquinone to pump sodium ions across the cytoplasmic membrane. The Na+-NQR consists of four membrane-bound subunits NqrBCDE and the peripheral NqrF and NqrA subunits. NqrA binds ubiquinone-8 as well as quinones with shorter prenyl chains (ubiquinone-1 and ubiquinone-2). Here we show that the quinone derivative 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), a known inhibitor of the bc1 and b6f complexes found in mitochondria and chloroplasts, also inhibits quinone reduction by the Na+-NQR in a mixed inhibition mode. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments in the presence of Na+-NQR inhibitor (DBMIB or 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) indicate that two quinone analog ligands are bound simultaneously by the NqrA subunit with very similar interaction constants as observed with the holoenzyme complex. We conclude that the catalytic site of quinone reduction is located on NqrA. The two ligands bind to an extended binding pocket in direct vicinity to each other as demonstrated by interligand Overhauser effects between ubiquinone-1 and DBMIB or 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, respectively. We propose that a similar spatially close arrangement of the native quinone substrates is also operational in vivo, enhancing the catalytic efficiency during the final electron transfer steps in the Na+-NQR. PMID:24003222

  14. Labeling by ( sup 3 H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine of two high affinity binding sites in guinea pig brain: Evidence for allosteric regulation by calcium channel antagonists and pseudoallosteric modulation by sigma ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.B.; Reid, A.; Mahboubi, A.; Kim, C.H.; De Costa, B.R.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Equilibrium binding studies with the sigma receptor ligand ({sup 3}H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (({sup 3}H)DTG) demonstrated two high affinity binding sites in membranes prepared from guinea pig brain. The apparent Kd values of DTG for sites 1 and 2 were 11.9 and 37.6 nM, respectively. The corresponding Bmax values were 1045 and 1423 fmol/mg of protein. Site 1 had high affinity for (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, (R)-(+)-PPP, carbepentane, and other sigma ligands, suggesting a similarity with the dextromethorphan/sigma 1 binding site described by Musacchio et al. (Life Sci. 45:1721-1732 (1989)). Site 2 had high affinity for DTG and haloperidol (Ki = 36.1 nM) and low affinity for most other sigma ligands. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that ({sup 3}H)DTG dissociated in a biphasic manner from both site 1 and site 2. DTG and haloperidol increased the dissociation rate of ({sup 3}H)DTG from site 1 and site 2, demonstrating the presence of pseudoallosteric interactions. Inorganic calcium channel blockers such as Cd2+ selectively increased the dissociation rate of ({sup 3}H)DTG from site 2, suggesting an association of this binding site with calcium channels.

  15. Replacement of water molecules in a phosphate binding site by furanoside-appended lin-benzoguanine ligands of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT).

    PubMed

    Barandun, Luzi J; Ehrmann, Frederik R; Zimmerli, Daniel; Immekus, Florian; Giroud, Maude; Grünenfelder, Claudio; Schweizer, W Bernd; Bernet, Bruno; Betz, Michael; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Diederich, François

    2015-01-02

    The enzyme tRNA-guanine transglycosylase has been identified as a drug target for the foodborne illness shigellosis. A key challenge in structure-based design for this enzyme is the filling of the polar ribose-34 pocket. Herein, we describe a novel series of ligands consisting of furanoside-appended lin-benzoguanines. They were designed to replace a conserved water cluster and differ by the functional groups at C(2) and C(3) of the furanosyl moiety being either OH or OMe. The unfavorable desolvation of Asp102 and Asp280, which are located close to the ribose-34 pocket, had a significant impact on binding affinity. While the enzyme has tRNA as its natural substrate, X-ray co-crystal structures revealed that the furanosyl moieties of the ligands are not accommodated in the tRNA ribose-34 site, but at the location of the adjacent phosphate group. A remarkable similarity of the position of the oxygen atoms in these two structures suggests furanosides as a potential phosphate isoster. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Mapping structural landmarks, ligand binding sites, and missense mutations to the collagen IV heterotrimers predicts major functional domains, novel interactions, and variation in phenotypes in inherited diseases affecting basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Parkin, J Des; San Antonio, James D; Pedchenko, Vadim; Hudson, Billy; Jensen, Shane T; Savige, Judy

    2011-02-01

    Collagen IV is the major protein found in basement membranes. It comprises three heterotrimers (α1α1α2, α3α4α5, and α5α5α6) that form distinct networks, and are responsible for membrane strength and integrity.We constructed linear maps of the collagen IV heterotrimers ("interactomes") that indicated major structural landmarks, known and predicted ligand-binding sites, and missense mutations, in order to identify functional and disease-associated domains, potential interactions between ligands, and genotype–phenotype relationships. The maps documented more than 30 known ligand-binding sites as well as motifs for integrins, heparin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), decorin, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). They predicted functional domains for angiogenesis and haemostasis, and disease domains for autoimmunity, tumor growth and inhibition, infection, and glycation. Cooperative ligand interactions were indicated by binding site proximity, for example, between integrins, matrix metalloproteinases, and heparin. The maps indicated that mutations affecting major ligand-binding sites, for example, for Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein in the α1 chain or integrins in the α5 chain, resulted in distinctive phenotypes (Hereditary Angiopathy, Nephropathy, Aneurysms, and muscle Cramps [HANAC] syndrome, and early-onset Alport syndrome, respectively). These maps further our understanding of basement membrane biology and disease, and suggest novel membrane interactions, functions, and therapeutic targets.

  17. Cooperative Ligand Binding to Linear Chain Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applequist, Jon

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the Ising model of ligand binding as it applies to cooperative binding to long chain molecules. Also presents some illustrations which help to visualize the connection between the interaction parameters and the shape of the binding isotherm. (Author/MR)

  18. Revealing Ligand Binding Sites and Quantifying Subunit Variants of Noncovalent Protein Complexes in a Single Native Top-Down FTICR MS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huilin; Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Van Orden, Steve L.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2014-12-01

    "Native" mass spectrometry (MS) has been proven to be increasingly useful for structural biology studies of macromolecular assemblies. Using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (hADH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH) as examples, we demonstrate that rich information can be obtained in a single native top-down MS experiment using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Beyond measuring the molecular weights of the protein complexes, isotopic mass resolution was achieved for yeast ADH tetramer (147 kDa) with an average resolving power of 412,700 at m/z 5466 in absorption mode, and the mass reflects that each subunit binds to two zinc atoms. The N-terminal 89 amino acid residues were sequenced in a top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) experiment, along with the identifications of the zinc binding site at Cys46 and a point mutation (V58T). With the combination of various activation/dissociation techniques, including ECD, in-source dissociation (ISD), collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), 40% of the yADH sequence was derived directly from the native tetramer complex. For hADH, native top-down ECD-MS shows that both E and S subunits are present in the hADH sample, with a relative ratio of 4:1. Native top-down ISD of the hADH dimer shows that each subunit (E and S chains) binds not only to two zinc atoms, but also the NAD/NADH ligand, with a higher NAD/NADH binding preference for the S chain relative to the E chain. In total, 32% sequence coverage was achieved for both E and S chains.

  19. Interaction of (D-Ser/sup 2/,Leu/sup 5/)enkephalin-Thr/sup 6/ (DSLET), a relatively selective delta ligand, with mu/sub 1/ opioid binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Itzhak, Y.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1987-01-19

    Using binding approaches, the high selectivity of (D-Ser/sup 2/,Leu/sup 5/)enkephalin-Thr/sup 6/ (DSLET) to delta, as opposed to morphine-preferring (mu/sub 2/) sites in rat brain has been confirmed. However, detailed experiments studies indicate that this ligand also labels mu/sub 1/ sites with very high affinity. Saturation studies of /sup 3/H-DSLET binding reveal curvilinear plots. Treating tissue with naloxonazine to block mu/sub 1/ sites, eliminates the higher affinity binding component. Competition studies of the other peptides against /sup 3/H-DSLET and /sup 3/H(D-Ala/sup 2/, MePhe/sup 4/, Gly(o1)/sup 5/)enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DAMPGO) binding also implied high affinity binding of these peptides to mu/sub 1/ sites. The ability of these peptides to interact with mu/sub 1/ sites may help explain some of their pharmacological actions.

  20. Siderocalin Q83 exhibits differential slow dynamics upon ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Coudevylle, Nicolas; Geist, Leonhard; Hoetzinger, Matthias; Tollinger, Martin; Konrat, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Siderocalin Q83 is a small soluble protein that has the ability to bind two different ligands (enterobactin and arachidonic acid) simultaneously in two distinct binding sites. Here we report that Q83 exhibits an intriguing dynamic behavior. In its free form, the protein undergoes significant micro-to-millisecond dynamics. When binding arachidonic acid, the motions of the arachidonic acid binding site are quenched while the dynamics at the enterobactin binding site increases. Reciprocally, enterobactin binding to Q83 quenches the motions at the enterobactin binding site and increases the slow dynamics at the arachidonic acid binding site. Additionally, in the enterobactin-bound state, the excited state of the arachidonic acid binding site resembles the arachidonic acid-bound state. These observations strongly suggest an allosteric regulation where binding of one ligand enhances the affinity of Q83 for the other one. Additionally, our data strengthen the emerging view of proteins as dynamic ensembles interconverting between different sub-states with distinct functionalities.

  1. Peptidomimetic escape mechanisms arise via genetic diversity in the ligand-binding site of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A serine protease.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Christoph; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Hartmann, Christoph; Yang, Yan; Domingues, Francisco S; Lengauer, Thomas; Zeuzem, Stefan; Lemon, Stanley M

    2012-03-01

    It is a challenge to develop direct-acting antiviral agents that target the nonstructural protein 3/4A protease of hepatitis C virus because resistant variants develop. Ketoamide compounds, designed to mimic the natural protease substrate, have been developed as inhibitors. However, clinical trials have revealed rapid selection of resistant mutants, most of which are considered to be pre-existing variants. We identified residues near the ketoamide-binding site in x-ray structures of the genotype 1a protease, co-crystallized with boceprevir or a telaprevir-like ligand, and then identified variants at these positions in 219 genotype-1 sequences from a public database. We used side-chain modeling to assess the potential effects of these variants on the interaction between ketoamide and the protease, and compared these results with the phenotypic effects on ketoamide resistance, RNA replication capacity, and infectious virus yields in a cell culture model of infection. Thirteen natural binding-site variants with potential for ketoamide resistance were identified at 10 residues in the protease, near the ketoamide binding site. Rotamer analysis of amino acid side-chain conformations indicated that 2 variants (R155K and D168G) could affect binding of telaprevir more than boceprevir. Measurements of antiviral susceptibility in cell-culture studies were consistent with this observation. Four variants (ie, Q41H, I132V, R155K, and D168G) caused low-to-moderate levels of ketoamide resistance; 3 of these were highly fit (Q41H, I132V, and R155K). Using a comprehensive sequence and structure-based analysis, we showed how natural variation in the hepatitis C virus protease nonstructural protein 3/4A sequences might affect susceptibility to first-generation direct-acting antiviral agents. These findings increase our understanding of the molecular basis of ketoamide resistance among naturally existing viral variants. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Kinetic, structural, and spectroscopic identification of geminate states of myoglobin: a ligand binding site on the reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Powers, L; Chance, B; Chance, M; Campbell, B; Friedman, J; Khalid, S; Kumar, C; Naqui, A; Reddy, K S; Zhou, Y

    1987-07-28

    Elementary steps or geminate states in the reaction of gaseous ligands with transport proteins delineate the trajectory of the ligand and its rebinding to the heme. By use of kinetic studies of the 765-nm optical "conformation" band, three geminate states were identified for temperatures less than approximately 100 K. MbCO, which is accumulated by photolysis between 1.2 and approximately 10 K, was characterized by our previous optical and X-ray absorption studies [Chance, B., Fischetti, R., & Powers, L. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 3820-3829]. Between 10 and approximately 100 K, geminate states that are also identified that have recombination rates of approximately 10(3) s-1 and approximately 10(-5) s-1 (40 K). Thus, it is possible to maintain a steady-state nearly homogeneous population of the slowest recombining geminate state, Mb, by regulated continuous illumination (optical pumping). Both X-ray absorption and resonance Raman studies under similar conditions of optical pumping show that the heme structure around the iron in Mb is similar to that of MbCO. In both geminate states, the iron-proximal histidine distance remains unchanged (+/- 0.02 A) from that of MbCO while the iron to pyrrole nitrogen average distance has not fully relaxed to that of the deoxy state. In MbCO the CO remains close to iron but not bound, and the Fe...CO angle, which is bent in MbCO (127 +/- 4 degrees C), is decreased by approximately 15 degrees [Powers, L., Sessler, J. L., Woolery, G. L., & Chance, B. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 5519-5523]. The CO molecule in Mb, however, has moved approximately 0.7 A further from iron. Computer graphics modeling of the crystal structure of MbCO places the CO in a crevice in the heme pocket that is just large enough for the CO molecule end-on. Above approximately 100 K resonance Raman studies show that this structure relaxes to the deoxy state.

  3. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  4. Ligand clouds around protein clouds: a scenario of ligand binding with intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fan; Yu, Chen; Lai, Luhua; Liu, Zhirong

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) were found to be widely associated with human diseases and may serve as potential drug design targets. However, drug design targeting IDPs is still in the very early stages. Progress in drug design is usually achieved using experimental screening; however, the structural disorder of IDPs makes it difficult to characterize their interaction with ligands using experiments alone. To better understand the structure of IDPs and their interactions with small molecule ligands, we performed extensive simulations on the c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ peptide and its binding to a reported small molecule inhibitor, ligand 10074-A4. We found that the conformational space of the apo c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ peptide was rather dispersed and that the conformations of the peptide were stabilized mainly by charge interactions and hydrogen bonds. Under the binding of the ligand, c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ remained disordered. The ligand was found to bind to c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ at different sites along the chain and behaved like a 'ligand cloud'. In contrast to ligand binding to more rigid target proteins that usually results in a dominant bound structure, ligand binding to IDPs may better be described as ligand clouds around protein clouds. Nevertheless, the binding of the ligand and a non-ligand to the c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ target could be clearly distinguished. The present study provides insights that will help improve rational drug design that targets IDPs.

  5. Non-peptide ligand binding to the formyl peptide receptor FPR2--A comparison to peptide ligand binding modes.

    PubMed

    Stepniewski, Tomasz M; Filipek, Slawomir

    2015-07-15

    Ligands of the FPR2 receptor initiate many signaling pathways including activation of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway. The possible actions include also calcium flux, superoxide generation, as well as migration and proliferation of monocytes. FPR2 activation may induce a pro- and anti-inflammatory effect depending on the ligand type. It is also found that this receptor is involved in tumor growth. Most of currently known FPR2 ligands are agonists since they were designed based on N-formyl peptides, which are natural agonists of formyl receptors. Since the non-peptide drugs are indispensable for effective treatment strategies, we performed a docking study of such ligands employing a generated dual template homology model of the FPR2 receptor. The study revealed different binding modes of particular classes of these drugs. Based on the obtained docking poses we proposed a detailed location of three hydrophobic pockets in orthosteric binding site of FPR2. Our model emphasizes the importance of aromatic stacking, especially with regard to residues His102(3.29) and Phe257(6.51), for binding of FPR2 ligands. We also identified other residues important for non-peptide ligand binding in the binding site of FPR2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical model of interactions between ligand-binding sites in a dimeric protein and its application for the analysis of thiamine diphosphate binding to yeast transketolase.

    PubMed

    Ospanov, Ruslan; Kochetov, German; Kurganov, Boris

    2006-11-20

    The binding of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) to yeast dimeric apotransketolase (apoTK) is accompanied by the appearance of a band in the absorption spectrum with maximum at 320 nm. The saturation function has been analyzed using a scheme that involves binding of ThDP to each subunit followed by the conformational transition of this subunit. It is assumed that the binding of ThDP to one subunit may affect the conformational transition of the other subunit. Rigorous mathematical expressions describing the dependence of the optical absorption on the total concentration of ThDP are first developed. Equilibrium constants and corresponding rate constants for the binding of ThDP to apoTK have been estimated. The negative cooperativity in the ThDP binding has been characterized by the function reflecting the dependence of the conformational change on the saturation of apoTK by ThDP.

  7. Transient Ligand Docking Sites in Cerebratulus lacteus Mini-Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pengchi; Nienhaus, Karin; Palladino, Pasquale; Olson, John S.; Blouin, George; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia; Geuens, Eva; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The monomeric hemoglobin of the nemertean worm Cerebratulus lacteus functions as an oxygen storage protein to maintain neural activity under hypoxic conditions. It shares a large, apolar matrix tunnel with other small hemoglobins, which has been implicated as a potential ligand migration pathway. Here we explore ligand migration and binding within the distal heme pocket, to which the tunnel provides access to ligands from the outside. FTIR/TDS experiments performed at cryogenic temperatures reveal the presence of three transient ligand docking sites within the distal pocket, the primary docking site B on top of pyrrole C and secondary sites C and D. Site C is assigned to a cavity adjacent to the distal portion of the heme pocket, surrounded by the B and E helices. It has an opening to the apolar tunnel and is expected to be on the pathway for ligand entry and exit, whereas site D, circumscribed by TyrB10, GlnE7, and the CD corner, most likely is located on a side pathway of ligand migration. Flash photolysis experiments at ambient temperatures indicate that the rate-limiting step for ligand binding to CerHb is migration through the apolar channel to site C. Movement from C to B and iron-ligand bond formation involve low energy barriers and thus are very rapid processes in the wt protein. PMID:17531406

  8. Structural analysis of site-directed mutants of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II addresses the relationship between structural integrity and ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezeslami, Soheila; Jia, Xiaofei; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James H.

    2008-12-01

    A water network stabilizes the structure of cellular retionic acid binding protein II. The structural integrity of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII) has been investigated using the crystal structures of CRABPII mutants. The overall fold was well maintained by these CRABPII mutants, each of which carried multiple different mutations. A water-mediated network is found to be present across the large binding cavity, extending from Arg111 deep inside the cavity to the α2 helix at its entrance. This chain of interactions acts as a ‘pillar’ that maintains the integrity of the protein. The disruption of the water network upon loss of Arg111 leads to decreased structural integrity of the protein. A water-mediated network can be re-established by introducing the hydrophilic Glu121 inside the cavity, which results in a rigid protein with the α2 helix adopting an altered conformation compared with wild-type CRABPII.

  9. A model for ligand binding to hexacoordinate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Trent, J T; Hvitved, A N; Hargrove, M S

    2001-05-22

    Hexacoordinate hemoglobins are heme proteins capable of reversible intramolecular coordination of the ligand binding site by an amino acid side chain from within the heme pocket. Examples of these proteins are found in many living organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. The nonsymbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs) are a class of hexacoordinate heme proteins present in all plants. The nsHb from rice (rHb1) has been used as a model system to develop methods for determining rate constants characterizing binding and dissociation of the His residue responsible for hexacoordination. Measurement of these reactions exploits laser flash photolysis to initiate the reaction from the unligated, pentacoordinate form of the heme protein. A model for ligand binding is presented that incorporates the reaction following rapid mixing with the reaction starting from the pentacoordinate hemoglobin (Hb). This model is based on results indicating that ligand binding to hexacoordinate Hbs is not a simple combination of competing first order (hexacoordination) and second order (exogenous ligand binding) reactions. Ligand binding following rapid mixing is a multiphasic reaction displaying time courses ranging from milliseconds to minutes. The new model incorporates a "closed", slow reacting form of the protein that is not at rapid equilibrium with the reactive conformation. It is also demonstrated that formation of the closed protein species is not dependent on hexacoordination.

  10. Characterization of [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding sites in rat brain cortical synaptosomes: regulation of ligand binding by divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, R; Reiser, G

    1997-07-01

    1. We made a comparative analysis of the binding characteristics of the radioligands [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP in order to test whether these ligands can be used to analyse P2-purinoceptors in synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. 2. Synaptosomes possess sites with high affinity for [35S]-ATP alpha S (Kd = 22.2 +/- 9.1 nM, Bmax = 14.8 pmol mg-1 protein). The rank order of the competition potency of the different compounds (ATP alpha S, ATP, ATP gamma S > ADP beta S, 2-MeSATP > deoxyATP, ADP > > UTP, alpha, beta-MeATP, AMP, Reactive Blue-2, suramin, isoPPADS) is consistent with pharmacological properties of P2Y-purinoceptors. 3. Under identical conditions [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP bind to different binding sites at synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. The affinity of the [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding sites (Kd = 13.7 +/- 1.8 nM, Bmax = 6.34 +/- 0.28 pmol mg-1 protein) was 38 fold higher than the potency of alpha, beta-MeATP to displace [35S]-ATP alpha S binding (Ki = 0.52 microM). ATP and ADP beta S competed at both binding sites with different affinities, 60 fold and 175 fold, respectively. The other agonists tested (2-MeSATP, UTP, GTP) did not affect specific [35H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding at concentrations up to 100 microM. The antagonists (suramin, isoPPADS, Evan's Blue) showed completely different affinities for both binding sites. 4. Binding of [35S]-ATP alpha S on synaptosomes was regulated by GTP, which is indicative for G-protein coupled receptors. The Kd value for the high affinity binding site was reduced in the presence of GTP about 5 fold (from 1.8 nM to 8.6 nM). In the presence of Mg2+ the affinity was increased (Kd 1.8 nM versus 22 nM in the absence of Mg2+). 5. The binding of both radioligands was regulated in an opposite manner by physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Binding of [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP to synaptosomal membranes was increased 3 fold by raising the Ca2+ concentration

  11. Novel hydrazine molecules as tools to understand the flexibility of vascular adhesion protein-1 ligand-binding site: toward more selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, Elisa M; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Lázár, László; Pentikäinen, Ulla; Fülöp, Ferenc; Pentikäinen, Olli T

    2011-04-14

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) belongs to a family of amine oxidases. It plays a role in leukocyte trafficking and in amine compound metabolism. VAP-1 is linked to various diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, depression, diabetes, and obesity. Accordingly, selective inhibitors of VAP-1 could potentially be used to treat those diseases. In this study, eight novel VAP-1 hydrazine derivatives were synthesized and their VAP-1 and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition ability was determined in vitro. MD simulations of VAP-1 with these new molecules reveal that the VAP-1 ligand-binding pocket is flexible and capable of fitting substantially larger ligands than was previously believed. The increase in the size of the VAP-1 ligands, together with the methylation of the secondary nitrogen atom of the hydrazine moiety, improves the VAP-1 selectivity over MAO.

  12. The CD11a binding site of efalizumab in psoriatic skin tissue as analyzed by Multi-Epitope Ligand Cartography robot technology. Introduction of a novel biological drug-binding biochip assay.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Böckelmann, R; Pommer, A J; Malykh, Y; Philipsen, L; Gollnick, H

    2007-01-01

    Efalizumab (Raptiva) is an immunomodulating recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to CD11a, the alpha-subunit of leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1). By blocking the binding of LFA-1 to ICAM-1, efalizumab inhibits the adhesion of leukocytes to other cell types and interferes with the migration of T lymphocytes to sites of inflammation (including psoriatic skin plaques). Analysis of the response in patients treated with efalizumab to date shows that distinct groups of responders and nonresponders to the drug exist. It would therefore be of great practical value to be able to predict which patients are most likely to respond to treatment, by identifying key parameters in the mechanism of action of efalizumab. Detailed investigation and detection of multiple epitopes in microcompartments of skin tissue has until recently been restricted by the available technology. However, the newly developed technique of Multi-Epitope Ligand Cartography (MELC) robot technology combines proteomics and biomathematical tools to visualize protein networks at the cellular and subcellular levels in situ, and to decipher cell functions. The MELC technique, which is outlined in this paper, was used to help characterize the binding of efalizumab to affected and unaffected psoriatic skin as compared to normal control skin under ex vivomodel conditions. Efalizumab was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and integrated into a MELC library of more than 40 antibodies. These antibodies were selected for their potential to detect epitopes which may be indicative of (a) various cell types, (b) structural components of the extracellular matrix, or (c) the processes of cell proliferation, activation and adhesion. Efalizumab bound to CD11a in affected psoriatic skin by a factor 15x and 32x higher than in unaffected psoriatic skin and normal control skin, respectively. CD11a and the efalizumab binding site were primarily expressed in the extravascular dermis, whereas CD54 (ICAM

  13. Identification of the bile salt binding site on ipad from Shigella flexneri and the influence of ligand binding on IpaD structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; Guragain, Manita; Adam, Philip; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Picking, Wendy L.; Picking, William D.

    2012-10-25

    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis. The Shigella TTS apparatus (TTSA) is an elegant nano-machine that is composed of a basal body, an external needle to deliver effectors into human cells, and a needle tip complex that controls secretion activation. IpaD is at the tip of the nascent TTSA needle where it controls the first step of TTS activation. The bile salt deoxycholate (DOC) binds to IpaD to induce recruitment of the translocator protein IpaB into the maturing tip complex. We recently used spectroscopic analyses to show that IpaD undergoes a structural rearrangement that accompanies binding to DOC. Here, we report a crystal structure of IpaD with DOC bound and test the importance of the residues that make up the DOC binding pocket on IpaD function. IpaD binds DOC at the interface between helices {alpha}3 and {alpha}7, with concomitant movement in the orientation of helix {alpha}7 relative to its position in unbound IpaD. When the IpaD residues involved in DOC binding are mutated, some are found to lead to altered invasion and secretion phenotypes. These findings suggest that adoption of a DOC-bound structural state for IpaD primes the Shigella TTSA for contact with host cells. The data presented here and in the studies leading up to this work provide the foundation for developing a model of the first step in Shigella TTS activation.

  14. Identification of the bile salt binding site on IpaD from Shigella flexneri and the influence of ligand binding on IpaD structure

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Michael L.; Guragain, Manita; Adam, Philip; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Picking, Wendy L.; Picking, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis. The Shigella TTS apparatus (TTSA) is an elegant nano-machine that is composed of a basal body, an external needle to deliver effectors into human cells, and a needle tip complex that controls secretion activation. IpaD is at the tip of the nascent TTSA needle where it controls the first step of TTS activation. The bile salt deoxycholate (DOC) binds to IpaD to induce recruitment of the translocator protein IpaB into the maturing tip complex. We recently used spectroscopic analyses to show that IpaD undergoes a structural rearrangement that accompanies binding to DOC. Here we report a crystal structure of IpaD with DOC bound and test the importance of the residues that make up the DOC binding pocket on IpaD function. IpaD binds DOC at the interface between helices α3 and α7, with concomitant movement in the orientation of helix α7 relative to its position in unbound IpaD. When the IpaD residues involved in DOC binding are mutated, some are found to lead to altered invasion and secretion phenotypes. These findings suggest that adoption of a DOC-bound structural state for IpaD primes the Shigella TTSA for contact with host cells. The data presented here and in the studies leading up to this work provide the foundation for developing a model of the first step in Shigella TTS activation. PMID:22423359

  15. Structural analysis of site-directed mutants of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II addresses the relationship between structural integrity and ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezeslami, Soheila; Jia, Xiaofei; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James H.

    2009-09-02

    The structural integrity of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII) has been investigated using the crystal structures of CRABPII mutants. The overall fold was well maintained by these CRABPII mutants, each of which carried multiple different mutations. A water-mediated network is found to be present across the large binding cavity, extending from Arg111 deep inside the cavity to the {alpha} 2 helix at its entrance. This chain of interactions acts as a 'pillar' that maintains the integrity of the protein. The disruption of the water network upon loss of Arg111 leads to decreased structural integrity of the protein. A water-mediated network can be re-established by introducing the hydrophilic Glu121 inside the cavity, which results in a rigid protein with the {alpha}2 helix adopting an altered conformation compared with wild-type CRABPII.

  16. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  17. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W. )

    1989-05-02

    The human platelet {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: ({sup 3}H)SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido({sup 3}H)clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of ({sup 3}H)SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M{sub r} 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M{sub r} 4000, which was further digested to the M{sub r} 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido({sup 3}H)clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M{sub r} 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M{sub r} 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor.

  18. Allosteric binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wess, Jürgen

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology, Tränkle et al. (p. 1597) present new findings regarding the existence of a second allosteric site on the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 mAChR). The M2 mAChR is a prototypic class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has proven to be a very useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the binding of allosteric GPCR ligands. Previous studies have identified several allosteric muscarinic ligands, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor tacrine and the bis-pyridinium derivative 4,4'-bis-[(2,6-dichloro-benzyloxy-imino)-methyl]-1,1'-propane-1,3-diyl-bis-pyridinium dibromide (Duo3), which, in contrast to conventional allosteric muscarinic ligands, display concentration-effect curves with slope factors >1. By analyzing the interactions of tacrine and Duo3 with other allosteric muscarinic agents predicted to bind to the previously identified ;common' allosteric binding site, Tränkle et al. provide evidence suggesting that two allosteric agents and one orthosteric ligand may be able to bind to the M2 mAChR simultaneously. Moreover, studies with mutant mAChRs indicated that the M2 receptor epitopes involved in the binding of tacrine and Duo3 may not be identical. Molecular modeling and ligand docking studies suggested that the additional allosteric site probably represents a subdomain of the receptor's allosteric binding cleft. Because allosteric binding sites have been found on many other GPCRs and drugs interacting with these sites are thought to have great therapeutic potential, the study by Tränkle et al. should be of considerable general interest.

  19. Effect of the active site D25N mutation on the structure, stability, and ligand binding of the mature HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Jane M; Liu, Fengling; Ishima, Rieko; Weber, Irene T; Louis, John M

    2008-05-09

    All aspartic proteases, including retroviral proteases, share the triplet DTG critical for the active site geometry and catalytic function. These residues interact closely in the active, dimeric structure of HIV-1 protease (PR). We have systematically assessed the effect of the D25N mutation on the structure and stability of the mature PR monomer and dimer. The D25N mutation (PR(D25N)) increases the equilibrium dimer dissociation constant by a factor >100-fold (1.3 +/- 0.09 microm) relative to PR. In the absence of inhibitor, NMR studies reveal clear structural differences between PR and PR(D25N) in the relatively mobile P1 loop (residues 79-83) and flap regions, and differential scanning calorimetric analyses show that the mutation lowers the stabilities of both the monomer and dimer folds by 5 and 7.3 degrees C, respectively. Only minimal differences are observed in high resolution crystal structures of PR(D25N) complexed to darunavir (DRV), a potent clinical inhibitor, or a non-hydrolyzable substrate analogue, Ac-Thr-Ile-Nle-r-Nle-Gln-Arg-NH(2) (RPB), as compared with PR.DRV and PR.RPB complexes. Although complexation with RPB stabilizes both dimers, the effect on their T(m) is smaller for PR(D25N) (6.2 degrees C) than for PR (8.7 degrees C). The T(m) of PR(D25N).DRV increases by only 3 degrees C relative to free PR(D25N), as compared with a 22 degrees C increase for PR.DRV, and the mutation increases the ligand dissociation constant of PR(D25N).DRV by a factor of approximately 10(6) relative to PR.DRV. These results suggest that interactions mediated by the catalytic Asp residues make a major contribution to the tight binding of DRV to PR.

  20. Effect of the Active Site D25N Mutation on the Structure, Stability, and Ligand Binding of the Mature HIV-1 Protease*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Jane M.; Liu, Fengling; Ishima, Rieko; Weber, Irene T.; Louis, John M.

    2008-01-01

    All aspartic proteases, including retroviral proteases, share the triplet DTG critical for the active site geometry and catalytic function. These residues interact closely in the active, dimeric structure of HIV-1 protease (PR). We have systematically assessed the effect of the D25N mutation on the structure and stability of the mature PR monomer and dimer. The D25N mutation (PRD25N) increases the equilibrium dimer dissociation constant by a factor >100-fold (1.3 ± 0.09 μm) relative to PR. In the absence of inhibitor, NMR studies reveal clear structural differences between PR and PRD25N in the relatively mobile P1 loop (residues 79-83) and flap regions, and differential scanning calorimetric analyses show that the mutation lowers the stabilities of both the monomer and dimer folds by 5 and 7.3 °C, respectively. Only minimal differences are observed in high resolution crystal structures of PRD25N complexed to darunavir (DRV), a potent clinical inhibitor, or a non-hydrolyzable substrate analogue, Ac-Thr-Ile-Nle-r-Nle-Gln-Arg-NH2 (RPB), as compared with PR·DRV and PR·RPB complexes. Although complexation with RPB stabilizes both dimers, the effect on their Tm is smaller for PRD25N (6.2 °C) than for PR (8.7 °C). The Tm of PRD25N·DRV increases by only 3 °C relative to free PRD25N, as compared with a 22 °C increase for PR·DRV, and the mutation increases the ligand dissociation constant of PRD25N·DRV by a factor of ∼106 relative to PR·DRV. These results suggest that interactions mediated by the catalytic Asp residues make a major contribution to the tight binding of DRV to PR. PMID:18281688

  1. An iron( ii ) hydride complex of a ligand with two adjacent β-diketiminate binding sites and its reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Braun, Beatrice; Herwig, Christian; Harder, Sjoerd; Ray, Kallol; Limberg, Christian

    2016-01-13

    After lithiation of PYR-H2 (PYR = [(NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC6H3(iPr)2)2(C5H3N)]2-) – the precursor of an expanded β-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets – with KN(TMS)2 the reaction of the resulting potassium salt with FeBr2 led to a dinuclear iron(II) bromide complex [(PYR)Fe(μ-Br)2Fe] (1). Through treatment with KHBEt3 the bromide ligands could be replaced by hydrides to yield [PYR)Fe2(μ-H)2] (2), a distorted analogue of known β-diketiminato iron hydride complexes, as evidenced by NMR, Mößbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as by its reactivity: for instance, 2 reacts with the proton source lutidinium triflate via protonation of the hydride ligands to form an iron(II) product [(PYR)Fe2(OTf)2] (4), while CO2 inserts into the Fe–H bonds generating the formate complex [(PYR)Fe2(μ-HCOO)2] (5); in the presence of traces of water partial hydrolysis occurs so that [(PYR)Fe2(μ-OH)(μ-HCOO)] (6) is isolated. Altogether, the iron(II) chemistry supported by the PYR2- ligand is distinctly different from the one of nickel(II), where both, the arrangement of the two binding pockets and the additional pyridyl donor led to diverging features as compared with the corresponding system based on the parent β-diketiminato ligand.

  2. Ligand binding domain of vitamin D receptors.

    PubMed

    Rochel, Natacha; Moras, Dino

    2006-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor subgroup NR1I, is regulated by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 to control calcium metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation and immunomodulation. The therapeutic applications of vitamin D metabolites are wide. To develop efficient therapy, the elucidation of the structure-function relationships of VDR and its ligands are essential. In this review we will focus on the current structural understanding of the interactions of ligands in the ligand binding pocket of the VDR. These structures revealed the mutual adaptability of the ligands and the protein. In silico modeling has further revealed a possible new pocket in the VDR LBD responsible of the non-genomic action mediated by VDR. With the availability of all these structural information on VDR LBD, new ligands that are more selective, such as non-steroidal ligands, could be designed by taking into account the flexibility of some VDR regions. Tissue selectivity may also be achieved by developing ligands that specifically activate the non-genomic pathway.

  3. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  4. (/sup 3/)tetrahydrotrazodone binding. Association with serotonin binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, D.A.; Taylor, D.P.; Enna, S.J.

    1983-05-01

    High (17 nM) and low (603 nM) affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/)tetrahydrotrazodone ((/sup 3/) THT), a biologically active analogue of trazodone, have been identified in rat brain membranes. The substrate specificity, concentration, and subcellular and regional distributions of these sites suggest that they may represent a component of the serotonin transmitter system. Pharmacological analysis of (/sup 3/)THT binding, coupled with brain lesion and drug treatment experiments, revealed that, unlike other antidepressants, (/sup 3/) THT does not attach to either a biogenic amine transporter or serotonin binding sites. Rather, it would appear that (/sup 3/)THT may be an antagonist ligand for the serotonin binding site. This probe may prove of value in defining the mechanism of action of trazodone and in further characterizing serotonin receptors.

  5. Ligand deconstruction: Why some fragment binding positions are conserved and others are not.

    PubMed

    Kozakov, Dima; Hall, David R; Jehle, Stefan; Jehle, Sefan; Luo, Lingqi; Ochiana, Stefan O; Jones, Elizabeth V; Pollastri, Michael; Allen, Karen N; Whitty, Adrian; Vajda, Sandor

    2015-05-19

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) relies on the premise that the fragment binding mode will be conserved on subsequent expansion to a larger ligand. However, no general condition has been established to explain when fragment binding modes will be conserved. We show that a remarkably simple condition can be developed in terms of how fragments coincide with binding energy hot spots--regions of the protein where interactions with a ligand contribute substantial binding free energy--the locations of which can easily be determined computationally. Because a substantial fraction of the free energy of ligand binding comes from interacting with the residues in the energetically most important hot spot, a ligand moiety that sufficiently overlaps with this region will retain its location even when other parts of the ligand are removed. This hypothesis is supported by eight case studies. The condition helps identify whether a protein is suitable for FBDD, predicts the size of fragments required for screening, and determines whether a fragment hit can be extended into a higher affinity ligand. Our results show that ligand binding sites can usefully be thought of in terms of an anchor site, which is the top-ranked hot spot and dominates the free energy of binding, surrounded by a number of weaker satellite sites that confer improved affinity and selectivity for a particular ligand and that it is the intrinsic binding potential of the protein surface that determines whether it can serve as a robust binding site for a suitably optimized ligand.

  6. Mechanistic insight into ligand binding to G-quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Novellino, Ettore; Cavalli, Andrea; Parrinello, Michele; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Specific guanine-rich regions in human genome can form higher-order DNA structures called G-quadruplexes, which regulate many relevant biological processes. For instance, the formation of G-quadruplex at telomeres can alter cellular functions, inducing apoptosis. Thus, developing small molecules that are able to bind and stabilize the telomeric G-quadruplexes represents an attractive strategy for antitumor therapy. An example is 3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-7-hydroxy-8-((4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (compound 1), recently identified as potent ligand of the G-quadruplex [d(TGGGGT)]4 with promising in vitro antitumor activity. The experimental observations are suggestive of a complex binding mechanism that, despite efforts, has defied full characterization. Here, we provide through metadynamics simulations a comprehensive understanding of the binding mechanism of 1 to the G-quadruplex [d(TGGGGT)]4. In our calculations, the ligand explores all the available binding sites on the DNA structure and the free-energy landscape of the whole binding process is computed. We have thus disclosed a peculiar hopping binding mechanism whereas 1 is able to bind both to the groove and to the 3’ end of the G-quadruplex. Our results fully explain the available experimental data, rendering our approach of great value for further ligand/DNA studies. PMID:24753420

  7. Bridging lectin binding sites by multivalent carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Valentin; Pieters, Roland J

    2013-05-21

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions are involved in a multitude of biological recognition processes. Since individual protein-carbohydrate interactions are usually weak, multivalency is often required to achieve biologically relevant binding affinities and selectivities. Among the possible mechanisms responsible for binding enhancement by multivalency, the simultaneous attachment of a multivalent ligand to several binding sites of a multivalent receptor (i.e. chelation) has been proven to have a strong impact. This article summarizes recent examples of chelating lectin ligands of different size. Covered lectins include the Shiga-like toxin, where the shortest distance between binding sites is ca. 9 Å, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) (shortest distance between binding sites 13-14 Å), LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (shortest distance 26 Å), cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin (shortest distance 31 Å), anti-HIV antibody 2G12 (shortest distance 31 Å), concanavalin A (ConA) (shortest distance 72 Å), RCA120 (shortest distance 100 Å), and Erythrina cristagalli (ECL) (shortest distance 100 Å). While chelating binding of the discussed ligands is likely, experimental proof, for example by X-ray crystallography, is limited to only a few cases.

  8. Phosphate binding sites identification in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Parca, Luca; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ausiello, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Nearly half of known protein structures interact with phosphate-containing ligands, such as nucleotides and other cofactors. Many methods have been developed for the identification of metal ions-binding sites and some for bigger ligands such as carbohydrates, but none is yet available for the prediction of phosphate-binding sites. Here we describe Pfinder, a method that predicts binding sites for phosphate groups, both in the form of ions or as parts of other non-peptide ligands, in proteins of known structure. Pfinder uses the Query3D local structural comparison algorithm to scan a protein structure for the presence of a number of structural motifs identified for their ability to bind the phosphate chemical group. Pfinder has been tested on a data set of 52 proteins for which both the apo and holo forms were available. We obtained at least one correct prediction in 63% of the holo structures and in 62% of the apo. The ability of Pfinder to recognize a phosphate-binding site in unbound protein structures makes it an ideal tool for functional annotation and for complementing docking and drug design methods. The Pfinder program is available at http://pdbfun.uniroma2.it/pfinder. PMID:20974634

  9. Time, the Forgotten Dimension of Ligand Binding Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corzo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Ligand binding is generally explained in terms of the equilibrium constant K[subscript d] for the protein-ligand complex dissociation. However, both theoretical considerations and experimental data point to the life span of the protein-ligand complex as an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of ligand binding by macromolecules. Short-lived…

  10. Time, the Forgotten Dimension of Ligand Binding Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corzo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Ligand binding is generally explained in terms of the equilibrium constant K[subscript d] for the protein-ligand complex dissociation. However, both theoretical considerations and experimental data point to the life span of the protein-ligand complex as an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of ligand binding by macromolecules. Short-lived…

  11. Effect of the Active Site D25N Mutation on the Structure, Stability and Ligand Binding of the Mature HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, Jane M.; Liu, Fengling; Ishima, Rieko; Weber, Irene T.; Louis, John M.

    2008-09-03

    All aspartic proteases, including retroviral proteases, share the triplet DTG critical for the active site geometry and catalytic function. These residues interact closely in the active, dimeric structure of HIV-1 protease (PR). We have systematically assessed the effect of the D25N mutation on the structure and stability of the mature PR monomer and dimer. The D25N mutation (PR{sub D25N}) increases the equilibrium dimer dissociation constant by a factor >100-fold (1.3 {+-} 0.09 {mu}m) relative to PR. In the absence of inhibitor, NMR studies reveal clear structural differences between PR and PR{sub D25N} in the relatively mobile P1 loop (residues 79-83) and flap regions, and differential scanning calorimetric analyses show that the mutation lowers the stabilities of both the monomer and dimer folds by 5 and 7.3 C, respectively. Only minimal differences are observed in high resolution crystal structures of PR{sub D25N} complexed to darunavir (DRV), a potent clinical inhibitor, or a non-hydrolyzable substrate analogue, Ac-Thr-Ile-Nle-r-Nle-Gln-Arg-NH{sub 2} (RPB), as compared with PR{center_dot}DRV and PR{center_dot}RPB complexes. Although complexation with RPB stabilizes both dimers, the effect on their T{sub m} is smaller for PR{sub D25N} (6.2 C) than for PR (8.7 C). The T{sub m} of PR{sub D25N}{center_dot}DRV increases by only 3 C relative to free PR{sub D25N}, as compared with a 22 C increase for PR{center_dot}DRV, and the mutation increases the ligand dissociation constant of PR{sub D25N}{center_dot}DRV by a factor of {approx}10{sup 6} relative to PR{center_dot}DRV. These results suggest that interactions mediated by the catalytic Asp residues make a major contribution to the tight binding of DRV to PR.

  12. The structure of binding curves and practical identifiability of equilibrium ligand-binding parameters

    PubMed Central

    Middendorf, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    A critical but often overlooked question in the study of ligands binding to proteins is whether the parameters obtained from analyzing binding data are practically identifiable (PI), i.e., whether the estimates obtained from fitting models to noisy data are accurate and unique. Here we report a general approach to assess and understand binding parameter identifiability, which provides a toolkit to assist experimentalists in the design of binding studies and in the analysis of binding data. The partial fraction (PF) expansion technique is used to decompose binding curves for proteins with n ligand-binding sites exactly and uniquely into n components, each of which has the form of a one-site binding curve. The association constants of the PF component curves, being the roots of an n-th order polynomial, may be real or complex. We demonstrate a fundamental connection between binding parameter identifiability and the nature of these one-site association constants: all binding parameters are identifiable if the constants are all real and distinct; otherwise, at least some of the parameters are not identifiable. The theory is used to construct identifiability maps from which the practical identifiability of binding parameters for any two-, three-, or four-site binding curve can be assessed. Instructions for extending the method to generate identifiability maps for proteins with more than four binding sites are also given. Further analysis of the identifiability maps leads to the simple rule that the maximum number of structurally identifiable binding parameters (shown in the previous paper to be equal to n) will also be PI only if the binding curve line shape contains n resolved components. PMID:27993951

  13. Analysis of the kinetic barriers for ligand binding to sperm whale myoglobin using site-directed mutagenesis and laser photolysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Carver, T E; Rohlfs, R J; Olson, J S; Gibson, Q H; Blackmore, R S; Springer, B A; Sligar, S G

    1990-11-15

    Time courses for NO, O2, CO, methyl and ethyl isocyanide rebinding to native and mutant sperm whale myoglobins were measured at 20 degrees C following 17-ns and 35-ps laser excitation pulses. His64 (E7) was replaced with Gly, Val, Leu, Phe, and Gln, and Val68 (E11) was replaced with Ala, Ile, and Phe. For both NO and O2, the effective picosecond quantum yield of unliganded geminate intermediates was roughly 0.2 and independent of the amino acids at positions 64 and 68. Geminate recombination of NO was very rapid; 90% rebinding occurred within 0.5-1.0 ns for all of the myoglobins examined; and except for the Gly64 and Ile68 mutants, the fitted recombination rate parameters were little influenced by the size and polarity of the amino acid at position 64 and the size of the residue at position 68. The rates of NO recombination and ligand movement away from the iron atom in the Gly64 mutant increased 3-4-fold relative to native myoglobin. For Ile68 myoglobin, the first geminate rate constant for NO rebinding decreased approximately 6-fold, from 2.3 x 10(10) s-1 for native myoglobin to 3.8 x 10(9) s-1 for the mutant. No picosecond rebinding processes were observed for O2, CO, and isocyanide rebinding to native and mutant myoglobins; all of the observed geminate rate constants were less than or equal to 3 x 10(8) s-1. The rebinding time courses for these ligands were analyzed in terms of a two-step consecutive reaction scheme, with an outer kinetic barrier representing ligand movement into and out of the protein and an inner barrier representing binding to the heme iron atom by ligand occupying the distal portion of the heme pocket. Substitution of apolar amino acids for His64 decreased the absolute free energies of the outer and inner kinetic barriers and the well for non-covalently bound O2 and CO by 1 to 1.5 kcal/mol, regardless of size. In contrast, the His64 to Gln mutation caused little change in the barrier heights for all ligands, showing that the polar nature of

  14. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ligand Binding to a Muscarinic G-protein Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kappel, Kalli; Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the detailed process of ligand binding to a receptor is pharmaceutically important for identifying druggable binding sites. With the ability to provide atomistic detail, computational methods are well poised to study these processes. Here, accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) is proposed to simulate processes of ligand binding to a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), in this case the M3 muscarinic receptor, which is a target for treating many human diseases, including cancer, diabetes and obesity. Long-timescale aMD simulations were performed to observe the binding of three chemically diverse ligand molecules: antagonist tiotropium (TTP), partial agonist arecoline (ARc), and full agonist acetylcholine (ACh). In comparison with earlier microsecond-timescale conventional MD simulations, aMD greatly accelerated the binding of ACh to the receptor orthosteric ligand-binding site and the binding of TTP to an extracellular vestibule. Further aMD simulations also captured binding of ARc to the receptor orthosteric site. Additionally, all three ligands were observed to bind in the extracellular vestibule during their binding pathways, suggesting that it is a metastable binding site. This study demonstrates the applicability of aMD to protein-ligand binding, especially the drug recognition of GPCRs. PMID:26537408

  15. Putative sigma(3) sites in mammalian brain have histamine H(1) receptor properties: evidence from ligand binding and distribution studies with the novel H(1) radioligand [(3)H]-(-)-trans-1-phenyl-3-aminotetralin.

    PubMed

    Booth, R G; Owens, C E; Brown, R L; Bucholtz, E C; Lawler, C P; Wyrick, S D

    1999-08-07

    A novel phenylaminotetralin (PAT) radioligand, [(3)H]-(1R, 3S)-(-)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene ([(3)H]-[-]-trans-H(2)-PAT), is shown here to label a saturable (B(max)=39+/-6 fmol/mg protein) population of sites with high affinity (K(d)=0.13+/-0.03 nM) in guinea pig brain. Consistent with previous studies which showed that PATs stimulate catecholamine (dopamine) synthesis in rat striatum, autoradiographic brain receptor mapping studies here indicate that [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT-labeled sites are highly localized in catecholaminergic nerve terminal fields in hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and striatum in guinea pig brain. Competition binding studies with a broad range of CNS receptor-active ligands and CNS radioreceptor screening assays indicate that the pharmacological binding profile of brain [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT sites closely resembles histamine H(1)-type receptors. Comparative studies using the histamine H(1) antagonist radioligand, [(3)H]mepyramine, indicate that the H(1) ligand binding profile and guinea pig brain distribution of H(1) receptors and [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT sites are nearly identical; moreover, both sites have about 40-fold stereoselective affinity for (-)- over (+)-trans-H(2)-PAT. These results are discussed in light of previous studies which suggested that PATs stimulate dopamine synthesis through interaction with a novel sigma-type (sigma(3)) receptor in rodent brain; it now appears instead that PATs represent a new class of ligands for brain histamine H(1) receptors that can be stereoselectively labeled with [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT. Copyright 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Ligand Migration and Binding in Myoglobin Mutant L29W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhaus, G. Ulrich; Waschipky, Robert; Nienhaus, Karin; Minkow, Oleksandr; Ostermann, Andreas; Parak, Fritz G.

    2001-09-01

    Myoglobin, a small globular heme protein that binds gaseous ligands such as O2, CO, and NO reversibly at the heme iron, has for many years been a paradigm for studying the effects of structure and dynamics on protein reactions. Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements after photodissociation of the ligand reveal a complex ligand binding reaction with multiple kinetic intermediates, resulting from protein relaxation and movements of the ligand within the protein. To observe structural changes induced by ligand dissociation, we have investigated carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO) mutant L29W using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy in combination with x-ray crystallography. The presence of two distinct infrared stretch bands of the bound CO, AI at 1945 cm-1 and AII at 1955 cm-1, implies that L29W MbCO assumes two different conformations at neutral pH. Low-temperature flash photolysis experiments with monitoring of the absorption changes in the individual CO lines reveal markedly different rebinding properties. While recombination in AII is conceptually simple and well described by a two-state transition involving a distribution of enthalpy barriers, recombination in AI is more complicated: Besides a fast kinetic component, a second, slower kinetic component appears; its population grows with increasing temperature. X-ray crystallography of crystals illuminated below 180 K to photodissociate the CO reveals that the slow component arises from ligands that have migrated from their initial docking site to a remote site within the distal heme pocket. This process occurs in an essentially immobilized, frozen protein. Subsequently, ligands rebind by thermal activation over a barrier that is much higher than the barrier for recombination from the initial docking site. Upon photodissociation above 180 K, ligands escape from the distal pocket, aided by protein fluctuations that transiently open exit channels. The x-ray structure shows a large proportion of ligands in a cavity on

  17. Serotonin binding sites of human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Baldini, M.G.

    1980-07-15

    The possible use of formaldehyde-fixed platelets to characterize and enumerate the specific receptor sites for 5-hydroxytryptamine was investigated. Equilibrium, pH-dependent capacity and specificity of 5-hydroxytryptamine binding by formaldehyde-fixed platelets were demonstrated. Analysis of binding data revealed two different sites: (1) high affinity with low capacity, and (2) low affinity with high capacity. The results of binding studies using nonfixed control platelets were comparable with those of formaldehyde-fixed platelets. The versatility of formaldehyde fixation for studies of surface receptors was also shown by demonstrating nearly equal binding affinity for PGE/sub 1/ in control and formaldehyde-treated platelets. Our results indicate that formaldehyde fixation is a useful tool for the study of membrane receptor sites especially when active transport of the ligand such as serotonin is a problem.

  18. Rationalizing Tight Ligand Binding through Cooperative Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Small modifications of the molecular structure of a ligand sometimes cause strong gains in binding affinity to a protein target, rendering a weakly active chemical series suddenly attractive for further optimization. Our goal in this study is to better rationalize and predict the occurrence of such interaction hot-spots in receptor binding sites. To this end, we introduce two new concepts into the computational description of molecular recognition. First, we take a broader view of noncovalent interactions and describe protein–ligand binding with a comprehensive set of favorable and unfavorable contact types, including for example halogen bonding and orthogonal multipolar interactions. Second, we go beyond the commonly used pairwise additive treatment of atomic interactions and use a small world network approach to describe how interactions are modulated by their environment. This approach allows us to capture local cooperativity effects and considerably improves the performance of a newly derived empirical scoring function, ScorpionScore. More importantly, however, we demonstrate how an intuitive visualization of key intermolecular interactions, interaction networks, and binding hot-spots supports the identification and rationalization of tight ligand binding. PMID:22087588

  19. Formyl peptide receptor chimeras define domains involved in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Perez, H D; Holmes, R; Vilander, L R; Adams, R R; Manzana, W; Jolley, D; Andrews, W H

    1993-02-05

    We have begun to study the structural requirements for the binding of formyl peptides to their specific receptors. As an initial approach, we constructed C5a-formyl peptide receptor chimeras. Unique (and identical) restriction sites were introduced within the transmembrane domains of these receptors that allowed for the exchange of specific areas. Four types of chimeric receptors were generated. 1) The C5a receptor was progressively substituted by the formyl peptide receptor. 2) The formyl peptide receptor was progressively substituted by the C5a receptor. 3) Specific domains of the C5a receptor were substituted by the corresponding domain of the formyl peptide receptor. 4) Specific domains of the formyl peptide receptor were replaced by the same corresponding domain of the C5a receptor. Wild type and chimeric receptors were transfected into COS 7 cells and their ability to bind formyl peptide determined, taking into account efficiency of transfection and expression of chimeric protein. Based on these results, a ligand binding model is presented in which the second, third, and fourth extracellular (and/or their transmembrane) domains together with the first transmembrane domain form a ligand binding pocket for formyl peptides. It is proposed that the amino-terminal domain plays a role by presumably providing a "lid" to the pocket. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail appears to modulate ligand binding by regulating receptor affinity.

  20. Being a binding site: characterizing residue composition of binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Iván, Gábor; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince

    2007-12-30

    The Protein Data Bank contains the description of more than 45,000 three-dimensional protein and nucleic-acid structures today. Started to exist as the computer-readable depository of crystallographic data complementing printed articles, the proper interpretation of the content of the individual files in the PDB still frequently needs the detailed information found in the citing publication. This fact implies that the fully automatic processing of the whole PDB is a very hard task. We first cleaned and re-structured the PDB data, then analyzed the residue composition of the binding sites in the whole PDB for frequency and for hidden association rules. Main results of the paper: (i) the cleaning and repairing algorithm (ii) redundancy elimination from the data (iii) application of association rule mining to the cleaned non-redundant data set. We have found numerous significant relations of the residue-composition of the ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, summarized in two figures. One of the classical data-mining methods for exploring implication-rules, the association-rule mining, is capable to find previously unknown residue-set preferences of bind ligands on protein surfaces. Since protein-ligand binding is a key step in enzymatic mechanisms and in drug discovery, these uncovered preferences in the study of more than 19,500 binding sites may help in identifying new binding protein-ligand pairs.

  1. Lipid A binding proteins in macrophages detected by ligand blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.H.

    1987-05-01

    Endotoxin (LPS) stimulates a variety of eukaryotic cells. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. The site of action of the LPS toxic moiety, lipid A (LA), is unclear. Their laboratory has previously identified a bioactive LA precursor lipid IV/sub A/, which can be enzymatically labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/ (10/sup 9/ dpm/nmole) and purified (99%). They now show that this ligand binds to specific proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (NC) from LPS-sensitive RAW 264.7 cultured macrophages. NC blots were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-IV/sub A/ in a buffer containing BSA, NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and azide. Binding was assessed using autoradiography or scintillation counting. Dot blot binding of the radioligand was inhibited by excess cold IV/sub A/, LA, or ReLPS but not by phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, or phosphatidic acid. Binding was trypsin-sensitive and dependent on protein concentration. Particulate macrophage proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then electroblotted onto NC. Several discrete binding proteins were observed. Identical treatment of fetal bovine serum or molecular weight standards revealed no detectable binding. By avoiding high nonspecific binding of intact membranes, this ligand blotting assay may be useful in elucidating the molecular actions of LPS.

  2. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis of ligand binding by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Santambrogio, C; Favretto, F; D'Onofrio, M; Assfalg, M; Grandori, R; Molinari, H

    2013-08-01

    Human liver fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) is the most abundant cytosolic protein in the liver. This protein plays important roles associated to partitioning of fatty acids (FAs) to specific metabolic pathways, nuclear signaling and protection against oxidative damage. The protein displays promiscuous binding properties and can bind two internal ligands, unlike FABPs from other tissues. Different topologies for the ligand located in the more accessible site have been reported, with either a 'head-in' or 'head-out' orientation of the carboxylate end. Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance titrations are employed here in order to investigate in further detail the binding properties of this system, the equilibria established in solution and the pH dependence of the complexes. The results are consistent with two binding sites with different affinity and a unique head-out topology for the second molecule of either ligand. Competition experiments indicate a higher affinity for oleic acid relative to palmitic acid at each binding site. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Betaglycan can act as a dual modulator of TGF-beta access to signaling receptors: mapping of ligand binding and GAG attachment sites

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Betaglycan, also known as the TGF-beta type III receptor, is a membrane- anchored proteoglycan that presents TGF-beta to the type II signaling receptor, a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase. The betaglycan extracellular region, which can be shed by cells into the medium, contains a NH2-terminal domain related to endoglin and a COOH-terminal domain related to uromodulin, sperm receptors Zp2 and 3, and pancreatic secretory granule GP-2 protein. We identified residues Ser535 and Ser546 in the uromodulin-related region as the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachment sites. Their mutation to alanine prevents GAG attachment but does not interfere with betaglycan stability or ability to bind and present TGF-beta to receptor II. Using a panel of deletion mutants, we found that TGF-beta binds to the NH2-terminal endoglin-related region of betaglycan. The remainder of the extracellular domain and the cytoplasmic domain are not required for presentation of TGF-beta to receptor II; however, membrane anchorage is required. Soluble betaglycan can bind TGF-beta but does not enhance binding to membrane receptors. In fact, recombinant soluble betaglycan acts as potent inhibitor of TGF-beta binding to membrane receptors and blocks TGF-beta action, this effect being particularly pronounced with the TGF-beta 2 isoform. The results suggest that release of betaglycan into the medium converts this enhancer of TGF-beta action into a TGF-beta antagonist. PMID:8106553

  4. A citrate-binding site in calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, T; Eisenstein, M; Muszkat, K A; Fleminger, G

    1998-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a major Ca2+ messenger which, upon Ca2+ activation, binds and activates a number of target enzymes involved in crucial cellular processes. The dependence on Ca2+ ion concentration suggests that CaM activation may be modulated by low-affinity Ca2+ chelators. The effect on CaM structure and function of citrate ion, a Ca2+ chelator commonly found in the cytosol and the mitochondria, was therefore investigated. A series of structural and biochemical methods, including tryptic mapping, immunological recognition by specific monoclonal antibodies, CIDNP-NMR, binding to specific ligands and association with radiolabeled citrate, showed that citrate induces conformational modifications in CaM which affect the shape and activity of the protein. These changes were shown to be associated with the C-terminal lobe of the molecule and involve actual binding of citrate to CaM. Analyzing X-ray structures of several citrate-binding proteins by computerized molecular graphics enabled us to identify a putative citrate-binding site (CBS) on the CaM molecule around residues Arg106-His107. Owing to the tight proximity of this site to the third Ca(2+)-binding loop of CaM, binding of citrate is presumably translated into changes in Ca2+ binding to site III (and indirectly to site IV). These changes apparently affect the structural and biochemical properties of the conformation-sensitive protein.

  5. Using chemical shift perturbation to characterise ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Mike P

    2013-08-01

    Chemical shift perturbation (CSP, chemical shift mapping or complexation-induced changes in chemical shift, CIS) follows changes in the chemical shifts of a protein when a ligand is added, and uses these to determine the location of the binding site, the affinity of the ligand, and/or possibly the structure of the complex. A key factor in determining the appearance of spectra during a titration is the exchange rate between free and bound, or more specifically the off-rate koff. When koff is greater than the chemical shift difference between free and bound, which typically equates to an affinity Kd weaker than about 3μM, then exchange is fast on the chemical shift timescale. Under these circumstances, the observed shift is the population-weighted average of free and bound, which allows Kd to be determined from measurement of peak positions, provided the measurements are made appropriately. (1)H shifts are influenced to a large extent by through-space interactions, whereas (13)Cα and (13)Cβ shifts are influenced more by through-bond effects. (15)N and (13)C' shifts are influenced both by through-bond and by through-space (hydrogen bonding) interactions. For determining the location of a bound ligand on the basis of shift change, the most appropriate method is therefore usually to measure (15)N HSQC spectra, calculate the geometrical distance moved by the peak, weighting (15)N shifts by a factor of about 0.14 compared to (1)H shifts, and select those residues for which the weighted shift change is larger than the standard deviation of the shift for all residues. Other methods are discussed, in particular the measurement of (13)CH3 signals. Slow to intermediate exchange rates lead to line broadening, and make Kd values very difficult to obtain. There is no good way to distinguish changes in chemical shift due to direct binding of the ligand from changes in chemical shift due to allosteric change. Ligand binding at multiple sites can often be characterised, by

  6. [Kinetics of ligand binding to nucleic acids at random fillings].

    PubMed

    Arakelian, V B; Babaian, S Iu; Tairian, V I; Arakelian, A V; Parsadanian, M A; Vardevanian, P O

    2006-01-01

    Ligand binding with nucleic acids is described in frames of the theory of random processes. It is shown that the probabilistic description of binding of a ligand to nucleic acid allows one to describe not only the kinetics of changes in the number of bound ligands at arbitrary fillings but also to calculate stationary values of the number of bound ligands and its dispersion. A general analysis of absorption isotherms and the kinetics of ligand binding with nucleic acids allows one to determine the rate constants of formation and decomposition of the ligand-nucleic acid complex. A comparison of the results obtained with the case of low fillings is conducted.

  7. Ligand Binding to Macromolecules: Allosteric and Sequential Models of Cooperativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, V. L.; Szabo, Attila

    1979-01-01

    A simple model is described for the binding of ligands to macromolecules. The model is applied to the cooperative binding by hemoglobin and aspartate transcarbamylase. The sequential and allosteric models of cooperative binding are considered. (BB)

  8. Ligand Binding to Macromolecules: Allosteric and Sequential Models of Cooperativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, V. L.; Szabo, Attila

    1979-01-01

    A simple model is described for the binding of ligands to macromolecules. The model is applied to the cooperative binding by hemoglobin and aspartate transcarbamylase. The sequential and allosteric models of cooperative binding are considered. (BB)

  9. A site-saturated mutagenesis study of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase reveals that residues 181 and 184 influence ligand binding, stereochemistry and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Toogood, Helen S; Fryszkowska, Anna; Hulley, Martyn; Sakuma, Michiyo; Mansell, David; Stephens, Gill M; Gardiner, John M; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2011-03-21

    We have conducted a site-specific saturation mutagenesis study of H181 and H184 of flavoprotein pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase (PETN reductase) to probe the role of these residues in substrate binding and catalysis with a variety of α,β-unsaturated alkenes. Single mutations at these residues were sufficient to dramatically increase the enantiopurity of products formed by reduction of 2-phenyl-1-nitropropene. In addition, many mutants exhibited a switch in reactivity to predominantly catalyse nitro reduction, as opposed to CC reduction. These mutants showed an enhancement in a minor side reaction and formed 2-phenylpropanal oxime from 2-phenyl-1-nitropropene. The multiple binding conformations of hydroxy substituted nitro-olefins in PETN reductase were examined by using both structural and catalytic techniques. These compounds were found to bind in both active and inhibitory complexes; this highlights the plasticity of the active site and the ability of the H181/H184 couple to coordinate with multiple functional groups. These properties demonstrate the potential to use PETN reductase as a scaffold in the development of industrially useful biocatalysts. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Oxytocin receptors: ligand binding, signalling and cholesterol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gimpl, Gerald; Reitz, Julian; Brauer, Sabine; Trossen, Conny

    2008-01-01

    The G protein coupled oxytocin receptor (OTR) reveals some specific molecular and physiological characteristics. Ligand-receptor interaction has been analysed by photoaffinity labelling, site-directed mutagenesis, the construction of receptor chimeras and molecular modelling. Major results of these studies will be summarized. The N-terminus of the OTR is mainly involved in agonist binding. Notably, antagonists that are derived from the ground structure of oxytocin, bind the receptor at distinct sites partly non-overlapping with the agonist binding site. OTRs are able to couple to different G proteins, with a subsequent stimulation of phospholipase C-beta isoforms. In dependence on G protein coupling, OTRs can transduce growth-inhibitory or proliferatory signals. Some evidence is provided that OTRs are also present in form of dimeric or oligomeric complexes at the cell surface. The affinity of the receptor for ligands is strongly dependent on the presence of divalent cations (Mg(2+)) and cholesterol that both act like positive allosteric modulators. While the high-affinity state of the receptor for agonists requires divalent cations and cholesterol, the high-affinity state for antagonists is only dependent on a sufficient amount of cholesterol. Cholesterol affects ligand-binding affinity, receptor signalling and stability. Since the purification of the OTR has never been achieved, alternative methods to study the receptor in its native environment are necessary. Promising strategies for the site-specific labelling of the OTR will be presented. The employment of diverse reporter molecules introduced at different positions within the OTR might allow us in the near future to measure conformational changes of the receptor in its native lipid environment.

  11. Molecular modulators of benzodiazepine receptor ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Villar, H.O.; Loew, G.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Ten derivatives of {beta}-carbolines with known affinities to the GABA{sub A}/BDZ (benzodiazepine) receptor were studied using the Am 1 and MNDO/H Semiempirical techniques to identify and characterize molecular modulators of receptor recognition. Steric, lipophilic, and electrostatic properties of these compounds were calculated and examined for their possible role in recognition. Particular attention was paid to the regions around the two most favorable proton-accepting sites, the ON and the substituent at the C{sub 3} position, already implicated in recognition, as well as to the acidic N9H group that could be a proton donating center. To probe further the role of these three ligand sites in receptor interactions, a model of the receptor using three methanol molecules was made and optimum interactions of these three sites with them characterized. The results indicate some similarity in the shape of these ligands, which could reflect a steric requirement. The receptor affinity appears to be modulated to some extent by the ratio of lipophilic to hydrophilic surface, the negative potential at the {beta}N, provided there is also one at the C{sub 3} substituent confirming the importance of two accepting sites in recognition. The acidic N9H does not appear to be a modulator of affinity or does it form a stable H-bond with methanol as acceptor. The two proton donating molecules do form such a stable complex, and both are needed for high affinity.

  12. Modelling the cis-oxo-labile binding site motif of non-heme iron oxygenases. Water exchange and remarkable oxidation reactivity of a novel non-heme iron(IV)-oxo compound bearing a tripodal tetradentate ligand

    PubMed Central

    Company, Anna; Prat, Irene; Frisch, Jonathan R.; Ballesté, Ruben Mas; Güell, Mireia; Juhász, Gergely; Ribas, Xavi; Münck, Eckard; Luis, Josep M.; Que, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic and chemical characterization of a new synthetic non-heme iron(IV)-oxo species [FeIV(O)(Me,HPytacn)(S)]2+ (2, Me,HPytacn = 1-(2′-pyridylmethyl)-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, S = CH3CN or H2O) is described. 2 has been prepared by reaction of [FeII(CF3SO3)2(Me,HPytacn)] (1) with peracetic acid. Complex 2 bears a tetradentate N4 ligand that leaves two cis- sites available for binding an oxo group and a second external ligand but, unlike related iron(IV)-oxo of tetradentate ligands, it is remarkably stable at room temperature (t1/2 > 2h at 288 K). Its ability to exchange the oxygen atom of the oxo ligand with water has been analyzed in detail by means of kinetic studies, and a mechanism has been proposed on the basis of DFT calculations. Hydrogen-atom abstraction from C-H bonds and oxygen atom transfer to sulfides by 2 have also been studied. Despite its thermal stability, 2 proves to be a very powerful oxidant that is capable of breaking the strong C-H bond of cyclohexane (BDE = 99.3 kcal·mol−1). PMID:21268165

  13. Comparison of ligand migration and binding in heme proteins of the globin family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karin, Nienhaus; Ulrich Nienhaus, G.

    2015-12-01

    The binding of small diatomic ligands such as carbon monoxide or dioxygen to heme proteins is among the simplest biological processes known. Still, it has taken many decades to understand the mechanistic aspects of this process in full detail. Here, we compare ligand binding in three heme proteins of the globin family, myoglobin, a dimeric hemoglobin, and neuroglobin. The combination of structural, spectroscopic, and kinetic experiments over many years by many laboratories has revealed common properties of globins and a clear mechanistic picture of ligand binding at the molecular level. In addition to the ligand binding site at the heme iron, a primary ligand docking site exists that ensures efficient ligand binding to and release from the heme iron. Additional, secondary docking sites can greatly facilitate ligand escape after its dissociation from the heme. Although there is only indirect evidence at present, a preformed histidine gate appears to exist that allows ligand entry to and exit from the active site. The importance of these features can be assessed by studies involving modified proteins (via site-directed mutagenesis) and comparison with heme proteins not belonging to the globin family.

  14. A conserved lysine in the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain regulates ligand activation profiles at AP-1 sites, possibly by controlling interactions with a modulating repressor

    PubMed Central

    Uht, Rosalie M; Webb, Paul; Nguyen, Phuong; Price Jr, Richard H; Valentine, Cathleen; Favre, Helene; Kushner, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ) differentially activate genes with AP-1 elements. ERα activates AP-1 targets via activation functions with estrogens (the AF-dependent pathway), whereas ERβ, and a short version of ERα (ERα DBD-LBD) activate only with anti-estrogens (AF-independent pathway). The DNA binding domain (DBD) plays an important role in both pathways, even though neither pathway requires ERE recognition. Results Mutations of a highly conserved DBD lysine (ERα.K206A/G), lead to super-activation of AP-1 through activation function dependent pathways, up to 200 fold. This super-activity can be elicited either through ER AFs 1 or 2, or that of a heterologous activation function (VP16). The homologous substitution in ERβ, K170A, or in ERα DBD-LBD leads to estrogen-dependent AP-1 activation and loss of the usually potent anti-estrogen effects. Each of numerous K206 substitutions in ERα, except K206R, eliminates anti-estrogen activation and this loss correlates perfectly with a loss of ability to titrate a repressive function from the RU486 bound progesterone receptor. Conclusion We conclude that ER DBDs contain a complex regulatory function that influences ligand activation profiles at AP-1. This function, which requires the integrity of the conserved lysine, both allows for activation at AP-1 with anti-estrogens (with ERβ and ERα DBD-LBD), and prevents ERα from becoming superactive at AP-1 with estrogens. We discuss the possibility that a repressor interaction with the DBD both mediates the AF-independent pathway and dampens the AF dependent pathway. Mutations in the conserved lysine might, by this model, disrupt the binding or function of the repressor. PMID:15132742

  15. Complexes of a Zn-metalloenzyme binding site with hydroxamate-containing ligands. A case for detailed benchmarkings of polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics potentials when the experimental binding structure is unknown.

    PubMed

    Gresh, Nohad; Perahia, David; de Courcy, Benoit; Foret, Johanna; Roux, Céline; El-Khoury, Lea; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Salmon, Laurent

    2016-12-15

    Zn-metalloproteins are a major class of targets for drug design. They constitute a demanding testing ground for polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics aimed at extending the realm of quantum chemistry (QC) to very long-duration molecular dynamics (MD). The reliability of such procedures needs to be demonstrated upon comparing the relative stabilities of competing candidate complexes of inhibitors with the recognition site stabilized in the course of MD. This could be necessary when no information is available regarding the experimental structure of the inhibitor-protein complex. Thus, this study bears on the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme, considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of several bacterial and parasitic diseases. We consider its complexes with 5-phospho-d-arabinonohydroxamate and three analog ligands differing by the number and location of their hydroxyl groups. We evaluate the energy accuracy expectable from a polarizable molecular mechanics procedure, SIBFA. This is done by comparisons with ab initio quantum-chemistry (QC) calculations in the following cases: (a) the complexes of the four ligands in three distinct structures extracted from the entire PMI-ligand energy-minimized structures, and totaling up to 264 atoms; (b) the solvation energies of several energy-minimized complexes of each ligand with a shell of 64 water molecules; (c) the conformational energy differences of each ligand in different conformations characterized in the course of energy-minimizations; and (d) the continuum solvation energies of the ligands in different conformations. The agreements with the QC results appear convincing. On these bases, we discuss the prospects of applying the procedure to ligand-macromolecule recognition problems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular decoys: ligand-binding recombinant proteins protect mice from curarimimetic neurotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni, J M; Aronheim, A

    1988-01-01

    Mimic ligand-binding sites of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor bind d-tubocurarine and alpha-bungarotoxin in vitro. Injection of such binding sites into mice could act as molecular decoys in vivo, providing protection against toxic ligands. This hypothesis of molecular "decoyance" has been tested in greater than 250 mice. Bacterially produced cholinergic binding sites provided a 2-fold increase in the survival rate of animals challenged with curarimimetic neurotoxins. Possible considerations for decoy designs and their applications are discussed. Images PMID:3375254

  17. The Baculovirus-Expressed Binding Region of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-140 Ligand and Its Glycophorin C Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rydzak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Czerwinski, Marcin; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Tyborowska, Jolanta; Szewczyk, Boguslaw; Jaskiewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding ligand 140 (EBA-140) is a member of the Plasmodium falciparum DBL family of erythrocyte binding proteins, which are considered as prospective candidates for malaria vaccine development. The EBA-140 ligand is a paralogue of the well-characterized P. falciparum EBA-175 protein. They share homology of domain structure, including Region II, which consists of two homologous F1 and F2 domains and is responsible for ligand-erythrocyte receptor interaction during invasion. In this report we describe, for the first time, the glycophorin C specificity of the recombinant, baculovirus-expressed binding region (Region II) of P. falciparum EBA-140 ligand. It was found that the recombinant EBA-140 Region II binds to the endogenous and recombinant glycophorin C, but does not bind to Gerbich-type glycophorin C, neither normal nor recombinant, which lacks amino acid residues 36–63 of its polypeptide chain. Our results emphasize the crucial role of this glycophorin C region in EBA-140 ligand binding. Moreover, the EBA-140 Region II did not bind either to glycophorin D, the truncated form of glycophorin C lacking the N-glycan or to desialylated GPC. These results draw attention to the role of glycophorin C glycans in EBA-140 binding. The full identification of the EBA-140 binding site on glycophorin C molecule, consisting most likely of its glycans and peptide backbone, may help to design therapeutics or vaccines that target the erythrocyte binding merozoite ligands. PMID:25588042

  18. Ligand Promiscuity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists and Antagonists Revealed by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soshilov, Anatoly A.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by structurally diverse chemicals. To examine the mechanisms responsible for the promiscuity in AhR ligand binding, we determined the effects of mutations within the AhR ligand-binding domain (LBD) on the activity of diverse AhR ligands. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Ile319 of the mouse AhR and, to a lesser extent, Phe318 as residues involved in ligand-selective modulation of AhR transformation using a panel of 12 AhR ligands. These ligands could be categorized into four distinct structurally related groups based on their ability to activate AhR mutants at position 319 in vitro. The mutation I319K was selectively activated by FICZ and not by other examined ligands in vitro and in cell culture. F318L and F318A mutations resulted in the conversion of AhR agonists β-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively, into partial agonists/antagonists. Hsp90 binding to the AhR was decreased with several mutations and was inversely correlated with AhR ligand-binding promiscuity. Together, these data define overlapping amino acid residues within the AhR LBD involved in the selectivity of ligand binding, the agonist or antagonist mode of ligand binding, and hsp90 binding and provide insights into the ligand diversity of AhR activators. PMID:24591650

  19. Ligand migration between internal docking sites in photodissociated carbonmonoxy neuroglobin.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stephan; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Meuwly, Markus

    2009-11-19

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) belongs to the large family of globular heme proteins capable of binding small gaseous ligands such as O(2), CO, or NO within their active site. In this work, we have analyzed CO migration pathways in photolyzed NgbCO using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in combination with Fourier transform infrared temperature derivative spectroscopy (FTIR-TDS). A total of 55 ns of MD simulation was analyzed to explore the approximately 300 A(3) internal Ngb cavity. Overall, the simulations differentiated between eight possible docking sites, three of which were also identified experimentally. Low-temperature FTIR-TDS experiments on wild-type (wt) and F28W mutant NgbCO revealed that a small fraction of ligands migrates from site B to site C from which they rebound after slow cool illumination. For the F28L mutant, however, population of site C was not observed. In agreement with these findings, the simulations at 20 K showed ligand transfer between sites B and C for wt Ngb, but not for the F28L mutant. The ligand migration network could be mapped out and two key gate residues, Phe28 and Pro52, were identified. Ligand population analysis from the MD simulations revealed a direct relation between the size of the B10 side chain (Phe28 in wild-type Ngb) and the barrier against migration. Barriers for the transition of photodissociated CO from the distal pocket to the Xe4 site in Ngb are lower by up to 4 kcal/mol compared to myoglobin, suggesting that ligand migration between different docking sites is more facile in Ngb than in myoglobin.

  20. Two mechanisms of ion selectivity in protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Roux, Benoît

    2010-11-23

    A theoretical framework is presented to clarify the molecular determinants of ion selectivity in protein binding sites. The relative free energy of a bound ion is expressed in terms of the main coordinating ligands coupled to an effective potential of mean force representing the influence of the rest of the protein. The latter is separated into two main contributions. The first includes all the forces keeping the ion and the coordinating ligands confined to a microscopic subvolume but does not prevent the ligands from adapting to a smaller or larger ion. The second regroups all the remaining forces that control the precise geometry of the coordinating ligands best adapted to a given ion. The theoretical framework makes it possible to delineate two important limiting cases. In the limit where the geometric forces are dominant (rigid binding site), ion selectivity is controlled by the ion-ligand interactions within the matching cavity size according to the familiar "snug-fit" mechanism of host-guest chemistry. In the limit where the geometric forces are negligible, the ion and ligands behave as a "confined microdroplet" that is free to fluctuate and adapt to ions of different sizes. In this case, ion selectivity is set by the interplay between ion-ligand and ligand-ligand interactions and is controlled by the number and the chemical type of ion-coordinating ligands. The framework is illustrated by considering the ion-selective binding sites in the KcsA channel and the LeuT transporter.

  1. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Tickle, Ian J.; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-01-01

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26655740

  2. Ultrafast Spectroscopy Evidence for Picosecond Ligand Exchange at the Binding Site of a Heme Protein: Heme-Based Sensor YddV.

    PubMed

    Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Stranava, Martin; Lobato, Laura; Martinkova, Marketa; Shimizu, Toru; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H

    2016-01-07

    An important question for the functioning of heme proteins is whether different ligands present within the protein moiety can readily exchange with heme-bound ligands. Studying the dynamics of the heme domain of the Escherichia coli sensor protein YddV upon dissociation of NO from the ferric heme by ultrafast spectroscopy, we demonstrate that when the hydrophobic leucine residue in the distal heme pocket is mutated to glycine, in a substantial fraction of the protein water replaces NO as an internal ligand in as fast as ∼4 ps. This process, which is near-barrierless and occurs orders of magnitude faster than the corresponding process in myoglobin, corresponds to a ligand swap of NO with a water molecule present in the heme pocket, as corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings provide important new insight into ligand exchange in heme proteins that functionally interact with different external ligands.

  3. Strong colloidal and dissolved organic ligands binding copper and zinc in rivers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stephen R; Shafer, Martin M; Armstrong, David E

    2007-10-15

    The speciation or physicochemical form of copper and zinc in freshwater plays an important role in reactivity, bioavailability, and toxicity. Strong metal-binding ligands, which determine speciation, were detected by voltammetric methods, both anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and competitive ligand equilibration adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdSV); the latter technique can detect nanomolar levels of extremely strong (log K' > 13) ligands. Through careful field site selection and the investigation of ultrafiltration permeate samples, natural organic ligands were measured with limited interferences of colloidal inorganic iron- and aluminum-based trace metal-binding phases. Furthermore, ultrafiltration allowed measurement of colloidal and dissolved ligands independently, and differences of ligand abundance and strength in different size classes are reported. For copper, ultrafilterable (<3 kDa) organic ligand site concentrations (expressed normalized to dissolved organic carbon) were on average 33% of the colloidal level, but ultrafilterable ligand log K' values were 0.5 log units stronger than those of the 0.4 microm filterable concentration. The ultrafilterable copper-binding ligand concentration showed a smaller variation across the rivers (25% rsd) than zinc-binding ligands (90% rsd). For all field sites and size fractions, strong ligand sites greatly exceeded metal concentrations; subsequently, equilibrium speciation modeling predict picomolar levels of free metal. Modeling also indicated that the very strong ligands (detected by CLE-AdSV) predominate, so modeling based solely on ASV data in freshwater may be inadequate. Competition experiments indicated that the very strong ligand sites are metal specific for copper and zinc.

  4. Affinity Regulates Spatial Range of EGF Receptor Autocrine Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, Ann; Iida, Tomoko; Lam, Ho-Yan; Hill, Virginia; Wiley, H S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2002-08-08

    Proper spatial localization of EGFR signaling activated by autocrine ligands represents a critical factor in embryonic development as well as tissue organization and function, and ligand/receptor binding affinity is among the molecular and cellular properties suggested to play a role in governing this localization. The authors employ a computational model to predict how receptor-binding affinity affects local capture of autocrine ligand vis-a-vis escape to distal regions, and provide experimental test by constructing cell lines expressing EGFR along with either wild-type EGF or a low-affinity mutant, EGF{sup L47M}. The model predicts local capture of a lower affinity autocrine ligand to be less efficient when the ligand production rate is small relative to receptor appearance rate. The experimental data confirm this prediction, demonstrating that cells can use ligand/receptor binding affinity to regulate ligand spatial distribution when autocrine ligand production is limiting for receptor signaling.

  5. Real-Time Ligand Binding Pocket Database Search Using Local Surface Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Chikhi, Rayan; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of structures of unknown function accumulated by ongoing structural genomics projects, there is an urgent need for computational methods for characterizing protein tertiary structures. As functions of many of these proteins are not easily predicted by conventional sequence database searches, a legitimate strategy is to utilize structure information in function characterization. Of a particular interest is prediction of ligand binding to a protein, as ligand molecule recognition is a major part of molecular function of proteins. Predicting whether a ligand molecule binds a protein is a complex problem due to the physical nature of protein-ligand interactions and the flexibility of both binding sites and ligand molecules. However, geometric and physicochemical complementarity is observed between the ligand and its binding site in many cases. Therefore, ligand molecules which bind to a local surface site in a protein can be predicted by finding similar local pockets of known binding ligands in the structure database. Here, we present two representations of ligand binding pockets and utilize them for ligand binding prediction by pocket shape comparison. These representations are based on mapping of surface properties of binding pockets, which are compactly described either by the two dimensional pseudo-Zernike moments or the 3D Zernike descriptors. These compact representations allow a fast real-time pocket searching against a database. Thorough benchmark study employing two different datasets show that our representations are competitive with the other existing methods. Limitations and potentials of the shape-based methods as well as possible improvements are discussed. PMID:20455259

  6. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas.

  7. Mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics of ligand binding to biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Jarillo, Javier; Morín, José A; Beltrán-Heredia, Elena; Villaluenga, Juan P G; Ibarra, Borja; Cao, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Ligands binding to polymers regulate polymer functions by changing their physical and chemical properties. This ligand regulation plays a key role in many biological processes. We propose here a model to explain the mechanical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of the process of binding of small ligands to long biopolymers. These properties can now be measured at the single molecule level using force spectroscopy techniques. Our model performs an effective decomposition of the ligand-polymer system on its covered and uncovered regions, showing that the elastic properties of the ligand-polymer depend explicitly on the ligand coverage of the polymer (i.e., the fraction of the polymer covered by the ligand). The equilibrium coverage that minimizes the free energy of the ligand-polymer system is computed as a function of the applied force. We show how ligands tune the mechanical properties of a polymer, in particular its length and stiffness, in a force dependent manner. In addition, it is shown how ligand binding can be regulated applying mechanical tension on the polymer. Moreover, the binding kinetics study shows that, in the case where the ligand binds and organizes the polymer in different modes, the binding process can present transient shortening or lengthening of the polymer, caused by changes in the relative coverage by the different ligand modes. Our model will be useful to understand ligand-binding regulation of biological processes, such as the metabolism of nucleic acid. In particular, this model allows estimating the coverage fraction and the ligand mode characteristics from the force extension curves of a ligand-polymer system.

  8. Identification of a new hormone-binding site on the surface of thyroid hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Souza, P C T; Puhl, A C; Martínez, L; Aparício, R; Nascimento, A S; Figueira, A C M; Nguyen, P; Webb, P; Skaf, M S; Polikarpov, I

    2014-04-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors involved in cell differentiation, growth, and homeostasis. Although X-ray structures of many nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal that the ligand binds within the hydrophobic core of the ligand-binding pocket, a few studies suggest the possibility of ligands binding to other sites. Here, we report a new x-ray crystallographic structure of TR-LBD that shows a second binding site for T3 and T4 located between H9, H10, and H11 of the TRα LBD surface. Statistical multiple sequence analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and cell transactivation assays indicate that residues of the second binding site could be important for the TR function. We also conducted molecular dynamics simulations to investigate ligand mobility and ligand-protein interaction for T3 and T4 bound to this new TR surface-binding site. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations designed to compute ligand-protein dissociation constant indicate that the binding affinities to this surface site are of the order of the plasma and intracellular concentrations of the thyroid hormones, suggesting that ligands may bind to this new binding site under physiological conditions. Therefore, the second binding site could be useful as a new target site for drug design and could modulate selectively TR functions.

  9. Helix 8 of the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiong; Waxse, Bennett; Riquelme, Denise; Zhang, Jiabao; Aguilera, Greti

    2015-06-15

    Membrane association of estrogen receptors (ER) depends on cysteine palmitoylation and two leucines in the ligand binding domain (LBD), conserved in most steroid receptors. The role of this region, corresponding to helix 8 of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) LBD, on membrane association of GR was studied in 4B cells, expressing endogenous GR, and Cos-7 cells transfected EGFP-GR constructs. 4B cells preloaded with radiolabeled palmitic acid showed no radioactivity incorporation into immunoprecipitated GR. Moreover, mutation C683A (corresponding to ER palmitoylation site) did not affect corticosterone-induced membrane association of GR. Mutations L687-690A, L682A, E680G and K685G prevented membrane and also nuclear localization through reduced ligand binding. L687-690A mutation decreased association of GR with heat shock protein 90 and transcriptional activity, without overt effects on receptor protein stability. The data demonstrate that palmitoylation does not mediate membrane association of GR, but that the region 680-690 (helix 8) is critical for ligand binding and receptor function.

  10. The ligand binding domain controls glucocorticoid receptor dynamics independent of ligand release.

    PubMed

    Meijsing, Sebastiaan H; Elbi, Cem; Luecke, Hans F; Hager, Gordon L; Yamamoto, Keith R

    2007-04-01

    Ligand binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) results in receptor binding to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) and the formation of transcriptional regulatory complexes. Equally important, these complexes are continuously disassembled, with active processes driving GR off GREs. We found that co-chaperone p23-dependent disruption of GR-driven transcription depended on the ligand binding domain (LBD). Next, we examined the importance of the LBD and of ligand dissociation in GR-GRE dissociation in living cells. We showed in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies that dissociation of GR from GREs is faster in the absence of the LBD. Furthermore, GR interaction with a target promoter revealed ligand-specific exchange rates. However, using covalently binding ligands, we demonstrated that ligand dissociation is not required for receptor dissociation from GREs. Overall, these studies showed that activities impinging on the LBD regulate GR exchange with GREs but that the dissociation of GR from GREs is independent from ligand dissociation.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Homology Models of the Ah Receptor Ligand Binding Domain: Verification of Structure-Function Predictions by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Non-Functional AHR†

    PubMed Central

    Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Franks, Diana G.; Pandini, Alessandro; Bonati, Laura; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxic effects of a wide variety of structurally diverse chemicals, including the toxic environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). While significant interspecies differences in AHR ligand binding specificity, selectivity and response have been observed, the structural determinants responsible have not been determined and homology models of the AHR ligand-binding domain (LBD) are available for only a few species. Here we describe the development and comparative analysis of homology models of the LBD of sixteen AHRs from twelve mammalian and nonmammalian species and identify the specific residues contained within their ligand binding cavities. The ligand-binding cavity of the fish AHR exhibits differences from mammalian and avian AHRs, suggesting a slightly different TCDD binding mode. Comparison of the internal cavity in the LBD model of zebrafish (zf) AHR2, which binds TCDD with high affinity, to that of zfAHR1a, which does not bind TCDD, revealed that the latter has a dramatically shortened binding cavity due to the side chains of three residues (Tyr296, Thr386, His388) that reduce the internal space available to TCDD. Mutagenesis of two of these residues in zfAhR1a to those present in zfAHR2 (Y296H, T386A) restored the ability of zfAHR1a to bind TCDD and to exhibit TCDD-dependent binding to DNA. These results demonstrate the importance of these two amino acids and highlight the predictive potential of comparative analysis of homology models from diverse species. The availability of these AHR LBD homology models will facilitate in depth comparative studies of AHR ligand binding and ligand-dependent AHR activation and provide a novel avenue to examine species specific differences in AHR responsiveness. PMID:23286227

  12. Engineering cofactor and ligand binding in an artificial neuroglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei

    HP-7 is one artificial mutated oxygen transport protein, which operates via a mechanism akin to human neuroglobin and cytoglobin. This protein destabilizes one of two heme-ligating histidine residues by coupling histidine side chain ligation with the burial of three charged glutamate residues on the same helix. Replacement of these glutamate residues with alanine, which has a neutral hydrophobicity, slows gaseous ligand binding 22-fold, increases the affinity of the distal histidine ligand by a factor of thirteen, and decreases the binding affinity of carbon monoxide, a nonreactive oxygen analogue, three-fold. Paradoxically, it also decreases heme binding affinity by a factor of three in the reduced state and six in the oxidized state. Application of a two-state binding model, in which an initial pentacoordinate binding event is followed by a protein conformational change to hexacoordinate, provides insight into the mechanism of this seemingly counterintuitive result: the initial pentacoordinate encounter complex is significantly destabilized by the loss of the glutamate side chains, and the increased affinity for the distal histidine only partially compensates. These results point to the importance of considering each oxidation and conformational state in the design of functional artificial proteins. We have also examined the effects these mutations have on function. The K d of the nonnreactive oxygen analogue carbon monoxide (CO) is only decreased three-fold, despite the large increase in distal histidine affinity engendered by the 22-fold decrease in the histidine ligand off-rate. This is a result of the four-fold increase in affinity for CO binding to the pentacoordinate state. Oxygen binds to HP7 with a Kd of 117 µM, while the mutant rapidly oxidizes when exposed to oxygen. EPR analysis of both ferric hemoproteins demonstrates that the mutation increases disorder at the heme binding site. NMR-detected deuterium exchange demonstrates that the mutation causes a

  13. The Puzzle of Ligand Binding to Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FAD Synthetase*

    PubMed Central

    Frago, Susana; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Medina, Milagros

    2009-01-01

    In bacteria, riboflavin phosphorylation and subsequent conversion of FMN into FAD are carried out by FAD synthetase, a single bifunctional enzyme. Both reactions require ATP and Mg2+. The N-terminal domain of FAD synthetase appears to be responsible for the adenylyltransferase activity, whereas the C-terminal domain would be in charge of the kinase activity. Binding to Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FAD synthetase of its products and substrates, as well as of several analogues, is analyzed. Binding parameters for adenine nucleotides to each one of the two adenine nucleotide sites are reported. In addition, it is demonstrated for the first time that the enzyme presents two independent flavin sites, each one related with one of the enzymatic activities. The binding parameters of flavins to these sites are also provided. The presence of Mg2+ and of both adenine nucleotides and flavins cooperatively modulates the interaction parameters for the other ligands. Our data also suggest that during its double catalytic cycle FAD synthetase must suffer conformational changes induced by adenine nucleotide-Mg2+ or flavin binding. They might include not only rearrangement of the different protein loops but also alternative conformations between domains. PMID:19136717

  14. Crystallographic structure determination of B10 mutants of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin: role of Tyr29 (B10) in the structure of the ligand-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Ratakonda, Sireesha; Anand, Arvind; Dikshit, Kanak; Stark, Benjamin C.; Howard, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Site-directed mutants of the gene encoding wild-type Vitreoscilla hemoglobin were made that changed Tyr29 (B10) of the wild-type Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) to either Phe or Ala. The wild-type and the two mutant hemoglobins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The binding of the two mutants to CO was essentially identical to that of wild-type VHb as determined by CO-difference spectra. Circular-dichroism spectra also showed the two mutants to be essentially the same as wild-type VHb regarding overall helicity. All three VHbs were crystallized and their structures were determined at resolutions of 1.7–1.9 Å, which are similar to that of the original wild-type structure determination. The Tyr29Phe mutant has a structure that is essentially indistinguishable from that of the wild type. However, the structure of the Tyr29Ala mutant has significant differences from that of the wild type. In addition, for the Tyr29Ala mutant it was possible to determine the positions of most of the residues in the D region, which was disordered in the originally reported structure of wild-type VHb as well as in the wild-type VHb structure reported here. In the Tyr29Ala mutant, the five-membered ring of proline E8 (Pro54) occupies the space occupied by the aromatic ring of Tyr29 in the wild-type structure. These results are discussed in the context of the proposed role of Tyr29 in the structure of the oxygen-binding pocket. PMID:23519792

  15. Identification of an imidazoline binding protein: Creatine kinase and an imidazoline-2 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Atsuko; Tyacke, Robin J.; Robinson, James J.; Husbands, Stephen M.; Minchin, Michael C.W.; Nutt, David J.; Hudson, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Drugs that bind to imidazoline binding proteins have major physiological actions. To date, three subtypes of such proteins, I1, I2 and I3, have been proposed, although characterisations of these binding proteins are lacking. I2 binding sites are found throughout the brain, particularly dense in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Selective I2 ligands demonstrate antidepressant-like activity and the identity of the proteins that respond to such ligands remained unknown until now. Here we report the isolation of a ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein from rabbit and rat brain using a high affinity ligand for the I2 subtype, 2-BFI, to generate an affinity column. Following protein sequencing of the isolated ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein, we identified it to be brain creatine kinase (B-CK). B-CK shows high binding capacity to selective I2 ligands; [3H]-2-BFI (5 nM) specifically bound to B-CK (2330 ± 815 fmol mg protein− 1). We predicted an I2 binding pocket near the active site of B-CK using molecular modelling. Furthermore, B-CK activity was inhibited by a selective I2 irreversible ligand, where 20 μM BU99006 reduced the enzyme activity by 16%, confirming the interaction between B-CK and the I2 ligand. In summary, we have identified B-CK to be the ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein and we have demonstrated the existence of an I2 binding site within this enzyme. The importance of B-CK in regulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release may well explain the various actions of I2 ligands in brain and the alterations in densities of I2 binding sites in psychiatric disorders. PMID:19410564

  16. Characterization of zinc-binding sites in human stromelysin-1: stoichiometry of the catalytic domain and identification of a cysteine ligand in the proenzyme.

    PubMed

    Salowe, S P; Marcy, A I; Cuca, G C; Smith, C K; Kopka, I E; Hagmann, W K; Hermes, J D

    1992-05-19

    A determination of the zinc stoichiometry of the catalytic domain of the human matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 has been carried out using enzyme purified from recombinant Escherichia coli that express C-terminally truncated protein. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed that both the proenzyme (prostrom255) and the mature active form (strom255) contained nearly 2 mol of Zn/mol of protein. Full-length prostromelysin purified from a mammalian cell culture line also contained zinc in excess of 1 equiv. While zinc in prostrom255 could not be removed by dialysis against o-phenanthroline, similar treatment of mature strom255 resulted in the loss of one-half of the original zinc content. The peptidase activity of the zinc-depleted protein was reduced by greater than 85% but could be restored upon addition of Zn2+ or Co2+. Addition of a thiol-containing inhibitor to a CoZn hybrid enzyme resulted in marked spectral changes in both the visible and ultraviolet regions characteristic of sulfur ligation to Co2+. This direct evidence for an integral role in catalysis and inhibitor binding confirms the location of the exchangeable metal at the active site. To examine the environment of zinc in the proenzyme, a fully cobalt-substituted proenzyme was prepared by in vivo metal replacement. The absorbance features of dicobalt prostrom255 were consistent with metal coordination by the single cysteine present in the propeptide, although the data do not allow assignment to a particular zinc site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. CO Binding and Ligand Discrimination in Human Myeloperoxidase†

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Emma J.; Maréchal, Amandine; Segal, Anthony W.; Rich, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that ferrous myeloperoxidase (MPO) can bind both O2 and NO, its ability to bind CO has been questioned. UV/visible spectroscopy was used to confirm that CO induces small spectral shifts in ferrous MPO, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy showed definitively that these arose from formation of a heme ferrous–CO compound. Recombination rates after CO photolysis were monitored at 618 and 645 nm as a function of CO concentration and pH. At pH 6.3, kon and koff were 0.14 mM−1·s−1 and 0.23 s−1, respectively, yielding an unusually high KD of 1.6 mM. This affinity of MPO for CO is 10 times weaker than its affinity for O2. The observed rate constant for CO binding increased with increasing pH and was governed by a single protonatable group with a pKa of 7.8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed two different conformations of bound CO with frequencies at 1927 and 1942 cm−1. Their recombination rate constants were identical, indicative of two forms of bound CO that are in rapid thermal equilibrium rather than two distinct protein populations with different binding sites. The ratio of bound states was pH-dependent (pKa ≈ 7.4) with the 1927 cm−1 form favored at high pH. Structural factors that account for the ligand-binding properties of MPO are identified by comparisons with published data on a range of other ligand-binding heme proteins, and support is given to the recent suggestion that the proximal His336 in MPO is in a true imidazolate state. PMID:20146436

  18. CO binding and ligand discrimination in human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Emma J; Maréchal, Amandine; Segal, Anthony W; Rich, Peter R

    2010-03-16

    Despite the fact that ferrous myeloperoxidase (MPO) can bind both O(2) and NO, its ability to bind CO has been questioned. UV/visible spectroscopy was used to confirm that CO induces small spectral shifts in ferrous MPO, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy showed definitively that these arose from formation of a heme ferrous-CO compound. Recombination rates after CO photolysis were monitored at 618 and 645 nm as a function of CO concentration and pH. At pH 6.3, k(on) and k(off) were 0.14 mM(-1) x s(-1) and 0.23 s(-1), respectively, yielding an unusually high K(D) of 1.6 mM. This affinity of MPO for CO is 10 times weaker than its affinity for O(2). The observed rate constant for CO binding increased with increasing pH and was governed by a single protonatable group with a pK(a) of 7.8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed two different conformations of bound CO with frequencies at 1927 and 1942 cm(-1). Their recombination rate constants were identical, indicative of two forms of bound CO that are in rapid thermal equilibrium rather than two distinct protein populations with different binding sites. The ratio of bound states was pH-dependent (pK(a) approximately 7.4) with the 1927 cm(-1) form favored at high pH. Structural factors that account for the ligand-binding properties of MPO are identified by comparisons with published data on a range of other ligand-binding heme proteins, and support is given to the recent suggestion that the proximal His336 in MPO is in a true imidazolate state.

  19. Challenges of docking in large, flexible and promiscuous binding sites.

    PubMed

    Kotev, Martin; Soliva, Robert; Orozco, Modesto

    2016-10-15

    After decades of work, the correct determination of the binding mode of a small molecule into a target protein is still a challenging problem, whose difficulty depends on: (i) the sizes of the binding site and the ligand; (ii) the flexibility of both interacting partners, and (iii) the differential solvation of bound and unbound partners. We have evaluated the performance of standard rigid(receptor)/flexible(ligand) docking approaches with respect to last-generation fully flexible docking methods to obtain reasonable poses in a very challenging case: soluble Epoxide Hydrolase (sEH), a flexible protein showing different binding sites. We found that full description of the flexibility of both protein and ligand and accurate description of solvation leads to significant improvement in the ability of docking to reproduce well known binding modes, and at the same time capture the intrinsic binding promiscuity of the protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Ca2+-binding Sites Using Refined Carbon Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Xue; Wong, Hing C.; Wohlhueter, Robert; Kirberger, Michael P.; Chen, Guantao; Yang, Jenny J.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying Ca2+-binding sites in proteins is the first step towards understanding the molecular basis of diseases related to Ca2+-binding proteins. Currently, these sites are identified in structures either through X-ray crystallography or NMR analysis. However, Ca2+-binding sites are not always visible in X-ray structures due to flexibility in the binding region or low occupancy in a Ca2+-binding site. Similarly, both Ca2+ and its ligand oxygens are not directly observed in NMR structures. To improve our ability to predict Ca2+-binding sites in both X-ray and NMR structures, we report a new graph theory algorithm (MUGC) to predict Ca2+-binding sites. Using carbon atoms covalently bonded to the chelating oxygen atoms, and without explicit reference to side-chain oxygen ligand coordinates, MUGC is able to achieve 94% sensitivity with 76% selectivity on a dataset of X-ray structures comprised of 43 Ca2+-binding proteins. Additionally, prediction of Ca2+-binding sites in NMR structures were obtained by MUGC using a different set of parameters determined by analysis of both Ca2+-constrained and unconstrained Ca2+-loaded structures derived from NMR data. MUGC identified 20 out of 21 Ca2+-binding sites in NMR structures inferred without the use of Ca2+ constraints. MUGC predictions are also highly-selective for Ca2+-binding sites as analyses of binding sites for Mg2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ were not identified as Ca2+-binding sites. These results indicate that the geometric arrangement of the second-shell carbon cluster is sufficient for both accurate identification of Ca2+-binding sites in NMR and X-ray structures, and for selective differentiation between Ca2+ and other relevant divalent cations. PMID:22821762

  1. Electrostatic Steering at Acetylcholine Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Robert H.; Thompson, Errol; Soman, Kizhake V.; Song, Xing-Zhi; Ebalunode, Jerry O.; Wensel, Theodore G.; Briggs, James M.; Pedersen, Steen E.

    2006-01-01

    The electrostatic environments near the acetylcholine binding sites on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and acetylcholinesterase were measured by diffusion-enhanced fluorescence energy transfer (DEFET) to determine the influence of long-range electrostatic interactions on ligand binding kinetics and net binding energy. Changes in DEFET from variously charged Tb3+-chelates revealed net potentials of −20 mV at the nAChR agonist sites and −14 mV at the entrance to the AChE active site, in physiological ionic strength conditions. The potential at the αδ-binding site of the nAChR was determined independently in the presence of d-tubocurarine to be −14 mV; the calculated potential at the αγ-site was approximately threefold stronger than at the αδ-site. By determining the local potential in increasing ionic strength, Debye-Hückel theory predicted that the potentials near the nAChR agonist binding sites are constituted by one to three charges in close proximity to the binding site. Examination of the binding kinetics of the fluorescent acetylcholine analog dansyl-C6-choline at ionic strengths from 12.5 to 400 mM revealed a twofold decrease in association rate. Debye-Hückel analysis of the kinetics revealed a similar charge distribution as seen by changes in the potentials. To determine whether the experimentally determined potentials are reflected by continuum electrostatics calculations, solutions to the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation were used to compute the potentials expected from DEFET measurements from high-resolution models of the nAChR and AChE. These calculations are in good agreement with the DEFET measurements for AChE and for the αγ-site of the nAChR. We conclude that long-range electrostatic interactions contribute −0.3 and −1 kcal/mol to the binding energy at the nAChR αδ- and αγ-sites due to an increase in association rates. PMID:16751247

  2. Electrostatic steering at acetylcholine binding sites.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Robert H; Thompson, Errol; Soman, Kizhake V; Song, Xing-Zhi; Ebalunode, Jerry O; Wensel, Theodore G; Briggs, James M; Pedersen, Steen E

    2006-08-15

    The electrostatic environments near the acetylcholine binding sites on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and acetylcholinesterase were measured by diffusion-enhanced fluorescence energy transfer (DEFET) to determine the influence of long-range electrostatic interactions on ligand binding kinetics and net binding energy. Changes in DEFET from variously charged Tb3+ -chelates revealed net potentials of -20 mV at the nAChR agonist sites and -14 mV at the entrance to the AChE active site, in physiological ionic strength conditions. The potential at the alphadelta-binding site of the nAChR was determined independently in the presence of d-tubocurarine to be -14 mV; the calculated potential at the alphagamma-site was approximately threefold stronger than at the alphadelta-site. By determining the local potential in increasing ionic strength, Debye-Hückel theory predicted that the potentials near the nAChR agonist binding sites are constituted by one to three charges in close proximity to the binding site. Examination of the binding kinetics of the fluorescent acetylcholine analog dansyl-C6-choline at ionic strengths from 12.5 to 400 mM revealed a twofold decrease in association rate. Debye-Hückel analysis of the kinetics revealed a similar charge distribution as seen by changes in the potentials. To determine whether the experimentally determined potentials are reflected by continuum electrostatics calculations, solutions to the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation were used to compute the potentials expected from DEFET measurements from high-resolution models of the nAChR and AChE. These calculations are in good agreement with the DEFET measurements for AChE and for the alphagamma-site of the nAChR. We conclude that long-range electrostatic interactions contribute -0.3 and -1 kcal/mol to the binding energy at the nAChR alphadelta- and alphagamma-sites due to an increase in association rates.

  3. Cyclic mismatch binding ligand CMBL4 binds to the 5′-T-3′/5′-GG-3′ site by inducing the flipping out of thymine base

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjukta; Dohno, Chikara; Asano, Kaori; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A newly designed cyclic bis-naphthyridine carbamate dimer CMBL4 with a limited conformational flexibility was synthesized and characterized. Absorption spectra revealed that two naphthyridines in CMBL4 were stacked on each other in aqueous solutions. The most efficient binding of CMBL4 to DNA was observed for the sequence 5′-T-3′/5′-GG-3′ (T/GG) with the formation of a 1:1 complex, which is one of possible structural elements involved in the higher order structures of (TGG)n repeat DNA triggering the genome microdeletion. Surface plasmon resonance assay also showed the binding of CMBL4 with TGG repeat DNA. Potassium permanganate oxidation studies of CMBL4-bound duplex containing the T/GG site showed that the CMBL4-binding accelerated the oxidation of thymine at that site, which suggests the flipping out of the thymine base from a π-stack. Preferential binding was observed for CMBL4 compared with its acyclic variants, which suggests the marked significance of the macrocyclic structure for the recognition of the T/GG site. PMID:27466390

  4. Water networks contribute to enthalpy/entropy compensation in protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Breiten, Benjamin; Lockett, Matthew R; Sherman, Woody; Fujita, Shuji; Al-Sayah, Mohammad; Lange, Heiko; Bowers, Carleen M; Heroux, Annie; Krilov, Goran; Whitesides, George M

    2013-10-16

    The mechanism (or mechanisms) of enthalpy-entropy (H/S) compensation in protein-ligand binding remains controversial, and there are still no predictive models (theoretical or experimental) in which hypotheses of ligand binding can be readily tested. Here we describe a particularly well-defined system of protein and ligands--human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) and a series of benzothiazole sulfonamide ligands with different patterns of fluorination--that we use to define enthalpy/entropy (H/S) compensation in this system thermodynamically and structurally. The binding affinities of these ligands (with the exception of one ligand, in which the deviation is understood) to HCA are, despite differences in fluorination pattern, indistinguishable; they nonetheless reflect significant and compensating changes in enthalpy and entropy of binding. Analysis reveals that differences in the structure and thermodynamic properties of the waters surrounding the bound ligands are an important contributor to the observed H/S compensation. These results support the hypothesis that the molecules of water filling the active site of a protein, and surrounding the ligand, are as important as the contact interactions between the protein and the ligand for biomolecular recognition, and in determining the thermodynamics of binding.

  5. Two Unique Ligand-Binding Clamps of Rhizopus oryzae Starch Binding Domain for Helical Structure Disruption of Amylose

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting-Ying; Ci, Yuan-Pei; Chou, Wei-I; Lee, Yuan-Chuan; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Chou, Wei-Yao; Li, Kun-Mou; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD) has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21) members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs. PMID:22815939

  6. Ligand-binding pocket bridges DNA-binding and dimerization domains of the urate-responsive MarR homologue MftR from Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Grove, Anne

    2014-07-15

    Members of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family often regulate gene activity by responding to a specific ligand. In the absence of ligand, most MarR proteins function as repressors, while ligand binding causes attenuated DNA binding and therefore increased gene expression. Previously, we have shown that urate is a ligand for MftR (major facilitator transport regulator), which is encoded by the soil bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis. We show here that both mftR and the divergently oriented gene mftP encoding a major facilitator transport protein are upregulated in the presence of urate. MftR binds two cognate sites in the mftR-mftP intergenic region with equivalent affinity and sensitivity to urate. Mutagenesis of four conserved residues previously reported to be involved in urate binding to Deinococcus radiodurans HucR and Rhizobium radiobacter PecS significantly reduced protein stability and DNA binding affinity but not ligand binding. These data suggest that residues equivalent to those implicated in ligand binding to HucR and PecS serve structural roles and that MftR relies on distinct residues for ligand binding. MftR exhibits a two-step melting transition suggesting independent unfolding of the dimerization and DNA-binding regions; urate binding or mutations in the predicted ligand-binding sites result in one-step unfolding transitions. We suggest that MftR binds the ligand in a cleft between the DNA-binding lobes and the dimer interface but that the mechanism of ligand-mediated attenuation of DNA binding differs from that proposed for other urate-responsive MarR homologues. Since DNA binding by MftR is attenuated at 37 °C, our data also suggest that MftR responds to both ligand and a thermal upshift by attenuated DNA binding and upregulation of the genes under its control.

  7. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  8. Predicting the binding modes and sites of metabolism of xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Goutam; Lal Gupta, Pancham; Jayaram, B

    2015-07-01

    Metabolism studies are an essential integral part of ADMET profiling of drug candidates to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) metabolizes a wide variety of xenobiotics/drugs. The binding modes of these compounds with CYP and their intrinsic reactivities decide the metabolic products. We report here a novel computational protocol, which comprises docking of ligands to heme-containing CYPs and prediction of binding energies through a newly developed scoring function, followed by analyses of the docked structures and molecular orbitals of the ligand molecules, for predicting the sites of metabolism (SOM) of ligands. The calculated binding free energies of 121 heme-containing protein-ligand docked complexes yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.84 against experiment. Molecular orbital analyses of the resultant top three unique poses of the docked complexes provided a success rate of 87% in identifying the experimentally known sites of metabolism of the xenobiotics. The SOM prediction methodology is freely accessible at .

  9. Energy transfer ligands of the GluR2 ligand binding core.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Amy F; Strub, Marie-Paule; Lee, Jennifer C

    2010-03-09

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory signaling in the central nervous system. When a ligand binds to the extracellular domain of iGluRs, local conformational changes ensue and this motion is translated to the transmembrane domain, inducing channel opening. We have used an isolated ligand binding domain, GluR2-S1S2J (GluR2), as a model system to study the protein-ligand complex by steady-state and time-resolved intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence measurements. Specifically, we determined that the widely used and structurally characterized antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), acts as an efficient fluorescence energy transfer (FET) acceptor for Trp. Consistent with crystallographic data, our results indicate that the four native tryptophans are within Forster's radius (R(o) approximately 33 A) of the bound ligand. Additionally, we demonstrate the broader value of this technique by identifying an original FET ligand, 3-nitrotyrosine (3NY), for GluR2 (R(o) approximately 24 A; apparent dissociation constant K(d) approximately 170 microM). Estimated average donor-acceptor (Trp-ligand) distances extracted from tryptophan excited-state decays are similar for both ligands (approximately 24 A), suggesting that 3NY binds in the structurally characterized ligand binding cleft. Moreover, an alternative competition assay utilizing Trp --> DNQX quenching for detection of ligand binding in GluR2 is described.

  10. Energy Transfer Ligands of the GluR2 Ligand Binding Core†

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Amy F.; Strub, Marie-Paule; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory signaling in the central nervous system. Upon ligand binding to the extracellular domain of iGluRs local conformational changes ensue and this motion is translated to the transmembrane domain inducing channel opening. We have used an isolated ligand binding domain, GluR2-S1S2J (GluR2), as a model system to study the protein-ligand complex by steady-state and time-resolved intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence measurements. Specifically, we determined that the widely used and structurally characterized antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) acts as an efficient fluorescence energy transfer (FET) acceptor for Trp. Consistent with crystallographic data, our results indicate that the four native tryptophans are within Förster's radius (Ro ∼ 33 Å) of the bound ligand. Additionally, we demonstrate the broader value of this technique by identifying an original FET ligand, 3-nitrotyrosine (3NY) for GluR2 (Ro ∼ 24 Å, apparent dissociation constant, Kd ∼ 170 μM). Estimated average donor-acceptor (Trp-to-ligand) distances extracted from tryptophan excited-state decays are similar for both ligands (∼24 Å) suggesting that 3NY binds in the structurally characterized ligand-binding cleft. Moreover, an alternative competition assay utilizing Trp→DNQX quenching for detection of ligand binding in GluR2 is described. PMID:20155979

  11. Specific binding sites for muramyl peptides on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.H.S.; Krueger, J.M.; Karnovsky, M.L.

    1986-03-15

    Two radiolabeled (/sup 125/I) muramyl peptide derivatives of high specific activity were prepared: a tripeptide with an iodinated C-terminal tyrosine methyl ester (Ligand I), and a muramyl tripeptide with a C-terminal lysine derivatized with Bolton-Hunter reagent (Ligand II). These were used to characterize binding of muramyl peptides to monolayers of murine macrophages. Saturable high-affinity binding to resident, caseinate-elicited, and Listeria-activated peritoneal cells was observed with both radioligands. Binding affinities varied with the state of activation of the macrophages, and K/sub D/ values ranged from 48 +/- 33 pM (for resident macrophages, Ligand I) to 1020 +/- 90 pM (for activated macrophages, Ligand II). Specific binding sites were also found on a macrophage-derived cell line. The ability of several unlabeled muramyl peptides to compete with Ligands I and II for their binding sites was tested. Competition was stereospecific and correlated with known biological activities of these compounds (i.e., immunoadjuvanticity, pyrogenicity, and somnogenicity). The sites identified here for Ligands I and II may mediate some of the effects that muramyl peptides have previously been demonstrated to have on macrophages.

  12. Interrupting autocrine ligand-receptor binding: comparison between receptor blockers and ligand decoys.

    PubMed Central

    Forsten, K E; Lauffenburger, D A

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of cell behavioral functions by ligand/receptor binding can be accomplished in autocrine fashion, where cells secrete ligand capable of binding to receptors on their own surfaces. This proximal secretion of autocrine ligands near the surface receptors on the secreting cell suggests that control of these systems by inhibitors of receptor/ligand binding may be more difficult than for systems involving exogenous ligands. Hence, it is of interest to predict the conditions under which successful inhibition of cell receptor binding by the autocrine ligand can be expected. Previous theoretical work using a compartmentalized model for autocrine cells has elucidated the conditions under which addition of solution decoys for the autocrine ligand can interrupt cell receptor/ligand binding via competitive binding of the secreted molecules (Forsten, K. E., and D. A. Lauffenburger. 1992. Biophys. J. 61:1-12.) We now apply a similar modeling approach to examine the addition of solution blockers targeted against the cell receptor. Comparison of the two alternative inhibition strategies reveals that a significantly lower concentration of receptor blockers, compared to ligand decoys, will obtain a high degree of inhibition. The more direct interruption scheme characteristic of the receptor blockers may make them a preferred strategy when feasible. PMID:1330038

  13. Combined Effects of Ankylosing Spondylitis-associated ERAP1 Polymorphisms Outside the Catalytic and Peptide-binding Sites on the Processing of Natural HLA-B27 Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Esteban, Adrian; Gómez-Molina, Patricia; Sanz-Bravo, Alejandro; López de Castro, José A.

    2014-01-01

    ERAP1 polymorphism involving residues 528 and 575/725 is associated with ankylosing spondylitis among HLA-B27-positive individuals. We used four recombinant variants to address the combined effects of the K528R and D575N polymorphism on the processing of HLA-B27 ligands. The hydrolysis of a fluorogenic substrate, Arg-528/Asp-575 < Lys-528/Asp-575 < Arg-528/Asn-575 < Lys-528/Asn-575, indicated that the relative activity of variants carrying Arg-528 or Lys-528 depends on residue 575. Asp-575 conferred lower activity than Asn-575, but the difference depended on residue 528. The same hierarchy was observed with synthetic precursors of HLA-B27 ligands, but the effects were peptide-dependent. Sometimes the epitope yields were variant-specific at all times. For other peptides, concomitant generation and destruction led to similar epitope amounts with all the variants at long, but not at short, digestion times. The generation/destruction balance of two related HLA-B27 ligands was analyzed in vitro and in live cells. Their relative yields at long digestion times were comparable with those from HLA-B27-positive cells, suggesting that ERAP1 was a major determinant of the abundance of these peptides in vivo. The hydrolysis of fluorogenic and peptide substrates by an HLA-B27 ligand or a shorter peptide, respectively, was increasingly inhibited as a function of ERAP1 activity, indicating that residues 528 and 575 affect substrate inhibition of ERAP1 trimming. The significant and complex effects of co-occurring ERAP1 polymorphisms on multiple HLA-B27 ligands, and their potential to alter the immunological and pathogenetic features of HLA-B27 as a function of the ERAP1 context, explain the epistatic association of both molecules in ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:24352655

  14. β-Lactoglobulin's Conformational Requirements for Ligand Binding at the Calyx and the Dimer Interphase: a Flexible Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Del Moral-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Cortes-Hernández, Paulina; García-Garibay, Mariano; Jiménez-Guzmán, Judith

    2013-01-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is an abundant milk protein relevant for industry and biotechnology, due significantly to its ability to bind a wide range of polar and apolar ligands. While hydrophobic ligand sites are known, sites for hydrophilic ligands such as the prevalent milk sugar, lactose, remain undetermined. Through the use of molecular docking we first, analyzed the known fatty acid binding sites in order to dissect their atomistic determinants and second, predicted the interaction sites for lactose with monomeric and dimeric BLG. We validated our approach against BLG structures co-crystallized with ligands and report a computational setup with a reduced number of flexible residues that is able to reproduce experimental results with high precision. Blind dockings with and without flexible side chains on BLG showed that: i) 13 experimentally-determined ligands fit the calyx requiring minimal movement of up to 7 residues out of the 23 that constitute this binding site. ii) Lactose does not bind the calyx despite conformational flexibility, but binds the dimer interface and an alternate Site C. iii) Results point to a probable lactolation site in the BLG dimer interface, at K141, consistent with previous biochemical findings. In contrast, no accessible lysines are found near Site C. iv) lactose forms hydrogen bonds with residues from both monomers stabilizing the dimer through a claw-like structure. Overall, these results improve our understanding of BLG's binding sites, importantly narrowing down the calyx residues that control ligand binding. Moreover, our results emphasize the importance of the dimer interface as an insufficiently explored, biologically relevant binding site of particular importance for hydrophilic ligands. Furthermore our analyses suggest that BLG is a robust scaffold for multiple ligand-binding, suitable for protein design, and advance our molecular understanding of its ligand sites to a point that allows manipulation to control binding. PMID

  15. β-lactoglobulin's conformational requirements for ligand binding at the calyx and the dimer interphase: a flexible docking study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Del Moral-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Cortes-Hernández, Paulina; García-Garibay, Mariano; Jiménez-Guzmán, Judith

    2013-01-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is an abundant milk protein relevant for industry and biotechnology, due significantly to its ability to bind a wide range of polar and apolar ligands. While hydrophobic ligand sites are known, sites for hydrophilic ligands such as the prevalent milk sugar, lactose, remain undetermined. Through the use of molecular docking we first, analyzed the known fatty acid binding sites in order to dissect their atomistic determinants and second, predicted the interaction sites for lactose with monomeric and dimeric BLG. We validated our approach against BLG structures co-crystallized with ligands and report a computational setup with a reduced number of flexible residues that is able to reproduce experimental results with high precision. Blind dockings with and without flexible side chains on BLG showed that: i) 13 experimentally-determined ligands fit the calyx requiring minimal movement of up to 7 residues out of the 23 that constitute this binding site. ii) Lactose does not bind the calyx despite conformational flexibility, but binds the dimer interface and an alternate Site C. iii) Results point to a probable lactolation site in the BLG dimer interface, at K141, consistent with previous biochemical findings. In contrast, no accessible lysines are found near Site C. iv) lactose forms hydrogen bonds with residues from both monomers stabilizing the dimer through a claw-like structure. Overall, these results improve our understanding of BLG's binding sites, importantly narrowing down the calyx residues that control ligand binding. Moreover, our results emphasize the importance of the dimer interface as an insufficiently explored, biologically relevant binding site of particular importance for hydrophilic ligands. Furthermore our analyses suggest that BLG is a robust scaffold for multiple ligand-binding, suitable for protein design, and advance our molecular understanding of its ligand sites to a point that allows manipulation to control binding.

  16. Model analysis of surfactant--polymer interaction as cooperative ligand binding to linear lattice.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Takuhiro; Shimizu, Toshio

    2005-08-22

    An improved model of the cooperative binding of monomeric ligands to a linear lattice is proposed for the analysis of surfactant association on the polymer. The interaction between bound ligands across an unoccupied site as well as the steric hindrance effect in consecutive bindings is taken into account here. Typical results of the model calculations are represented, and several least squares fittings of the binding isotherms of the ionic surfactant-polyelectrolyte systems are attempted. The characteristic binding behavior in those systems is interpretable by the feasible model of the interactions between surfactant molecules. The advantages and limitations of the analysis using this model also are discussed.

  17. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Patricia A.

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  18. Synthesis and stereospecificity of 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinone ligands binding to T-box riboswitch RNA

    PubMed Central

    Orac, Crina M.; Zhou, Shu; Means, John A.; Boehm, David; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Hines, Jennifer V.

    2012-01-01

    The enantiomers and the cis isomers of two previously studied 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinones have been synthesized and their binding to the T-box riboswitch antiterminator model RNA investigated in detail. Characterization of ligand affinities and binding site localization indicate that there is little stereospecific discrimination for binding antiterminator RNA alone. This binding similarity between enantiomers is likely due to surface binding, which accommodates ligand conformations that result in comparable ligand-antiterminator contacts. These results have significant implications for T-box antiterminator-targeted drug discovery and, in general, for targeting other medicinally relevant RNA that do not present deep binding pockets. PMID:21812425

  19. Structural parameterization of the binding enthalpy of small ligands.

    PubMed

    Luque, Irene; Freire, Ernesto

    2002-11-01

    A major goal in ligand and drug design is the optimization of the binding affinity of selected lead molecules. However, the binding affinity is defined by the free energy of binding, which, in turn, is determined by the enthalpy and entropy changes. Because the binding enthalpy is the term that predominantly reflects the strength of the interactions of the ligand with its target relative to those with the solvent, it is desirable to develop ways of predicting enthalpy changes from structural considerations. The application of structure/enthalpy correlations derived from protein stability data has yielded inconsistent results when applied to small ligands of pharmaceutical interest (MW < 800). Here we present a first attempt at an empirical parameterization of the binding enthalpy for small ligands in terms of structural information. We find that at least three terms need to be considered: (1) the intrinsic enthalpy change that reflects the nature of the interactions between ligand, target, and solvent; (2) the enthalpy associated with any possible conformational change in the protein or ligand upon binding; and, (3) the enthalpy associated with protonation/deprotonation events, if present. As in the case of protein stability, the intrinsic binding enthalpy scales with changes in solvent accessible surface areas. However, an accurate estimation of the intrinsic binding enthalpy requires explicit consideration of long-lived water molecules at the binding interface. The best statistical structure/enthalpy correlation is obtained when buried water molecules within 5-7 A of the ligand are included in the calculations. For all seven protein systems considered (HIV-1 protease, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, Rnase T1, streptavidin, pp60c-Src SH2 domain, Hsp90 molecular chaperone, and bovine beta-trypsin) the binding enthalpy of 25 small molecular weight peptide and nonpeptide ligands can be accounted for with a standard error of +/-0.3 kcal x mol(-1). Copyright 2002 Wiley

  20. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Santiago, Daniel N; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  1. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Santiago, Daniel N.; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  2. BINANA: A Novel Algorithm for Ligand-Binding Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Computational chemists and structural biologists are often interested in characterizing ligand-receptor complexes for hydrogen-bond, hydrophobic, salt-bridge, van der Waals, and other interactions in order to assess ligand binding. When done by hand, this characterization can become tedious, especially when many complexes need be analyzed. In order to facilitate the characterization of ligand binding, we here present a novel Python-implemented computer algorithm called BINANA (BINding ANAlyzer), which is freely available for download at http://www.nbcr.net/binana/. To demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm, we use BINANA to confirm that the number of hydrophobic contacts between a ligand and its protein receptor is positively correlated with ligand potency. Additionally, we show how BINANA can be used to search through a large ligand-receptor database to identify those complexes that are remarkable for selected binding features, and to identify lead candidates from a virtual screen with specific, desirable binding characteristics. We are hopeful that BINANA will be useful to computational chemists and structural biologists who wish to automatically characterize many ligand-receptor complexes for key binding characteristics. PMID:21310640

  3. Exchange Kinetics of a Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Jeff; Stone, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Conformational fluctuations of proteins are thought to be important for determining the functional roles in biological activity. In some cases, the rates of these conformational changes may be directly correlated to, for example, the rates of catalysis or ligand binding. We are studying the role of conformational fluctuations in the binding of small volatile hydrophobic pheromones by the mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs). Communication among mice occurs, in part, with the MUP-1 protein. This urinary protein binds pheromones as a way to increase the longevity of the pheromone in an extracellular environment. Of interest is that the crystal structure of MUP-1 with a pheromone ligand shows the ligand to be completely occluded from the solvent with no obvious pathway to enter or exit. This suggests that conformational exchange of the protein may be required for ligand binding and release to occur. We hypothesize that the rate of conformational exchange may be a limiting factor determining the rate of ligand association and dissociation. By careful measurement of the on- and off-rates of ligand binding and the rates of conformational changes of the protein, a more defined picture of the interplay between protein structure and function can be obtained. To this end, heteronuclear saturation transfer, ^15N-exchange and ^15N dynamics experiments have been employed to probe the kinetics of ligand binding to MUP-1.

  4. Affinity screening using competitive binding with fluorine-19 hyperpolarized ligands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yaewon; Hilty, Christian

    2015-04-13

    Fluorine-19 NMR and hyperpolarization form a powerful combination for drug screening. Under a competitive equilibrium with a selected fluorinated reporter ligand, the dissociation constant (K(D)) of other ligands of interest is measurable using a single-scan Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, without the need for a titration. This method is demonstrated by characterizing the binding of three ligands with different affinities for the serine protease trypsin. Monte Carlo simulations show that the highest accuracy is obtained when about one-half of the bound reporter ligand is displaced in the binding competition. Such conditions can be achieved over a wide range of affinities, allowing for rapid screening of non-fluorinated compounds when a single fluorinated ligand for the binding pocket of interest is known. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Exploiting Ultra Tight-Binding Ligands for Separations Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Daryle; Givens, Richard S.; Zuo, Xiaobin; Zhang, Chi; Mosha, Donnati; Lee, Jong0Ill; Bushan, K. Mani; Hassan, Mansour M.; Loving, Galen

    2003-09-10

    The classic slowness that has kept the most powerful ligands from being used in separations applications is under attack in two ways: (1) replacing metal ion - ligand equilibration with switch binding and release as the mode of complexation. By exploiting the tight-binding capabilities of cryptands, the capture of selected metal ions isolates them from their environment. These cryptands are constructed with photoactivatable functions that sever the cryptand, releasing encapsulated metal ions. The precursors have been modified to capture the metal ion concomitant with crytate formation. (2) developing a methodology (the soil poultice) so slow that powerful ligands can be used. A solution containing the specially designed ligand is mixed with a solid macroporous imprinted polymer (MIPs) and applied to the contaminated area. The ligand captures the metal ion and the MIPs captures the resulting complex. Current studies focus on combinations of MIPs-complex interactions to optimize strength of binding and selectivity.

  6. Calculation of cooperativity and equilibrium constants of ligands binding to G-quadruplex DNA in solution.

    PubMed

    Kudrev, A G

    2013-11-15

    Equilibrium model of a ligand binding with DNA oligomer has been considered as a process of small molecule adsorption onto a lattice of multiple binding sites. An experimental example has been used to verify the assertion that during saturation of the macromolecule by a ligand should expect effect of cooperativity due to changes in DNA conformation or the mutual influence between bound ligands. Such phenomenon cannot be entirely described by the classical stepwise complex formation model. To evaluate a ligand binding affinity and cooperativity of ligand-oligomer complex formation the statistical approach has been proposed. This new computational approach used to re-examine previously studded ligand binding towards DNA quadruplexes targets with multiple binding sites. The intrinsic equilibrium constants K1-3 of the mesotetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (TMPyP4) binding with the [d(T4G4)]4 and with the [AG3(T2AG3)3] quadruplexes and the correction for the mutual influence between bound ligands (cooperativity parameters ω) was determined from the Job plots based upon the nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure. The re-examination of experimental curves reveals that the equilibrium is affected by the positive cooperative (ω>1) binding of the TMPyP4 ligand with tetramolecular [d(T4G4)]4. However for an intramolecular antiparallel-parallel hybrid structure [AG3(T2AG3)3] the weak anti-cooperativity of TMPyP4 accommodation (ω<1) onto two from three nonidentical sites was detected.

  7. Ligand binding analysis and screening by chemical denaturation shift.

    PubMed

    Schön, Arne; Brown, Richard K; Hutchins, Burleigh M; Freire, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The identification of small molecule ligands is an important first step in drug development, especially drugs that target proteins with no intrinsic activity. Toward this goal, it is important to have access to technologies that are able to measure binding affinities for a large number of potential ligands in a fast and accurate way. Because ligand binding stabilizes the protein structure in a manner dependent on concentration and binding affinity, the magnitude of the protein stabilization effect elicited by binding can be used to identify and characterize ligands. For example, the shift in protein denaturation temperature (Tm shift) has become a popular approach to identify potential ligands. However, Tm shifts cannot be readily transformed into binding affinities, and the ligand rank order obtained at denaturation temperatures (≥60°C) does not necessarily coincide with the rank order at physiological temperature. An alternative approach is the use of chemical denaturation, which can be implemented at any temperature. Chemical denaturation shifts allow accurate determination of binding affinities with a surprisingly wide dynamic range (high micromolar to sub nanomolar) and in situations where binding changes the cooperativity of the unfolding transition. In this article, we develop the basic analytical equations and provide several experimental examples.

  8. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) – a drug’s ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a

  9. A Correlation between Protein Function and Ligand Binding Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, Matthew D.; Bokemper, Michael; Copeland, Jennifer C.; Stark, Jaime L.; Powers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We report that proteins with the same function bind the same set of small molecules from a standardized chemical library. This observation led to a quantifiable and rapidly adaptable method for protein functional analysis using experimentally-derived ligand binding profiles. Ligand binding is measured using a high-throughput NMR ligand affinity screen with a structurally diverse chemical library. The method was demonstrated using a set of 19 proteins with a range of functions. A statistically significant similarity in ligand binding profiles was only observed between the two functionally identical albumins and between the five functionally similar amylases. This new approach is independent of sequence, structure or evolutionary information, and therefore, extends our ability to analyze and functionally annotate novel genes. PMID:21366353

  10. Hysteresis of ligand binding in CNGA2 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Nache, Vasilica; Eick, Thomas; Schulz, Eckhard; Schmauder, Ralf; Benndorf, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Tetrameric cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels mediate receptor potentials in olfaction and vision. The channels are activated by the binding of cyclic nucleotides to a binding domain embedded in the C terminus of each subunit. Here using a fluorescent cGMP derivative (fcGMP), we show for homotetrameric CNGA2 channels that ligand unbinding is ~50 times faster at saturating than at subsaturating fcGMP. Analysis with complex Markovian models reveals two pathways for ligand unbinding; the partially liganded open channel unbinds its ligands from closed states only, whereas the fully liganded channel reaches a different open state from which it unbinds all four ligands rapidly. Consequently, the transition pathways for ligand binding and activation of a fully liganded CNGA2 channel differ from that of ligand unbinding and deactivation, resulting in pronounced hysteresis of the gating mechanism. This concentration-dependent gating mechanism allows the channels to respond to changes in the cyclic nucleotide concentration with different kinetics. PMID:24287615

  11. Using competition assays to quantitatively model cooperative binding by transcription factors and other ligands.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Jacob; Jaynes, James B

    2017-08-01

    The affinities of DNA binding proteins for target sites can be used to model the regulation of gene expression. These proteins can bind to DNA cooperatively, strongly impacting their affinity and specificity. However, current methods for measuring cooperativity do not provide the means to accurately predict binding behavior over a wide range of concentrations. We use standard computational and mathematical methods, and develop novel methods as described in Results. We explore some complexities of cooperative binding, and develop an improved method for relating in vitro measurements to in vivo function, based on ternary complex formation. We derive expressions for the equilibria among the various complexes, and explore the limitations of binding experiments that model the system using a single parameter. We describe how to use single-ligand binding and ternary complex formation in tandem to determine parameters that have thermodynamic relevance. We develop an improved method for finding both single-ligand dissociation constants and concentrations simultaneously. We show how the cooperativity factor can be found when only one of the single-ligand dissociation constants can be measured. The methods that we develop constitute an optimized approach to accurately model cooperative binding. The expressions and methods we develop for modeling and analyzing DNA binding and cooperativity are applicable to most cases where multiple ligands bind to distinct sites on a common substrate. The parameters determined using these methods can be fed into models of higher-order cooperativity to increase their predictive power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of a series of binuclear and trinuclear ruthenium and palladium complexes based on a new bridging ligand containing terpyridyl and catechol binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, B.; Everest, N.S.; Howard, C.; Ward, M.D.

    1995-04-12

    The ligand 4{prime}-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine (L{sup 2}), containing a terpyridyl binding site and a masked catechol binding site, was prepared by a standard Kroehnke-type synthesis. From this the complexes [Ru(terpy)-(L{sup 2})][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (1) and [Ru(L{sup 2}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (2), containing one and two dimethoxyphenyl substituents, were prepared: demethylation with BBr{sub 3} afforded [Ru(terpy)(H{sub 2}L{sup 1})][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (3) and [Ru(H{sub 2}L{sup 1}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (4), respectively, which have one or two free catechol binding sites pendant from the [Ru(terpy){sub 2}]{sup 2+} core. Binuclear complexes (based on 3) and trinuclear complexes (based on 4) were then prepared by attachment of other metal fragments at the catechol sites. In [Ru(terpy)({mu}-L{sup 1})Ru(bipy){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3} (5) and [Ru({mu}-L{sup 1}){sub 2}(Ru(bipy){sub 2}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 4} (6) the pendant (Ru(bipy){sub 2}(O-O)){sup n+} sites (O-O = catecholate, n = 0; o-benzosemiquinone, n = 1; o-benzoquinone, n = 2) are redox active and may be reversibly interconverted between the three oxidation levels. In [Ru(terpy)({mu}-L{sup 1})Pd(bipy)][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (7), [Ru({mu}-L{sup 1}){sub 2}(Pd(bipy)){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (8), [Ru(terpy)({mu}-L{sup 1})Pd(4,4{prime}-{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-bipy)][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (9), and [Ru({mu}-L{sup 1}){sub 2}(Pd(4,4{prime}-{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-bipy)){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (10) the pendant (Pd(bipy)(catecholate)) fragments are known to be photocatalysts for production of {sup 1}O{sub 2} in their own right. Electrochemical and UV/vis studies were performed on all complexes and consistently indicate the presence of interactions between the components in 5-10. The EPR spectrum of 6 (which contains two semiquinone radicals) shows that the two spins are coupled by an exchange interaction.

  13. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term “movable type”. Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the

  14. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-12-10

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term "movable type". Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the free

  15. Metalloprotein-inhibitor binding: Human carbonic anhydrase II as a model for probing metal-ligand interactions in a metalloprotein active site

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David P.; Hann, Zachary S.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    An ever increasing number of metalloproteins are being discovered that play essential roles in physiological processes. Inhibitors of these proteins have significant potential for the treatment of human disease, but clinical success of these compounds has been limited. Herein, Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotein inhibitors in clinical use are reviewed, and the potential for using novel metal-binding groups (MBGs) in the design of these inhibitors is discussed. By using human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) as a model system, the nuances of MBG-metal interactions in the context of a protein environment can be probed. Understanding how metal coordination influences inhibitor binding may help in the design new therapeutics targeting metalloproteins. PMID:23706138

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Ligand Dissociation from Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dong; Mu, Yuguang; Yang, Daiwen

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of how ligands enter and leave the binding cavity of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been a puzzling question over decades. Liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) is a unique family member which accommodates two molecules of fatty acids in its cavity and exhibits the capability of interacting with a variety of ligands with different chemical structures and properties. Investigating the ligand dissociation processes of LFABP is thus a quite interesting topic, which however is rather difficult for both experimental approaches and ordinary simulation strategies. In the current study, random expulsion molecular dynamics simulation, which accelerates ligand motions for rapid dissociation, was used to explore the potential egress routes of ligands from LFABP. The results showed that the previously hypothesized “portal region” could be readily used for the dissociation of ligands at both the low affinity site and the high affinity site. Besides, one alternative portal was shown to be highly favorable for ligand egress from the high affinity site and be related to the unique structural feature of LFABP. This result lends strong support to the hypothesis from the previous NMR exchange studies, which in turn indicates an important role for this alternative portal. Another less favored potential portal located near the N-terminal end was also identified. Identification of the dissociation pathways will allow further mechanistic understanding of fatty acid uptake and release by computational and/or experimental techniques. PMID:19564911

  17. Structure and localisation of drug binding sites on neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Ravna, Aina W; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Dahl, Svein G

    2009-10-01

    The dopamine (DAT), serotontin (SERT) and noradrenalin (NET) transporters are molecular targets for different classes of psychotropic drugs. The crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus LeuT(Aa) was used as a template for molecular modeling of DAT, SERT and NET, and two putative drug binding sites (pocket 1 and 2) in each transporter were identified. Cocaine was docked into binding pocket 1 of DAT, corresponding to the leucine binding site in LeuT(Aa), which involved transmembrane helices (TMHs) 1, 3, 6 and 8. Clomipramine was docked into binding pocket 2 of DAT, involving TMHs 1, 3, 6, 10 and 11, and extracellular loops 4 and 6, corresponding to the clomipramine binding site in a crystal structure of a LeuT(Aa)-clomipramine complex. The structures of the proposed cocaine- and tricyclic antidepressant-binding sites may be of particular interest for the design of novel DAT interacting ligands.

  18. The binding orientations of structurally-related ligands can differ; A cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Ruepp, Marc-David; Wei, Hao; Leuenberger, Michele; Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2017-01-27

    Crystal structures can identify ligand-receptor interactions and assist the development of novel therapeutics, but experimental challenges sometimes necessitate the use of homologous proteins. Tropisetron is an orthosteric ligand at both 5-HT3 and α7 nACh receptors and its binding orientation has been determined in the structural homologue AChBP (pdbid: 2WNC). Co-crystallisation with a structurally-related ligand, granisetron, reveals an almost identical orientation (pdbid; 2YME). However, there is a >1000-fold difference in the affinity of tropisetron at 5-HT3 versus α7 nACh receptors, and α7 nACh receptors do not bind granisetron. These striking pharmacological differences prompt questions about which receptor the crystal structures most closely represent and whether the ligand orientations are correct. Here we probe the binding orientation of tropisetron and granisetron at 5-HT3 receptors by in silico modelling and docking, radioligand binding on cysteine-substituted 5-HT3 receptor mutants transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells, and synthetic modification of the ligands. For 15 of the 23 cysteine substitutions, the effects on tropisetron and granisetron were different. Structure-activity relationships on synthesised derivatives of both ligands were also consistent with different orientations, revealing that contrary to the crystallographic evidence from AChBP, the two ligands adopt different orientations in the 5-HT3 receptor binding site. Our results show that even quite structurally similar molecules can adopt different orientations in the same binding site, and that caution may be needed when using homologous proteins to predict ligand binding.

  19. Facile dimer synthesis for DNA-binding polyamide ligands.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, Modi; Wemmer, David E

    2010-08-06

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide ligands are highly sequence specific synthetic DNA-binding ligands that bind with high affinity. To counter the synthetic difficulties associated with coupling the electron-rich heterocyclic acids to the electron-deficient nucleophilic imidazole amine, a novel approach is described for synthesis of Fmoc-protected dimers for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). This method produces the dimers in high yields, is broadly applicable to other heterocyclic-containing polyamides, and results in improved ligand yields and synthesis times.

  20. Resolving protein structure-function-binding site relationships from a binding site similarity network perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-03-25

    Functional annotation is seldom straightforward with complexities arising due to functional divergence in protein families or functional convergence between non-homologous protein families, leading to mis-annotations. An enzyme may contain multiple domains and not all domains may be involved in a given function, adding to the complexity in function annotation. To address this, we use binding site information from bound cognate ligands and catalytic residues, since it can help in resolving fold-function relationships at a finer level and with higher confidence. A comprehensive database of 2,020 fold-function-binding site relationships has been systematically generated. A network-based approach is employed to capture the complexity in these relationships, from which different types of associations are deciphered, that identify versatile protein folds performing diverse functions, same function associated with multiple folds and one-to-one relationships. Binding site similarity networks integrated with fold, function and ligand similarity information are generated to understand the depth of these relationships. Apart from the observed continuity in the functional site space, network properties of these revealed versatile families with topologically different or dissimilar binding sites and structural families that perform very similar functions. As a case study, subtle changes in the active site of a set of evolutionarily related superfamilies are studied using these networks. Tracing of such similarities in evolutionarily related proteins provide clues into the transition and evolution of protein functions. Insights from this study will be helpful in accurate and reliable functional annotations of uncharacterized proteins, poly-pharmacology and designing enzymes with new functional capabilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple ligand docking by Glide: implications for virtual second-site screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, Márton; Tarcsay, Ákos; Keserű, György M.

    2012-07-01

    Performance of Glide was evaluated in a sequential multiple ligand docking paradigm predicting the binding modes of 129 protein-ligand complexes crystallized with clusters of 2-6 cooperative ligands. Three sampling protocols (single precision—SP, extra precision—XP, and SP without scaling ligand atom radii—SP hard) combined with three different scoring functions (GlideScore, Emodel and Glide Energy) were tested. The effects of ligand number, docking order and druglikeness of ligands and closeness of the binding site were investigated. On average 36 % of all structures were reproduced with RMSDs lower than 2 Å. Correctly docked structures reached 50 % when docking druglike ligands into closed binding sites by the SP hard protocol. Cooperative binding to metabolic and transport proteins can dramatically alter pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs. Analyzing the cytochrome P450 subset the SP hard protocol with Emodel ranking reproduced two-thirds of the structures well. Multiple ligand binding is also exploited by the fragment linking approach in lead discovery settings. The HSP90 subset from real life fragment optimization programs revealed that Glide is able to reproduce the positions of multiple bound fragments if conserved water molecules are considered. These case studies assess the utility of Glide in sequential multiple docking applications.

  2. VASP: A Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties Yields Insights into Protein-Ligand Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian Y.; Honig, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Many algorithms that compare protein structures can reveal similarities that suggest related biological functions, even at great evolutionary distances. Proteins with related function often exhibit differences in binding specificity, but few algorithms identify structural variations that effect specificity. To address this problem, we describe the Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties (VASP), a novel volumetric analysis tool for the comparison of binding sites in aligned protein structures. VASP uses solid volumes to represent protein shape and the shape of surface cavities, clefts and tunnels that are defined with other methods. Our approach, inspired by techniques from constructive solid geometry, enables the isolation of volumetrically conserved and variable regions within three dimensionally superposed volumes. We applied VASP to compute a comparative volumetric analysis of the ligand binding sites formed by members of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer (START) domains and the serine proteases. Within both families, VASP isolated individual amino acids that create structural differences between ligand binding cavities that are known to influence differences in binding specificity. Also, VASP isolated cavity subregions that differ between ligand binding cavities which are essential for differences in binding specificity. As such, VASP should prove a valuable tool in the study of protein-ligand binding specificity. PMID:20814581

  3. The unique extracellular disulfide loop of the glycine receptor is a principal ligand binding element.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, S; Vandenberg, R J; Pierce, K D; Cunningham, A M; French, P W; Barry, P H; Schofield, P R

    1995-01-01

    A loop structure, formed by the putative disulfide bridging of Cys198 and Cys209, is a principal element of the ligand binding site in the glycine receptor (GlyR). Disruption of the loop's tertiary structure by Ser mutations of these Cys residues either prevented receptor assembly on the cell surface, or created receptors unable to be activated by agonists or to bind the competitive antagonist, strychnine. Mutation of residues Lys200, Tyr202 and Thr204 within this loop reduced agonist binding and channel activation sensitivities by up to 55-, 520- and 190-fold, respectively, without altering maximal current sizes, and mutations of Lys200 and Tyr202 abolished strychnine binding to the receptor. Removal of the hydroxyl moiety from Tyr202 by mutation to Phe profoundly reduced agonist sensitivity, whilst removal of the benzene ring abolished strychnine binding, thus demonstrating that Tyr202 is crucial for both agonist and antagonist binding to the GlyR. Tyr202 also influences receptor assembly on the cell surface, with only large chain substitutions (Phe, Leu and Arg, but not Thr, Ser and Ala) forming functional receptors. Our data demonstrate the presence of a second ligand binding site in the GlyR, consistent with the three-loop model of ligand binding to the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Images PMID:7621814

  4. Structural rearrangement accompanying ligand binding in the GAF domain of CodY from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena; Colledge, Vicki L.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Williamson, David C.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Wilkinson, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    The GAF domain is a simple module widespread in proteins of diverse function including cell signalling proteins and transcription factors. Its structure, typically spanning 150 residues, has three tiers; a basal layer of two or more α-helices, a middle layer of β-pleated sheet and a top layer formed by segments of the polypeptide that connect strands of the β-sheet. In structures of GAF domains in complex with their effectors, these polypeptide segments envelop the ligand enclosing it in a cavity whose base is formed by the β-sheet, so that ligand binding and release must be accompanied by conformational rearrangements of the distal portion of the structure. Descriptions of binding are presently limited by the absence of a GAF domain for which both liganded and unliganded structures are known. Earlier, we solved the crystal structure of the GAF domain of CodY, a branched chain amino acid and GTP responsive regulator of the transcription of stationary phase and virulence genes in Bacillus, in complexes with isoleucine and valine. Here, we report the structure of this domain in its unliganded form, allowing definition of the structural changes accompanying ligand binding. The core of the protein and its dimerisation interface are essentially unchanged in agreement with circular dichroism spectroscopy experiments that show that the secondary structure composition is unperturbed by ligand binding. There is however, extensive refolding of the binding site loops, with up to 15 Å movements of the coiled segment linking β3 and β4, such that in the absence of the ligand, the binding pocket is not formed. The implications of these structural rearrangements for ligand affinity and specificity are discussed. Finally, saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy showed binding of isoleucine, but not GTP, to the GAF domain suggesting that the two cofactors do not have a common binding site. PMID:19500589

  5. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  6. SKF 525-A and cytochrome P-450 ligands inhibit with high affinity the binding of ( sup 3 H)dextromethorphan and. sigma. ligands to guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Canoll, P.D.; Musacchio, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The DM{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 1} site binds dextromethorphan (DM) and {sigma} receptor ligands. The broad binding specificity of this site and its peculiar subcellular distribution prompted us to explore the possibility that this site is a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of enzymes. We tested the effects of the liver microsomal monooxygenase inhibitor SKF 525-A (Proadifen), and other P-450 substrates on the binding of ({sup 3}H)dextromethorphan, ({sup 3}H)3- (3-Hydroxyphenyl) -N- (1-propyl) piperidine and (+)-({sup 3}H)1,3-Di-o-tolyl-guanidine (({sup 3}H)DTG) to the guinea pig brain. SKF 525-A, l-lobeline and GBR-12909 inhibited the binding of the three labeled ligands with nM affinity. Each drug has identical nM K{sub i} values for the high-affinity site labeled by the three ligands. This indicated that they displaced the labeled ligands from the common DM{sub 1}{sigma}{sub 1} site. Debrisoquine and sparteine, prototypical substrates for liver debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, displayed K{sub i} values of 9-13 and 3-4 {mu}M respectively against the three labeled ligands. These results, the broad specificity of the DM{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 1} binding site, and its peculiar subcellular distribution, raises the possibility that this binding site is a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of isozymes, rather than a neurotransmitter receptor.

  7. Kinetics of binding of fluorescent ligands to enzymes with engineered access tunnels.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Shubhangi; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri; Chaloupkova, Radka

    2017-01-01

    Molecular recognition mechanisms and kinetics of binding of ligands to buried active sites via access tunnels are not well understood. Fluorescence polarization enables rapid and non-destructive real-time quantification of the association between small fluorescent ligands and large biomolecules. In this study, we describe analysis of binding kinetics of fluorescent ligands resembling linear halogenated alkanes to haloalkane dehalogenases. Dehalogenases possess buried active sites connected to the surrounding solvent by access tunnels. Modification of these tunnels by mutagenesis has emerged as a novel strategy to tailor the enzyme properties. We demonstrate that the fluorescence polarization method can sense differences in binding kinetics originating from even single mutations introduced to the tunnels. The results show, strikingly, that the rate constant of the dehalogenase variants varied across seven orders of magnitude, and the type of ligand used strongly affected the binding kinetics of the enzyme. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization could be applied to cell-free extracts instead of purified proteins, extending the method's application to medium-throughput screening of enzyme variant libraries generated in directed evolution experiments. The method can also provide in-depth kinetic information about the rate-determining step in binding kinetics and reveals the bottlenecks of enzyme accessibility. Assuming availability of appropriate fluorescent ligand, the method could be applied for analysis of accessibility of tunnels and buried active sites of enzymes forming a covalent alkyl-enzyme intermediate during their catalytic cycle, such as α/β-hydrolases containing > 100 000 protein sequences based on the Pfam database.

  8. Ligand binding to telomeric G-quadruplex DNA investigated by funnel-metadynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Moraca, Federica; Amato, Jussara; Ortuso, Francesco; Artese, Anna; Novellino, Ettore; Alcaro, Stefano; Parrinello, Michele; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4s) are higher-order DNA structures typically present at promoter regions of genes and telomeres. Here, the G4 formation decreases the replicative DNA at each cell cycle, finally leading to apoptosis. The ability to control this mitotic clock, particularly in cancer cells, is fascinating and passes through a rational understanding of the ligand/G4 interaction. We demonstrate that an accurate description of the ligand/G4 binding mechanism is possible using an innovative free-energy method called funnel-metadynamics (FM), which we have recently developed to investigate ligand/protein interaction. Using FM simulations, we have elucidated the binding mechanism of the anticancer alkaloid berberine to the human telomeric G4 (d[AG3(T2AG3)3]), computing also the binding free-energy landscape. Two ligand binding modes have been identified as the lowest energy states. Furthermore, we have found prebinding sites, which are preparatory to reach the final binding mode. In our simulations, the ions and the water molecules have been explicitly represented and the energetic contribution of the solvent during ligand binding evaluated. Our theoretical results provide an accurate estimate of the absolute ligand/DNA binding free energy (ΔGb0 = −10.3 ± 0.5 kcal/mol) that we validated through steady-state fluorescence binding assays. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental value demonstrates that FM is a most powerful method to investigate ligand/DNA interaction and can be a useful tool for the rational design also of G4 ligands. PMID:28232513

  9. Synthesis and tau RNA binding evaluation of ametantrone-containing ligands.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Gerard; Marchán, Vicente

    2015-02-20

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of ametantrone-containing RNA ligands based on the derivatization of this intercalator with two neamine moieties (Amt-Nea,Nea) or with one azaquinolone heterocycle and one neamine (Amt-Nea,Azq) as well as its combination with guanidinoneamine (Amt-NeaG4). Biophysical studies revealed that guanidinylation of the parent ligand (Amt-Nea) had a positive effect on the binding of the resulting compound for Tau pre-mRNA target as well as on the stabilization upon complexation of some of the mutated RNA sequences associated with the development of tauopathies. Further studies by NMR revealed the existence of a preferred binding site in the stem-loop structure, in which ametantrone intercalates in the characteristic bulged region. Regarding doubly-functionalized ligands, binding affinity and stabilizing ability of Amt-Nea,Nea were similar to those of the guanidinylated ligand, but the two aminoglycoside fragments seem to interfere with its accommodation in a single binding site. However, Amt-Nea,Azq binds at the bulged region in a similar way than Amt-NeaG4. Overall, these results provide new insights on fine-tuning RNA binding properties of ametantrone by single or double derivatization with other RNA recognition motifs, which could help in the future design of new ligands with improved selectivity for disease-causing RNA molecules.

  10. Conformational Response to Ligand Binding in Phosphomannomutase2

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Giuseppina; Cabeza de Vaca, Israel; Poziello, Angelita; Monti, Maria Chiara; Guallar, Victor; Cubellis, Maria Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    The most common glycosylation disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding phosphomannomutase2, producing a disease still without a cure. Phosphomannomutase2, a homodimer in which each chain is composed of two domains, requires a bisphosphate sugar (either mannose or glucose) as activator, opening a possible drug design path for therapeutic purposes. The crystal structure of human phosphomannomutase2, however, lacks bound substrate and a key active site loop. To speed up drug discovery, we present here the first structural model of a bisphosphate substrate bound to human phosphomannomutase2. Taking advantage of recent developments in all-atom simulation techniques in combination with limited and site-directed proteolysis, we demonstrated that α-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate can adopt two low energy orientations as required for catalysis. Upon ligand binding, the two domains come close, making the protein more compact, in analogy to the enzyme in the crystals from Leishmania mexicana. Moreover, proteolysis was also carried out on two common mutants, R141H and F119L. It was an unexpected finding that the mutant most frequently found in patients, R141H, although inactive, does bind α-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and changes conformation. PMID:25324542

  11. Characterisation of imidazoline I2 binding sites in pig brain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Neil J; Lupo, Patrick A; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L; Robinson, Emma S J

    2005-09-05

    The imidazoline I2 binding sites in the central nervous system have previously been described in several different species including rat, mouse, rabbit and frog. The present study has investigated the imidazoline I2 binding site, and its relationship to the monoamine oxidase isoforms, in pig whole brain and compared the results obtained with data from other species. Results from saturation binding studies revealed that the imidazoline I2-selective ligand, [3H]2BFI (2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline) labelled a single saturable population of sites with a KD=6.6 nM and Bmax=771.7 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological characterisation of the sites was similar to that previously reported with a rank order of potency for the imidazoline I2 ligands of 2BFI>BU224>Idazoxan>BU226. Displacement by the imidazoline I1 ligands was low affinity and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors displaced with micromolar affinity. The majority of compounds displaced the binding in a monophasic manner, however, displacement by the putative endogenous ligand, harmane was biphasic. The relative populations of the two monoamine oxidase isoforms revealed a 10 fold greater expression of monoamine oxidase B relative to monoamine oxidase A. These data confirm the presence of imidazoline I2 binding sites in pig brain and show that their pharmacology is characteristic of that seen in other species. The proportion of monoamine oxidase A and B expressed in the pig brain is similar to that seen in the human brain therefore, given the association between imidazoline I2 binding sites and monoamine oxidase, the pig may provide a more useful model for human imidazoline I2 binding sites than other species such as the rat.

  12. Structure of the unique SEFIR domain from human interleukin 17 receptor A reveals a composite ligand-binding site containing a conserved α-helix for Act1 binding and IL-17 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Caini; Qian, Wen; Han, Yue; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Junpeng

    2014-05-01

    Crystal structure of the SEFIR domain from human IL-17 receptor A provides new insights into IL-17 signaling. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokines play a crucial role in mediating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A unique intracellular signaling domain termed SEFIR is found within all IL-17 receptors (IL-17Rs) as well as the key adaptor protein Act1. SEFIR-mediated protein–protein interaction is a crucial step in IL-17 cytokine signaling. Here, the 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the SEFIR domain of IL-17RA, the most commonly shared receptor for IL-17 cytokine signaling, is reported. The structure includes the complete SEFIR domain and an additional α-helical C-terminal extension, which pack tightly together to form a compact unit. Structural comparison between the SEFIR domains of IL-17RA and IL-17RB reveals substantial differences in protein topology and folding. The uniquely long insertion between strand βC and helix αC in IL-17RA SEFIR is mostly well ordered, displaying a helix (αCC′{sub ins}) and a flexible loop (CC′). The DD′ loop in the IL-17RA SEFIR structure is much shorter; it rotates nearly 90° with respect to the counterpart in the IL-17RB SEFIR structure and shifts about 12 Å to accommodate the αCC′{sub ins} helix without forming any knots. Helix αC was identified as critical for its interaction with Act1 and IL-17-stimulated gene expression. The data suggest that the heterotypic SEFIR–SEFIR association via helix αC is a conserved and signature mechanism specific for IL-17 signaling. The structure also suggests that the downstream motif of IL-17RA SEFIR together with helix αC could provide a composite ligand-binding surface for recruiting Act1 during IL-17 signaling.

  13. Biosensors engineered from conditionally stable ligand-binding domains

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Feng, Justin; Mandell, Daniel J.; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Jester, Benjamin Ward; Tinberg, Christine Elaine

    2017-09-19

    Disclosed is a biosensor engineered to conditionally respond to the presence of specific small molecules, the biosensors including conditionally stable ligand-binding domains (LBDs) which respond to the presence of specific small molecules, wherein readout of binding is provided by reporter genes or transcription factors (TFs) fused to the LBDs.

  14. Analyzing Ligand Depletion in a Saturation Equilibrium Binding Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    I present a proposal for a laboratory practice to generate and analyze data from a saturation equilibrium binding experiment addressed to advanced undergraduate students. [[superscript 3]H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate is a nonselective muscarinic ligand with very high affinity and very low nonspecific binding to brain membranes, which contain a high…

  15. Efficient Binding of the NOS1AP C-Terminus to the nNOS PDZ Pocket Requires the Concerted Action of the PDZ Ligand Motif, the Internal ExF Site and Structural Integrity of an Independent Element

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Li; Cisek, Katryna; Courtney, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is widely regarded as an important contributor to a number of disorders of excitable tissues. Recently the adaptor protein NOS1AP has emerged as a contributor to several nNOS-linked conditions. As a consequence, the unexpectedly complex mechanisms of interaction between nNOS and its effector NOS1AP have become a particularly interesting topic from the point of view of both basic research and the potential for therapeutic applications. Here we demonstrate that the concerted action of two previously described motif regions contributing to the interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP, the ExF region and the PDZ ligand motif, efficiently excludes an alternate ligand from the nNOS-PDZ ligand-binding pocket. Moreover, we identify an additional element with a denaturable structure that contributes to interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS. Denaturation does not affect the functions of the individual motifs and results in a relatively mild drop, ∼3-fold, of overall binding affinity of the C-terminal region of NOS1AP for nNOS. However, denaturation selectively prevents the concerted action of the two motifs that normally results in efficient occlusion of the PDZ ligand-binding pocket, and results in 30-fold reduction of competition between NOS1AP and an alternate PDZ ligand. PMID:28360833

  16. Automated docking of ligands to an artificial active site: augmenting crystallographic analysis with computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Robin J.; Goodsell, David S.; Musah, Rabi A.; Morris, Garrett M.; Goodin, David B.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2003-08-01

    The W191G cavity of cytochrome c peroxidase is useful as a model system for introducing small molecule oxidation in an artificially created cavity. A set of small, cyclic, organic cations was previously shown to bind in the buried, solvent-filled pocket created by the W191G mutation. We docked these ligands and a set of non-binders in the W191G cavity using AutoDock 3.0. For the ligands, we compared docking predictions with experimentally determined binding energies and X-ray crystal structure complexes. For the ligands, predicted binding energies differed from measured values by ± 0.8 kcal/mol. For most ligands, the docking simulation clearly predicted a single binding mode that matched the crystallographic binding mode within 1.0 Å RMSD. For 2 ligands, where the docking procedure yielded an ambiguous result, solutions matching the crystallographic result could be obtained by including an additional crystallographically observed water molecule in the protein model. For the remaining 2 ligands, docking indicated multiple binding modes, consistent with the original electron density, suggesting disordered binding of these ligands. Visual inspection of the atomic affinity grid maps used in docking calculations revealed two patches of high affinity for hydrogen bond donating groups. Multiple solutions are predicted as these two sites compete for polar hydrogens in the ligand during the docking simulation. Ligands could be distinguished, to some extent, from non-binders using a combination of two trends: predicted binding energy and level of clustering. In summary, AutoDock 3.0 appears to be useful in predicting key structural and energetic features of ligand binding in the W191G cavity.

  17. Fringe-mediated extension of O-linked fucose in the ligand-binding region of Notch1 increases binding to mammalian Notch ligands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Sheppard, Devon; Chillakuri, Chandramouli; Lea, Susan M; Haltiwanger, Robert S; Handford, Penny A

    2014-05-20

    The Notch signaling pathway is essential for many aspects of development, cell fate determination, and tissue homeostasis. Notch signaling can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to the Notch receptor, which are known to alter both ligand binding and receptor activation. We have modified the ligand-binding region (EGF domains 11-13) of human Notch1 (hN1) with O-fucose and O-glucose glycans and shown by flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance that the Fringe-catalyzed addition of GlcNAc to the O-fucose at T466 in EGF12 substantially increases binding to Jagged1 and Delta-like 1 (DLL1) ligands. We have subsequently determined the crystal structures of EGF domains 11-13 of hN1 modified with either the O-fucose monosaccharide or the GlcNAc-fucose disaccharide at T466 of EGF12 and observed no change in backbone structure for each variant. Collectively, these data demonstrate a role for GlcNAc in modulating the ligand-binding site in hN1 EGF12, resulting in an increased affinity of this region for ligands Jagged1 and DLL1. We propose that this finding explains the Fringe-catalyzed enhancement of Notch-Delta signaling observed in flies and humans, but suggest that the inhibitory effect of Fringe on Jagged/Serrate mediated signaling involves other regions of Notch.

  18. Chelate effects in sulfate binding by amide/urea-based ligands.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuandong; Wang, Qi-Qiang; Begum, Rowshan Ara; Day, Victor W; Bowman-James, Kristin

    2015-07-07

    The influence of chelate and mini-chelate effects on sulfate binding was explored for six amide-, amide/amine-, urea-, and urea/amine-based ligands. Two of the urea-based hosts were selective for SO4(2-) in water-mixed DMSO-d6 systems. Results indicated that the mini-chelate effect provided by a single urea group with two NH binding sites appears to provide enhanced binding over two amide groups. Furthermore, additional urea binding sites incorporated into the host framework appeared to overcome to some extent competing hydration effects with increasing water content.

  19. Ligand-induced conformational changes in a thermophilic ribose-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.

    2009-05-21

    Members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily are involved in transport and signaling processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biological responses are typically mediated by ligand-induced conformational changes in which the binding event is coupled to a hinge-bending motion that brings together two domains in a closed form. In all PBP-mediated biological processes, downstream partners recognize the closed form of the protein. This motion has also been exploited in protein engineering experiments to construct biosensors that transduce ligand binding to a variety of physical signals. Understanding the mechanistic details of PBP conformational changes, both global (hinge bending, twisting, shear movements) and local (rotamer changes, backbone motion), therefore is not only important for understanding their biological function but also for protein engineering experiments. Here we present biochemical characterization and crystal structure determination of the periplasmic ribose-binding protein (RBP) from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in its ribose-bound and unliganded state. The T. maritima RBP (tmRBP) has 39% sequence identity and is considerably more resistant to thermal denaturation (appTm value is 108 C) than the mesophilic Escherichia coli homolog (ecRBP) (appTm value is 56 C). Polar ligand interactions and ligand-induced global conformational changes are conserved among ecRBP and tmRBP; however local structural rearrangements involving side-chain motions in the ligand-binding site are not conserved. Although the large-scale ligand-induced changes are mediated through similar regions, and are produced by similar backbone movements in tmRBP and ecRBP, the small-scale ligand-induced structural rearrangements differentiate the mesophile and thermophile. This suggests there are mechanistic differences in the manner by which these two proteins bind their ligands and are an example of how two structurally similar proteins utilize different

  20. Limited proteolysis for assaying ligand binding affinities of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, M; Nominé, B; Mouchon, A; Lefebvre, B; Bernardon, J M; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1997-01-01

    The binding of natural or synthetic ligands to nuclear receptors is the triggering event leading to gene transcription activation or repression. Ligand binding to the ligand binding domain of these receptors induces conformational changes that are evidenced by an increased resistance of this domain to proteases. In vitro labeled receptors were incubated with various synthetic or natural agonists or antagonists and submitted to trypsin digestion. Proteolysis products were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantified. The amount of trypsin-resistant fragments was proportional to receptor occupancy by the ligand, and allowed the determination of dissociation constants (kDa). Using the wild-type or mutated human retinoic acid receptor alpha as a model, kDa values determined by classical competition binding assays using tritiated ligands are in agreement with those measured by the proteolytic assay. This method was successfully extended to human retinoic X receptor alpha, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, thus providing a basis for a new, faster assay to determine simultaneously the affinity and conformation of receptors when bound to a given ligand.

  1. A look at ligand binding thermodynamics in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Drug discovery is a challenging endeavor requiring the interplay of many different research areas. Gathering information on ligand binding thermodynamics may help considerably in reducing the risk within a high uncertainty scenario, allowing early rejection of flawed compounds and pushing forward optimal candidates. In particular, the free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy of binding provide fundamental information on the intermolecular forces driving such interaction. Areas covered: The authors review the current status and recent developments in the application of ligand binding thermodynamics in drug discovery. The thermodynamic binding profile (Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of binding) can be used for lead selection and optimization (binding enthalpy, selectivity, and adaptability). Expert opinion: Binding thermodynamics provides fundamental information on the forces driving the formation of the drug-target complex. It has been widely accepted that binding thermodynamics may be used as a decision criterion along the ligand optimization process in drug discovery and development. In particular, the binding enthalpy may be used as a guide when selecting and optimizing compounds over a set of potential candidates. However, this has been recently called into question by arguing certain difficulties and in the light of certain experimental examples.

  2. Ligand binding to a high-energy partially unfolded protein.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Joseph R; Park, Chiwook

    2015-01-01

    The conformational energy landscape of a protein determines populations of all possible conformations of the protein and also determines the kinetics of the conversion between the conformations. Interaction with ligands influences the conformational energy landscapes of proteins and shifts populations of proteins in different conformational states. To investigate the effect of ligand binding on partial unfolding of a protein, we use Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its functional ligand NADP(+) as a model system. We previously identified a partially unfolded form of DHFR that is populated under native conditions. In this report, we determined the free energy for partial unfolding of DHFR at varying concentrations of NADP(+) and found that NADP(+) binds to the partially unfolded form as well as the native form. DHFR unfolds partially without releasing the ligand, though the binding affinity for NADP(+) is diminished upon partial unfolding. Based on known crystallographic structures of NADP(+) -bound DHFR and the model of the partially unfolded protein we previously determined, we propose that the adenosine-binding domain of DHFR remains folded in the partially unfolded form and interacts with the adenosine moiety of NADP(+) . Our result demonstrates that ligand binding may affect the conformational free energy of not only native forms but also high-energy non-native forms.

  3. Critical ligand binding reagent preparation/selection: when specificity depends on reagents.

    PubMed

    Rup, Bonita; O'Hara, Denise

    2007-05-11

    Throughout the life cycle of biopharmaceutical products, bioanalytical support is provided using ligand binding assays to measure the drug product for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and immunogenicity studies. The specificity and selectivity of these ligand binding assays are highly dependent on the ligand binding reagents. Thus the selection, characterization, and management processes for ligand binding reagents are crucial to successful assay development and application. This report describes process considerations for selection and characterization of ligand binding reagents that are integral parts of the different phases of assay development. Changes in expression, purification, modification, and storage of the ligand binding reagents may have a profound effect on the ligand binding assay performance. Thus long-term management of the critical ligand binding assay reagents is addressed including suggested characterization criteria that allow ligand binding reagents to be used in as consistent a manner as possible. Examples of challenges related to the selection, modification, and characterization of ligand binding reagents are included.

  4. Insights into the Interaction Mechanism of Ligands with Aβ42 Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Mechanics: Implications of Role of Common Binding Site in Drug Design for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kundaikar, Harish S; Degani, Mariam S

    2015-10-01

    Aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) into oligomers and further into fibrils is hypothesized to be a key factor in pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, mapping and docking were used to study the binding of ligands to protofibrils. It was followed by molecular simulations to understand the differences in interactions of known therapeutic agents such as curcumin, fluorescence-based amyloid staining agents such as thioflavin T, and diagnostic agents such as florbetapir (AV45), with Aβ protofibrils. We show that therapeutic agents bind to and distort the protofibrils, thus causing destabilization or prevention of oligomerization, in contrast to diagnostic agents which bind to but do not distort such structures. This has implications in the rational design of ligands, both for diagnostics and therapeutics of AD.

  5. Characterisation of iron binding ligands in seawater by reverse titration.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Gledhill, Martha; Connelly, Douglas P; Achterberg, Eric P

    2013-03-05

    Here we demonstrate the use of reverse titration - competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (RT-CLE-ACSV) for the analysis of iron (Fe) binding ligands in seawater. In contrast to the forward titration, which examines excess ligands in solution, RT-CLE-ACSV examines the existing Fe-ligand complexes by increasing the concentration of added (electroactive) ligand (1-nitroso-2-naphthol) and analysis of the proportion of Fe bound to the added ligand. The data manipulation allows the accurate characterisation of ligands at equal or lower concentrations than Fe in seawater, and disregards electrochemically inert dissolved Fe such as some colloidal phases. The method is thus superior to the forward titration in environments with high Fe and low ligand concentrations or high concentrations of inert Fe. We validated the technique using the siderophore ligand ferrioxamine B, and observed a stability constant [Formula: see text] of 0.74-4.37×10(21) mol(-1), in agreement with previous results. We also successfully analysed samples from coastal waters and a deep ocean hydrothermal plume. Samples from these environments could not be analysed with confidence using the forward titration, highlighting the effectiveness of the RT-CLE-ACSV technique in waters with high concentrations of inert Fe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and functional characterization of the human formyl peptide receptor ligand-binding region.

    PubMed Central

    Radel, S J; Genco, R J; De Nardin, E

    1994-01-01

    The formyl peptide (N-formyl-1-methionyl-1-leucyl-1-phenylalanine [FMLP]) receptor is involved in the activation of neutrophils and their subsequent response to chemotactic N-formylated peptides. Recently, we found that the first extracellular loop closest to the N-terminal end of the FMLP receptor exhibited the strongest ligand binding compared with that shown by other extracellular regions. By constructing amino acid substitutional variants of this domain, we have determined that residues Arg-84 and Lys-85 on this loop play major roles in ligand-binding activity. Furthermore, random rearrangement of the residues of this receptor region demonstrated that the position of these charged amino acids did not affect their involvement in ligand binding, although their presence was essential for this binding to occur. We propose that the portion of the first N-terminal extracellular loop of the FMLP receptor containing residues Arg-84 and Lys-85 contributes significantly to the active site in ligand-receptor binding. We further propose that this binding is not dependent on defined structure but rather that these charged moieties may function as important "contacts" in receptor-ligand interactions. Images PMID:8168934

  7. Ligand binding was acquired during evolution of nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Escriva, Hector; Safi, Rachid; Hänni, Catherine; Langlois, Marie-Claire; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Stehelin, Dominique; Capron, André; Pierce, Raymond; Laudet, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily comprises, in addition to ligand-activated transcription factors, members for which no ligand has been identified to date. We demonstrate that orphan receptors are randomly distributed in the evolutionary tree and that there is no relationship between the position of a given liganded receptor in the tree and the chemical nature of its ligand. NRs are specific to metazoans, as revealed by a screen of NR-related sequences in early- and non-metazoan organisms. The analysis of the NR gene duplication pattern during the evolution of metazoans shows that the present NR diversity arose from two waves of gene duplications. Strikingly, our results suggest that the ancestral NR was an orphan receptor that acquired ligand-binding ability during subsequent evolution. PMID:9192646

  8. Active-site zinc ligands and activated H2O of zinc enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Vallee, B L; Auld, D S

    1990-01-01

    The x-ray crystallographic structures of 12 zinc enzymes have been chosen as standards of reference to identify the ligands to the catalytic and structural zinc atoms of other members of their respective enzyme families. Universally, H2O is a ligand and critical component of the catalytically active zinc sites. In addition, three protein side chains bind to the catalytic zinc atom, whereas four protein ligands bind to the structural zinc atom. The geometry and coordination number of zinc can vary greatly to accommodate particular ligands. Zinc forms complexes with nitrogen and oxygen just as readily as with sulfur, and this is reflected in catalytic zinc sites having a binding frequency of His much greater than Glu greater than Asp = Cys, three of which bind to the metal atom. The systematic spacing between the ligands is striking. For all catalytic zinc sites except the coenzyme-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, the first two ligands are separated by a "short-spacer" consisting of 1 to 3 amino acids. These ligands are separated from the third ligand by a "long spacer" of approximately 20 to approximately 120 amino acids. The spacer enables formation of a primary bidentate zinc complex, whereas the long spacer contributes flexibility to the coordination sphere, which can poise the zinc for catalysis as well as bring other catalytic and substrate binding groups into apposition with the active site. The H2O is activated by ionization, polarization, or poised for displacement. Collectively, the data imply that the preferred mechanistic pathway for activating the water--e.g., zinc hydroxide or Lewis acid catalysis--will be determined by the identity of the other three ligands and their spacing. Images PMID:2104979

  9. Ligand Binding Thermodynamics in Drug Discovery: Still a Hot Tip?

    PubMed

    Geschwindner, Stefan; Ulander, Johan; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-08-27

    The use of ligand binding thermodynamics has been proposed as a potential success factor to accelerate drug discovery. However, despite the intuitive appeal of optimizing binding enthalpy, a number of factors complicate routine use of thermodynamic data. On a macroscopic level, a range of experimental parameters including temperature and buffer choice significantly influence the observed thermodynamic signatures. On a microscopic level, solute effects, structural flexibility, and cooperativity lead to nonlinear changes in enthalpy. This multifactorial character hides essential enthalpy contributions of intermolecular contacts, making them experimentally nonobservable. In this perspective, we present three case studies, reflect on some key factors affecting thermodynamic signatures, and investigate their relation to the hydrophobic effect, enthalpy-entropy compensation, lipophilic ligand efficiency, and promiscuity. The studies highlight that enthalpy and entropy cannot be used as direct end points but can together with calculations increase our understanding of ligand binding and identify interesting outliers that do not behave as expected.

  10. Probing Molecular Docking in a Charged Model Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Brenk, Ruth; Vetter, Stefan W.; Boyce, Sarah E.; Goodin, David B.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    A model binding site was used to investigate charge–charge interactions in molecular docking. This simple site, a small (180 Å3) engineered cavity in cyctochrome c peroxidase (CCP), is negatively charged and completely buried from solvent, allowing us to explore the balance between electrostatic energy and ligand desolvation energy in a system where many of the common approximations in docking do not apply. A database with about 5300 molecules was docked into this cavity. Retrospective testing with known ligands and decoys showed that overall the balance between electrostatic interaction and desolvation energy was captured. More interesting were prospective docking scre”ens that looked for novel ligands, especially those that might reveal problems with the docking and energy methods. Based on screens of the 5300 compound database, both high-scoring and low-scoring molecules were acquired and tested for binding. Out of 16 new, high-scoring compounds tested, 15 were observed to bind. All of these were small heterocyclic cations. Binding constants were measured for a few of these, they ranged between 20 μM and 60 μM. Crystal structures were determined for ten of these ligands in complex with the protein. The observed ligand geometry corresponded closely to that predicted by docking. Several low-scoring alkyl amino cations were also tested and found to bind. The low docking score of these molecules owed to the relatively high charge density of the charged amino group and the corresponding high desolvation penalty. When the complex structures of those ligands were determined, a bound water molecule was observed interacting with the amino group and a backbone carbonyl group of the cavity. This water molecule mitigates the desolvation penalty and improves the interaction energy relative to that of the “naked” site used in the docking screen. Finally, six low-scoring neutral molecules were also tested, with a view to looking for false negative predictions

  11. Optimizing electrostatic affinity in ligand-receptor binding: Theory, computation, and ligand properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Erik; Tidor, Bruce

    1998-11-01

    The design of a tight-binding molecular ligand involves a tradeoff between an unfavorable electrostatic desolvation penalty incurred when the ligand binds a receptor in aqueous solution and the generally favorable intermolecular interactions made in the bound state. Using continuum electrostatic models we have developed a theoretical framework for analyzing this problem and have shown that the ligand-charge distribution can be optimized to produce the most favorable balance of these opposing free energy contributions [L.-P. Lee and B. Tidor, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8681 (1997)]. Herein the theoretical framework is extended and calculations are performed for a wide range of model receptors. We examine methods for computing optimal ligands (including cases where there is conformational change) and the resulting properties of optimized ligands. In particular, indicators are developed to aid in the determination of the deficiencies in a specific ligand or basis. A connection is established between the optimization problem here and a generalized image problem, from which an inverse-image basis set can be defined; this basis is shown to perform very well in optimization calculations. Furthermore, the optimized ligands are shown to have favorable electrostatic binding free energies (in contrast to many natural ligands), there is a strong correlation between the receptor desolvation penalty and the optimized binding free energy for fixed geometry, and the ligand and receptor cannot generally be mutually optimal. Additionally, we introduce the display of complementary desolvation and interaction potentials and the deviation of their relationship from ideal as a useful tool for judging effective complementarity. Scripts for computing and displaying these potentials with GRASP are available at http://mit.edu/tidor.

  12. Protein-Ligand Binding from Distancefield Distances and Hamiltonian Replica Exchange Simulations.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Anita; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2013-02-12

    The calculation of protein-ligand binding free energies is an important goal in the field of computational chemistry. Applying path-sampling methods for this purpose involves calculating the associated potential of mean force (PMF) and gives insight into the binding free energy along the binding process. Without a priori knowledge about the binding path, sampling reversible binding can be difficult to achieve. To alleviate this problem, we introduce the distancefield (DF) as a reaction coordinate for such calculations. DF is a grid-based method in which the shortest distance between the binding site and a ligand is determined avoiding routes that pass through the protein. Combining this reaction coordinate with Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics (HREMD) allows for the reversible binding of the ligand to the protein. A comparison is made between umbrella sampling using regular distance restraints and HREMD with DF restraints to study aspirin binding to the protein phospholipase A2. Although the free energies of binding are similar for both methods, the increased sampling with HREMD has a significant influence on the shape of the PMF. A remarkable agreement between the calculated binding free energies from the PMF and the experimental estimate is obtained.

  13. The ligand binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Immunological analysis.

    PubMed

    Kachalsky, S G; Aladjem, M; Barchan, D; Fuchs, S

    1993-03-08

    The interaction of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) binding site domain with specific antibodies and with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) has been compared. The cloned and expressed ligand binding domain of the mouse AChR alpha-subunit binds alpha-BTX, whereas the mongoose-expressed domain is not recognized by alpha-BTX. On the other hand, both the mouse and mongoose domains bind to the site-specific monoclonal antibody 5.5. These results demonstrate that the structural requirements for binding of alpha-BTX and mcAb 5.5, both of which interact with the AChR binding site, are distinct from each other.

  14. Doubling the Size of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand Binding Pocket by Deacylcortivazol

    SciTech Connect

    Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chenghai; Tao, Yong-guang; Tolbert, W. David; Simons, Jr., S. Stoney; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    A common feature of nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBD) is a helical sandwich fold that nests a ligand binding pocket within the bottom half of the domain. Here we report that the ligand pocket of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can be continuously extended into the top half of the LBD by binding to deacylcortivazol (DAC), an extremely potent glucocorticoid. It has been puzzling for decades why DAC, which contains a phenylpyrazole replacement at the conserved 3-ketone of steroid hormones that are normally required for activation of their cognate receptors, is a potent GR activator. The crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to DAC and the fourth LXXLL motif of steroid receptor coactivator 1 reveals that the GR ligand binding pocket is expanded to a size of 1,070 {angstrom}{sup 3}, effectively doubling the size of the GR dexamethasone-binding pocket of 540 {angstrom}{sup 3} and yet leaving the structure of the coactivator binding site intact. DAC occupies only {approx}50% of the space of the pocket but makes intricate interactions with the receptor around the phenylpyrazole group that accounts for the high-affinity binding of DAC. The dramatic expansion of the DAC-binding pocket thus highlights the conformational adaptability of GR to ligand binding. The new structure also allows docking of various nonsteroidal ligands that cannot be fitted into the previous structures, thus providing a new rational template for drug discovery of steroidal and nonsteroidal glucocorticoids that can be specifically designed to reach the unoccupied space of the expanded pocket.

  15. Structural dynamics of myoglobin: effect of internal cavities on ligand migration and binding.

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, Karin; Deng, Pengchi; Kriegl, Jan M; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2003-08-19

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with temperature derivative spectroscopy (TDS) at cryogenic temperatures, we have studied CO binding to the heme and CO migration among cavities in the interior of sperm whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO) after photodissociation. Photoproduct intermediates, characterized by CO in different locations, were selectively enhanced by laser illumination at specific temperatures. Measurements were performed on the wild-type protein and a series of mutants (L104W, I107W, I28F, and I28W) in which bulky amino acid side chains were introduced to block passageways between cavities or to fill these sites. Binding of xenon was also employed as an alternative means of filling cavities. In all samples, photolyzed CO ligands were observed to initially bind at primary docking site B in the vicinity of the heme iron, from where they migrate to the secondary docking sites, the Xe4 and/or Xe1 cavities. To examine the relevance of these internal docking sites for physiological ligand binding, we have performed room-temperature flash photolysis on the entire set of proteins in the CO- and O(2)-bound form. Together with the cryospectroscopic results, these data provide a clear picture of the role of the internal sites for ligand escape from and binding to myoglobin.

  16. Ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Féau, Clémentine; Arnold, Leggy A; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R Kiplin

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating endocrine activities of environmental chemicals or screening for new small molecule modulators of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription activity requires standardized and reliable assay procedures. Scintillation proximity assays (SPA) are sensitive and reliable techniques that are suitable for ligand competition binding assays. We have utilized a radiolabeled ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor (AR) that can be carried out in a 384-well format. This standardized, highly reproducible and low-cost assay has been automated for high-throughput screening (HTS) purposes.

  17. An Experiment Illustrating the Change in Ligand p"K"[subscript a] upon Protein Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of ligand p"K"[subscript a] due to its surrounding environment is a crucial feature that controls many biological phenomena. For example, the shift in the p"K"[subscript a] of substrates or catalytic residues at enzyme active sites upon substrate binding often triggers and controls enzymatic reactions. In this work, we developed an…

  18. An Experiment Illustrating the Change in Ligand p"K"[subscript a] upon Protein Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of ligand p"K"[subscript a] due to its surrounding environment is a crucial feature that controls many biological phenomena. For example, the shift in the p"K"[subscript a] of substrates or catalytic residues at enzyme active sites upon substrate binding often triggers and controls enzymatic reactions. In this work, we developed an…

  19. Improving the binding capacities of protein A chromatographic materials by means of ligand polymerization.

    PubMed

    Freiherr von Roman, Matthias; Berensmeier, Sonja

    2014-06-20

    Protein A chromatography is one of the most important techniques used in the purification of monoclonal antibodies. Due to the low dynamic binding capacity of protein A chromatographic materials compared to other stationary phases, protein A chromatography is often discussed to be the bottleneck among current purification processes. Several approaches were tested within this study in order to maximize IgG binding capacities of current acrylamido-based based resins. Genetic engineering techniques were used in order to polymerize one of the IgG binding domains (B-domain) of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) to achieve ligands with an increased length. The solution-binding ratio and the total size of ligand-antibody complexes were used to characterize the interaction potential of novel ligands, revealing a relatively linear dependency between the number of binding domains upon the amount of bound antibody molecules. This relationship was also valid up to a ligand which was comprised of 8 B-domains after attaching them onto acrylamido-based based stationary phases using epoxy coupling techniques. Equilibrium binding capacities of more than 80mghIgGmL(-1) were achieved using the B8 ligand. Furthermore, static binding capacities, especially for smaller ligands comprised of fewer B-domains, were improved up to 87mghIgGmL(-1) using site-specific coupling chemistry, which is an improvement of more than 20% compared to commercially available materials. In order to evaluate pore exclusion effects due to the use of prolonged affinity ligands, prepared materials were characterized regarding their effective intraparticle porosity and breakthrough capacity.

  20. Spectroscopic and equilibrium studies of ligand and organic substrate binding to indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sono, M

    1990-02-13

    The binding of a number of ligands to the heme protein indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase has been examined with UV-visible absorption and with natural and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Relatively large ligands (e.g., norharman) which do not readily form complexes with myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can bind to the dioxygenase. Except for only a few cases (e.g., 4-phenylimidazole) for the ferric dioxygenase, a direct competition for the enzyme rarely occurs between the substrate L-tryptophan (Trp) and the ligands examined. L-Trp and small heme ligands (CN-,N3-,F-) markedly enhance the affinity of each other for the ferric enzyme in a reciprocal manner, exhibiting positive cooperativity. For the ferrous enzyme, L-Trp exerts negative cooperativity with some ligands such as imidazoles, alkyl isocyanides, and CO binding to the enzyme. This likely reflects the proximity of the Trp binding site to the heme iron. Other indolamine substrates also exert similar but smaller cooperative effects on the binding of azide or ethyl isocyanide. The pH dependence of the ligand affinity of the dioxygenase is similar to that of myoglobin rather than that of HRP. These results suggest that indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase has the active-site heme pocket whose environmental structure is similar to, but whose size is considerably larger than, that of myoglobin, a typical O2-binding heme protein. Although the L-Trp affinity of the ferric cyanide and ferrous CO enzyme varies only slightly between pH 5.5 and 9.5, the unligated ferric and ferrous enzymes have considerably higher affinity for L-Trp at alkaline pH than at acidic pH. L-Trp binding to the ferrous dioxygenase is affected by an ionizable residue with a pKa value of 7.3.

  1. Molecular modeling of sigma 1 receptor ligands: a model of binding conformational and electrostatic considerations.

    PubMed

    Gund, Tamara M; Floyd, Jie; Jung, Dawoon

    2004-01-01

    We have performed molecular modeling studies on several sigma 1 specific ligands, including PD144418, spipethiane, haloperidol, pentazocine, and others to develop a pharmacophore for sigma 1 receptor-ligand binding, under the assumption that all the compounds interact at the same receptor binding site. The modeling studies have investigated the conformational and electrostatic properties of the ligands. Superposition of active molecules gave the coordinates of the hypothetical 5-point sigma 1 pharmacophore, as follows: R1 (0.85, 7.26, 0.30); R2 (5.47, 2.40, -1.51); R3 (-2.57, 4.82, -7.10); N (-0.71, 3.29, -6.40); carbon centroid (3.16, 4.83, -0.60), where R1, R2 were constructed onto the aromatic ring of each compound to represent hydrophobic interactions with the receptor; and R3 represents a hydrogen bond between the nitrogen atom and the receptor. Additional analyses were used to describe secondary binding sites to electronegative groups such as oxygen or sulfur atom. Those coordinates are (2.34, 5.08, -4.18). The model was verified by fitting other sigma 1 receptor ligands. This model may be used to search conformational databases for other possibly active ligands. In conjunction with rational drug design techniques the model may be useful in design and synthesis of novel sigma 1 ligands of high selectivity and potency. Calculations were performed using Sybyl 6.5.

  2. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) have been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular flooding studies of the retinoid X-receptor ligand binding domain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Geoffrey M; Ma, Ning; Wagner, Carl E; van der Vaart, Arjan

    2017-03-01

    Bexarotene is an FDA approved retinoid X-receptor (RXR) agonist for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and its use in other cancers and Alzheimer's disease is being investigated. The drug causes serious side effects, which might be reduced by chemical modifications of the molecule. To rationalize known agonists and to help identify sites for potential substitutions we present molecular simulations in which the RXR ligand-binding domain was flooded with a large number of drug-like molecules, and molecular dynamics simulations of a series of bexarotene-like ligands bound to the RXR ligand-binding domain. Based on the flooding simulations, two regions of interest for ligand modifications were identified: a hydrophobic area near the bridgehead and another near the fused ring. In addition, positional fluctuations of the phenyl ring were generally smaller than fluctuations of the fused ring of the ligands. Together, these observations suggest that the fused ring might be a good target for the design of higher affinity bexarotene-like ligands, while the phenyl ring is already optimized. In addition, notable differences in ligand position and interactions between the RXRα and RXRβ were observed, as well as differences in hydrogen bonding and solvation, which might be exploited in the development of subspecies-specific ligands.

  4. Ligand Binding and Conformational Changes in the Purine-Binding Riboswitch Aptamer Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noeske, Jonas; Buck, Janina; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    Riboswitches are highly structured mRNA elements that regulate gene expression upon specific binding of small metabolite molecules. The purine-binding riboswitches bind different purine ligands by forming both canonical Watson—Crick and non-canonical intermolecular base pairs, involving a variety of hydrogen bonds between the riboswitch aptamer domain and the purine ligand. Here, we summarize work on the ligand binding modes of both purine-binding aptamer domains, their con-formational characteristics in the free and ligand-bound forms, and their ligand-induced folding. The adenine- and guanine-binding riboswitch aptamer domains display different conformations in their free forms, despite nearly identical nucleotide loop sequences that form a loop—loop interaction in the ligand-bound forms. Interestingly, the stability of helix II is crucial for the formation of the loop—loop interaction in the free form. A more stable helix II in the guanine riboswitch leads to a preformed loop—loop interaction in its free form. In contrast, a less stable helix II in the adenine riboswitch results in a lack of this loop—loop interaction in the absence of ligand and divalent cations.

  5. Polypharmacology within CXCR4: Multiple binding sites and allosteric behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planesas, Jesús M.; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I.; Borrell, José I.; Teixidó, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    CXCR4 is a promiscuous receptor, which binds multiple diverse ligands. As usual in promiscuous proteins, CXCR4 has a large binding site, with multiple subsites, and high flexibility. Hence, it is not surprising that it is involved in the phenomenon of allosteric modulation. However, incomplete knowledge of allosteric ligand-binding sites has hampered an in-depth molecular understanding of how these inhibitors work. For example, it is known that lipidated fragments of intracellular GPCR loops, so called pepducins, such as pepducin ATI-2341, modulate CXCR4 activity using an agonist allosteric mechanism. Nevertheless, there are also examples of small organic molecules, such as AMD11070 and GSK812397, which may act as antagonist allosteric modulators. Here, we give new insights into this issue by proposing the binding interactions between the CXCR4 receptor and the above-mentioned allosteric modulators. We propose that CXCR4 has minimum two topographically different allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site would be in the intracellular loop 1 (ICL1) where pepducin ATI-2341 would bind to CXCR4, and the second one, in the extracellular side of CXCR4 in a subsite into the main orthosteric binding pocket, delimited by extracellular loops n° 1, 2, and the N-terminal end, where antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397 would bind. Prediction of allosteric interactions between CXCR4 and pepducin ATI-2341 were studied first by rotational blind docking to determine the main binding region and a subsequent refinement of the best pose was performed using flexible docking methods and molecular dynamics. For the antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397, the entire CXCR4 protein surface was explored by blind docking to define the binding region. A second docking analysis by subsites of the identified binding region was performed to refine the allosteric interactions. Finally, we identified the binding residues that appear to be essential for CXCR4 (agonists and antagonists) allosteric

  6. Data of protein-RNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Choi, Daesik; Han, Kyungsook

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of protein-RNA complexes in structure databases, few data resources have been made available which can be readily used in developing or testing a method for predicting either protein-binding sites in RNA sequences or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. The problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received much less attention than the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein. The data presented in this paper are related to the article entitled "PRIdictor: Protein-RNA Interaction predictor" (Tuvshinjargal et al. 2016) [1]. PRIdictor can predict protein-binding sites in RNA as well as RNA-binding sites in protein at the nucleotide- and residue-levels. This paper presents four datasets that were used to test four prediction models of PRIdictor: (1) model RP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from protein and RNA sequences, (2) model RaP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from RNA sequence alone, (3) model PR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein and RNA sequences, and (4) model PaR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein sequence alone. The datasets supplied in this article can be used as a valuable resource to evaluate and compare different methods for predicting protein-RNA binding sites.

  7. Structural Dynamics of the Cereblon Ligand Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Marcus D.; Boichenko, Iuliia; Coles, Murray; Lupas, Andrei N.; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Cereblon, a primary target of thalidomide and its derivatives, has been characterized structurally from both bacteria and animals. Especially well studied is the thalidomide binding domain, CULT, which shows an invariable structure across different organisms and in complex with different ligands. Here, based on a series of crystal structures of a bacterial representative, we reveal the conformational flexibility and structural dynamics of this domain. In particular, we follow the unfolding of large fractions of the domain upon release of thalidomide in the crystalline state. Our results imply that a third of the domain, including the thalidomide binding pocket, only folds upon ligand binding. We further characterize the structural effect of the C-terminal truncation resulting from the mental-retardation linked R419X nonsense mutation in vitro and offer a mechanistic hypothesis for its irresponsiveness to thalidomide. At 1.2Å resolution, our data provide a view of thalidomide binding at atomic resolution. PMID:26024445

  8. A model for the study of ligand binding to the ribosomal RNA helix h44

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrov, Sergey M.; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas

    2010-09-02

    Oligonucleotide models of ribosomal RNA domains are powerful tools to study the binding and molecular recognition of antibiotics that interfere with bacterial translation. Techniques such as selective chemical modification, fluorescence labeling and mutations are cumbersome for the whole ribosome but readily applicable to model RNAs, which are readily crystallized and often give rise to higher resolution crystal structures suitable for detailed analysis of ligand-RNA interactions. Here, we have investigated the HX RNA construct which contains two adjacent ligand binding regions of helix h44 in 16S ribosomal RNA. High-resolution crystal structure analysis confirmed that the HX RNA is a faithful structural model of the ribosomal target. Solution studies showed that HX RNA carrying a fluorescent 2-aminopurine modification provides a model system that can be used to monitor ligand binding to both the ribosomal decoding site and, through an indirect effect, the hygromycin B interaction region.

  9. Supervised Machine Learning Methods Applied to Predict Ligand- Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Heck, Gabriela S; Pintro, Val O; Pereira, Richard R; de Ávila, Mauricio B; Levin, Nayara M B; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of ligand-binding affinity is an open problem in computational medicinal chemistry. The ability to computationally predict affinities has a beneficial impact in the early stages of drug development, since it allows a mathematical model to assess protein-ligand interactions. Due to the availability of structural and binding information, machine learning methods have been applied to generate scoring functions with good predictive power. Our goal here is to review recent developments in the application of machine learning methods to predict ligand-binding affinity. We focus our review on the application of computational methods to predict binding affinity for protein targets. In addition, we also describe the major available databases for experimental binding constants and protein structures. Furthermore, we explain the most successful methods to evaluate the predictive power of scoring functions. Association of structural information with ligand-binding affinity makes it possible to generate scoring functions targeted to a specific biological system. Through regression analysis, this data can be used as a base to generate mathematical models to predict ligandbinding affinities, such as inhibition constant, dissociation constant and binding energy. Experimental biophysical techniques were able to determine the structures of over 120,000 macromolecules. Considering also the evolution of binding affinity information, we may say that we have a promising scenario for development of scoring functions, making use of machine learning techniques. Recent developments in this area indicate that building scoring functions targeted to the biological systems of interest shows superior predictive performance, when compared with other approaches. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Incorporating replacement free energy of binding-site waters in molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanzi; Zhao, Lifeng; Peng, Shiming; Huang, Niu

    2014-09-01

    Binding-site water molecules play a crucial role in protein-ligand recognition, either being displaced upon ligand binding or forming water bridges to stabilize the complex. However, rigorously treating explicit binding-site waters is challenging in molecular docking, which requires to fully sample ensembles of waters and to consider the free energy cost of replacing waters. Here, we describe a method to incorporate structural and energetic properties of binding-site waters into molecular docking. We first developed a solvent property analysis (SPA) program to compute the replacement free energies of binding-site water molecules by post-processing molecular dynamics trajectories obtained from ligand-free protein structure simulation in explicit water. Next, we implemented a distance-dependent scoring term into DOCK scoring function to take account of the water replacement free energy cost upon ligand binding. We assessed this approach in protein targets containing important binding-site waters, and we demonstrated that our approach is reliable in reproducing the crystal binding geometries of protein-ligand-water complexes, as well as moderately improving the ligand docking enrichment performance. In addition, SPA program (free available to academic users upon request) may be applied in identifying hot-spot binding-site residues and structure-based lead optimization.

  11. Ligand-Receptor Binding Measured by Laser-Scanning Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuck, Paul; Lao, Zhege; Skwish, Stephen; Fraser Glickman, J.; Yang, Ke; Burbaum, Jonathan; Inglese, James

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the integration of laser-scanning fluorometric cytometry and nonseparation ligand-binding techniques to provide new assay methods adaptable to miniaturization and high-throughput screening. Receptor-bound, cyanine dye-labeled ligands, [Cy]ligands, were discriminated from those free in solution by measuring the accumulated fluorescence associated with a receptor-containing particle. To illustrate the various binding formats accommodated by this technique, saturation- and competition-binding analyses were performed with [Cy]ligands and their cognate receptors expressed in CHO cells or as fusion proteins coated on polystyrene microspheres. We have successfully applied this technique to the analysis of G protein-coupled receptors, cytokine receptors, and SH2 domains. Multiparameter readouts from ligands labeled separately with Cy5 and Cy5.5 demonstrate the simultaneous analysis of two target receptors in a single well. In addition, laser-scanning cytometry has been used to assay enzymes such as phosphatases and in the development of single-step fluorescent immunoassays.

  12. The FTMap family of web servers for determining and characterizing ligand binding hot spots of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kozakov, Dima; Grove, Laurie E.; Hall, David R.; Bohnuud, Tanggis; Mottarella, Scott; Luo, Lingqi; Xia, Bing; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    FTMap is a computational mapping server that identifies binding hot spots of macromolecules, i.e., regions of the surface with major contributions to the ligand binding free energy. To use FTMap, users submit a protein, DNA, or RNA structure in PDB format. FTMap samples billions of positions of small organic molecules used as probes and scores the probe poses using a detailed energy expression. Regions that bind clusters of multiple probe types identify the binding hot spots, in good agreement with experimental data. FTMap serves as basis for other servers, namely FTSite to predict ligand binding sites, FTFlex to account for side chain flexibility, FTMap/param to parameterize additional probes, and FTDyn to map ensembles of protein structures. Applications include determining druggability of proteins, identifying ligand moieties that are most important for binding, finding the most bound-like conformation in ensembles of unliganded protein structures, and providing input for fragment based drug design. FTMap is more accurate than classical mapping methods such as GRID and MCSS, and is much faster than the more recent approaches to protein mapping based on mixed molecular dynamics. Using 16 probe molecules, the FTMap server finds the hot spots of an average size protein in less than an hour. Since FTFlex performs mapping for all low energy conformers of side chains in the binding site, its completion time is proportionately longer. PMID:25855957

  13. Structural dynamics of myoglobin: ligand migration and binding in valine 68 mutants.

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, Karin; Deng, Pengchi; Olson, John S; Warren, Joshua J; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2003-10-24

    We have combined Fourier transform infrared/temperature derivative (FTIR-TDS) spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures and flash photolysis at ambient temperature to examine the effects of polar and bulky amino acid replacements of the highly conserved distal valine 68 in sperm whale myoglobin. In FTIR-TDS experiments, the CO ligand can serve as an internal voltmeter that monitors the local electrostatic field not only at the active site but also at intermediate ligand docking sites. Mutations of residue 68 alter size, shape, and electric field of the distal pocket, especially in the vicinity of the primary docking site (state B). As a consequence, the infrared bands associated with the ligand at site B are shifted. The effect is most pronounced in mutants with large aromatic side chains. Polar side chains (threonine or serine) have only little effect on the peak frequencies. Ligands that migrate toward more remote sites C and D give rise to IR bands with altered frequencies. TDS experiments separate the photoproducts according to their recombination temperatures. The rates and extent of ligand migration among internal cavities at cryogenic temperatures can be used to interpret geminate and bimolecular O2 and CO recombination at room temperature. The kinetics of geminate recombination can be explained by steric arguments alone, whereas both the polarity and size of the position 68 side chain play major roles in regulating bimolecular ligand binding from the solvent.

  14. Ligand Binding and Circular Permutation Modify Residue Interaction Network in DHFR

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zengjian; Bowen, Donnell; Southerland, William M; del Sol, Antonio; Pan, Yongping; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2007-01-01

    Residue interaction networks and loop motions are important for catalysis in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Here, we investigate the effects of ligand binding and chain connectivity on network communication in DHFR. We carry out systematic network analysis and molecular dynamics simulations of the native DHFR and 19 of its circularly permuted variants by breaking the chain connections in ten folding element regions and in nine nonfolding element regions as observed by experiment. Our studies suggest that chain cleavage in folding element areas may deactivate DHFR due to large perturbations in the network properties near the active site. The protein active site is near or coincides with residues through which the shortest paths in the residue interaction network tend to go. Further, our network analysis reveals that ligand binding has “network-bridging effects” on the DHFR structure. Our results suggest that ligand binding leads to a modification, with most of the interaction networks now passing through the cofactor, shortening the average shortest path. Ligand binding at the active site has profound effects on the network centrality, especially the closeness. PMID:17571919

  15. RXR function requires binding to an endogenous terpenoid ligand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The issue of whether the nuclear receptor RXR must bind to an endogenous, nanomolar affinity ligand in order to perform its natural function is still unsettled (1). On the basis of our previous studies establishing that the Drosophilamelanogaster ortholog of the retinoid X receptor ("ultraspiracle,"...

  16. Ligand-binding pocket of the ecdysone receptor.

    PubMed

    Billas, Isabelle M L; Moras, Dino

    2005-01-01

    The ecdysone receptor (EcR) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors (NRs) that are ligand-dependent transcription factors. Ecdysone receptor is present only in invertebrates and plays a central role in regulating the expression of a vast array of genes during development and reproduction. The functional entity is a heterodimer composed of EcR and the ultraspiracle protein (USP)-the orthologue of the vertebrate retinoid X receptor (RXR). Ecdysone receptor is the molecular target of ecdysteroids-the endogenous steroidal molting hormones found in arthropods and nonarthropod invertebrates. In addition, EcR is the target of the environmentally safe bisacylhydrazine insecticides used against pests, such as caterpillars, that cause severe damage to agriculture. The crystal structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the EcR/USP heterodimer, complexed to the ecdysteroid ponasterone A (ponA) and to the lepidopteran specific bisacylhydrazine BYI06830 used in the agrochemical pest control, provide the first insight at atomic level for these important functional complexes. The EcR/USP heterodimer has a shape similar to that seen for the known vertebrate heterodimer complexes with a conserved main interface, but with features, that are specific to this invertebrate heterodimer. The two EcR-LBD structures in complex with steroidal and nonsteroidal ligands reveal substantial differences. The adaptability of EcR to its ligand results in two radically different and only partially overlapping ligand-binding pockets with different residues involved in ligand recognition. The concept brought by these structural studies of a ligand-dependent binding pocket has potential applications for other NRs.

  17. Ligand binding assays at equilibrium: validation and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Edward C; Trevethick, Mike A

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this review paper is factors affecting data interpretation in ligand binding assays under equilibrium conditions. Protocols for determining Kd (the equilibrium dissociation constant) and KdA (the equilibrium inhibitor constant) for receptor ligands are discussed. The basic theory describing the interaction of a radiotracer and an unlabelled competitor ligand with a receptor is developed. Inappropriate experimental design may result in ligand depletion and non-attainment of equilibrium, distorting the calculation of Kd and KdA. Strategies, both theoretical and practical, will be given to avoid and correct such errors, thus leading to the determination of reliable values for these constants. In determining KdA from competition binding studies, two additional concepts are discussed. First, the necessity to measure an adequate specific binding signal from the bound radiotracer ligand limits the range of affinity constants that can be measured: a particular set of assay conditions may lead to an upper limit on the apparent affinity of unlabelled ligands. Second, an extension of the basic assay methodology can indicate whether the interaction between the tracer and a test ligand is mediated by a competitive or an allosteric mechanism. Finally, the review ends with a discussion of two factors that are often overlooked: buffer composition and the temperature at which the assay is conducted, and the impact these can have on affinity measurements and the understanding of drug interactions. British Journal of Pharmacology (2010) 161, 1219–1237; doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00604.x; published online 2 February 2010 This article is part of a themed section on Analytical Receptor Pharmacology in Drug Discovery. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2010.161.issue-6 PMID:20132208

  18. Relations between high-affinity binding sites of markers for binding regions on human serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U

    1985-01-01

    Binding of warfarin, digitoxin, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red, individually or in different pair combinations, to defatted human serum albumin at ligand/protein molar ratios less than 1:1 was studied at pH 7.0. The binding was determined by ultrafiltration. Some of the experiments were repeated with the use of equilibrium dialysis in order to strengthen the results. Irrespective of the method used, all ligands bind to one high-affinity binding site with an association constant in the range 10(4)-10(6) M-1. High-affinity binding of the following pair of ligands took place independently: warfarin-Phenol Red, warfarin-diazepam, warfarin-digitoxin and digitoxin-diazepam. Simultaneous binding of warfarin and salicylate led to a mutual decrease in binding of one another, as did simultaneous binding of digitoxin and Phenol Red. Both effects could be accounted for by a coupling constant. The coupling constant is the factor by which the primary association constants are affected; in these examples of anti-co-operativity the factor has a value between 0 and 1. In the first example it was calculated to be 0.8 and in the latter 0.5. Finally, digitoxin and salicylate were found to compete for a common high-affinity binding site. The present findings support the proposal of four separate primary binding sites for warfarin, digitoxin (and salicylate), diazepam and Phenol Red. An attempt to correlate this partial binding model for serum albumin with other models in the literature is made. PMID:3977850

  19. Enhanced Ligand Sampling for Relative Protein–Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Free energy calculations are used to study how strongly potential drug molecules interact with their target receptors. The accuracy of these calculations depends on the accuracy of the molecular dynamics (MD) force field as well as proper sampling of the major conformations of each molecule. However, proper sampling of ligand conformations can be difficult when there are large barriers separating the major ligand conformations. An example of this is for ligands with an asymmetrically substituted phenyl ring, where the presence of protein loops hinders the proper sampling of the different ring conformations. These ring conformations become more difficult to sample when the size of the functional groups attached to the ring increases. The Adaptive Integration Method (AIM) has been developed, which adaptively changes the alchemical coupling parameter λ during the MD simulation so that conformations sampled at one λ can aid sampling at the other λ values. The Accelerated Adaptive Integration Method (AcclAIM) builds on AIM by lowering potential barriers for specific degrees of freedom at intermediate λ values. However, these methods may not work when there are very large barriers separating the major ligand conformations. In this work, we describe a modification to AIM that improves sampling of the different ring conformations, even when there is a very large barrier between them. This method combines AIM with conformational Monte Carlo sampling, giving improved convergence of ring populations and the resulting free energy. This method, called AIM/MC, is applied to study the relative binding free energy for a pair of ligands that bind to thrombin and a different pair of ligands that bind to aspartyl protease β-APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). These protein–ligand binding free energy calculations illustrate the improvements in conformational sampling and the convergence of the free energy compared to both AIM and AcclAIM. PMID:25906170

  20. Calix[6]azacryptand Ligand with a Sterically Protected Tren-Based Coordination Site for Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Zahim, Sara; Wickramasinghe, Lasantha A; Evano, Gwilherm; Jabin, Ivan; Schrock, Richard R; Müller, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A new calix[6]azacryptand ligand has been prepared in six steps starting from 1,3,5-trismethoxycalix[6]arene. An X-ray study shows that this ligand has a sterically protected tren-based binding site at the bottom of a polyaromatic bowl and ether sites around its rim. It binds Zn(2+) to give a complex in which zinc is in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with a water bound in one apical position and two additional hydrogen-bonded waters that fill the calixarene cavity.

  1. Calorimetric studies of ligands binding to glutathione S-transferase from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; Barón, Carmen; García-Maroto, Federico; Aguilera, Ana M; García-Fuentes, Luís

    2013-03-19

    Glutathione S-transferase, from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfGST), exerts a protective role in the organism and is thus considered an interesting target for antimalarial drug development. In contrast to other GSTs, it is present in solution as a tetramer and a dimer in equilibrium, which is induced by glutathione (GSH). These properties prevent a calorimetric titration from being conducted upon binding of ligands to this protein's G-site. Thermodynamic characterization can be an optimal strategy for antimalarial drug development, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the only technique that allows the separation of the binding energy into both enthalpic and entropic contributions. This information facilitates an understanding of the changes in the drugs' substituents, improving their affinity and specificity. In this study, we have applied a nontypical ITC procedure, based on the dissociation of the ligand-protein complex, to calorimetrically study the binding of the GSH substrate, and the glutathione sulfonate competitive inhibitor, to dimeric PfGST over a temperature range of 15-37 °C. The optimal experimental conditions for applying this procedure have been optimized by studying the dimer to tetramer conversion using size exclusion chromatography. The binding of these ligands to dimeric PfGST is noncooperative, the affinity of glutathione sulfonate being approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of its natural substrate GSH. The binding of both ligands is enthalpically favorable and entropically unfavorable at all the studied temperatures. These results demonstrate that, although PfGST presents differences when compared to other known GSTs, these ligands bind to its dimeric form with a similar affinity and energetic balance. However, in contrast to that of other GSTs, the binding of GSH to protein, in the absence of the ligand, is slow.

  2. Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40 ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20 ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, αB-helix, αC-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, αB-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling. PMID:23956969

  3. Thioredoxin binding site of phosphoribulokinase overlaps the catalytic site. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.A.; Hartman, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ATP-regulatory binding site of phosphoribulokinase was studied using bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate (BrAcNHEtOP). BrAcNHEtOP binds to the active-regulatory binding site of the protein. Following trypsin degradation of the labeled protein, fragments were separated by HPLC and sequenced. (DT)

  4. Dynamics of biomolecules, ligand binding & biological functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Myunggi

    Proteins are flexible and dynamic. One static structure alone does not often completely explain biological functions of the protein, and some proteins do not even have high resolution structures. In order to provide better understanding to the biological functions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Diphtheria toxin repressor and M2 proton channel, the dynamics of these proteins are investigated using molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With absence of high resolution structure of alpha7 receptor, the homology models of apo and cobra toxin bound forms have been built. From the MD simulations of these model structures, we observed one subunit of apo simulation moved away from other four subunits. With local movement of flexible loop regions, the whole subunit tilted clockwise. These conformational changes occurred spontaneously, and were strongly correlated with the conformational change when the channel is activated by agonists. Unlike other computational studies, we directly compared our model of open conformation with the experimental data. However, the subunits of toxin bound form were stable, and conformational change is restricted by the bound cobra toxin. These results provide activation and inhibition mechanisms of alpha7 receptors and a possible explanation for intermediate conductance of the channel. Intramolecular complex of SH3-like domain with a proline-rich (Pr) peptide segment in Diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is stabilized in inactive state. Upon activation of DtxR by transition metal binding, this intramolecular complex should be dissociated. The dynamics of this intramolecular complex is investigated using MD simulations and NMR spectroscopy. We observed spontaneous opening and closing motions of the Pr segment binding pockets in both Pr-SH3 and SH3 simulations. The MD simulation results and NMR relaxation data suggest that the Pr segment exhibits a binding ↔ unbinding equilibrium. Despite a wealth of experimental

  5. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-05-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, (/sup 3/H) dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for (/sup 3/H) (D-Ala2, D-Leu5)enkephalin and (3H)ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites.

  6. Binding constant determination of high-affinity protein-ligand complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and ligand competition.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Arno; Jecklin, Matthias C; Touboul, David; Badertscher, Martin; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-05-01

    We describe an approach for the determination of binding constants for protein-ligand complexes with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, based on the observation of unbound ligands competing for binding to a protein target. For the first time, dissociation constants lower than picomolar could be determined with good accuracy by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The presented methodology relies only on the determination of signal intensity ratios for free ligands in the low mass region. Therefore, all the advantages of measuring low masses with mass spectrometry, such as high resolution are preserved. By using a reference ligand with known binding affinity, the affinity of a second ligand can be determined. Since no noncovalently bound species are observed, assumptions about response factors are not necessary. The method is validated with ligands binding to avidin and applied to ligands binding to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

  7. Current Trends in Ligand Binding Real-Time Measurement Technologies.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Stephanie; Shih, Judy Y; Ware, Mark; O'Connor, Edward; Cameron, Mark J; Schwickart, Martin; Zhao, Xuemei; Regnstrom, Karin

    2017-03-20

    Numerous advances in ligand binding assay (LBA) real-time measurement technologies have been made within the last several years, ranging from the development of novel platforms to drive technology expansion to the adaptation of existing platforms to optimize performance and throughput. In this review, we have chosen to focus on technologies that provide increased value to two distinct segments of the LBA community. First, experimentally, by measuring real-time binding events, these technologies provide data that can be used to interrogate receptor/ligand binding interactions. While overall the platforms are not new, they have made significant advances in throughput, multiplexing, and/or sensitivity. Second, clinically, these point-of-care (POC) technologies provide instantaneous information which facilitates rapid treatment decisions.

  8. Dissection of RAP-LRP interactions: binding of RAP and RAP fragments to complement-like repeats 7 and 8 from ligand binding cluster II of LRP.

    PubMed

    Lazic, Ana; Dolmer, Klavs; Strickland, Dudley K; Gettins, Peter G W

    2006-06-15

    The receptor associated protein (RAP) is a three domain 38kDa ER-resident chaperone that helps folding of LRP and other LDL receptor family members and prevents premature binding of protein ligands. It competes strongly with all known LRP ligands. To further understanding of the specificity of RAP-LRP interactions, the binding of RAP and RAP fragments to two domains (CR7-CR8) from one of the main ligand-binding regions of LRP has been examined by 2D HSQC NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. We found that RAP contains two binding sites for CR7-CR8, with the higher affinity site (K(d) approximately 1microM) located in the C-terminal two-thirds and the weaker site (K(d) approximately 5microM) in the N-terminal third of RAP. Residues from both CR7 and CR8 are involved in binding at each RAP site. The presence of more than one binding site on RAP for CR domains from LRP, together with the previous demonstration by others that RAP can bind to CR5-CR6 with comparably low affinities suggest an explanation for the dual roles of RAP as a folding chaperone and a tight competitive inhibitor of ligand binding.

  9. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  10. Ligand binding and thermodynamic stability of a multidomain protein, calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Masino, L.; Martin, S. R.; Bayley, P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical and thermal denaturation of calmodulin has been monitored spectroscopically to determine the stability for the intact protein and its two isolated domains as a function of binding of Ca2+ or Mg2+. The reversible urea unfolding of either isolated apo-domain follows a two-state mechanism with relatively low deltaG(o)20 values of approximately 2.7 (N-domain) and approximately 1.9 kcal/mol (C-domain). The apo-C-domain is significantly unfolded at normal temperatures (20-25 degrees C). The greater affinity of the C-domain for Ca2+ causes it to be more stable than the N-domain at [Ca2+] > or = 0.3 mM. By contrast, Mg2+ causes a greater stabilization of the N- rather than the C-domain, consistent with measured Mg2+ affinities. For the intact protein (+/-Ca2+), the bimodal denaturation profiles can be analyzed to give two deltaG(o)20 values, which differ significantly from those of the isolated domains, with one domain being less stable and one domain more stable. The observed stability of the domains is strongly dependent on solution conditions such as ionic strength, as well as specific effects due to metal ion binding. In the intact protein, different folding intermediates are observed, depending on the ionic composition. The results illustrate that a protein of low intrinsic stability is liable to major perturbation of its unfolding properties by environmental conditions and liganding processes and, by extension, mutation. Hence, the observed stability of an isolated domain may differ significantly from the stability of the same structure in a multidomain protein. These results address questions involved in manipulating the stability of a protein or its domains by site directed mutagenesis and protein engineering. PMID:10975573

  11. Exact analysis of competition ligand binding by displacement isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Sigurskjold, B W

    2000-01-15

    A rigorous method for the least-squares nonlinear regression analysis of displacement isothermal titration calorimetric data is presented. The method can fit the binding isotherm of a ligand which is competitively inhibited in its binding by another bound ligand to a molecule with n identical and independent binding sites. There are no other assumptions for the method and no approximations. Analysis of previously published data of the strong binding of acarbose to glucoamylase is presented as an example. The regression equations have been programmed for the Origin software supplied with the widely used titration calorimeters from Microcal, Inc., and an Origin Function Definition File with instructions is freely available from the author upon e-mail request.

  12. Detection of the TCDD Binding-Fingerprint within the Ah Receptor Ligand Binding Domain by Structurally Driven Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Pandini, Alessandro; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Song, Yujuan; Zhao, Jing; Bonati, Laura; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent, basic helix–loop–helix Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-containing transcription factor that can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, including the toxic environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Our previous three-dimensional homology model of the mouse AhR (mAhR) PAS B ligand binding domain allowed identification of the binding site and its experimental validation. We have extended this analysis by conducting comparative structural modeling studies of the ligand binding domains of six additional high-affinity mammalian AhRs. These results, coupled with site-directed mutagenesis and AhR functional analysis, have allowed detection of the “TCDD binding-fingerprint” of conserved residues within the ligand binding cavity necessary for high-affinity TCDD binding and TCDD-dependent AhR transformation DNA binding. The essential role of selected residues was further evaluated using molecular docking simulations of TCDD with both wild-type and mutant mAhRs. Taken together, our results dramatically improve our understanding of the molecular determinants of TCDD binding and provide a basis for future studies directed toward rationalizing the observed species differences in AhR sensitivity to TCDD and understanding the mechanistic basis for the dramatic diversity in AhR ligand structure. PMID:19456125

  13. Quinine binding by the cocaine-binding aptamer. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analysis of high-affinity binding of an off-target ligand.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Oren; Yoo, Mina; Han, Chris; Palmo, Tsering; Beckham, Simone A; Wilce, Matthew C J; Johnson, Philip E

    2013-12-03

    The cocaine-binding aptamer is unusual in that it tightly binds molecules other than the ligand it was selected for. Here, we study the interaction of the cocaine-binding aptamer with one of these off-target ligands, quinine. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to quantify the quinine-binding affinity and thermodynamics of a set of sequence variants of the cocaine-binding aptamer. We find that the affinity of the cocaine-binding aptamer for quinine is 30-40 times stronger than it is for cocaine. Competitive-binding studies demonstrate that both quinine and cocaine bind at the same site on the aptamer. The ligand-induced structural-switching binding mechanism of an aptamer variant that contains three base pairs in stem 1 is retained with quinine as a ligand. The short stem 1 aptamer is unfolded or loosely folded in the free form and becomes folded when bound to quinine. This folding is confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and by the short stem 1 construct having a more negative change in heat capacity of quinine binding than is seen when stem 1 has six base pairs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of the free aptamer and both the quinine- and the cocaine-bound forms show that, for the long stem 1 aptamers, the three forms display similar hydrodynamic properties, and the ab initio shape reconstruction structures are very similar. For the short stem 1 aptamer there is a greater variation among the SAXS-derived ab initio shape reconstruction structures, consistent with the changes expected with its structural-switching binding mechanism.

  14. Controlling ligand binding for tunable and switchable catalysis: cation-modulated hemilability in pincer-crown ether ligands.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexander J M

    2017-09-28

    Methods for in situ reversible control over ligand binding processes at transition metal complexes can enable advances in switchable and tunable catalysis. After a brief overview of different approaches to controlling ligand binding, this Perspective details the development of "pincer-crown ether" ligands that contain a rigid pincer backbone and a hemilabile aza-crown ether unit that enables cation-modulated hemilability. Applications of pincer-crown ether complexes in small molecule activation and catalysis are discussed, culminating in a set of design principles for ligands capable of cation-modulated ligand binding.

  15. STARD6 on steroids: solution structure, multiple timescale backbone dynamics and ligand binding mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Létourneau, Danny; Bédard, Mikaël; Cabana, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Andrée; LeHoux, Jean-Guy; Lavigne, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    START domain proteins are conserved α/β helix-grip fold that play a role in the non-vesicular and intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The mechanism and conformational changes permitting the entry of the ligand into their buried binding sites is not well understood. Moreover, their functions and the identification of cognate ligands is still an active area of research. Here, we report the solution structure of STARD6 and the characterization of its backbone dynamics on multiple time-scales through 15N spin-relaxation and amide exchange studies. We reveal for the first time the presence of concerted fluctuations in the Ω1 loop and the C-terminal helix on the microsecond-millisecond time-scale that allows for the opening of the binding site and ligand entry. We also report that STARD6 binds specifically testosterone. Our work represents a milestone for the study of ligand binding mechanism by other START domains and the elucidation of the biological function of STARD6. PMID:27340016

  16. STARD6 on steroids: solution structure, multiple timescale backbone dynamics and ligand binding mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létourneau, Danny; Bédard, Mikaël; Cabana, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Andrée; Lehoux, Jean-Guy; Lavigne, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    START domain proteins are conserved α/β helix-grip fold that play a role in the non-vesicular and intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The mechanism and conformational changes permitting the entry of the ligand into their buried binding sites is not well understood. Moreover, their functions and the identification of cognate ligands is still an active area of research. Here, we report the solution structure of STARD6 and the characterization of its backbone dynamics on multiple time-scales through 15N spin-relaxation and amide exchange studies. We reveal for the first time the presence of concerted fluctuations in the Ω1 loop and the C-terminal helix on the microsecond-millisecond time-scale that allows for the opening of the binding site and ligand entry. We also report that STARD6 binds specifically testosterone. Our work represents a milestone for th