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Sample records for ligand-induced global transitions

  1. Ligand-induced global transitions in the catalytic domain of protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Hyeon, Changbong; Jennings, Patricia A.; Adams, Joseph A.; Onuchic, José N.

    2009-01-01

    Conformational transitions play a central role in the phosphorylation mechanisms of protein kinase. To understand the nature of these transitions, we investigated the dynamics of nucleotide binding to the catalytic domain of PKA, a prototype for the protein kinase enzyme family. The open-to-closed transition in PKA was constructed as a function of ATP association by using available X-ray data and Brownian dynamics. Analyzing the multiple kinetic trajectories at the residue level, we find that the spatial rearrangement of the residues around the nucleotide-binding pocket, along with suppressed local fluctuations, controls the compaction of the entire molecule. In addition, to accommodate the stresses induced by ATP binding at the early transition stage, partial unfoldings (cracking) and reformations of several native contacts occur at the interfaces between the secondary structure motifs enveloping the binding pocket. This suggests that the enzyme experiences local structural deformations while reaching its functional, ATP-bound state. Our dynamical view of the ligand-induced transitions in PKA suggests that the kinetic hierarchy of local and global dynamics, the variable fluctuation of residues and the necessity of partial local unfolding may be fundamental components in other large scale allosteric transitions. PMID:19204278

  2. Local and global ligand-induced changes in the structure of the GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Yukiko; Czajkowski, Cynthia; Jackson, Meyer B

    2006-06-13

    Ligand-gated channels mediate synaptic transmission through conformational transitions triggered by the binding of neurotransmitters. These transitions are well-defined in terms of ion conductance, but their structural basis is poorly understood. To probe these changes in structure, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and labeled at selected sites with environment-sensitive fluorophores. With labels at two different residues in the alpha1 subunit in loop E of the GABA-binding pocket, GABA elicited fluorescence changes opposite in sign. This pattern of fluorescence changes is consistent with a closure of the GABA-binding cavity at the subunit interface. The competitive antagonist SR-95531 inverted this pattern of fluorescence change, but the noncompetitive antagonist picrotoxin failed to elicit optical signals. In response to GABA (but not SR-95531), labels at the homologous residues in the beta2 subunit showed the same pattern of fluorescence change as the alpha1-subunit labels, indicating a global transition with comparable movements in homologous regions of different subunits. Incorporation of the gamma2 subunit altered the fluorescence changes of alpha1-subunit labels and eliminated them in beta2-subunit labels. Thus, the ligand-induced structural changes in the GABA(A) receptor can extend over considerable distances or remain highly localized, depending upon subunit composition and ligand.

  3. Minimum Free Energy Path of Ligand-Induced Transition in Adenylate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Terada, Tohru; Furuta, Tadaomi; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale conformational changes in proteins involve barrier-crossing transitions on the complex free energy surfaces of high-dimensional space. Such rare events cannot be efficiently captured by conventional molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that, by combining the on-the-fly string method and the multi-state Bennett acceptance ratio (MBAR) method, the free energy profile of a conformational transition pathway in Escherichia coli adenylate kinase can be characterized in a high-dimensional space. The minimum free energy paths of the conformational transitions in adenylate kinase were explored by the on-the-fly string method in 20-dimensional space spanned by the 20 largest-amplitude principal modes, and the free energy and various kinds of average physical quantities along the pathways were successfully evaluated by the MBAR method. The influence of ligand binding on the pathways was characterized in terms of rigid-body motions of the lid-shaped ATP-binding domain (LID) and the AMP-binding (AMPbd) domains. It was found that the LID domain was able to partially close without the ligand, while the closure of the AMPbd domain required the ligand binding. The transition state ensemble of the ligand bound form was identified as those structures characterized by highly specific binding of the ligand to the AMPbd domain, and was validated by unrestrained MD simulations. It was also found that complete closure of the LID domain required the dehydration of solvents around the P-loop. These findings suggest that the interplay of the two different types of domain motion is an essential feature in the conformational transition of the enzyme. PMID:22685395

  4. Minimum free energy path of ligand-induced transition in adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Terada, Tohru; Furuta, Tadaomi; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale conformational changes in proteins involve barrier-crossing transitions on the complex free energy surfaces of high-dimensional space. Such rare events cannot be efficiently captured by conventional molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that, by combining the on-the-fly string method and the multi-state Bennett acceptance ratio (MBAR) method, the free energy profile of a conformational transition pathway in Escherichia coli adenylate kinase can be characterized in a high-dimensional space. The minimum free energy paths of the conformational transitions in adenylate kinase were explored by the on-the-fly string method in 20-dimensional space spanned by the 20 largest-amplitude principal modes, and the free energy and various kinds of average physical quantities along the pathways were successfully evaluated by the MBAR method. The influence of ligand binding on the pathways was characterized in terms of rigid-body motions of the lid-shaped ATP-binding domain (LID) and the AMP-binding (AMPbd) domains. It was found that the LID domain was able to partially close without the ligand, while the closure of the AMPbd domain required the ligand binding. The transition state ensemble of the ligand bound form was identified as those structures characterized by highly specific binding of the ligand to the AMPbd domain, and was validated by unrestrained MD simulations. It was also found that complete closure of the LID domain required the dehydration of solvents around the P-loop. These findings suggest that the interplay of the two different types of domain motion is an essential feature in the conformational transition of the enzyme.

  5. Ligand-induced conformational transitions and secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Karen S.; Spivey, H. Olin

    1979-01-01

    Apparent conformational transitions induced in chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase by substrates, KHCO3 and MgATP, and the allosteric effector, acetyl-CoA, were studied by using the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and c.d. Fluorescence measurements were made with both conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometers. Additions of acetyl-CoA and/or ATP to the enzyme-probe solutions quenched fluorescence of the probe by the following cumulative amounts regardless of the sequence of additions: acetyl-CoA, 10–13%; ATP, 21–24%; acetyl-CoA plus ATP, about 35%. Additions of KHCO3 had no effect on the fluorescence. The rates of quenching by acetyl-CoA and MgATP (in the presence of acetyl-CoA) were too rapid to measure by stopped-flow kinetic methods, but kinetics of the MgATP effect (in the absence of acetyl-CoA) indicate three unimolecular transitions after the association step. The negligible effect of the probe on enzyme catalytic activity, a preservation of the near-u.v. c.d. effect of MgATP and acetyl-CoA in the presence of the probe and no observable unimolecular transitions after binding of the probe to the enzyme indicate that the probe had no deleterious effect on the enzyme. In contrast with results with 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid, fluorescence of the ε-derivative of acetyl-CoA or ATP [fluorescent analogues; Secrist, Barrio, Leonard & Weber (1972) Biochemistry 11, 3499–3506] was not changed when either one was added to the enzyme. Secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase estimated from the far-u.v. c.d. spectrum of the enzyme is 27% helix, 7% β-pleated sheet and 66% other structural types. PMID:435260

  6. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  7. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  8. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental accounting using emergy is a tool for evaluating development and determining what is sustainable. Global sustainable development means that all nations will become better places for their inhabitants to live. Development follows a cycle of change from rapid growth ...

  9. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental accounting using emergy is a tool for evaluating development and determining what is sustainable. Global sustainable development means that all nations will become better places for their inhabitants to live. Development follows a cycle of change from rapid growth ...

  10. Transitional funding: Changing Ontario's global budgeting system

    PubMed Central

    Lave, Judith R.; Jacobs, Philip; Markel, Frank

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, Ontario introduced transitional funding, a collaborative process between the Ministry of Health and the hospitals to modify Ontario's global budgeting system. The goals are to achieve greater equity; encourage hospital efficiency, and promote a shift from inpatient to outpatient services. To implement these goals, inpatient care is being measured in terms of case-mix groups, i.e., a classification system comparable to the diagnosis-related groups. However, since there is no patient level cost data, cost weights are being derived from patient-level data from New York State. Transitional funding draws attention to both positive and negative aspects of global budgeting. PMID:10120184

  11. Potential global jamming transition in aviation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear transport model for an aviation network. The takeoff rate from an airport is characterized by the degree of ground congestion. Due to the effect of surface congestion, the performance of an airport deteriorates because of inefficient configurations of waiting aircraft on the ground. Using a simple transport model, we performed simulations on a United States airport network and found a global jamming transition induced by local surface congestion. From a physical perspective, the mechanism of the transition is studied analytically and the resulting aircraft distribution is discussed considering system dynamics. This study shows that the knowledge of the relationship between a takeoff rate and a congestion level on the ground is vital for efficient air traffic operations.

  12. Potential global jamming transition in aviation networks.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear transport model for an aviation network. The takeoff rate from an airport is characterized by the degree of ground congestion. Due to the effect of surface congestion, the performance of an airport deteriorates because of inefficient configurations of waiting aircraft on the ground. Using a simple transport model, we performed simulations on a United States airport network and found a global jamming transition induced by local surface congestion. From a physical perspective, the mechanism of the transition is studied analytically and the resulting aircraft distribution is discussed considering system dynamics. This study shows that the knowledge of the relationship between a takeoff rate and a congestion level on the ground is vital for efficient air traffic operations.

  13. Ligand-induced conformational changes in a thermophilic ribose-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.

    2009-05-21

    Members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily are involved in transport and signaling processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biological responses are typically mediated by ligand-induced conformational changes in which the binding event is coupled to a hinge-bending motion that brings together two domains in a closed form. In all PBP-mediated biological processes, downstream partners recognize the closed form of the protein. This motion has also been exploited in protein engineering experiments to construct biosensors that transduce ligand binding to a variety of physical signals. Understanding the mechanistic details of PBP conformational changes, both global (hinge bending, twisting, shear movements) and local (rotamer changes, backbone motion), therefore is not only important for understanding their biological function but also for protein engineering experiments. Here we present biochemical characterization and crystal structure determination of the periplasmic ribose-binding protein (RBP) from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in its ribose-bound and unliganded state. The T. maritima RBP (tmRBP) has 39% sequence identity and is considerably more resistant to thermal denaturation (appTm value is 108 C) than the mesophilic Escherichia coli homolog (ecRBP) (appTm value is 56 C). Polar ligand interactions and ligand-induced global conformational changes are conserved among ecRBP and tmRBP; however local structural rearrangements involving side-chain motions in the ligand-binding site are not conserved. Although the large-scale ligand-induced changes are mediated through similar regions, and are produced by similar backbone movements in tmRBP and ecRBP, the small-scale ligand-induced structural rearrangements differentiate the mesophile and thermophile. This suggests there are mechanistic differences in the manner by which these two proteins bind their ligands and are an example of how two structurally similar proteins utilize different

  14. Global quantum discord and quantum phase transition in XY model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-11-15

    We study the relationship between the behavior of global quantum correlations and quantum phase transitions in XY model. We find that the two kinds of phase transitions in the studied model can be characterized by the features of global quantum discord (GQD) and the corresponding quantum correlations. We demonstrate that the maximum of the sum of all the nearest neighbor bipartite GQDs is effective and accurate for signaling the Ising quantum phase transition, in contrast, the sudden change of GQD is very suitable for characterizing another phase transition in the XY model. This may shed lights on the study of properties of quantum correlations in different quantum phases.

  15. Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Jr, John T. Giblin; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu

    2012-11-01

    Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.

  16. Biotic transitions in global marine diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term transitions in the composition of Earth's marine biota during the Phanerozoic have historically been explained in two different ways. One view is that they were mediated through biotic interactions among organisms played out over geologic time. The other is that mass extinctions transcended any such interactions and governed diversity over the long term by resetting the relative diversities of higher taxa. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that macroevolutionary processes effecting biotic transitions during background times were not fundamentally different from those operating during mass extinctions. Physical perturbations at many geographic scales combined to produce the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic diversity.

  17. Learning in Global Settings: Developing Transitions for Meaning-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norden, Birgitta; Avery, Helen; Anderberg, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    Global teaching and learning for sustainable development reaches from the classroom to the world outside, and is therefore a particularly interesting setting for practising transition skills. The article suggests a number of features perceived as crucial in developing young people's capability to act in a changing world and under circumstances…

  18. Non-Abelian global strings at chiral phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Muneto; Shiiki, Noriko

    2008-01-01

    We construct non-Abelian global string solutions in the UN×UN linear sigma model. These strings are the most fundamental objects which are expected to form during the chiral phase transitions, because the Abelian η string is marginally decomposed into N of them. We point out Nambu Goldstone modes of CP for breaking of SUN arise around a non-Abelian vortex.

  19. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K; Lambin, Eric F

    2010-12-07

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions--a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation--involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities.

  20. LETTER: Phase transition in the globalization of trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángeles Serrano, M.

    2007-01-01

    Globalization processes are interwoven with economic structures on a worldwide scale, trade playing a central role as one of the elemental channels of interaction among countries. Despite the significance of such phenomena, measuring economic globalization still remains an open problem. More quantitative treatments could improve the understanding of globalization at the same time as helping to form a basis for comparative economic history. In this letter, we investigate the time evolution of the statistical properties of bilateral trade imbalances between countries in the trade system. We measure their cumulative probability distribution at different moments in time to discover a sudden transition around 1960 from a regime where the distribution was always represented by a steady characteristic function to a new state where the distribution dilates as time goes on. This suggests that the rule that was governing the statistical behaviour of bilateral trade imbalances until the 1960s abruptly changed to a new form persistent in the last decades. In the new regime, the figures for the different years collapse into a universal master curve when rescaled by the corresponding global value of gross domestic product. This coupling points to an increased interdependence of world economies and its onset corresponds in time with the start of the last wave of globalization.

  1. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation—involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities. PMID:21078977

  2. Discontinuous transitions in globally coupled potential systems with additive noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürsten, Rüdiger; Behn, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    An infinite array of globally coupled overdamped constituents moving in a double-well potential with n th order saturation term under the influence of additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. The system exhibits a continuous phase transition from a symmetric phase to a symmetry-broken phase. The qualitative behavior is independent on n . The critical point is calculated for strong and for weak noise; these limits are also bounds for the critical point. Introducing an additional nonlinearity, such that the potential can have up to three minima, leads to richer behavior. There the parameter space divides into three regions: a region with a symmetric phase, a region with a phase of broken symmetry and a region where both phases coexist. The region of coexistence collapses into one of the others via a discontinuous phase transition, whereas the transition between the symmetric phase and the phase of broken symmetry is continuous. The tricritical point where the three regions intersect can be calculated for strong and for weak noise. These limiting values form tight bounds on the tricritical point. In the region of coexistence simulations of finite systems are performed. One finds that the stationary distribution of finite but large systems differs qualitatively from the one of the infinite system. Hence the limits of stationarity and large system size do not commute.

  3. Aging, transition, and estimating the global burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Benjamin J; Cullen, Mark R; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease (GBD) reports are an important tool for global health policy makers, however the accuracy of estimates for countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition is unclear. We attempted to validate the life table model used to generate estimates for all-cause mortality in developing countries. Data were obtained for males and females from the Human Mortality Database for all countries with available data every ten years from 1900 to 2000. These provided inputs for the GBD life table model and served as comparison observed data. Above age sixty model estimates of survival for both sexes differed substantially from those observed. Prior to the year 1960 for males and 1930 for females, estimated survival tended to be greater than observed; following 1960 for both males and females estimated survival tended to be less than observed. Viewing observed and estimated survival separately, observed survival past sixty increased over the years considered. For males, the increase was from a mean (sd) probability of 0.22 (0.06) to 0.46 (0.1). For females, the increase was from 0.26 (0.06) to 0.65 (0.08). By contrast, estimated survival past sixty decreased over the same period. Among males, estimated survival probability declined from 0.54 (0.2) to 0.09 (0.06). Among females, the decline was from 0.36 (0.12) to 0.15 (0.08). These results show that the GBD mortality model did not accurately estimate survival at older ages as developed countries transitioned in the twentieth century and may be similarly flawed in developing countries now undergoing transition. Estimates of the size of older-age populations and their attributable disease burden should be reconsidered.

  4. The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development. The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was a multi-national cross-sectional study conducted in 12 urban/suburban study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of development. ISCOLE collected objectively measured height, body mass and percentage body fat in 7341 10-year-old children. Multi-level random-effects models were used to examine income gradients in several obesity measures. The mean age of the children was 10.4 years, and 12.6% were obese, ranging from 5.4% (Finland) to 23.8% (China). For both boys and girls, obesity prevalence, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) z-score increased linearly with higher income at lower levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0012), but decreased linearly with higher income at higher levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0003). Country human development explained 75% of the variation in the country-specific income-obesity relationships (r=-0.87, P=0.0003). Results are consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition. Global efforts to control obesity must account for socioeconomic factors within a country's context. Future research should seek to understand global socioeconomic patterns in obesity-related lifestyle behaviors.

  5. The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development. METHODS: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was a multi-national cross-sectional study conducted in 12 urban/suburban study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of development. ISCOLE collected objectively measured height, body mass and percentage body fat in 7341 10-year-old children. Multi-level random-effects models were used to examine income gradients in several obesity measures. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 10.4 years, and 12.6% were obese, ranging from 5.4% (Finland) to 23.8% (China). For both boys and girls, obesity prevalence, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) z-score increased linearly with higher income at lower levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0012), but decreased linearly with higher income at higher levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0003). Country human development explained 75% of the variation in the country-specific income–obesity relationships (r=−0.87, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition. Global efforts to control obesity must account for socioeconomic factors within a country's context. Future research should seek to understand global socioeconomic patterns in obesity-related lifestyle behaviors. PMID:27152182

  6. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950–2010

    PubMed Central

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7–71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet

  7. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950-2010.

    PubMed

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7-71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet that

  8. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  9. Global Natural Disaster Risk Hotspots: Transition to a Regional Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Chen, R.; Dilley, M.

    2005-12-01

    The "Hotspots Project" is a collaborative study of the global distribution and occurrence of multiple natural hazards and the associated exposures of populations and their economic output. In this study we assess the global risks of two disaster-related outcomes: mortality and economic losses. We estimate risk levels by combining hazard exposure with historical vulnerability for two indicators of elements at risk-gridded population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per unit area - for six major natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, drought, and cyclones. By calculating relative risks for each grid cell rather than for countries as a whole, we are able to estimate risk levels at sub-national scales. These can then be used to estimate aggregate relative multiple hazard risk at regional and national scales. Mortality-related risks are assessed on a 2.5' x 2.5' latitude-longitude grid of global population (GPW Version 3). Economic risks are assessed at the same resolution for gridded GDP per unit area, using World Bank estimates of GDP based on purchasing power parity. Global hazard data were compiled from multiple sources. The project collaborated directly with UNDP and UNEP, the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) at Columbia, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) in the creation of data sets for several hazards for which global data sets did not previously exist. Drought, flood and volcano hazards are characterized in terms of event frequency, storms by frequency and severity, earthquakes by frequency and ground acceleration exceedance probability, and landslides by an index derived from probability of occurrence. The global analysis undertaken in this project is clearly limited by issues of scale as well as by the availability and quality of data. For some hazards, there exist only 15- to 25-year global records with relatively crude spatial information. Data on historical disaster losses, and particularly on

  10. A symposium and workshop report from the Global Nutrition and Epidemiologic Transition Initiative: nutrition transition and the global burden of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Wedick, Nicole M; Campos, Hannia; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B

    2012-10-01

    The present report summarises the symposium 'Nutrition Transition and the Global Burden of Type 2 Diabetes' and a workshop on strategies for dietary interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes held by the Global Nutrition and Epidemiologic Transition Initiative, Boston, MA, USA in November 2011. The objectives of this event were to bring attention to the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes in light of the ongoing nutrition transition worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and to highlight the present evidence on key dietary risk factors contributing to the global diabetes burden. The meeting put forward ideas for further research on this topic and discussed practical recommendations to design and implement culturally appropriate dietary interventions with a focus on improving carbohydrate quality to help alleviate this growing health problem.

  11. Monitoring and Evaluating the Transition of Large-Scale Programs in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Bao, James; Rodriguez, Daniela C; Paina, Ligia; Ozawa, Sachiko; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Donors are increasingly interested in the transition and sustainability of global health programs as priorities shift and external funding declines. Systematic and high-quality monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such processes is rare. We propose a framework and related guiding questions to systematize the M&E of global health program transitions. Methods: We conducted stakeholder interviews, searched the peer-reviewed and gray literature, gathered feedback from key informants, and reflected on author experiences to build a framework on M&E of transition and to develop guiding questions. Findings: The conceptual framework models transition as a process spanning pre-transition and transition itself and extending into sustained services and outcomes. Key transition domains include leadership, financing, programming, and service delivery, and relevant activities that drive the transition in these domains forward include sustaining a supportive policy environment, creating financial sustainability, developing local stakeholder capacity, communicating to all stakeholders, and aligning programs. Ideally transition monitoring would begin prior to transition processes being implemented and continue for some time after transition has been completed. As no set of indicators will be applicable across all types of health program transitions, we instead propose guiding questions and illustrative quantitative and qualitative indicators to be considered and adapted based on the transition domains identified as most important to the particular health program transition. The M&E of transition faces new and unique challenges, requiring measuring constructs to which evaluators may not be accustomed. Many domains hinge on measuring “intangibles” such as the management of relationships. Monitoring these constructs may require a compromise between rigorous data collection and the involvement of key stakeholders. Conclusion: Monitoring and evaluating transitions in global

  12. Monitoring and Evaluating the Transition of Large-Scale Programs in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Bao, James; Rodriguez, Daniela C; Paina, Ligia; Ozawa, Sachiko; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Donors are increasingly interested in the transition and sustainability of global health programs as priorities shift and external funding declines. Systematic and high-quality monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such processes is rare. We propose a framework and related guiding questions to systematize the M&E of global health program transitions. We conducted stakeholder interviews, searched the peer-reviewed and gray literature, gathered feedback from key informants, and reflected on author experiences to build a framework on M&E of transition and to develop guiding questions. The conceptual framework models transition as a process spanning pre-transition and transition itself and extending into sustained services and outcomes. Key transition domains include leadership, financing, programming, and service delivery, and relevant activities that drive the transition in these domains forward include sustaining a supportive policy environment, creating financial sustainability, developing local stakeholder capacity, communicating to all stakeholders, and aligning programs. Ideally transition monitoring would begin prior to transition processes being implemented and continue for some time after transition has been completed. As no set of indicators will be applicable across all types of health program transitions, we instead propose guiding questions and illustrative quantitative and qualitative indicators to be considered and adapted based on the transition domains identified as most important to the particular health program transition. The M&E of transition faces new and unique challenges, requiring measuring constructs to which evaluators may not be accustomed. Many domains hinge on measuring "intangibles" such as the management of relationships. Monitoring these constructs may require a compromise between rigorous data collection and the involvement of key stakeholders. Monitoring and evaluating transitions in global health programs can bring conceptual clarity

  13. A semisynthetic Eph receptor tyrosine kinase provides insight into ligand-induced kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nikhil; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Himanen, Juha P.; Muir, Tom W.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a methodology for generating milligram amounts of functional Eph tyrosine kinase receptor using the protein engineering approach of expressed protein ligation. Stimulation with ligand induces efficient autophosphorylation of the semisynthetic Eph construct. The in vitro phosphorylation of key Eph tyrosine residues upon ligand-induced activation was monitored via time-resolved, quantitative phosphoproteomics, suggesting a precise and unique order of phosphorylation of the Eph tyrosines in the kinase activation process. To our knowledge, this work represents the first reported semisynthesis of a receptor tyrosine kinase and provides a potentially general method for producing single-pass membrane proteins for structural and biochemical characterization. PMID:21439481

  14. Global Shifts in Cardiovascular Disease, the Epidemiologic Transition, and Other Contributing Factors: Toward a New Practice of Global Health Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Walter; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-02-01

    One of the major drivers of change in the practice of cardiology is population change. This article discusses the current debate about epidemiologic transition paired with other ongoing transitions with direct relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Challenges specific to patterns of risk factors over time; readiness for disease surveillance and meeting global targets; health system, prevention, and treatment efforts; and physiologic traits and human-environment interactions are identified. This article concludes that a focus on the most populated regions of the world will contribute substantially to protecting the large gains in global survival and life expectancy accrued over the last decades.

  15. Ethnography of epidemiologic transition: Avian flu, global health politics and agro-industrial capitalism in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuengsatiansup, Komatra

    2008-04-01

    This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies. The case of Thailand poses a question of how the strength of ethnographic practice could be deployed to account for the reality of the global-local interface of the new epidemiologic transition.

  16. Benguela upwelling response during intervals of global climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Ankush; Sinha, Devesh; Singh, Ashutosh; Ramesh, Rengaswamy

    2017-04-01

    In the present study sedimentary records from the southeast Atlantic ocean were used for reconstructing the variability of Benguela upwelling system as well as the Interoceanic exchange between Indian and Atlantic Oceans during the critical intervals. Planktic foraminiferal assemblage data revealed diminished upwelling in the Benguela upwelling region during the Pliocene warm interval (3.7-3 Ma) which is in contrast to the model reconstructions by Wang et al., 2015 proposing intensification of upwelling with projected future warming. Gradual intensification of Benguela upwelling was interpreted during the Pliocene - Pleistocene transition (3-2.5 Ma). Enhanced Benguela upwelling during the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation supposed to have played a major role in the drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide after Pliocene warmth interval (3.7-3 Ma). Enhanced Benguela upwelling also occurred during Mid- Pleistocene transition (1-0.7 Ma). Reduced interoceanic exchange has been identified between Indian and Atlantic ocean during Northern Hemisphere glaciation (2.5- 2 Ma) and Mid-Pleistocene transition (1- 0.7 Ma). Equatorward migration of subtropical fronts during these two intervals was probably responsible for the reduced interoceanic exchange. Keywords: Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, Mid- Pleistocene transition, Benguela upwelling, Interoceanic exchange

  17. Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions, and global phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Bitan; Goswami, Pallab; Juričić, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength n . We show that any local interaction has a negative scaling dimension -2 /n . Consequently, all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first-order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At the one-loop order, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is ν =n /2 , indicating their non-Gaussian nature for any n >1 . We also discuss the scaling of the thermodynamic and transport quantities in general Weyl semimetals as well as inside broken symmetry phases.

  18. Global epidemic invasion thresholds in directed cattle subpopulation networks having source, sink, and transit nodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Through the characterization of a metapopulation cattle disease model on a directed network having source, transit, and sink nodes, we derive two global epidemic invasion thresholds. The first threshold defines the conditions necessary for an epidemic to successfully spread at the global scale. The ...

  19. The Research University in Transition: The Emerging Global Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Kathryn; Ma, Wanhua; Baker, David

    2008-01-01

    In a knowledge intensive society, the research university is a key institution for social and economic development. Focused on the discovery of new knowledge and the development of the next generation of scholars, research universities are also becoming more international in focus. This article presents the Emerging Global Model (EGM) of the…

  20. Global cooling during the eocene-oligocene climate transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhonghui; Pagani, Mark; Zinniker, David; Deconto, Robert; Huber, Matthew; Brinkhuis, Henk; Shah, Sunita R; Leckie, R Mark; Pearson, Ann

    2009-02-27

    About 34 million years ago, Earth's climate shifted from a relatively ice-free world to one with glacial conditions on Antarctica characterized by substantial ice sheets. How Earth's temperature changed during this climate transition remains poorly understood, and evidence for Northern Hemisphere polar ice is controversial. Here, we report proxy records of sea surface temperatures from multiple ocean localities and show that the high-latitude temperature decrease was substantial and heterogeneous. High-latitude (45 degrees to 70 degrees in both hemispheres) temperatures before the climate transition were approximately 20 degrees C and cooled an average of approximately 5 degrees C. Our results, combined with ocean and ice-sheet model simulations and benthic oxygen isotope records, indicate that Northern Hemisphere glaciation was not required to accommodate the magnitude of continental ice growth during this time.

  1. Assessing global transitions in human development and colorectal cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Miranda M; Bray, Freddie; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer incidence has paralleled increases in human development across most countries. Yet, marked decreases in incidence are now observed in countries that have attained very high human development. Thus, in this study, we explored the relationship between human development and colorectal cancer incidence, and in particular assessed whether national transitions to very high human development are linked to temporal patterns in colorectal cancer incidence. For these analyses, we utilized the Human Development Index (HDI) and annual incidence data from regional and national cancer registries. Truncated (30-74 years) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. Yearly incidence rate ratios and HDI ratios, before and after transitioning to very high human development, were also estimated. Among the 29 countries investigated, colorectal cancer incidence was observed to decrease after reaching the very high human development threshold for 12 countries; decreases were also observed in a further five countries, but the age-standardized incidence rates remained higher than that observed at the threshold. Such declines or stabilizations are likely due to colorectal cancer screening in some populations, as well as varying levels of exposure to protective factors. In summary, it appears that there is a threshold at which human development predicts a stabilization or decline in colorectal cancer incidence, though this pattern was not observed for all countries assessed. Future cancer planning must consider the increasing colorectal cancer burden expected in countries transitioning towards higher levels of human development, as well as possible declines in incidence among countries reaching the highest development level. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Persistent global power fluctuations near a dynamic transition in electroconvection.

    PubMed

    Tóth-Katona, Tibor; Cressman, John R; Goldburg, Walter I; Gleeson, James T

    2003-09-01

    This is a study of the global fluctuations in power injection and light transmission through a liquid crystal just above the onset of electroconvection. The source of the fluctuations is identified as the creation and annihilation of defects. They are spatially uncorrelated and yet temporally correlated. The temporal correlation is seen to persist for extremely long times. There seems to be an especially close relation between defect creation or annihilation in electroconvection and thermal plumes in Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  3. Global culture: A noise-induced transition in finite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Toral, Raúl; Miguel, Maxi San

    2003-04-01

    We analyze the effect of cultural drift, modeled as noise, in Axelrod’s model for the dissemination of culture. The disordered multicultural frozen configurations are found not to be stable. This general result is proven rigorously in d=1, where the dynamics is described in terms of a Lyapunov potential. In d=2, the dynamics is governed by the average relaxation time T of perturbations. Noise at a rate r≲T-1 induces monocultural configurations, whereas r≳T-1 sustains disorder. In the thermodynamic limit, the relaxation time diverges and global polarization persists in spite of a dynamics of local convergence.

  4. Tibetan plateau aridification linked to global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Krijgsman, Wout; Langereis, Cor G; Abels, Hemmo A; Dai, Shuang; Fang, Xiaomin

    2007-02-08

    Continental aridification and the intensification of the monsoons in Asia are generally attributed to uplift of the Tibetan plateau and to the land-sea redistributions associated with the continental collision of India and Asia, whereas some studies suggest that past changes in Asian environments are mainly governed by global climate. The most dramatic climate event since the onset of the collision of India and Asia is the Eocene-Oligocene transition, an abrupt cooling step associated with the onset of glaciation in Antarctica 34 million years ago. However, the influence of this global event on Asian environments is poorly understood. Here we use magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy to show that aridification, which is indicated by the disappearance of playa lake deposits in the northeastern Tibetan plateau, occurred precisely at the time of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Our findings suggest that this global transition is linked to significant aridification and cooling in continental Asia recorded by palaeontological and palaeoenvironmental changes, and thus support the idea that global cooling is associated with the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We show that, with sufficient age control on the sedimentary records, global climate can be distinguished from tectonism and recognized as a major contributor to continental Asian environments.

  5. Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Loring, Philip A; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Fisk, Aaron T; McClanahan, Tim R

    2010-11-27

    Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt--to plan and implement effective responses to change--a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions.

  6. Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Loring, Philip A.; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McClanahan, Tim R.

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt—to plan and implement effective responses to change—a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions. PMID:20980322

  7. Nutrition in transition: the changing global nutrition challenge.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    2001-01-01

    The rapid shift in the stage of nutrition towards a pattern of degenerative disease is accelerating in the developing world. Data from China, as shown by the China Health and Nutrition Survey, between 1989 and 1993, are illustrative of these shifts. For example, an increase from 22.8 to 66.6% in the proportion of adults consuming a higher-fat diet, rapid shifts in the structure of diet as income changes, and important price relationships are examples that are presented. There appears to reflect a basic shift in eating preferences, induced mainly by shifts in income, prices and food availability, but also by the modern food industry and the mass media. Furthermore, the remarkable shift in the occupations structure in lower-income countries from agricultural labour towards employment in manufacturing and services implies a reduction in energy expenditure. One consequence of the nutrition transition has been a decline in undernutrition accompanied by a rapid increase in obesity. There are marked differences between urban and rural eating patterns, particularly regarding the consumption of food prepared away from home. Other issues considered are the fetal origins hypothesis, whereby the metabolic efficiencies that served well in conditions of fetal undernutrition become maladaptive with overnutrition, leading to the development of abnormal lipid profiles, altered glucose and insulin metabolism and obesity. Furthermore, obesity and activity are closely linked with adult-onset diabetes. The shift towards a diet higher in fat and meat and lower in carbohydrates and fibre, together with the shift towards less onerous physical activity, carries unwanted nutritional and health effects. It is also clear that the causes of obesity must be viewed as environmental rather than personal or genetic.

  8. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  9. Princess Nourah Bint Abudulrhman University's Challenge: Transition from a Local to a Global Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almansour, Sana; Kempner, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This case study addresses the transition of a university from a local to a global institution in the unique cultural and economic circumstances of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the authors investigate the case of Princess Nourah Bint Abudulrhman University (PNU), the largest women's university in the world with over 39,000 students.…

  10. Princess Nourah Bint Abudulrhman University's Challenge: Transition from a Local to a Global Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almansour, Sana; Kempner, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This case study addresses the transition of a university from a local to a global institution in the unique cultural and economic circumstances of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the authors investigate the case of Princess Nourah Bint Abudulrhman University (PNU), the largest women's university in the world with over 39,000 students.…

  11. Global disorder transition in the community structure of large-q Potts systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronhovde, Peter; Hu, Dandan; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-08-01

    We examine a global disorder transition when identifying community structure in an arbitrary complex network. Earlier, we illustrated (Hu D. et al., Philos. Mag., 92 (2012) 406) that “community detection” (CD) generally exhibits disordered (or unsolvable) and ordered (solvable) phases of both high and low computational complexity along with corresponding transitions from regular to chaotic dynamics in derived systems. Using an exact generalized dimensional reduction inequality, multivariate Tutte polynomials, and other considerations, we illustrate how increasing the number of communities q emulates increasing the heat bath temperature T for a general weighted Potts model, leading to global disorder in the community structure of arbitrary large graphs. Dimensional reduction bounds lead to results similar to those suggested by mean-field-type approaches. Large systems tend toward global insolvability in the limit of large q above a crossover temperature T_\\times \\approx L|J_e|/\\left [N\\ln q\\right ] where |Je| is a typical interaction strength, L is the number of edges, and N is the number of nodes. For practical system sizes, a solvable phase is generally accessible at low T. The global nature of the disorder transition does not preclude solutions by local CD algorithms (even those that employ global cost function parameters) as long as community evaluations are locally determined.

  12. Protein Kinase Cβ Modulates Ligand-induced Cell Surface Death Receptor Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Heldebrant, Michael P.; Flatten, Karen S.; Loegering, David A.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula A.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Peterson, Kevin L.; Trushin, Sergey A.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; Karp, Judith E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Although treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to protect a subset of cells from induction of apoptosis by death ligands such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, the mechanism of this protection is unknown. This study demonstrated that protection in short term apoptosis assays and long term proliferation assays was maximal when Jurkat or HL-60 human leukemia cells were treated with 2–5 nm PMA. Immunoblotting demonstrated that multiple PKC isoforms, including PKCα, PKCβ, PKCϵ, and PKCθ, translocated from the cytosol to a membrane-bound fraction at these PMA concentrations. When the ability of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs that specifically down-regulated each of these isoforms was examined, PKCβ shRNA uniquely reversed PMA-induced protection against cell death. The PKCβ-selective small molecule inhibitor enzastaurin had a similar effect. Although mass spectrometry suggested that Fas is phosphorylated on a number of serines and threonines, mutation of these sites individually or collectively had no effect on Fas-mediated death signaling or PMA protection. Further experiments demonstrated that PMA diminished ligand-induced cell surface accumulation of Fas and DR5, and PKCβ shRNA or enzastaurin reversed this effect. Moreover, enzastaurin sensitized a variety of human tumor cell lines and clinical acute myelogenous leukemia isolates, which express abundant PKCβ, to tumor necrosis factor-α related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced death in the absence of PMA. Collectively, these results identify a specific PKC isoform that modulates death receptor-mediated cytotoxicity as well as a small molecule inhibitor that mitigates the inhibitory effects of PKC activation on ligand-induced death receptor trafficking and cell death. PMID:19887445

  13. Columbus State University Global Observation and Outreach for the 2012 Transit of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Matthew; McCarty, C.; Bartow, M.; Hood, J. C.; Lodder, K.; Johnson, M.; Cruzen, S. T.; Williams, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty, staff and students from Columbus State University’s (CSU’s) Coca-Cola Space Science Center presented a webcast of the 2012 Transit of Venus from three continents to a global audience of 1.4 million unique viewers. Team members imaged the transit with telescopes using white-light, hydrogen-alpha, and calcium filters, from Alice Springs, Australia; the Gobi Desert, Mongolia; Bryce Canyon, UT; and Columbus, GA. Images were webcast live during the transit in partnership with NASA’s Sun-Earth Day program, and Science Center staff members were featured on NASA TV. Local members of the public were brought in for a series of outreach initiatives, in both Georgia and Australia, before and during the transit. The data recorded from the various locations have been archived for use in demonstrating principles such as the historical measurement of the astronomical unit.

  14. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  15. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  16. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative: Progress, Lessons Learned, And Polio Legacy Transition Planning.

    PubMed

    Cochi, Stephen L; Hegg, Lea; Kaur, Anjali; Pandak, Carol; Jafari, Hamid

    2016-02-01

    The world is closer than ever to achieving global polio eradication, with record-low polio cases in 2015 and the impending prospect of a polio-free Africa. Tens of millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers have participated in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The program contributes to efforts to deliver other health benefits, including health systems strengthening. As the initiative nears completion after more than twenty-five years, it becomes critical to document and transition the knowledge, lessons learned, assets, and infrastructure accumulated by the initiative to address other health goals and priorities. The primary goals of this process, known as polio legacy transition planning, are both to protect a polio-free world and to ensure that investments in polio eradication will contribute to other health goals after polio is completely eradicated. The initiative is engaged in an extensive transition process of consultations and planning at the global, regional, and country levels. A successful completion of this process will result in a well-planned and -managed conclusion of the initiative that will secure the global public good gained by ending one of the world's most devastating diseases and ensure that these investments provide public health benefits for years to come. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. The World Health Organization and the transition from "international" to "global" public health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The term "global health" is rapidly replacing the older terminology of "international health." We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term "global health" emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context.

  18. Visualization of ligand-induced Gi-protein activation in chemotaxing cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kazuyuki; Kitakami, Jun-Ichi; Kozasa, Tohru; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Ihara, Sigeo; Hamakubo, Takao

    2017-03-01

    Cell migration to chemoattractants is critically important in both normal physiology and the pathogenesis of many diseases. In GPCR-mediated chemotaxis, GPCRs transduce the gradient of an extracellular chemotactic ligand into intracellular responses via the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. However, ligand-induced G-protein activation has not been directly imaged as yet in mammalian chemotaxing cells. We developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe, R10-Gi, by linking the Gi-protein α subunit to the regulator of G-protein signaling domain. The R10-Gi probe was coupled with a chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor 1 (BLT1) that induced the receptor to display a high-affinity ligand binding activity (Kd = 0.91 nM) in HEK293 cells. The R10-Gi probe exhibited an increased FRET signal in accord with the LTB4-dependent activation of Gi Furthermore, neutrophil-like differentiated human leukemia cell line 60 that expressed the intrinsic BLT1 displayed temporal Gi-protein activation in an area localized to the leading edge during chemotaxis in a shallow gradient of LTB4 These findings afford an opportunity to clarify the mechanisms underlying the subcellular regulation of Gi-protein activity, as well as GPCR-mediated ligand sensing, during chemotaxis in mammalian cells.-Masuda, K., Kitakami, J., Kozasa, T., Kodama, T., Ihara, S., Hamakubo, T. Visualization of ligand-induced Gi-protein activation in chemotaxing cells. © FASEB.

  19. Ligand Induced Conformational Changes of the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Grouleff, Julie; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The competitive inhibitor cocaine and the non-competitive inhibitor ibogaine induce different conformational states of the human serotonin transporter. It has been shown from accessibility experiments that cocaine mainly induces an outward-facing conformation, while the non-competitive inhibitor ibogaine, and its active metabolite noribogaine, have been proposed to induce an inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter similar to what has been observed for the endogenous substrate, serotonin. The ligand induced conformational changes within the human serotonin transporter caused by these three different types of ligands, substrate, non-competitive and competitive inhibitors, are studied from multiple atomistic molecular dynamics simulations initiated from a homology model of the human serotonin transporter. The results reveal that diverse conformations of the human serotonin transporter are captured from the molecular dynamics simulations depending on the type of the ligand bound. The inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter is reached with noribogaine bound, and this state resembles a previously identified inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter obtained from molecular dynamics simulation with bound substrate, but also a recently published inward-facing conformation of a bacterial homolog, the leucine transporter from Aquifex Aoelicus. The differences observed in ligand induced behavior are found to originate from different interaction patterns between the ligands and the protein. Such atomic-level understanding of how an inhibitor can dictate the conformational response of a transporter by ligand binding may be of great importance for future drug design. PMID:23776432

  20. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    PubMed

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Phase transitions in a Bose-Hubbard model with cavity-mediated global-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogra, N.; Brennecke, F.; Huber, S. D.; Donner, T.

    2016-08-01

    We study a system with competing short- and global-range interactions in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. Using a mean-field approximation we obtain the phase diagram of the system and observe four different phases: a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator, and a charge-density wave, where the transitions between the various phases can be either of first or second order. We qualitatively support these results using Monte Carlo simulations. An analysis of the low-energy excitations shows that the second-order phase transition from the charge-density wave to the supersolid is associated with the softening of particle- and holelike excitations which give rise to a gapless mode and an amplitude Higgs mode in the supersolid phase. This amplitude Higgs mode is further transformed into a roton mode which softens at the supersolid to superfluid phase transition.

  2. Global Infrared Observations of Roughness Induced Transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Wood, William A.; Berry, Scott A.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Dantowitz, Ronald F.; Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution infrared observations made from a mobile ground based optical system captured the laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition process as it occurred during Space Shuttle Endeavour's return to earth following its final mission in 2011. The STS-134 imagery was part of a larger effort to demonstrate an emerging and reliable non-intrusive global thermal measurement capability and to complement a series of boundary layer transition flight experiments that were flown on the Shuttle. The STS-134 observations are believed to be the first time that the development and movement of a hypersonic boundary layer transition front has been witnessed in flight over the entire vehicle surface and in particular, at unprecedented spatial resolution. Additionally, benchmark surface temperature maps of the Orbiter lower surface collected over multiple flights and spanning a Mach range of 18 to 6 are now available and represent an opportunity for collaborative comparison with computational techniques focused on hypersonic transition and turbulence modeling. The synergy of the global temperature maps with the companion in-situ thermocouple measurements serve as an example of the effective leveraging of resources to achieve a common goal of advancing our understanding of the complex nature of high Mach number transition. It is shown that quantitative imaging can open the door to a multitude of national and international opportunities for partnership associated with flight-testing and subsequent validation of numerical simulation techniques. The quantitative imaging applications highlighted in this paper offer unique and complementary flight measurement alternatives and suggest collaborative instrumentation opportunities to advance the state of the art in transition prediction and maximize the return on investment in terms of developmental flight tests for future vehicle designs.

  3. Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Matthew J; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-02-24

    Rapid global cooling at the Eocene - Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9-33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO2 at the EOT.

  4. Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Matthew J.; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Rapid global cooling at the Eocene – Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9–33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO2 at the EOT. PMID:28233862

  5. Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Matthew J.; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    Rapid global cooling at the Eocene – Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9–33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO2 at the EOT.

  6. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha

  7. Global vegetation distribution and terrestrial climate evolution at the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Eocene - Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 34-33.5 Ma) is widely considered to be the biggest step in Cenozoic climate evolution. Geochemical marine records show both surface and bottom water cooling, associated with the expansion of Antarctic glaciers and a reduction in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, the global response of the terrestrial biosphere to the EOT is less well understood and not uniform when comparing different regions. We present new global vegetation and terrestrial climate reconstructions of the Priabonian (late Eocene; 38-33.9 Ma) and Rupelian (early Oligocene; 33.9-28.45 Ma) by synthesising 215 pollen and spore localities. Using presence/absence data of pollen and spores with multivariate statistics has allowed the reconstruction of palaeo-biomes without relying on modern analogues. The reconstructed palaeo-biomes do not show the equator-ward shift at the EOT, which would be expected from a global cooling. Reconstructions of mean annual temperature, cold month mean temperature and warm month mean temperature do not show a global cooling of terrestrial climate across the EOT. Our new reconstructions differ from previous global syntheses by being based on an internally consistent statistically defined classification of palaeo-biomes and our terrestrial based climate reconstructions are in stark contrast to some marine based climate estimates. Our results raise new questions on the nature and extent of terrestrial global climate change at the EOT.

  8. Understanding B-DNA to A-DNA transition in the right-handed DNA helix: Perspective from a local to global transition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mandar; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2017-09-01

    The right-handed DNA helix exhibits two major conformations, A-DNA and B-DNA, depending on the environmental conditions. The B-DNA to A-DNA (B→A) transition is sequence specific, cooperative, and reversible. The reduced water activity due to the addition of solvents like ethanol or the presence of protein or drug molecules causes B→A transition. In several biological cases, B→A transition occurs at a local level where small fragments of a long DNA sequence undergoes B→A transition. In this review, we have discussed various aspects of B→A transition such as the role of water, sequence specificity, mechanism of B→A transition, etc. The review primarily focuses on the B→A mechanism involved at a local level, and finally its connection to the global transition in theoretical and experimental studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Dynamics, flexibility and ligand-induced conformational changes in biological macromolecules: a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Skjaerven, Lars; Reuter, Nathalie; Martinez, Aurora

    2011-12-01

    Biomolecules possess important dynamical properties that enable them to adapt and alternate their conformation as a response to environmental stimuli. Recent advancements in computational resources and methodology allow a higher capability to mimic in vitro conditions and open up the possibility of studying large systems over longer timescales. Here, we describe commonly used computational approaches for studying the dynamic properties of proteins. We review a selected set of simulation studies on ligand-induced changes in the chaperonin GroEL-GroES, a molecular folding machine, maltose-binding protein, a prototypical member of the periplasmic binding proteins, and the bacterial ribosomal A-site, focusing on aminoglycoside antibiotic recognition. We also discuss a recent quantitative reconstruction of the binding process of benzamidine and trypsin. These studies contribute to the understanding and further development of the medicinal regulation of large biomolecular systems.

  10. Global seismic data reveal little water in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, C.

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the Earth's present water content is necessary to constrain the amount of water and other volatiles the Earth acquired during its formation and the amount that is cycled back into the interior from the surface. This study compares 410 and 660 km discontinuity depth with shear wave tomography within the mantle transition zone to identify regions with seismic signals consistent with water. The depth of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities is determined from a large updated dataset of SS-S410S and SS-S660S differential travel times, known as SS precursors. The discontinuity depths measured from binning and stacking the SS precursor data are then compared to the shear velocity model HMSL-S06 in the transition zone. Mapping all the possible combinations, very few locations match the predictions from mineral physics for the effects of water on discontinuity depth and shear velocity. The predictions, although not yet measured at actual transition zone temperatures and pressures, are a shallow 410 km discontinuity, a deep 660 km discontinuity, and a slow shear velocity. Only 8% of the bins with high-quality data are consistent with these predictions, and the calculated average water content within these bins is around 0.6 wt.%. A few isolated locations have patterns of velocity/topography that are consistent with water, while there are large regional-scale patterns consistent with cold/hot temperature anomalies. Combining this global analysis of long period seismic data and the current mineral physics predictions for water in transition zone minerals, I find that the mantle transition zone is generally dry, containing less than one Earth ocean of water. Although subduction zones could be locally hydrated, the combined discontinuity and velocity data show no evidence that wadsleyite or ringwoodite have been globally hydrated by subduction or initial Earth conditions.

  11. Global distribution of azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere, asthenosphere, and transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    We present our new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle, crust, and transition zone. We compare two versions of this new model, the rough SL2013svAr and smooth SL2013svA, which are constrained by a larger, updated waveform fit dataset (>900, 000 vertical component seismogram fits) than that used in the construction of the isotropic model SL2013sv (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013). These two anisotropy models are computed using a more precise regularization of anisotropy, which is tuned to honour the both the amplitude and orientation of the anisotropic terms uniformly, including near the poles. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with complementary high-resolution regional array subsets within larger global networks, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. The model also reveals smaller scale patterns of 3D anisotropy variations related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, in particular in densely sampled regions. In oceanic regions, we examine the strength of azimuthal anisotropy, as a function of depth, spatial position with respect to the spreading ridge, and deviation in fast axis orientation from the current and fossil spreading directions. Furthermore, we explore correlations between anisotropic tomography models and a new reference frame developed such that the net rotation of spreading ridges is minimized (RNR; Becker et al, 2014). In continental regions, azimuthal anisotropy is more complex. Reconciling complementary observations given by shear wave splitting, surface-wave array analysis, and large-scale, global 3D models offers new insights into the mechanisms of continental deformation and the architecture and evolution of the lithosphere. Finally, quantitative comparisons with other recently published

  12. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  13. Synchronization transitions in globally coupled rotors in the presence of noise and inertia: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Maxim; Gupta, Shamik; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2014-05-01

    We study a generic model of globally coupled rotors that includes the effects of noise, phase shift in the coupling, and distributions of moments of inertia and natural frequencies of oscillation. As particular cases, the setup includes previously studied Sakaguchi-Kuramoto, Hamiltonian and Brownian mean-field, and Tanaka-Lichtenberg-Oishi and Acebrón-Bonilla-Spigler models. We derive an exact solution of the self-consistent equations for the order parameter in the stationary state, valid for arbitrary parameters in the dynamics, and demonstrate nontrivial phase transitions to synchrony that include reentrant synchronous regimes.

  14. Discovery of a Transition to Global Spin-up in EXO 2030+375

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fabregat, Juan; Coburn, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    EXO 2030+375, a 42 s transient X-ray pulsar with a Be star companion, has been observed to undergo an outburst at nearly every periastron passage for the last 13.5 years. From 1994 through 2002, the global trend in the pulsar spin frequency was spin-down. Using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data from 2003 September, we have observed a transition to global spin-up in EXO 2030+375. Although the spin-frequency observations are sparse, the relative spin-up between 2002 June and 2003 September observations, along with an overall brightening of the outbursts since mid-2002 observed with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, accompanied by an increase in density of the Be disk, indicated by infrared magnitudes, suggest that the pattern observed with BATSE of a roughly constant spin frequency, followed by spin-up, followed by spin-down is repeating. If so, this pattern has approximately an 11 yr period, similar to the 15 +/- 3 yr period derived by Wilson et al. for the precession period of a one-armed oscillation in the Be disk. If this pattern is indeed repeating, we predict a transition from spin-up to spin-down in 2005.

  15. Discovery of a Transition to Global Spin-Up in EXO 2030+375

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fabregat, Juan; Coburn, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    EXO 2030+375, a 42 second transient X-ray pulsar with a Be star companion, has been observed to undergo an outburst at nearly every periastron passage for the last 13.5 years. From 1994 through 2002, the global trend in the pulsar spin frequency was spin-down. Using RXTE data from 2003 September, we have observed a transition to global spin-up in EXO 203G+375. Although the spin frequency observations are sparse, the relative spin-up between 2002 June and 2003 September observations along with an overall brightening of the outbursts since mid 2002 observed with the RXTE ASM accompanied by an increase in density of the disk indicated by infrared magnitudes suggest that the pattern observed with BATSE of a roughly constant spin frequency, followed by spin-up, followed by spin-down is repeating. If so this pattern has approximately an 11 year period, similar to the 15 plus or minus 3 year period derived by Wilson et al. (2002) for the precession period of a one-armed oscillation in the Be disk. If this pattern is indeed repeating, we predict a transition from spin-up to spin-down in 2005.

  16. Global transition path search for dislocation formation in Ge on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maras, E.; Trushin, O.; Stukowski, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Jónsson, H.

    2016-08-01

    Global optimization of transition paths in complex atomic scale systems is addressed in the context of misfit dislocation formation in a strained Ge film on Si(001). Such paths contain multiple intermediate minima connected by minimum energy paths on the energy surface emerging from the atomic interactions in the system. The challenge is to find which intermediate states to include and to construct a path going through these intermediates in such a way that the overall activation energy for the transition is minimal. In the numerical approach presented here, intermediate minima are constructed by heredity transformations of known minimum energy structures and by identifying local minima in minimum energy paths calculated using a modified version of the nudged elastic band method. Several mechanisms for the formation of a 90° misfit dislocation at the Ge-Si interface are identified when this method is used to construct transition paths connecting a homogeneously strained Ge film and a film containing a misfit dislocation. One of these mechanisms which has not been reported in the literature is detailed. The activation energy for this path is calculated to be 26% smaller than the activation energy for half loop formation of a full, isolated 60° dislocation. An extension of the common neighbor analysis method involving characterization of the geometrical arrangement of second nearest neighbors is used to identify and visualize the dislocations and stacking faults.

  17. Regulation of Cre recombinase by ligand-induced complementation of inactive fragments

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Nicolas; Sampieri, François; Enjalbert, Alain; Herman, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Cre recombinase is extensively used to engineer the genome of experimental animals. However, its usefulness is still limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control over its activity. To overcome this, we have developed DiCre, a regulatable fragment complementation system for Cre. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (binding domain of the FKBP12–rapamycin-associated protein), respectively. These can be efficiently heterodimerized by rapamycin. Several variants, based on splitting Cre at different sites and using different linker peptides, were tested in an indicator cell line. The fusion proteins, taken separately, had no recombinase activity. Stable transformants, co-expressing complementing fragments based on splitting Cre between Asn59 and Asn60, displayed low background activity affecting 0.05–0.4% of the cells. Rapamycin induced a rapid recombination, reaching 100% by 48–72 h, with an EC50 of 0.02 nM. Thus, ligand-induced dimerization can efficiently regulate Cre, and should be useful to achieve a tight temporal control of its activity, such as in the case of the creation of conditional knock-out animals. PMID:14576331

  18. Regulation of Cre recombinase by ligand-induced complementation of inactive fragments.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Nicolas; Sampieri, François; Enjalbert, Alain; Herman, Jean-Paul

    2003-11-01

    Cre recombinase is extensively used to engineer the genome of experimental animals. However, its usefulness is still limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control over its activity. To overcome this, we have developed DiCre, a regulatable fragment complementation system for Cre. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (binding domain of the FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein), respectively. These can be efficiently heterodimerized by rapamycin. Several variants, based on splitting Cre at different sites and using different linker peptides, were tested in an indicator cell line. The fusion proteins, taken separately, had no recombinase activity. Stable transformants, co-expressing complementing fragments based on splitting Cre between Asn59 and Asn60, displayed low background activity affecting 0.05-0.4% of the cells. Rapamycin induced a rapid recombination, reaching 100% by 48-72 h, with an EC50 of 0.02 nM. Thus, ligand-induced dimerization can efficiently regulate Cre, and should be useful to achieve a tight temporal control of its activity, such as in the case of the creation of conditional knock-out animals.

  19. Ligand-induced EGF Receptor Oligomerization Is Kinase-dependent and Enhances Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Erik G.; Bader, Arjen N.; Voortman, Jarno; van den Heuvel, Dave J.; Sigismund, Sara; Verkleij, Arie J.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M. P.

    2010-01-01

    The current activation model of the EGF receptor (EGFR) predicts that binding of EGF results in dimerization and oligomerization of the EGFR, leading to the allosteric activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase. Little is known about the regulatory mechanism of receptor oligomerization. In this study, we have employed FRET between identical fluorophores (homo-FRET) to monitor the dimerization and oligomerization state of the EGFR before and after receptor activation. Our data show that, in the absence of ligand, ∼40% of the EGFR molecules were present as inactive dimers or predimers. The monomer/predimer ratio was not affected by deletion of the intracellular domain. Ligand binding induced the formation of receptor oligomers, which were found in both the plasma membrane and intracellular structures. Ligand-induced oligomerization required tyrosine kinase activity and nine different tyrosine kinase substrate residues. This indicates that the binding of signaling molecules to activated EGFRs results in EGFR oligomerization. Induction of EGFR predimers or pre-oligomers using the EGFR fused to the FK506-binding protein did not affect signaling but was found to enhance EGF-induced receptor internalization. Our data show that EGFR oligomerization is the result of EGFR signaling and enhances EGFR internalization. PMID:20940297

  20. Selective Sirt2 inhibition by ligand-induced rearrangement of the active site.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Tobias; Schiedel, Matthias; Karaman, Berin; Roessler, Claudia; North, Brian J; Lehotzky, Attila; Oláh, Judit; Ladwein, Kathrin I; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Gajer, Markus; Pannek, Martin; Steegborn, Clemens; Sinclair, David A; Gerhardt, Stefan; Ovádi, Judit; Schutkowski, Mike; Sippl, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Jung, Manfred

    2015-02-12

    Sirtuins are a highly conserved class of NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacylases. The human isotype Sirt2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration, which makes the modulation of Sirt2 activity a promising strategy for pharmaceutical intervention. A rational basis for the development of optimized Sirt2 inhibitors is lacking so far. Here we present high-resolution structures of human Sirt2 in complex with highly selective drug-like inhibitors that show a unique inhibitory mechanism. Potency and the unprecedented Sirt2 selectivity are based on a ligand-induced structural rearrangement of the active site unveiling a yet-unexploited binding pocket. Application of the most potent Sirtuin-rearranging ligand, termed SirReal2, leads to tubulin hyperacetylation in HeLa cells and induces destabilization of the checkpoint protein BubR1, consistent with Sirt2 inhibition in vivo. Our structural insights into this unique mechanism of selective sirtuin inhibition provide the basis for further inhibitor development and selective tools for sirtuin biology.

  1. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M.; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W.; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  2. Local and global synchronization transitions induced by time delays in small-world neuronal networks with chemical synapses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Du, Jiwei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2015-02-01

    Effects of time delay on the local and global synchronization in small-world neuronal networks with chemical synapses are investigated in this paper. Numerical results show that, for both excitatory and inhibitory coupling types, the information transmission delay can always induce synchronization transitions of spiking neurons in small-world networks. In particular, regions of in-phase and out-of-phase synchronization of connected neurons emerge intermittently as the synaptic delay increases. For excitatory coupling, all transitions to spiking synchronization occur approximately at integer multiples of the firing period of individual neurons; while for inhibitory coupling, these transitions appear at the odd multiples of the half of the firing period of neurons. More importantly, the local synchronization transition is more profound than the global synchronization transition, depending on the type of coupling synapse. For excitatory synapses, the local in-phase synchronization observed for some values of the delay also occur at a global scale; while for inhibitory ones, this synchronization, observed at the local scale, disappears at a global scale. Furthermore, the small-world structure can also affect the phase synchronization of neuronal networks. It is demonstrated that increasing the rewiring probability can always improve the global synchronization of neuronal activity, but has little effect on the local synchronization of neighboring neurons.

  3. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Jeanne L.; Choike, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical observations are made about some continuous curves, called transitions, encountered in well-known experiences. The transition parabola, the transition spiral, and the sidestep maneuver are presented. (MNS)

  4. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  5. Evidence for ligand-induced conformational changes in rabbit-muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henis, Y I; Levitzki, A; Gafni, A

    1979-07-01

    The tetrameric glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle binds NAD+ and some of its analogues in a negatively cooperative manner, whereas other NAD+ analogues bind non-cooperatively to this enzyme. Subsequent to alkylation of a fraction of the active sites of the enzyme with the fluorescent SH reagent N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine, it was found that the alkylated sites bind NAD+ and NAD+ analogues with a markedly reduced affinity as compared with non-alkylated sites. It was therefore feasible to measure the fluorescence and the circular polarization of the luminescence of the enzyme-bound alkyl groups as a function of binding of NAD+ and of NAD+ analogues to the non-alkylated sites. The changes observed indicate that ligand binding to the non-alkylated sites induces changes in the fluorescence properties of the alkyl groups bound to neighbouring subunits, most likely through the protein moiety. The nature of these changes appears to depend on the structure of the coenzyme analogue. The binding of the non-cooperative binders acetyl-pyridine--adenine dinucleotide, ATP and ADP-ribose induce different conformational changes in the neighbouring vacant subunit, as monitored by the spectroscopic properties of the bound alkyl group. These results in conjunction with other data support the view that the negative cooperativity in NAD+ binding to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase results from ligand-induced conformational changes. Furthermore, these results further support the view that subtle structural changes in the coenzyme molecule determine the nature of the conformational changes induced within the enzyme tetramer.

  6. Evaluation of Ligand-Inducible Expression Systems for Conditional Neuronal Manipulations of Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuling; Stavropoulos, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for dissecting the molecular mechanisms that regulate sleep, and numerous studies in the fly have identified genes that impact sleep–wake cycles. Conditional genetic analysis is essential to distinguish the mechanisms by which these genes impact sleep: some genes might exert their effects developmentally, for instance by directing the assembly of neuronal circuits that regulate sleep; other genes may regulate sleep in adulthood; and yet other genes might influence sleep by both developmental and adult mechanisms. Here we have assessed two ligand-inducible expression systems, Geneswitch and the Q-system, for conditional and neuronally restricted manipulations of sleep in Drosophila. While adult-specific induction of a neuronally expressed Geneswitch transgene (elav-GS) is compatible with studies of sleep as shown previously, developmental induction of elav-GS strongly and nonspecifically perturbs sleep in adults. The alterations of sleep in elav-GS animals occur at low doses of Geneswitch agonist and in the presence of transgenes unrelated to sleep, such as UAS-CD8-GFP. Furthermore, developmental elav-GS induction is toxic and reduces brood size, indicating multiple adverse effects of neuronal Geneswitch activation. In contrast, the transgenes and ligand of the Q-system do not significantly impact sleep–wake cycles when used for constitutive, developmental, or adult-specific neuronal induction. The nonspecific effects of developmental elav-GS activation on sleep indicate that such manipulations require cautious interpretation, and suggest that the Q-system or other strategies may be more suitable for conditional genetic analysis of sleep and other behaviors in Drosophila. PMID:27558667

  7. Dynamical Transitions between Stick-Slip and Steady Motions of Bistable Units with Global and Asymmetric Local Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    For a system consisting of bistable units with global and asymmetric local interactions, there exist two different types of dynamical transition between stick-slip and steady motions: continuous and discontinuous in the amplitude of stick-slip motion. These two types are consistent with the experimental findings in a dry friction system. The dynamical phase diagram and other types of transition are also discussed.

  8. Sustainable Biofuels A Transitions Approach to Understanding the Global Expansion of Ethanol and Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottes, Jeffrey Jacob

    Between 1998 and 2008, the promise of biofuels to increase rural development, enhance energy security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions stimulated their diffusion across international markets. This rapid expansion of ethanol and biodiesel encouraged many jurisdictions to implement biofuels expansion policies and programs. Global biofuels, characterised by mass production and international trade of ethanol and biodiesel, occurred despite their long history as marginal technologies on the fringe of the petroleum-based transportation energy regime. The first purpose of this dissertation is to examine the global expansion of ethanol and biodiesel to understand how these recurrent socio-technological failures co-evolved with petroleum transportation fuels. Drawing from the field of socio-technical transitions, this dissertation also assesses the global expansion of ethanol and biodiesel to determine whether or not these first generation biofuels are sustainable. Numerous studies have assessed the technical effects of ethanol and biodiesel, but effects-based technical assessments of transport biofuels are unable to explain the interaction of wider system elements. The configuration of multi-level factors (i.e., niche development, the technological regime, and the socio-technical landscape) informs the present and emerging social functions of biofuels, which become relevant when determining how biofuels might become a sustainable energy option. The biofuels regimes that evolved in Brazil, the United States, and the European Union provide case studies show how ethanol and biodiesel expanded from fringe fuels to global commodities. The production infrastructures within these dominant biofuels regimes contribute to a persistence of unsustainable first generation biofuels that can inhibit the technical development and sustainability of biofuels. However, new and emerging ethanol and biodiesel markets are relatively small in comparison to the dominant regimes, and can

  9. Edge states in the climate system: exploring global instabilities and critical transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Bódai, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Multistability is a ubiquitous feature in systems of geophysical relevance and provides key challenges for our ability to predict a system’s response to perturbations. Near critical transitions small causes can lead to large effects and—for all practical purposes—irreversible changes in the properties of the system. As is well known, the Earth climate is multistable: present astronomical and astrophysical conditions support two stable regimes, the warm climate we live in, and a snowball climate characterized by global glaciation. We first provide an overview of methods and ideas relevant for studying the climate response to forcings and focus on the properties of critical transitions in the context of both stochastic and deterministic dynamics, and assess strengths and weaknesses of simplified approaches to the problem. Following an idea developed by Eckhardt and collaborators for the investigation of multistable turbulent fluid dynamical systems, we study the global instability giving rise to the snowball/warm multistability in the climate system by identifying the climatic edge state, a saddle embedded in the boundary between the two basins of attraction of the stable climates. The edge state attracts initial conditions belonging to such a boundary and, while being defined by the deterministic dynamics, is the gate facilitating noise-induced transitions between competing attractors. We use a simplified yet Earth-like intermediate complexity climate model constructed by coupling a primitive equations model of the atmosphere with a simple diffusive ocean. We refer to the climatic edge states as Melancholia states and provide an extensive analysis of their features. We study their dynamics, their symmetry properties, and we follow a complex set of bifurcations. We find situations where the Melancholia state has chaotic dynamics. In these cases, we have that the basin boundary between the two basins of attraction is a strange geometric set with a nearly zero

  10. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  11. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherba, Jason T.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Davis, Adam W.; Parker, Owen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global land-use/land-cover (LULC) change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC transitions into spatial scales and thematic LULC classes appropriate for use in a regional STSM. For each downscaling approach, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) LULC projections, at the 0.5 × 0.5 cell resolution, were downscaled to seven Level III ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest, United States. RCP transition values at each cell were downscaled based on the proportional distribution between ecoregions of (1) cell area, (2) land-cover composition derived from remotely-sensed imagery, and (3) historic LULC transition values from a LULC history database. Resulting downscaled LULC transition values were aggregated according to their bounding ecoregion and “cross-walked” to relevant LULC classes. Ecoregion-level LULC transition values were applied in a STSM projecting LULC change between 2005 and 2100. While each downscaling methods had advantages and disadvantages, downscaling using the historical land-use history dataset consistently apportioned RCP LULC transitions in agreement with historical observations. Regardless of the downscaling method, some LULC projections remain improbable and require further investigation.

  12. Structural insights into ligand-induced activation of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Lawrence, M.; Streltsov, V.; Garrett, T.; McKern, N.; Lou, M.-Z.; Lovrecz, G.; Adams, T.

    2008-04-29

    The current model for insulin binding to the insulin receptor proposes that there are two binding sites, referred to as sites 1 and 2, on each monomer in the receptor homodimer and two binding surfaces on insulin, one involving residues predominantly from the dimerization face of insulin (the classical binding surface) and the other residues from the hexamerization face. High-affinity binding involves one insulin molecule using its two surfaces to make bridging contacts with site 1 from one receptor monomer and site 2 from the other. Whilst the receptor dimer has two identical site 1-site 2 pairs, insulin molecules cannot bridge both pairs simultaneously. Our structures of the insulin receptor (IR) ectodomain dimer and the L1-CR-L2 fragments of IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) explain many of the features of ligand-receptor binding and allow the two binding sites on the receptor to be described. The IR dimer has an unexpected folded-over conformation which places the C-terminal surface of the first fibronectin-III domain in close juxtaposition to the known L1 domain ligand-binding surface suggesting that the C-terminal surface of FnIII-1 is the second binding site involved in high-affinity binding. This is very different from previous models based on three-dimensional reconstruction from scanning transmission electron micrographs. Our single-molecule images indicate that IGF-1R has a morphology similar to that of IR. In addition, the structures of the first three domains (L1-CR-L2) of the IR and IGF-1R show that there are major differences in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The implications of these findings for ligand-induced receptor activation will be discussed. This review summarizes the key findings regarding the discovery and characterization of the insulin receptor, the identification and arrangement of its structural domains in the sequence and the key features associated with ligand binding. The remainder of the review

  13. The global gene expression profile of the secondary transition during pancreatic development.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Stefanie J; Mueller, Nikola S; Engert, Silvia; Sterr, Michael; Burtscher, Ingo; Raducanu, Aurelia; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Sass, Steffen; Theis, Fabian J; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas organogenesis is a highly dynamic process where neighboring tissue interactions lead to dynamic changes in gene regulatory networks that orchestrate endocrine, exocrine, and ductal lineage formation. To understand the spatio-temporal regulatory logic we have used the Forkhead transcription factor Foxa2-Venus fusion (FVF) knock-in reporter mouse to separate the FVF(+) pancreatic epithelium from the FVF(−) surrounding tissue (mesenchyme, neurons, blood, and blood vessels) to perform a genome-wide mRNA expression profiling at embryonic days (E) 12.5-15.5. Annotating genes and molecular processes suggest that FVF marks endoderm-derived multipotent epithelial progenitors at several lineage restriction steps, when the bulk of endocrine, exocrine and ductal cells are formed during the secondary transition. In the pancreatic epithelial compartment, we identified most known endocrine and exocrine lineage determining factors and diabetes-associated genes, but also unknown genes with spatio-temporal regulated pancreatic expression. In the non-endoderm-derived compartment, we identified many well-described regulatory genes that are not yet functionally annotated in pancreas development, emphasizing that neighboring tissue interactions are still ill defined. Pancreatic expression of over 635 genes was analyzed with them RNA in situ hybridization Genepaint public database. This validated the quality of the profiling data set and identified hundreds of genes with spatially restricted expression patterns in the pancreas. Some of these genes are also targeted by pancreatic transcription factors and show active chromatin marks in human islets of Langerhans. Thus, with the highest spatio-temporal resolution of a global gene expression profile during the secondary transition, our study enables to shed light on neighboring tissue interactions, developmental timing and diabetes gene regulation.

  14. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  15. Evolutionary Transition from Pathogenicity to Commensalism: Global Regulator Mutations Mediate Fitness Gains through Virulence Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Gunther; Crummenerl, Lena L; Gilbert, Felix; Mohr, Timm; Pfefferkorn, Roxana; Thänert, Robert; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-11-01

    Symbiotic interactions are indispensable for metazoan function, but their origin and evolution remain elusive. We use a controlled evolution experiment to demonstrate the emergence of novel commensal interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an initially pathogenic bacterium, and a metazoan host, Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that commensalism evolves through loss of virulence, because it provides bacteria with a double fitness advantage: Increased within-host fitness and a larger host population to infect. Commensalism arises irrespective of host immune status, as the adaptive path in immunocompromised C. elegans knockouts does not differ from that in wild type. Dissection of temporal dynamics of genomic adaptation for 125 bacterial populations reveals highly parallel evolution of incipient commensalism across independent biological replicates. Adaptation is mainly achieved through frame shift mutations in the global regulator lasR and nonsynonymous point mutations in the polymerase gene rpoB that arise early in evolution. Genetic knockouts of lasR not only corroborate its role in virulence attenuation but also show that further mutations are necessary for the fully commensal phenotype. The evolutionary transition from pathogenicity to commensalism as we observe here is facilitated by mutations in global regulators such as lasR, because few genetic changes cause pleiotropic effects across the genome with large phenotypic effects. Finally, we found that nucleotide diversity increased more quickly in bacteria adapting to immunocompromised hosts than in those adapting to immunocompetent hosts. Nevertheless, the outcome of evolution was comparable across host types. Commensalism can thus evolve independently of host immune state solely as a side-effect of bacterial adaptation to novel hosts.

  16. Evolutionary Transition from Pathogenicity to Commensalism: Global Regulator Mutations Mediate Fitness Gains through Virulence Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Gunther; Crummenerl, Lena L.; Gilbert, Felix; Mohr, Timm; Pfefferkorn, Roxana; Thänert, Robert; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions are indispensable for metazoan function, but their origin and evolution remain elusive. We use a controlled evolution experiment to demonstrate the emergence of novel commensal interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an initially pathogenic bacterium, and a metazoan host, Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that commensalism evolves through loss of virulence, because it provides bacteria with a double fitness advantage: Increased within-host fitness and a larger host population to infect. Commensalism arises irrespective of host immune status, as the adaptive path in immunocompromised C. elegans knockouts does not differ from that in wild type. Dissection of temporal dynamics of genomic adaptation for 125 bacterial populations reveals highly parallel evolution of incipient commensalism across independent biological replicates. Adaptation is mainly achieved through frame shift mutations in the global regulator lasR and nonsynonymous point mutations in the polymerase gene rpoB that arise early in evolution. Genetic knockouts of lasR not only corroborate its role in virulence attenuation but also show that further mutations are necessary for the fully commensal phenotype. The evolutionary transition from pathogenicity to commensalism as we observe here is facilitated by mutations in global regulators such as lasR, because few genetic changes cause pleiotropic effects across the genome with large phenotypic effects. Finally, we found that nucleotide diversity increased more quickly in bacteria adapting to immunocompromised hosts than in those adapting to immunocompetent hosts. Nevertheless, the outcome of evolution was comparable across host types. Commensalism can thus evolve independently of host immune state solely as a side-effect of bacterial adaptation to novel hosts. PMID:26199376

  17. Phase transition and hysteresis loop in structured games with global updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Guanrong; Hui, P. M.

    2008-04-01

    We present a global payoff-based strategy updating model for studying cooperative behavior of a networked population. We adopt the Prisoner’s Dilemma game and the snowdrift game as paradigms for characterizing the interactions among individuals. We investigate the model on regular, small-world, and scale-free networks, and find multistable cooperation states depending on the initial cooperator density. In particular for the snowdrift game on small-world and scale-free networks, there exist a discontinuous phase transition and hysteresis loops of cooperator density. We explain the observed properties by theoretical predictions and simulation results of the average number of neighbors of cooperators and defectors, respectively. Our work indicates that individuals with more neighbors have a trend to preserve their initial strategies, which has strong impacts on the strategy updating of individuals with fewer neighbors; while the fact that individuals with few neighbors have to become cooperators to avoid gaining the lowest payoff plays significant roles in maintaining and spreading of cooperation strategy.

  18. Spatial dispersal of bacterial colonies induces a dynamical transition from local to global quorum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Boedicker, James Q.

    2016-12-01

    Bacteria communicate using external chemical signals called autoinducers (AI) in a process known as quorum sensing (QS). QS efficiency is reduced by both limitations of AI diffusion and potential interference from neighboring strains. There is thus a need for predictive theories of how spatial community structure shapes information processing in complex microbial ecosystems. As a step in this direction, we apply a reaction-diffusion model to study autoinducer signaling dynamics in a single-species community as a function of the spatial distribution of colonies in the system. We predict a dynamical transition between a local quorum sensing (LQS) regime, with the AI signaling dynamics primarily controlled by the local population densities of individual colonies, and a global quorum sensing (GQS) regime, with the dynamics being dependent on collective intercolony diffusive interactions. The crossover between LQS to GQS is intimately connected to a trade-off between the signaling network's latency, or speed of activation, and its throughput, or the total spatial range over which all the components of the system communicate.

  19. Control of retinoic acid receptor heterodimerization by ligand-induced structural transitions. A novel mechanism of action for retinoid antagonists.

    PubMed

    Depoix, C; Delmotte, M H; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    2001-03-23

    Heterodimerization of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) with 9-cis-retinoic receptors (RXRs) is a prerequisite for binding of RXR.RAR dimers to DNA and for retinoic acid-induced gene regulation. Whether retinoids control RXR/RAR solution interaction remains a debated question, and we have used in vitro and in vivo protein interaction assays to investigate the role of ligand in modulating RXR/RAR interaction in the absence of DNA. Two-hybrid assay in mammalian cells demonstrated that only RAR agonists were able to increase significantly RAR interaction with RXR, whereas RAR antagonists inhibited RXR binding to RAR. Quantitative glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays established that there was a strict correlation between agonist binding affinity for the RAR monomer and the affinity of RXR for liganded RAR, but RAR antagonists were inactive in inducing RXR recruitment to RAR in vitro. Alteration of coactivator- or corepressor-binding interfaces of RXR or RAR did not alter ligand-enhanced dimerization. In contrast, preventing the formation of a stable holoreceptor structure upon agonist binding strongly altered RXR.RAR dimerization. Finally, we observed that RAR interaction with RXR silenced RXR ligand-dependent activation function. We propose that ligand-controlled dimerization of RAR with RXR is an important step in the RXR.RAR activation process. This interaction is dependent upon adequate remodeling of the AF-2 structure and amenable to pharmacological inhibition by structurally modified retinoids.

  20. A Conceptual Framework and Classification for the Fluvial-Backwater-Marine Transition in Coastal Rivers Globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, N. C.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Hughes, Z. J.; Wolinsky, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Channels in fluvio-deltaic and coastal plain settings undergo a progressive series of downstream transitions in hydrodynamics and sediment transport, which is consequently reflected in their morphology and stratigraphic architecture. Conditions progress from uniform fluvial flow to backwater conditions with non-uniform flow, and finally to bi-directional tidal flow or estuarine circulation at the ocean boundary. While significant attention has been given to geomorphic scaling relationships in purely fluvial settings, there have been far fewer studies on the backwater and tidal reaches, and no systematic comparisons. Our study addresses these gaps by analyzing geometric scaling relationships independently in each of the above hydrodynamic regimes and establishes a comparison. To accomplish this goal we have constructed a database of planform geometries including more than 150 channels. In terms of hydrodynamics studies, much of the work on backwater dynamics has concentrated on the Mississippi River, which has very limited tidal influence. We will extend this analysis to include systems with appreciable offshore tidal range, using a numerical hydrodynamic model to study the interaction between backwater dynamics and tides. The database is comprised of systems with a wide range of tectonic, climatic, and oceanic forcings. The scale of these systems, as measured by bankfull width, ranges over three orders of magnitude from the Amazon River in Brazil to the Palix River in Washington. Channel centerlines are extracted from processed imagery, enabling continuous planform measurements of bankfull width, meander wavelength, and sinuosity. Digital terrain and surface models are used to estimate floodplain slopes. Downstream tidal boundary conditions are obtained from the TOPEX 7.1 global tidal model, while upstream boundary conditions such as basin area, relief, and discharge are obtained by linking the databases of Milliman and Meade (2011) and Syvitski (2005). Backwater

  1. Vibronic Contributions to Ligand-Induced Pseudo-Quadrupole Absorption of Rare-Earth Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    The intensities of certain lines in the absorption spectra of rare-earth or actinide ions are very sensitive to the neighboring ligands. The contributions to these intensities coming from vibronic transitions (combined electronic and vibrational transitions) are calculated by tensorial techniques with particular reference to octahedral complexes. The expansions that are used possess leading terms that indicate that the strongest vibronic lines should be associated with electronic transitions that satisfy the selection rules on J (the total angular momentum) that are identical to those for quadrupole radiation. General agreement is obtained with the recent work of Faulkner and Richardson on the transition 7F0 → 5D2 of Eu3+, though some of the approximations and assumptions, as well as much of the mathematics, are different.

  2. Ligand-induced folding of the thiM TPP riboswitch investigated by a structure-based fluorescence spectroscopic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Kathrin; Rieder, Renate; Micura, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Riboswitches are genetic control elements within non-coding regions of mRNA. They consist of a metabolite-sensitive aptamer and an adjoining expression platform. Here, we describe ligand-induced folding of a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) responsive riboswitch from Escherichia coli thiM mRNA, using chemically labeled variants. Referring to a recent structure determination of the TPP/aptamer complex, each variant was synthesized with a single 2-aminopurine (AP) nucleobase replacement that was selected to monitor formation of tertiary interactions of a particular region during ligand binding in real time by fluorescence experiments. We have determined the rate constants for conformational adjustment of the individual AP sensors. From the 7-fold differentiation of these constants, it can be deduced that tertiary contacts between the two parallel helical domains (P2/J3-2/P3/L3 and P4/P5/L5) that grip the ligand's ends in two separate pockets, form significantly faster than the function-critical three-way junction with stem P1 fully developed. Based on these data, we characterize the process of ligand binding by an induced fit of the RNA and propose a folding model of the TPP riboswitch aptamer. For the full-length riboswitch domain and for shorter constructs that represent transcriptional intermediates, we have additionally evaluated ligand-induced folding via AP-modified variants and provide insights into the sequential folding pathway that involves a finely balanced equilibrium of secondary structures. PMID:17693433

  3. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  4. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition…

  5. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at

  6. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Atiim, George A; Elliott, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few studies exploring its relevance especially in the context of emerging allergic disorders in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this article, we address the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa through the lens of epidemiologic transition theory. After a brief review of the literature on the evolution of the epidemiologic transition with a particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa, we discuss existing frameworks designed to help inform our understanding of changing health trends in the developing world. We subsequently propose a framework that privileges "place" as a key construct informing our understanding. In so doing, we use the example of allergic disease, one of the fastest growing chronic conditions in most parts of the world.

  7. Global Conceptualization of the Professional Learning Community Process: Transitioning from Country Perspectives to International Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Jane B.; Olivier, Dianne F.; Wang, Ting; Chen, Peiying; Hairon, Salleh; Pang, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The authors seek to find common PLC structures and actions among global educational systems to enhance understanding and practice. Six international researchers formed the Global Professional Learning Community Network (GloPLCNet), conducted literature reviews of each country's involvement with PLC actions, and noted similarities and common…

  8. Global Conceptualization of the Professional Learning Community Process: Transitioning from Country Perspectives to International Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Jane B.; Olivier, Dianne F.; Wang, Ting; Chen, Peiying; Hairon, Salleh; Pang, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The authors seek to find common PLC structures and actions among global educational systems to enhance understanding and practice. Six international researchers formed the Global Professional Learning Community Network (GloPLCNet), conducted literature reviews of each country's involvement with PLC actions, and noted similarities and common…

  9. A Global Model Simulation of Aerosol Effects of Surface Radiation Budget- Toward Understanding of the "Dimming to Brightening" Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Bian, Huisheng; Yu, Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    We present a global model study on the role aerosols play in the change of solar radiation at Earth's surface that transitioned from a decreasing (dimming) trend to an increasing (brightening) trend. Our primary objective is to understand the relationship between the long-term trends of aerosol emission, atmospheric burden, and surface solar radiation. More specifically, we use the recently compiled comprehensive global emission datasets of aerosols and precursors from fuel combustion, biomass burning, volcanic eruptions and other sources from 1980 to 2006 to simulate long-term variations of aerosol distributions and optical properties, and then calculate the multi-decadal changes of short-wave radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere by coupling the GOCART model simulated aerosols with the Goddard radiative transfer model. The model results are compared with long-term observational records from ground-based networks and satellite data. We will address the following critical questions: To what extent can the observed surface solar radiation trends, known as the transition from dimming to brightening, be explained by the changes of anthropogenic and natural aerosol loading on global and regional scales? What are the relative contributions of local emission and long-range transport to the surface radiation budget and how do these contributions change with time?

  10. A Global Model Simulation of Aerosol Effects of Surface Radiation Budget- Toward Understanding of the "Dimming to Brightening" Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Bian, Huisheng; Yu, Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    We present a global model study on the role aerosols play in the change of solar radiation at Earth's surface that transitioned from a decreasing (dimming) trend to an increasing (brightening) trend. Our primary objective is to understand the relationship between the long-term trends of aerosol emission, atmospheric burden, and surface solar radiation. More specifically, we use the recently compiled comprehensive global emission datasets of aerosols and precursors from fuel combustion, biomass burning, volcanic eruptions and other sources from 1980 to 2006 to simulate long-term variations of aerosol distributions and optical properties, and then calculate the multi-decadal changes of short-wave radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere by coupling the GOCART model simulated aerosols with the Goddard radiative transfer model. The model results are compared with long-term observational records from ground-based networks and satellite data. We will address the following critical questions: To what extent can the observed surface solar radiation trends, known as the transition from dimming to brightening, be explained by the changes of anthropogenic and natural aerosol loading on global and regional scales? What are the relative contributions of local emission and long-range transport to the surface radiation budget and how do these contributions change with time?

  11. Finite-size-induced transitions to synchrony in oscillator ensembles with nonlinear global coupling.

    PubMed

    Komarov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2015-08-01

    We report on finite-sized-induced transitions to synchrony in a population of phase oscillators coupled via a nonlinear mean field, which microscopically is equivalent to a hypernetwork organization of interactions. Using a self-consistent approach and direct numerical simulations, we argue that a transition to synchrony occurs only for finite-size ensembles and disappears in the thermodynamic limit. For all considered setups, which include purely deterministic oscillators with or without heterogeneity in natural oscillatory frequencies, and an ensemble of noise-driven identical oscillators, we establish scaling relations describing the order parameter as a function of the coupling constant and the system size.

  12. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  13. Dissecting intrinsic and ligand-induced structural communication in the β3 headpiece of integrins.

    PubMed

    Felline, Angelo; Ghitti, Michela; Musco, Giovanna; Fanelli, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    Graph theory is widely used to dissect structural communication in biomolecular systems. Here, graph theory-based approaches were applied to the headpiece of integrins, adhesion cell-surface receptors that transmit signals across the plasma membranes. Protein Structure Network (PSN) analysis incorporating dynamic information either from molecular dynamics simulations or from Elastic Network Models was applied to the β3 domains from integrins αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 in their apo and ligand-bound states. Closed and open states of the β headpiece are characterized by distinct allosteric communication pathways involving highly conserved amino acids at the two different α/β interfaces in the βI domain, the closed state being prompted to the closed-to-open transition. In the closed state, pure antagonism is associated with the establishment of communication pathways that start from the ligand, pass through the β1/α3,α4 interface, and end up in the hybrid domain by involving the Y110-Q82 link, which is weakened in the agonist-bound states. Allosteric communication in integrins relies on highly conserved and functionally relevant amino acid residues. The αβα-sandwich architecture of integrin βI domain dictates the structural communication between ligand binding site and hybrid domain. Differently from agonists, pure antagonists are directly involved in allosteric communication pathways and exert long-distance strengthening of the βI/hybrid interface. Release of the structure network in the ligand binding site is associated with the close-to-open transition accompanying the activation process. The study strengthens the power of graph-based analyses to decipher allosteric communication intrinsic to protein folds and modified by functionally different ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Education in Countries in Transition Facing Globalization--A Case Study Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaus, Ivo; Slaus-Kokotovic, Andrea; Morovic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    The status of the educational system of Croatia is presented and several human development indicators for Croatia are compared with those of other countries in transition. The role of education in facing globalisation and in assuring sustainable development is analysed. The aims of various levels of education: primary, secondary and higher…

  15. HAT-South: A Global Network of Southern Hemisphere Automated Telescopes to Detect Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, G.; Afonso, C.; Henning, T.; Jordán, A.; Holman, M.; Noyes, R. W.; Sackett, P. D.; Sasselov, D.; Kovács, Gábor; Csubry, Z.; Pál, A.

    2009-02-01

    HAT-South is a network of six identical, fully automated wide field telescopes, to be located at three sites (Chile: Las Campanas, Australia: Siding Springs, and Namibia: HESS site) in the Southern hemisphere. The primary purpose of the network is to detect and characterize a large number of extra-solar planets transiting nearby bright stars, and to explore their diversity. Operation of HAT-South is a collaboration among the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) and the Australian National University (ANU). The network is expected to be ready for initial science operations in 2009. The three sites will permit near round-the-clock monitoring of selected fields, and the continuous data-stream will greatly enhance recovery of transits. HAT-South will be sensitive to planetary transits down to R≈14 across a 128 square-degrees combined field of view, thereby targeting a large number of dwarfs with feasible confirmation-mode follow-up. We anticipate a yearly detection rate of approximately 25 planets transiting bright stars.

  16. Global Transitions of Proteins Explored by a Multiscale Hybrid Methodology: Application to Adenylate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Mert; Madura, Jeffry D.; Bahar, Ivet

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and accurate mapping of transition pathways is a challenging problem in allosteric proteins. We propose here a to our knowledge new methodology called collective molecular dynamics (coMD). coMD takes advantage of the collective modes of motions encoded by the fold, simultaneously evaluating the interactions and energetics via a full-atomic MD simulation protocol. The basic approach is to deform the structure collectively along the modes predicted by the anisotropic network model, upon selecting them via a Monte Carlo/Metropolis algorithm from among the complete pool of all accessible modes. Application to adenylate kinase, an allosteric enzyme composed of three domains, CORE, LID, and NMP, shows that both open-to-closed and closed-to-open transitions are readily sampled by coMD, with large-scale motions of the LID dominating. An energy-barrier crossing occurs during the NMP movements. The energy barrier originates from a switch between the salt bridges K136-D118 at the LID-CORE interface and K57-E170 and D33-R156 at the CORE-NMP and LID-NMP interfaces, respectively. Despite its simplicity and computing efficiency, coMD yields ensembles of transition pathways in close accord with detailed full atomic simulations, lending support to its utility as a multiscale hybrid method for efficiently exploring the allosteric transitions of multidomain or multimeric proteins. PMID:24094405

  17. State-and-transition model archetypes: a global taxonomy of rangeland change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    State and transition models (STMs) synthesize science-based and local knowledge to formally represent the dynamics of rangeland and other ecosystems. Mental models or concepts of ecosystem dynamics implicitly underlie all management decisions in rangelands and thus how people influence rangeland sus...

  18. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  19. The Application of Global Kinetic Models to HMX Beta-Delta Transition and Cookoff Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wemhoff, A P; Burnham, A K; Nichols III, A L

    2006-12-07

    The reduction of the number of reactions in kinetic models for both the HMX beta-delta phase transition and thermal cookoff provides an attractive alternative to traditional multi-stage kinetic models due to reduced calibration effort requirements. In this study, we use the LLNL code ALE3D to provide calibrated kinetic parameters for a two-reaction bidirectional beta-delta HMX phase transition model based on Sandia Instrumented Thermal Ignition (SITI) and Scaled Thermal Explosion (STEX) temperature history curves, and a Prout-Tompkins cookoff model based on One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) data. Results show that the two-reaction bidirectional beta-delta transition model presented here agrees as well with STEX and SITI temperature history curves as a reversible four-reaction Arrhenius model, yet requires an order of magnitude less computational effort. In addition, a single-reaction Prout-Tompkins model calibrated to ODTX data provides better agreement with ODTX data than a traditional multi-step Arrhenius model, and can contain up to 90% less chemistry-limited time steps for low-temperature ODTX simulations. Manual calibration methods for the Prout-Tompkins kinetics provide much better agreement with ODTX experimental data than parameters derived from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements at atmospheric pressure. The predicted surface temperature at explosion for STEX cookoff simulations is a weak function of the cookoff model used, and a reduction of up to 15% of chemistry-limited time steps can be achieved by neglecting the beta-delta transition for this type of simulation. Finally, the inclusion of the beta-delta transition model in the overall kinetics model can affect the predicted time to explosion by 1% for the traditional multi-step Arrhenius approach, while up to 11% using a Prout-Tompkins cookoff model.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Fas Ligand-Induced Apoptosis with an Ordinary Differential Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhimin; Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Mi, Jun; Wang, Renxiao

    2012-12-01

    Upon the treatment of Fas ligand, different types of cells exhibit different apoptotic mechanisms, which are determined by a complex network of biological pathways. In order to derive a quantitative interpretation of the cell sensitivity and apoptosis pathways, we have developed an ordinary differential equation model. Our model is intended to include all of the known major components in apoptosis pathways mediated by Fas receptor. It is composed of 29 equations using a total of 49 rate constants and 13 protein concentrations. All parameters used in our model were derived through nonlinear fitting to experimentally measured concentrations of four selected proteins in Jurkat T-cells, including caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Bid. Our model is able to correctly interpret the role of kinetic parameters and protein concentrations in cell sensitivity to FasL. It reveals the possible reasons for the transition between type-I and type-II pathways and also provides some interesting predictions, such as the more decisive role of Fas over Bax in apoptosis pathway and a possible feedback mechanism between type-I and type-II pathways. But our model failed in predicting FasL-induced apoptotic mechanism of NCI-60 cells from their gene-expression levels. Limitations in our model are also discussed.

  1. Ligand-induced conformational capture of a synthetic tetracycline riboswitch revealed by pulse EPR

    PubMed Central

    Wunnicke, Dorith; Strohbach, Denise; Weigand, Julia E.; Appel, Bettina; Feresin, Emiliano; Suess, Beatrix; Müller, Sabine; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    RNA aptamers are in vitro–selected binding domains that recognize their respective ligand with high affinity and specificity. They are characterized by complex three-dimensional conformations providing preformed binding pockets that undergo conformational changes upon ligand binding. Small molecule-binding aptamers have been exploited as synthetic riboswitches for conditional gene expression in various organisms. In the present study, double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy combined with site-directed spin labeling was used to elucidate the conformational transition of a tetracycline aptamer upon ligand binding. Different sites were selected for post-synthetic introduction of either the (1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-3-methyl) methanethiosulfonate by reaction with a 4-thiouridine modified RNA or of 4-isocyanato-2,6-tetramethylpiperidyl-N-oxid spin label by reaction with 2′-aminouridine modified RNA. The results of the DEER experiments indicate the presence of a thermodynamic equilibrium between two aptamer conformations in the free state and capture of one conformation upon tetracycline binding. PMID:21097555

  2. Superuniversality of topological quantum phase transition and global phase diagram of dirty topological systems in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Pallab; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2017-02-01

    The quantum phase transition between two clean, noninteracting topologically distinct gapped states in three dimensions is governed by a massless Dirac fermion fixed point, irrespective of the underlying symmetry class, and this constitutes a remarkably simple example of superuniversality. For a sufficiently weak disorder strength, we show that the massless Dirac fixed point is at the heart of the robustness of superuniversality. We establish this by considering both perturbative and nonperturbative effects of disorder. The superuniversality breaks down at a critical strength of disorder, beyond which the topologically distinct localized phases become separated by a delocalized diffusive phase. In the global phase diagram, the disorder controlled fixed point where superuniversality is lost, serves as a multicritical point, where the delocalized diffusive and two topologically distinct localized phases meet and the nature of the localization-delocalization transition depends on the underlying symmetry class. Based on these features, we construct the global phase diagrams of noninteracting, dirty topological systems in three dimensions. We also establish a similar structure of the phase diagram and the superuniversality for weak disorder in higher spatial dimensions. By noting that 1 /r2 power-law correlated disorder acts as a marginal perturbation for massless Dirac fermions in any spatial dimension d , we have established a general renormalization group framework for addressing disorder driven critical phenomena for fixed spatial dimension d >2 .

  3. Strike-Slip Faulting Processes on Ganymede: Global Morphological Mapping and Structural Interpretation of Grooved and Transitional Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhard, L. M.; Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Ganymede's fractured surface reveals many large-scale, morphologically distinct regions of inferred distributed shear and strike-slip faulting that may be important to the structural development of its surface and in the transition from dark to light (grooved) materials. To better understand the role of strike-slip tectonism in shaping Ganymede's complex icy surface, we perform a detailed mapping of key examples of strike-slip morphologies (i.e., en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) from Galileo and Voyager images. We focus on complex structures associated with grooved terrain (e.g. Nun Sulcus, Dardanus Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, and Arbela Sulcus) and terrains transitional from dark to light terrain (e.g. the boundary between Nippur Sulcus and Marius Regio, including Byblus Sulcus and Philus Sulcus). Detailed structural interpretations suggest strong evidence of strike-slip faulting in some regions (i.e., Nun and Dardanus Sulcus); however, further investigation of additional strike-slip structures is required of less convincing regions (i.e., Byblus Sulcus). Where applicable, these results are synthesized into a global database representing an inferred sense of shear for many of Ganymede's fractures. Moreover, when combined with existing observations of extensional features, these results help to narrow down the range of possible principal stress directions that could have acted at the regional or global scale to produce grooved terrain on Ganymede.

  4. From Cutlass to Agribusiness: Caribbean Food and Agriculture in Transition within a Global System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael J.

    This examination of the future role of food and agriculture in world peace and prosperity presents a regional cross-country view of the Caribbean countries with emphasis on the Caricom English speaking countries within a global food system environment. Following an introductory section, the second of six sections focuses on two broad agricultural…

  5. From Cutlass to Agribusiness: Caribbean Food and Agriculture in Transition within a Global System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael J.

    This examination of the future role of food and agriculture in world peace and prosperity presents a regional cross-country view of the Caribbean countries with emphasis on the Caricom English speaking countries within a global food system environment. Following an introductory section, the second of six sections focuses on two broad agricultural…

  6. Transition Brief: Policy Recommendations on Preparing Americans for the Global Skills Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The central economic competitiveness issue for the Obama administration is creating an aligned, 21st century public education system that prepares students,workers and citizens to triumph in the global skills race. On Jan. 20, 2009, the Obama administration will take command of the White House facing unprecedented challenges to the U.S. economy…

  7. Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud transition: A global survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.A.; Hill, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The influences of wave climate and sediment supply on the depths of sand-mud transitions (hSMT) are investigated. Depths of sand-mud transitions (SMT) are based on published granulometric data from surface samples gathered from 14 sites in different wave-dominated coastal environments with fluvial input, including high energy (Columbia, Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Copper, and Nepean rivers), moderate energy (Ebro, Nile, Santa Clara, Tseng-wen and Kao-ping rivers), and low energy (Po, Pescara and Tronto rivers) regimes. Geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mud percent are compiled from samples along shore-normal transects, and significant correlation is found between these two textural descriptors. Nominally, the SMT is defined as the transition from GMD > 63????m to 25% mud. This dual definition is applied to the 14 systems, and hSMT is tabulated for each system. Correlation is found between hSMT and the depth at which wave-induced bottom shear stress equals the critical erosion shear stress of the largest mud particles and also between hSMT and significant wave height. Lack of correlation between hSMT and sediment load of nearby rivers indicates either that the influence of sediment supply on depth of the sand-mud transition is small or is not adequately represented in this study. Shelf width and slope do not correlate with residuals from a formalized linear relationship between hSMT and significant wave height. The relationship between hSMT and wave climate is useful for calibration of numerical models of erosion and deposition in wave-dominated coastal environments, for prediction of seabed properties in remote or inaccessible areas, and for reconstruction of paleodepth based on facies changes from sand to mud in ancient rocks. ?? 2008.

  8. Ion intercalation into two-dimensional transition-metal carbides: global screening for new high-capacity battery materials.

    PubMed

    Eames, Christopher; Islam, M Saiful

    2014-11-19

    Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (termed MXenes) are a new family of compounds generating considerable interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Intercalation of ions into MXenes has recently been demonstrated with good electrochemical performance, making them viable electrode materials for rechargeable batteries. Here we have performed global screening of the capacity and voltage for a variety of intercalation ions (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+)) into a large number of M2C-based compounds (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta) with F-, H-, O-, and OH-functionalized surfaces using density functional theory methods. In terms of gravimetric capacity a greater amount of Li(+) or Mg(2+) can be intercalated into an MXene than Na(+) or K(+), which is related to the size of the intercalating ion. Variation of the surface functional group and transition metal species can significantly affect the voltage and capacity of an MXene, with oxygen termination leading to the highest capacity. The most promising group of M2C materials in terms of anode voltage and gravimetric capacity (>400 mAh/g) are compounds containing light transition metals (e.g., Sc, Ti, V, and Cr) with nonfunctionalized or O-terminated surfaces. The results presented here provide valuable insights into exploring a rich variety of high-capacity MXenes for potential battery applications.

  9. Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of textures observed on a dust-covered plain in the Marte Valles region of Mars. Textural variations across the scene include: areas that are littered with small impact craters, a channel-like feature that is dominated by mounds of a variety of sizes, small ripples and/or ridges, and relatively smooth, unremarkable terrain. The contact between the cratered plain and the area dominated by mounds marks one of the banks along the edge of one of the shallow valleys of the Marte Valles system.

    Location near: 17.7oN, 175.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  10. Modelling the Interaction of Catecholamines with the α1A Adrenoceptor Towards a Ligand-induced Receptor Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Gemma K.; Rozas, Isabel; Watson, Graeme W.

    2005-06-01

    Adrenoceptors are members of the important G protein coupled receptor family for which the detailed mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we have combined docking and molecular dynamics simulations to model the ligand induced effect on an homology derived human α1A adrenoceptor. Analysis of agonist/α1A adrenoceptor complex interactions focused on the role of the charged amine group, the aromatic ring, the N-methyl group of adrenaline, the beta hydroxyl group and the catechol meta and para hydroxyl groups of the catecholamines. The most critical interactions for the binding of the agonists are consistent with many earlier reports and our study suggests new residues possibly involved in the agonist-binding site, namely Thr-174 and Cys-176. We further observe a number of structural changes that occur upon agonist binding including a movement of TM-V away from TM-III and a change in the interactions of Asp-123 of the conserved DRY motif. This may cause Arg-124 to move out of the TM helical bundle and change the orientation of residues in IC-II and IC-III, allowing for increased affinity of coupling to the G-protein.

  11. Ligand-induced structural changes in the cyclic nucleotide-modulated potassium channel MloK1

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Julia; Chami, Mohamed; Baumgartner, Paul; Arheit, Marcel; Chiu, Po-Lin; Rangl, Martina; Scheuring, Simon; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Nimigean, Crina M.; Stahlberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels are important for signal transduction and pacemaking in eukaryotes. The molecular determinants of ligand gating in these channels are still unknown, mainly because of a lack of direct structural information. Here we report ligand-induced conformational changes in full-length MloK1, a cyclic nucleotide-modulated potassium channel from the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti, analysed by electron crystallography and atomic force microscopy. Upon cAMP binding, the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains move vertically towards the membrane, and directly contact the S1–S4 voltage sensor domains. This is accompanied by a significant shift and tilt of the voltage sensor domain helices. In both states, the inner pore-lining helices are in an ‘open’ conformation. We propose a mechanism in which ligand binding can favour pore opening via a direct interaction between the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains and voltage sensors. This offers a simple mechanistic hypothesis for the coupling between ligand gating and voltage sensing in eukaryotic HCN channels. PMID:24469021

  12. Ligand-induced structural changes in the cyclic nucleotide-modulated potassium channel MloK1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Chami, Mohamed; Baumgartner, Paul; Arheit, Marcel; Chiu, Po-Lin; Rangl, Martina; Scheuring, Simon; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Nimigean, Crina M.; Stahlberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels are important for signal transduction and pacemaking in eukaryotes. The molecular determinants of ligand gating in these channels are still unknown, mainly because of a lack of direct structural information. Here we report ligand-induced conformational changes in full-length MloK1, a cyclic nucleotide-modulated potassium channel from the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti, analysed by electron crystallography and atomic force microscopy. Upon cAMP binding, the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains move vertically towards the membrane, and directly contact the S1-S4 voltage sensor domains. This is accompanied by a significant shift and tilt of the voltage sensor domain helices. In both states, the inner pore-lining helices are in an ‘open’ conformation. We propose a mechanism in which ligand binding can favour pore opening via a direct interaction between the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains and voltage sensors. This offers a simple mechanistic hypothesis for the coupling between ligand gating and voltage sensing in eukaryotic HCN channels.

  13. End-to-end conformational communication through a synthetic purinergic receptor by ligand-induced helicity switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert A.; Diemer, Vincent; Webb, Simon J.; Clayden, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    The long-range communication of information, exemplified by signal transduction through membrane-bound receptors, is a central biochemical function. Reversible binding of a messenger ligand induces a local conformational change that is relayed through the receptor, inducing a chemical effect typically several nanometres from the binding site. We report a synthetic receptor mimic that transmits structural information from a boron-based ligand binding site to a spectroscopic reporter located more than 2 nm away. Reversible binding of a diol ligand to the N-terminal binding site induces a screw-sense preference in a helical oligo(aminoisobutyric acid) foldamer, which is relayed to a reporter group at the remote C-terminus, communicating information about the structure and stereochemistry of the ligand. The reversible nature of boronate esterification was exploited to switch the receptor sequentially between left- and right-handed helices, while the exquisite conformational sensitivity of the helical relay allowed the reporter to differentiate even between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as ligands.

  14. Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Daryl J.; Mateer, George G.; Menter, Florian R.

    1993-01-01

    A new oil-fringe imaging system skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced in proportion to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.

  15. Does Global Astrocytic Calcium Signaling Participate in Awake Brain State Transitions and Neuronal Circuit Function?

    PubMed

    Kjaerby, Celia; Rasmussen, Rune; Andersen, Mie; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-02-16

    We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release of the neuromodulators, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Astrocytes have emerged as a new player participating in the regulation of brain activity, and have recently been implicated in brain state shifts. Astrocytes display global Ca(2+) signaling in response to activation of the noradrenergic system, but whether astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling is causative or correlative for shifts in brain state and neural activity patterns is not known. Here we review the current available literature on astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling in awake animals in order to explore the role of astrocytic signaling in brain state shifts. Furthermore, we look at the development and availability of innovative new methodological tools that are opening up for new ways of visualizing and perturbing astrocyte activity in awake behaving animals. With these new tools at hand, the field of astrocyte research will likely be able to elucidate the causal and mechanistic roles of astrocytes in complex behaviors within a very near future.

  16. Global carbon cycle perturbation across the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong McKay, David I.; Tyrrell, Toby; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-02-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ~34 Ma, marks a tipping point in the long-term Cenozoic greenhouse to icehouse climate transition. Paleorecords reveal stepwise rapid cooling and ice growth across the EOT tightly coupled to a transient benthic δ13C excursion and a major and permanent deepening of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). Based on biogeochemical box modeling, Merico et al. (2008) suggested that a combination of (1) glacioeustatic sea level fall-induced shelf-basin carbonate burial fractionation and (2) shelf carbonate weathering can account for the carbon cycle perturbation, but this finding has been questioned. Alternative proposed mechanisms include increased ocean ventilation, decreased carbonate burial, increased organic carbon burial, increased silicate weathering, and increased ocean calcium concentration. Here we use an improved version of the biogeochemical box model of Merico et al. (2008) to reevaluate these competing hypotheses and an additional mechanism, the expansion of "carbon capacitors" such as permafrost and peatlands. We find that changes in calcium concentration, silicate weathering, and carbonate or organic carbon burial each yield a response that is fundamentally at odds with the form and/or sign of the paleorecords. Shelf-basin carbonate burial fractionation (CCD change), plus shelf carbonate weathering, sequestration of 12C-enriched carbon into carbon capacitors, and possibly increased ocean ventilation (δ13C excursion), offers the best fit to the paleorecords. Further work is needed to understand why the EOT carbon cycle perturbation is so unique when the forcing mechanisms hypothesized to be responsible (cooling and ice growth) are not peculiar to this event.

  17. Eccentricity and global cooling forced Quaternary tropical climate changes and mid-Pleistocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Wan, S.; Christophe, C.; Song, L.; Sun, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, A.; Li, T.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity and Pacific Walker Circulation are controlled by the zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the tropical western-eastern Pacific Ocean, and the associated pressure gradient (Julian and Chervin, 1978). Such increased zonal SST gradient since early Pleistocene was primarily triggered by the decreasing SST in the equatorial east Pacific, as the SST of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) remained stable (Liu and Herbert, 2004; de Garidel-Thoron et al., 2005). However, the driven mechanism of this cooling in the equatorial east Pacific (EEP) and its role in the MPT is not clear. Here we present the high-resolution clay mineral and grain-size records spanning the last 2.36 Myr, obtained from the core MD06-3050 in the West Philippine Sea. Our results indicate that the rainfall intensification on Luzon Island are coeval with a reduction in precipitation over central China and an increase in zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, implying a reinforcement of La Niña-like conditions. In contrast, periods of reduced of rainfall in Luzon Island are associated with higher precipitation in central China and a weakening zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, thereby suggesting the development of dominant El Niño-like conditions. In contrast with a previously suggested smaller influence of Earth's orbital eccentricity on the global isolation, our results demonstrated that a combined effect of eccentricity modulated tropical isolation and global cooling dominated the long-term variations of SST in the EEP. The continued decreased zonal SST gradient and subsequent intensified Pacific Walker Circulation in between 1.2 to 0.8 Myr ago, which might alter the meridional heat and moisture transport and trigger the MPT(McClymont and Rosell-Melé, 2005), was induced by a weaken eccentricity modulated tropical isolation and enhanced high-latitude cooling. Such mechanism may act as a dominate inducement

  18. The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions*

    PubMed Central

    Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats. PMID:24563820

  19. Temporal Global Changes in Gene Expression during Temperature Transition in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Motin, Vladimir L.; Georgescu, Anca M.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Gu, Pauline P.; Nelson, David O.; Mabery, Shalini L.; Garnham, Janine B.; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A.; Ott, Linda L.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Elliott, Jeffrey M.; Kegelmeyer, Laura M.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Brubaker, Robert R.; Garcia, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    DNA microarrays encompassing the entire genome of Yersinia pestis were used to characterize global regulatory changes during steady-state vegetative growth occurring after shift from 26 to 37°C in the presence and absence of Ca2+. Transcriptional profiles revealed that 51, 4, and 13 respective genes and open reading frames (ORFs) on pCD, pPCP, and pMT were thermoinduced and that the majority of these genes carried by pCD were downregulated by Ca2+. In contrast, Ca2+ had little effect on chromosomal genes and ORFs, of which 235 were thermally upregulated and 274 were thermally downregulated. The primary consequence of these regulatory events is profligate catabolism of numerous metabolites available in the mammalian host. PMID:15342600

  20. Temporal global changes in gene expression during temperature transition in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Motin, Vladimir L; Georgescu, Anca M; Fitch, Joseph P; Gu, Pauline P; Nelson, David O; Mabery, Shalini L; Garnham, Janine B; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A; Ott, Linda L; Coleman, Matthew A; Elliott, Jeffrey M; Kegelmeyer, Laura M; Wyrobek, Andrew J; Slezak, Thomas R; Brubaker, Robert R; Garcia, Emilio

    2004-09-01

    DNA microarrays encompassing the entire genome of Yersinia pestis were used to characterize global regulatory changes during steady-state vegetative growth occurring after shift from 26 to 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of Ca2+. Transcriptional profiles revealed that 51, 4, and 13 respective genes and open reading frames (ORFs) on pCD, pPCP, and pMT were thermoinduced and that the majority of these genes carried by pCD were downregulated by Ca2+. In contrast, Ca2+ had little effect on chromosomal genes and ORFs, of which 235 were thermally upregulated and 274 were thermally downregulated. The primary consequence of these regulatory events is profligate catabolism of numerous metabolites available in the mammalian host.

  1. Evaluating the feasibility of global climate models to simulate cloud cover effect controlled by Marine Stratocumulus regime transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, Tom; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Quaas, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) occur in two main cloud regimes of open and closed cells that differ significantly by their cloud cover. Closed cells gradually get cleansed of high CCN concentrations in a process that involves initiation of drizzle that breaks the full cloud cover into open cells. The drizzle creates downdrafts that organize the convection along converging gust fronts, which in turn produce stronger updrafts that can sustain more cloud water that compensates the depletion of the cloud water by the rain. In addition, having stronger updrafts allow the clouds to grow relatively deep before rain starts to deplete its cloud water. Therefore, lower droplet concentrations and stronger rain would lead to lower cloud fraction, but not necessary also to lower liquid water path (LWP). The fundamental relationships between these key variables derived from global climate model (GCM) simulations are analyzed with respect to observations in order to determine whether the GCM parameterizations can represent well the governing physical mechanisms upon MSC regime transitions. The results are used to evaluate the feasibility of GCM's for estimating aerosol cloud-mediated radiative forcing upon MSC regime transitions, which are responsible for the largest aerosol cloud-mediated radiative forcing.

  2. The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun with the Transit of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David; Faherty, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the 2012 transit of Venus. In total, our group (stationed at Easter Island, Chile) recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu’u Global Network. Applying the methods of French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, we used individual second and third Venus-Sun contact times to calculate the distance to the Sun. Ten of the sites in our network had amiable weather; 8 of which measured second contact and 5 of which measured third contact leading to consistent solar distance measurements of 152+/-30 million km and 163+/-30 million km respectively. The distance to the Sun at the time of the transit was 152.25 million km; therefore, our measurements are also consistent within 1-sigma of the known value. The goal of our international school group network was to inspire the next generation of scientists using the excitement and accessibility of such a rare astronomical event. In the process, we connected hundreds of participating students representing a diverse, multi-cultural group with differing political, economic, and racial backgrounds.

  3. Global force-torque phase diagram for the DNA double helix: Structural transitions, triple points, and collapsed plectonemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2013-12-01

    We present a free energy model for structural transitions of the DNA double helix driven by tensile and torsional stress. Our model is coarse grained and is based on semiflexible polymer descriptions of B-DNA, underwound L-DNA, and highly overwound P-DNA. The statistical-mechanical model of plectonemic supercoiling previously developed for B-DNA is applied to semiflexible polymer models of P- and L-DNA to obtain a model of DNA structural transitions in quantitative accord with experiment. We identify two distinct plectonemic states, one "inflated" by electrostatic repulsion and thermal fluctuations and the other "collapsed," with the two double helices inside the supercoils driven to close contact. We find that supercoiled B and L are stable only in the inflated form, while supercoiled P is always collapsed. We also predict the behavior and experimental signatures of highly underwound "Q"-DNA, the left-handed analog of P-DNA; as for P, supercoiled Q is always collapsed. Overstretched "S"-DNA and strand-separated "stress-melted" DNA are also included in our model, allowing prediction of a global phase diagram for forces up to 1000 pN and torques between ±60 pN nm, or, in terms of linking number density, from σ =-5 to +3.

  4. Global force-torque phase diagram for the DNA double helix: structural transitions, triple points and collapsed plectonemes

    PubMed Central

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    We present a free energy model for structural transitions of the DNA double helix driven by tensile and torsional stress. Our model is coarse grained, and is based on semiflexible polymer descriptions of B-DNA, underwound L-DNA, and highly overwound P-DNA. The statistical-mechanical model of plectonemic supercoiling previously developed for B-DNA is applied to semiflexible polymer models of P and L-DNA, to obtain a model of DNA structural transitions in quantitative accord with experiment. We identify two distinct plectonemic states, one “inflated” by electrostatic repulsion and thermal fluctuations, and the other “collapsed”, with the two double helices inside the supercoils driven to close contact. We find that supercoiled B and L are stable only in inflated form, while supercoiled P is always collapsed. We also predict the behavior and experimental signatures of highly underwound “Q”-DNA, the left-handed analog of P-DNA; as for P, supercoiled Q is always collapsed. Overstretched “S”-DNA and strand-separated “stress-melted” DNA are also included in our model, allowing prediction of a global phase diagram for forces up to 1000 pN and torques between ±60 pN nm, or in terms of linking number density, from σ = −5 to +3. PMID:24483501

  5. Global force-torque phase diagram for the DNA double helix: structural transitions, triple points, and collapsed plectonemes.

    PubMed

    Marko, John F; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2013-12-01

    We present a free energy model for structural transitions of the DNA double helix driven by tensile and torsional stress. Our model is coarse grained and is based on semiflexible polymer descriptions of B-DNA, underwound L-DNA, and highly overwound P-DNA. The statistical-mechanical model of plectonemic supercoiling previously developed for B-DNA is applied to semiflexible polymer models of P- and L-DNA to obtain a model of DNA structural transitions in quantitative accord with experiment. We identify two distinct plectonemic states, one "inflated" by electrostatic repulsion and thermal fluctuations and the other "collapsed," with the two double helices inside the supercoils driven to close contact. We find that supercoiled B and L are stable only in the inflated form, while supercoiled P is always collapsed. We also predict the behavior and experimental signatures of highly underwound "Q"-DNA, the left-handed analog of P-DNA; as for P, supercoiled Q is always collapsed. Overstretched "S"-DNA and strand-separated "stress-melted" DNA are also included in our model, allowing prediction of a global phase diagram for forces up to 1000 pN and torques between ±60 pN nm, or, in terms of linking number density, from σ=-5 to +3.

  6. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Tomasto Cagigao, Elsa; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole. PMID:24979787

  7. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  8. NOW AND THEN: The Global Nutrition Transition: The Pandemic of Obesity in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; Adair, Linda S.; Ng, Shu Wen

    2011-01-01

    Decades ago discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy. Diets in the 1970’s began to shift toward increased reliance upon processed foods, increased away from home intake and greater use of edible oils and sugar-sweetened beverages. Reduced physical activity and increased sedentary time was seen also. These changes began in the early 1990-‘s in the low and middle income world but did not become clearly recognized until diabetes, hypertension and obesity began to dominate the globe. Urban and rural areas from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’s poorest countries to the higher income ones are shown to have experienced rapid increases in overweight and obesity status. Concurrent rapid shifts in diet and activity are documented. An array of large-scale programmatic and policy shifts are being explored in a few countries; however despite the major health challenges faced, few countries are serious in addressing prevention of the dietary challenges faced. PMID:22221213

  9. The Campanian - Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) climate transition linked to a global carbon cycle perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, S.; Friedrich, O.; Gale, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous was a period of long-term climate cooling succeeding the extreme warmth of the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse world. The cooling is mainly considered as a result of changes in ocean circulation due to plate movements resulting in progressive deep-water exchange between the deep oceanic basins and a parallel drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In Campanian - Maastrichtian times, pronounced climate cooling is documented between 71 - 69 Ma, when distinct changes in foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope data at a global scale indicate substantial deep-water cooling and reduced rates of organic carbon burial. The causal mechanisms of this cooling period, however, are poorly understood to date. While some authors suggest mainly oceanographic changes, others supposed an ephemeral glaciation related to a eustatic sea-level fall. Mainly, the relative timing of oceanic oxygen and carbon isotope changes to eustatic sea-level changes is not proven yet. Likewise, the influence of plate tectonic changes as the opening of gateways or the subduction of mid-ocean ridges and/or of orbital forcing is poorly understood. A principle objection beside the sparse available data is the low temporal resolution of biostratigraphic zonations. Here, we present carbon isotope stratigraphies from Campanian-Maastrichtian Boundary sites in the Boreal and Tethyan shelf seas of Europe and from Shatsky Rise in the tropical Pacific in order to improve the resolution of stratigraphic correlation. Prominent features at that time are two negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in the late Campanian and earliest Maastrichtian, which are well documented in the Lägerdorf-Kronsmoor section in N-Germany and the Campanian-Maastrichtian Boundary Stratotype at Tercis in SW France. These new carbon isotope records correlate well with the carbon isotope reference curve from the English Chalk (Jarvis et al., 2002, 2006). The new carbon isotope record at Site 305 in the tropical

  10. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  11. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  12. The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rodriguez, David R.; Miller, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French…

  13. The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rodriguez, David R.; Miller, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French…

  14. Age and transit time distributions of carbon in a nonlinear global model perturbed by nonautonomous fossil-fuel emissions signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Holger; Müller, Markus; Sierra, Carlos A.

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fluxes in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system are governed by nonlinear processes, which are usually modeled by a system of ordinary differential equations. It is very difficult to analyze such nonlinear models and to predict their future behavior, particularly their internal age structure: How old is the carbon in different pools (ages) and how old is the carbon that leaves the system (transit times)? How is this age structure modified by the addition of fossil fuel emissions? To answer these questions, we developed a new mathematical approach that allows us to compute and visualize the age structure of models of well mixed pools even if they are nonlinear and nonautonomous. We do not only consider mean ages and mean transit times, but entire distributions. Consequently, we can consider important statistics such as the median, quantiles, or the variance. We applied this mathematical approach to a nonlinear global carbon model consisting of three pools (atmosphere, surface ocean, and terrestrial biosphere) and driven by four emission scenarios (RCP3-PD, RCP4.5, RCP6, RCP8.5). Results showed that the addition of fossil fuels modifies the age structure of C in the atmosphere by drastically increasing its proportion of young carbon. We found little differences among predicted mean ages for the four emission scenarios, but changes in the overall distributions were large with effects on median, quantiles and variance. In the short-term, fossil-fuel emissions have an important effect on the amount of carbon that is exchanged among Earth's main C reservoirs. In the long-term, most added C will eventually end up in the deep ocean, but the time required to return to pre-industrial C age distributions is largely dependent on emission scenarios.

  15. PPAR{gamma} ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jae-Jung; Heo, Dae Seog

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effect of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPAR{gamma} protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPAR{gamma} ligands

  16. Global transcriptional response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to growth transitions in glucose minimal medium

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Wick, Lukas M; Qi, Weihong; Riordan, James T; Ouellette, Lindsey M; Whittam, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Global patterns of gene expression of Escherichia coli K-12 during growth transitions have been deeply investigated, however, comparable studies of E. coli O157:H7 have not been explored, particularly with respect to factors regulating virulence genes and genomic islands specific to this pathogen. To examine the impact of growth phase on the dynamics of the transcriptome, O157:H7 Sakai strain was cultured in MOPS minimal media (0.1% glucose), RNA harvested at 10 time points from early exponential to full stationary phase, and relative gene expression was measured by co-hybridization on high-density DNA microarrays. Expression levels of 14 genes, including those encoding Shiga toxins and other virulence factors associated with the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), were confirmed by Q-PCR. Results: Analysis of variance (R/MAANOVA, Fs test) identified 442 (36%) of 1239 O157-specific ORFs and 2110 (59%) of 3647 backbone ORFs that changed in expression significantly over time. QT cluster analysis placed 2468 of the 2552 significant ORFs into 12 groups; each group representing a distinct expression pattern. ORFs from the largest cluster (n = 1078) decreased in expression from late exponential to early stationary phase: most of these ORFs are involved in functions associated with steady state growth. Also represented in this cluster are ORFs of the TAI island, encoding tellurite resistance and urease activity, which decreased ~4-fold. Most ORFs of the LEE pathogenicity island also decreased ~2-fold by early stationary phase. The ORFs encoding proteins secreted via the LEE encoded type III secretion system, such as tccP and espJ, also decreased in expression from exponential to stationary phase. Three of the clusters (n = 154) comprised genes that are transiently upregulated at the transition into stationary phase and included genes involved in nutrient scavenging. Upregulated genes with an increase in mRNA levels from late exponential to early stationary

  17. Ligand-induced internalization, recycling, and resensitization of adrenomedullin receptors depend not on CLR or RAMP alone but on the receptor complex as a whole.

    PubMed

    Nag, Kakon; Sultana, Naznin; Kato, Akira; Dranik, Anna; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Kutsuzawa, Koichi; Hirose, Shigehisa; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    Adrenomedullins (AM) is a multifaceted distinct subfamily of peptides that belongs to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) superfamily. These peptides exert their functional activities via associations of calcitonin receptor-like receptors (CLRs) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) RAMP2 and RAMP3. Recent studies established that RAMPs and CLRs can modify biochemical properties such as trafficking and glycosylation of each other. However there is very little or no understanding regarding how RAMP or CLR influence ligand-induced events of AM-receptor complex. In this study, using pufferfish homologs of CLR (mfCLR1-3) and RAMP (mfRAMP2 and mfRAMP3), we revealed that all combinations of CLR and RAMP quickly underwent ligand-induced internalization; however, their recycling rates were different as follows: mfCLR1-mfRAMP3>mfCLR2-mfRAMP3>mfCLR3-mfRAMP3. Functional receptor assay confirmed that the recycled receptors were resensitized on the plasma membrane. In contrast, a negligible amount of mfCLR1-mfRAMP2 was recycled and reconstituted. Immunocytochemistry results indicated that the lower recovery rate of mfCLR3-mfRAMP3 and mfCLR1-mfRAMP2 was correlated with higher proportion of lysosomal localization of these receptor complexes compared to the other combinations. Collectively our results indicate, for the first time, that the ligand-induced internalization, recycling, and reconstitution properties of RAMP-CLR receptor complexes depend on the receptor-complex as a whole, and not on individual CLR or RAMP alone.

  18. Sensitivity to Flg22 Is Modulated by Ligand-Induced Degradation and de Novo Synthesis of the Endogenous Flagellin-Receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING2[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Smith, John M.; Salamango, Daniel J.; Leslie, Michelle E.; Collins, Carina A.; Heese, Antje

    2014-01-01

    FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) is the plant cell surface receptor that perceives bacterial flagellin or flg22 peptide, initiates flg22-signaling responses, and contributes to bacterial growth restriction. Flg22 elicitation also leads to ligand-induced endocytosis and degradation of FLS2 within 1 h. Why plant cells remove this receptor precisely at the time during which its function is required remains mainly unknown. Here, we assessed in planta flg22-signaling competency in the context of ligand-induced degradation of endogenous FLS2 and chemical interference known to impede flg22-dependent internalization of FLS2 into endocytic vesicles. Within 1 h after an initial flg22 treatment, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue was unable to reelicit flg22 signaling in a ligand-, time-, and dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that flg22-induced degradation of endogenous FLS2 may serve to desensitize cells to the same stimulus (homologous desensitization), likely to prevent continuous signal output upon repetitive flg22 stimulation. In addition to impeding ligand-induced FLS2 degradation, pretreatment with the vesicular trafficking inhibitors Wortmannin or Tyrphostin A23 impaired flg22-elicited reactive oxygen species production that was partially independent of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1. Interestingly, these inhibitors did not affect flg22-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, indicating the ability to utilize vesicular trafficking inhibitors to target different flg22-signaling responses. For Tyrphostin A23, reduced flg22-induced reactive oxygen species could be separated from the defect in FLS2 degradation. At later times (>2 h) after the initial flg22 elicitation, recovery of FLS2 protein levels positively correlated with resensitization to flg22, indicating that flg22-induced new synthesis of FLS2 may prepare cells for a new round of monitoring the environment for flg22. PMID:24220680

  19. TGF-β induces global changes in DNA methylation during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Horacio; Vieth, Edyta; Lee, Jiyoon; Segar, Mathew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 h post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 h after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer. PMID:25470663

  20. TGF-β induces global changes in DNA methylation during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Vieth, Edyta; Lee, Jiyoon; Segar, Mathew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 h post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 h after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer.

  1. Staggering Changes in Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Coincide with Global Climate and Evolution Transitions during the Late Miocene - Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanova, A.; Herbert, T.; Peterson, L.

    2012-12-01

    crisis and SST proxy data from the Rosello section shows a continuation of the late Miocene cooling trend into the earliest Pliocene as well as increase in the amplitude of variability. The onset of cooling in the Mediterranean coincides with the widespread C3/C4 plant transition suggesting a strong coherence between the terrestrial and marine realm during this time period. We hypothesize that in the Late Miocene a widespread cooling possibly driven by pCO2 changes coupled with orbital forcing set the stage for environmental and evolutionary changes on land. The changing landscape illustrated by expansion of grasslands and the emergence of the Sahara desert could have initiated an albedo-cooling feedback and set the stage for Northern Hemisphere Glaciation in the Pliocene. The Mediterranean records reconstruct climate changes currently observed in other paleoreconstructions but not captured by the global δ18O record. Our first, continuous SST record from the Mediterranean over this time period allows for the evaluation of marine-terrestrial connections on both long term and orbital time scale, continental climate change, plant, grazer and hominin evolution, thresholds for climate change and changes in climate forcing.

  2. CXCR1/2 ligands induce p38 MAPK-dependent translocation and release of opioid peptides from primary granules in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rittner, Heike L; Labuz, Dominika; Richter, Jan F; Brack, Alexander; Schäfer, Michael; Stein, Christoph; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2007-11-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) can release opioid peptides which bind to opioid receptors on sensory neurons and inhibit inflammatory pain. This release can be triggered by chemokine receptor 1/2 (CXCR1/2) ligands. Our aim was to identify the granule subpopulation containing opioid peptides and to assess whether MAPK mediate the CXCR1/2 ligand-induced release of these peptides. Using double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, we showed that beta-endorphin (END) and Met-enkephalin (ENK) were colocalized with the primary (azurophil) granule markers CD63 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) within PMN. END and ENK release triggered by a CXCR1/2 ligand in vitro was dependent on the presence of cytochalasin B (CyB) and on p38 MAPK, but not on p42/44 MAPK. In addition, translocation of END and ENK containing primary granules to submembranous regions of the cell was abolished by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. In vivo CXCL2/3 reduced pain in rats with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced hindpaw inflammation. This effect was attenuated by intraplantar (i.pl.) antibodies against END and ENK and by i.pl. p38 MAPK inhibitor treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate that END and ENK are contained in primary granules of PMN, and that CXCR1/2 ligands induce p38-dependent translocation and release of these opioid peptides to inhibit inflammatory pain.

  3. Dual inhibition of AKT/FLT3-ITD by A674563 overcomes FLT3 ligand-induced drug resistance in FLT3-ITD positive AML

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenchao; Yu, Kailin; Liu, Xiaochuan; Zou, Fengming; Zhao, Zheng; Wu, Jiaxin; Liu, Juan; Liu, Feiyang; Wang, Li; Stone, Richard M.; Galinksy, Ilene A.; Griffin, James D.; Zhang, Shanchun; Weisberg, Ellen L.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    The FLT3-ITD mutation is one of the most prevalent oncogenic mutations in AML. Several FLT3 kinase inhibitors have shown impressive activity in clinical evaluation, however clinical responses are usually transient and clinical effects are rapidly lost due to drug resistance. One of the resistance mechanisms in the AML refractory patients involves FLT3-ligand induced reactivation of AKT and/or ERK signaling via FLT3 wt kinase. Via a screen of numerous AKT kinase inhibitors, we identified the well-established orally available AKT inhibitor, A674563, as a dual suppressor of AKT and FLT3-ITD. A674563 suppressed FLT3-ITD positive AML both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, compared to other FLT3 inhibitors, A674563 is able to overcome FLT3 ligand-induced drug resistance through simultaneous inhibition of FLT3-ITD- and AKT-mediated signaling. Our findings suggest that A674563 might be a potential drug candidate for overcoming FLT3 ligand-mediated drug resistance in FLT3-ITD positive AML. PMID:27074558

  4. Switch of sensitivity dynamics revealed with DyGloSA toolbox for dynamical global sensitivity analysis as an early warning for system's critical transition.

    PubMed

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA - a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits.

  5. Switch of Sensitivity Dynamics Revealed with DyGloSA Toolbox for Dynamical Global Sensitivity Analysis as an Early Warning for System's Critical Transition

    PubMed Central

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA – a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits. PMID:24367574

  6. Combining ligand-induced quantum-confined stark effect with type II heterojunction bilayer structure in CdTe and CdSe nanocrystal-based solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Garphunkin, Natalia; Solomeshch, Olga; Vaneski, Aleksandar; Susha, Andrei S; Rogach, Andrey L; Tessler, Nir

    2012-04-24

    We show that it is possible to combine several charge generation strategies in a single device structure, the performance of which benefits from all methods used. Exploiting the inherent type II heterojunction between layered structures of CdSe and CdTe colloidal quantum dots, we systematically study different ways of combining such nanocrystals of different size and surface chemistry and with different linking agents in a bilayer solar cell configuration. We demonstrate the beneficial use of two distinctly different sizes of NCs not only to improve the solar spectrum matching but also to reduce exciton binding energy, allowing their efficient dissociation at the interface. We further make use of the ligand-induced quantum-confined Stark effect in order to enhance charge generation and, hence, overall efficiency of nanocrystal-based solar cells.

  7. Formation of retinoid X receptor homodimers leads to repression of T3 response: hormonal cross talk by ligand-induced squelching.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, J M; Zhang, X K; Graupner, G; Lee, M O; Hermann, T; Hoffmann, B; Pfahl, M

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Heterodimerization is required for efficient TR DNA binding to most response elements and transcriptional activation by thyroid hormone. RXRs also function as auxiliary proteins for several other receptors. In addition, RXR alpha can be induced by specific ligands to form homodimers. Here we report that RXR-specific retinoids that induce RXR homodimers are effective repressors of the T3 response. We provide evidence that this repression by RXR-specific ligands occurs by sequestering of RXR from TR-RXR heterodimers into RXR homodimers. This ligand-induced squelching may represent an important mechanism by which RXR-specific retinoids and 9-cis retinoic acid mediate hormonal cross talk among a subfamily of nuclear receptors activated by structurally unrelated ligands. Images PMID:8246986

  8. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A During Ligand-Induced Down-Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor in the Ovary☆

    PubMed Central

    Harada, M.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulators of ovarian angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the temporal relationship between VEGF-A and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA expression during ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR. Immature female rats were treated with pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin followed by 25 IU hCG 56h later (day 0). On day 5, treatment with hCG (50 IU) to down-regulate LHR showed a temporal decrease in VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels in parallel with decreasing LHR mRNA. This effect was specific since the expression of CYP11A1 mRNA showed no decline. Examination of VEGF-A mRNA expression, using in situ hybridization histochemistry with 35S-labeled antisense VEGF-A mRNA probe, showed intense signal in the corpora lutea on day 5. Treatment with 50 IU hCG to down-regulate LHR mRNA showed a decline in the intensity of VEGF-A mRNA in the corpora lutea. VEGF-A mRNA expression returned to control level 53 hours later when the expression of LHR mRNA also recovered. These results show that the transient down-regulation of VEGF-A mRNA and protein closely parallels the ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. The present study establishes a close association between VEGF-A and LHR mRNA expression, suggesting the possibility that VEGF-A-induced vascularization of the ovary is dictated by the expression of LHR and this might play a regulatory role in ovarian physiology. PMID:20619315

  9. CADASIL-associated Notch3 mutations have differential effects both on ligand binding and ligand-induced Notch3 receptor signaling through RBP-Jk.

    PubMed

    Peters, Nils; Opherk, Christian; Zacherle, Simone; Capell, Anja; Gempel, Petra; Dichgans, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Mutations in the NOTCH3 gene are the cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a hereditary angiopathy leading to strokes and dementia. Pathogenic mutations remove or insert cysteine residues within epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats in the extracellular domain of the Notch3 receptor (N3ECD). Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are the predominant site of Notch3 expression in adults. In CADASIL patients, VSMC degenerate and N3ECD is deposited within the vasculature. However, the mechanisms underlying VSMC degeneration and N3ECD accumulation are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the consequences of three pathogenic Notch3 mutations on the biological activity of the receptor by analyzing ligand (Delta-/Jagged-)-induced signaling via RBP-Jk. Two mutations (R133C and C183R) that are located outside the putative ligand binding domain (LBD) of the receptor were found to result in normal Jagged1-induced signaling in A7r5 VSMC, whereas the third mutation (C455R located within the putative LBD) showed strongly reduced signaling activity. Ligand binding assays with soluble Delta1 and Jagged1 revealed that C455R interferes with ligand binding through disruption of the LBD which, as we show here, is located in EGF repeats 10/11 of Notch3. All mutant receptors including Notch3C455R were targeted to the cell surface but showed an elevated ratio between the unprocessed full-length 280-kDa receptor and S1-cleaved receptor fragments. Taken together, these data indicate that CADASIL-associated Notch3 mutations differ with respect to their consequences both on ligand binding and ligand-induced signaling through RBP-Jk, whereas they have similar effects on receptor maturation. Moreover, the data suggest that ligand-induced receptor shedding may not be required for N3ECD deposition in CADASIL.

  10. Ligand-induced interaction between. alpha. - and. beta. -type platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors: Role of receptor heterodimers in kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakaraj, P.; Raj, S.; Bishayee, S. ); Khan, S.A. )

    1991-02-19

    Two types of PDGF receptors have been cloned and sequenced. Both receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins with a ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase site. The authors have shown earlier that ligand-induced activation of the {beta}-type PDGF receptor is due to the conversion of the monomeric form of the receptor to the dimeric form. In the present studies, they have established the ligand-binding specificity of two receptor types and extended it further to investigate the ligand-induced association state of the {alpha}-receptor and the role of {alpha}-receptor in the activation of {beta}-receptor. These studies were conducted with cells that express one or the other type of PDGF receptor as well as with cells that express both types of receptors. Moreover, ligand-binding characteristics of the receptor were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the receptor-{sup 125}I-PDGF covalent complex with type-specific anti-PDGF receptor antibodies. These studies revealed that all three isoforms of PDGF bind to {alpha}-receptor, and such binding leads to dimerization as well as activation of the receptor. In contrast, {beta}-receptor can be activated only by PDGF BB and not by PDGF AB or PDGF AA. However, by using antipeptide antibodies that are specific for {alpha}- or {beta}-type PDGF receptor, they demonstrated that in the presence of {alpha}-receptor, {beta}-receptor kinase can be activated by PDGF AB. They present here direct evidence that strongly suggests that such PDGF AB induced activation of {beta}-receptor is due to the formation of a noncovalently linked {alpha}-{beta} receptor heterodimer.

  11. Curriculum on the European Policy Agenda: Global Transitions and Learning Outcomes from Transnational and National Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivesind, Kirsten; Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    This special issue examines curricula and their histories as they have evolved throughout the 21st century as part of transnational and national education policies. With a specific focus on the policy transitions that are taking place in Europe, the articles demonstrate how curriculum making processes move in different directions, following their…

  12. Curriculum on the European Policy Agenda: Global Transitions and Learning Outcomes from Transnational and National Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivesind, Kirsten; Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    This special issue examines curricula and their histories as they have evolved throughout the 21st century as part of transnational and national education policies. With a specific focus on the policy transitions that are taking place in Europe, the articles demonstrate how curriculum making processes move in different directions, following their…

  13. Response of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone to global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene Oligocene Transition.

    PubMed

    Hyeong, Kiseong; Kuroda, Junichiro; Seo, Inah; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-08-10

    Approximately 34 million years ago across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), Earth's climate tipped from a largely unglaciated state into one that sustained large ice sheets on Antarctica. Antarctic glaciation is attributed to a threshold response to slow decline in atmospheric CO2 but our understanding of the feedback processes triggered and of climate change on the other contents is limited. Here we present new geochemical records of terrigenous dust accumulating on the sea floor across the EOT from a site in the central equatorial Pacific. We report a change in dust chemistry from an Asian affinity to a Central-South American provenance that occurs geologically synchronously with the initiation of stepwise global cooling, glaciation of Antarctica and aridification on the northern continents. We infer that the inter-tropical convergence zone of intense precipitation extended to our site during late Eocene, at least four degrees latitude further south than today, but that it migrated northwards in step with global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation. Our findings point to an atmospheric teleconnection between extratropical cooling and rainfall climate in the tropics and the mid-latitude belt of the westerlies operating across the most pivotal transition in climate state of the Cenozoic Era.

  14. Impact of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field rotation from North to South on the Alfven Transition Layer: 3D Global PIC Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, DongSheng; Lembege, Bertrand; Nishikawa, Ken-ichi

    2017-04-01

    Using a global 3D PIC simulation, the solar-terrestrial magnetosphere interaction has been analyzed focusing on the 3D magnetic cusp region. Our recent global simulation results (Cai et al., JGR 2015) have reproduced the main features of the magnetic cusp under a northward IMF configuration comparing with the three-year statistical observations of Cluster satellites (Lavraud et al., JGR, 2005). One of the most important features found in our simulation is the existence of the Alfven Transition Layer (ATL) where Alfven Mach number is nearly zero almost adjacent to the upper stagnant exterior cusp (SEC). Its width measured near the SEC within the meridian plane varies from 1 to 4 Re. From the magnetosheath to SEC, the plasma flows transit from super to sub-Alfvenic regime. Striking features observed in the simulation is the unique depleted funnel shape ATL starting from the high altitude dusk to low altitude dawn above the magnetic cusp in a northward IMF. Both the ion and electron flux enter and spiral into the cups region through this depleted ATL with possibly a curvature drift. Varying IMF from north to south through dusk-dawn direction, this ATL persists although it drastically shrinks. Especially, in the southward IMF, the ion flux enters into the cusp region through the complicated ATL and bounce back to the magnetosheath. ATL can help us to investigate the complex structures of the magnetic cusp.

  15. Response of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone to global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene Oligocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyeong, Kiseong; Kuroda, Junichiro; Seo, Inah; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 34 million years ago across the Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT), Earth’s climate tipped from a largely unglaciated state into one that sustained large ice sheets on Antarctica. Antarctic glaciation is attributed to a threshold response to slow decline in atmospheric CO2 but our understanding of the feedback processes triggered and of climate change on the other contents is limited. Here we present new geochemical records of terrigenous dust accumulating on the sea floor across the EOT from a site in the central equatorial Pacific. We report a change in dust chemistry from an Asian affinity to a Central-South American provenance that occurs geologically synchronously with the initiation of stepwise global cooling, glaciation of Antarctica and aridification on the northern continents. We infer that the inter-tropical convergence zone of intense precipitation extended to our site during late Eocene, at least four degrees latitude further south than today, but that it migrated northwards in step with global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation. Our findings point to an atmospheric teleconnection between extratropical cooling and rainfall climate in the tropics and the mid-latitude belt of the westerlies operating across the most pivotal transition in climate state of the Cenozoic Era.

  16. Response of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone to global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene Oligocene Transition

    PubMed Central

    Hyeong, Kiseong; Kuroda, Junichiro; Seo, Inah; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 34 million years ago across the Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT), Earth’s climate tipped from a largely unglaciated state into one that sustained large ice sheets on Antarctica. Antarctic glaciation is attributed to a threshold response to slow decline in atmospheric CO2 but our understanding of the feedback processes triggered and of climate change on the other contents is limited. Here we present new geochemical records of terrigenous dust accumulating on the sea floor across the EOT from a site in the central equatorial Pacific. We report a change in dust chemistry from an Asian affinity to a Central-South American provenance that occurs geologically synchronously with the initiation of stepwise global cooling, glaciation of Antarctica and aridification on the northern continents. We infer that the inter-tropical convergence zone of intense precipitation extended to our site during late Eocene, at least four degrees latitude further south than today, but that it migrated northwards in step with global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation. Our findings point to an atmospheric teleconnection between extratropical cooling and rainfall climate in the tropics and the mid-latitude belt of the westerlies operating across the most pivotal transition in climate state of the Cenozoic Era. PMID:27507793

  17. 3D Global PIC simulation of Alfvenic transition layers at the cusp outer boundary during IMF rotations from north to south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D. S.; Lembege, B.; Esmaeili, A.; Nishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    Statistical experimental observations of the cusp boundaries from CLUSTER mission made by Lavraud et al. (2005) have clearly evidenced the presence of a transition layer inside the magnetosheath near the outer boundary of the cusp. This layer characterized by Log(MA)~ 1 allows a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic bulk flow from the exterior to the interior side of the outer cusp and has been mainly observed experimentally under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The role of this layer is important in order to understand the flow variations (and later the entry and precipitation of particles) when penetrating the outer boundary of the cusp. In order to analyze this layer, a large 3D PIC simulation of the global solar wind-terrestrial magnetosphere interaction have been performed, and the attention has been focused on the cusp region and its nearby surrounding during IMF rotation from north to south. Present results retrieve quite well the presence of this layer within the meridian plane for exactly northward IMF, but its location differs in the sense that it is located slightly below the X reconnection region associated to the nearby magnetopause (above the outer boundary of the cusp). In order to clarify this question, an extensive study has been performed as follows: (i) a 3D mapping of this transition layer in order to analyze more precisely the thickness, the location and the spatial extension of this layer on the magnetosphere flanks for a fixed Northward IMF configuration; (ii) a parametric study in order to analyze the impact of the IMF rotation from north to south on the persistence and the main features of this transition layer. The locations of this transition layer slightly radially expand and shrink during the IMF rotation and the thickness of the layer increases during the rotation. We show how these transition layers render the flow from super to sub Alfvenic and allow the particles enter into the magnetic cusp region. Alfven

  18. A Global, Myosin Light Chain Kinase-dependent Increase in Myosin II Contractility Accompanies the Metaphase–Anaphase Transition in Sea Urchin Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Amy; Stack, Christianna; Bresnick, Anne R.

    2006-01-01

    Myosin II is the force-generating motor for cytokinesis, and although it is accepted that myosin contractility is greatest at the cell equator, the temporal and spatial cues that direct equatorial contractility are not known. Dividing sea urchin eggs were placed under compression to study myosin II-based contractile dynamics, and cells manipulated in this manner underwent an abrupt, global increase in cortical contractility concomitant with the metaphase–anaphase transition, followed by a brief relaxation and the onset of furrowing. Prefurrow cortical contractility both preceded and was independent of astral microtubule elongation, suggesting that the initial activation of myosin II preceded cleavage plane specification. The initial rise in contractility required myosin light chain kinase but not Rho-kinase, but both signaling pathways were required for successful cytokinesis. Last, mobilization of intracellular calcium during metaphase induced a contractile response, suggesting that calcium transients may be partially responsible for the timing of this initial contractile event. Together, these findings suggest that myosin II-based contractility is initiated at the metaphase–anaphase transition by Ca2+-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and is maintained through cytokinesis by both MLCK- and Rho-dependent signaling. Moreover, the signals that initiate myosin II contractility respond to specific cell cycle transitions independently of the microtubule-dependent cleavage stimulus. PMID:16837551

  19. Global two-fluid turbulence simulations of L-H transitions and edge localized mode dynamics in the COMPASS-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Valovič, M.; Knight, P. J.

    2010-04-01

    It is shown that the transition from L-mode to H-mode regimes in tokamaks can be reproduced using a two-fluid, fully electromagnetic, plasma model when a suitable particle sink is added at the edge. Such a model is implemented in the CUTIE code [A. Thyagaraja et al., Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 23, 475 (2004)] and is illustrated on plasma parameters that mimic those in the COMPASS-D tokamak with electron cyclotron resonance heating [Fielding et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 42, A191 (2000)]. In particular, it is shown that holding the heating power, current, and magnetic field constant and increasing the fuelling rate to raise the plasma density leads spontaneously to the formation of an edge transport barrier (ETB) which occurs going from low to higher density experimentally. In the following quiescent period in which the stored energy of the plasma rises linearly with time, a dynamical transition occurs in the simulation with the appearance of features resembling strong edge localized modes. The simulation qualitatively reproduces many features observed in the experiment. Its relative robustness suggests that some, at least of the observed characteristics of ETBs and L-H transitions, can be captured in the global electromagnetic turbulence model.

  20. Is This the Only Hope for Reversing Global Warming? Transitioning Each Country's All-Purpose Energy to 100% Electricity Powered by Wind, Water, and Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. Can these problems be solved with existing technologies implemented on a large scale or do we need to wait for a miracle technology? This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of 139 countries of the world to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes using existing technology along with efficiency measures. All purposes includes electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, and agriculture/forestry/fishing. The roadmaps propose using existing WWS generator technologies along with existing electrical transportation, heating/cooling, and industrial devices and appliances, plus existing electricity storage technologies, (CSP with storage, pumped hydroelectric storage, and existing hydroelectric power) and existing heat/cold storage technologies (water, ice, and rocks) for the transitions. They envision 80% conversion to WWS by 2030 and 100% by 2050. WWS not only replaces business-as-usual (BAU) power, but also reduces 2050 BAU demand due to the higher work to energy ratio of WWS electricity over combustion, the elimination of energy for mining, transporting, and processing fuels, and improvements in end-use efficiency beyond BAU. The study examines job creation versus loss, land use requirements, air pollution mortality and morbidity cost differences, and global warming cost differences due to the conversion in each country. Results suggest that implementing these roadmaps will stabilize energy prices because fuel costs are zero; reduce international conflict by creating energy-independent countries; reduce energy poverty; reduce power disruption by decentralizing power; and avoid exploding CO2 levels. Thus, the study concludes that a 100% WWS transition provides at least one solution to global warming Please see http

  1. Ligand-induced structural changes in the Escherichia coli ferric citrate transporter reveal modes for regulating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Mokdad, Audrey; Herrick, Dawn Z; Kahn, Ali K; Andrews, Emily; Kim, Miyeon; Cafiso, David S

    2012-11-09

    Outer-membrane TonB-dependent transporters, such as the Escherichia coli ferric citrate transporter FecA, interact with the inner-membrane protein TonB through an energy-coupling segment termed the Ton box. In FecA, which regulates its own transcription, the Ton box is preceded by an N-terminal extension that interacts with the inner-membrane protein FecR. Here, site-directed spin labeling was used to examine the structural basis for transcriptional signaling and Ton box regulation in FecA. EPR spectroscopy indicates that regions of the N-terminal domain are in conformational exchange, consistent with its role as a protein binding element; however, the local fold and dynamics of the domain are not altered by substrate or TonB. Distance restraints derived from pulse EPR were used to generate models for the position of the extension in the apo, substrate-, and TonB-bound states. In the apo state, this domain is positioned at the periplasmic surface of FecA, where it interacts with the Ton box and blocks access of the Ton box to the periplasm. Substrate addition rotates the transcriptional domain and exposes the Ton box, leading to a disorder transition in the Ton box that may facilitate interactions with TonB. When a soluble fragment of TonB is bound to FecA, the transcriptional domain is displaced to one edge of the barrel, consistent with a proposed β-strand exchange mechanism. However, neither substrate nor TonB displaces the N-terminus further into the periplasm. This result suggests that the intact TonB system mediates both signaling and transport by unfolding portions of the transporter.

  2. The onset of modern-like Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition: Evidence, causes, and possible implications for global cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, Meir; Erez, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    A compilation of benthic δ18O from the whole Atlantic and the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) shows two major jumps in the interbasinal gradient of δ18O (Δδ18O) during the Eocene and the Oligocene: one at ˜40 Ma and the second concomitant with the isotopic event of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ˜33.7 Ma ago. From previously published circulation models and proxies, we show that the first Δδ18O jump reflects the thermal isolation of Antarctica associated with the proto-Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). The second marks the onset of interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell, similar to the modern Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The onset of AMOC-like circulation slightly preceded (100-300 kyr) the EOT, as we show by the high-resolution profiles of δ18O and δ13C previously published from DSDP/ODP sites in the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. These events coincide with the onset of antiestuarine circulation between the Nordic seas and the North Atlantic which started around the EOT and may be connected to the deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We suggest that while the shallow proto-ACC supplied the energy for deep ocean convection in the Southern Hemisphere, the onset of the interhemispheric northern circulation cell was due to the significant EOT intensification of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic driven by the Nordic antiestuarine circulation. This onset of the interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell could have prompted the EOT global cooling.Plain Language SummaryThe Eocene-Oligocene <span class="hlt">transition</span> is the major abrupt climatic event during the Cenozoic, which marks the major step to the icehouse world. We show that this <span class="hlt">transition</span> is a shift to a world with Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and slightly preceded this <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Thus, possibly was a major factor in this climatic shift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3920555','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3920555"><span>The TCR <span class="hlt">ligand-inducible</span> expression of CD73 marks γδ lineage commitment and a metastable intermediate in effector specification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coffey, Francis; Lee, Sang-Yun; Buus, Terkild B.; Lauritsen, Jens-Peter Holst; Wong, Gladys W.; Joachims, Michelle L.; Thompson, Linda F.; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Kappes, Dietmar J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies indicate that γδ T cell receptor (γδTCR) expression alone does not reliably mark commitment of early thymic progenitors to the γδ fate. This raises the possibility that the γδTCR is unable to intrinsically specify fate and instead requires additional environmental factors, including TCR–ligand engagement. We use single cell progenitor assays to reveal that ligand acts instructionally to direct adoption of the γδ fate. Moreover, we identify CD73 as a TCR <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> cell surface protein that distinguishes γδTCR-expressing CD4−CD8− progenitors that have committed to the γδ fate from those that have not yet done so. Indeed, unlike CD73− γδTCR+ progenitors, which largely adopt the αβ fate upon separation from the intrathymic selecting environment, those that express CD73 remain CD4−CD8− and committed to the γδ fate. CD73 is expressed by >90% of peripheral γδ cells, suggesting this is a common occurrence during development. Moreover, CD73 induction appears to mark a metastable intermediate stage before acquisition of effector function, suggesting that γδ lineage and effector fate are specified sequentially. These findings have important implications for the role of ligand in γδ lineage commitment and its relationship to the specification of effector fate. PMID:24493796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4155765','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4155765"><span>Recent advances in the molecular mechanisms determining tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids: novel mutations, circadian rhythm and <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> repression of the human glucocorticoid receptor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Glucocorticoids are pleiotropic hormones, which are involved in almost every cellular, molecular and physiologic network of the organism, and regulate a broad spectrum of physiologic functions essential for life. The cellular response to glucocorticoids displays profound variability both in magnitude and in specificity of action. Tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids differs among individuals, within tissues of the same individual and within the same cell. The actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, a ubiquitously expressed intracellular, ligand-dependent transcription factor. Multiple mechanisms, such as pre-receptor ligand metabolism, receptor isoform expression, and receptor-, tissue-, and cell type-specific factors, exist to generate diversity as well as specificity in the response to glucocorticoids. Alterations in the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor action impair glucocorticoid signal transduction and alter tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms determining tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids with particular emphasis on novel mutations and new information on the circadian rhythm and <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. PMID:25155432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614613W"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">global</span> in-use material stocks in the course of the socio-metabolic <span class="hlt">transition</span>, from 1900 -2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lauk, Christian; Fishman, Tomer; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Eisenmenger, Nina; Krausmann, Fridolin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>During the <span class="hlt">global</span> socio-metabolic <span class="hlt">transition</span> into the fossil fuelled age in the 20th century, annual material use increased nearly 10-fold (Krausmann et al. 2009). A substantial part of these materials were used to expand societal stocks such as infrastructure, buildings, factories or machinery. Long service-lifetimes lead to an ongoing accumulation of in-use stocks and determine the availability of materials for reuse and recycling. Systematic knowledge about material stock dynamics is crucial for understanding possible future resource use trends, the potential for increased recycling and thereby inform the development of strategies towards more sustainable resource use. In this presentation we explore the relationship between material use and stock accumulation, estimating <span class="hlt">global</span> material stocks in infrastructures, buildings and durable goods from 1900 - 2009 based on a dynamic material stocks and flows model. We apply a top-down modelling approach, tracking annual cohorts of inflows of stock-building materials throughout the time period. We utilize a <span class="hlt">global</span> material flow database and auxiliary data sources covering the time period 1850 - 2009 (Krausmann et al., 2009; Schaffartzik et al. 2013) to distinguish inputs of 11 major stock building materials: concrete, asphalt, bricks/stones/tiles, sand/gravel/crushed rocks, copper, steel, aluminum,other metals, solid-wood products, paper and plastics. Two types of functions are then used to model the lifetimes of the materials in use: A uniform distribution is applied for materials with short lifetimes, while a normal distribution is applied for materials with longer lifetimes. Furthermore, end-of-life waste is subject to recycling, thereby turning into additional input flows of non-virgin materials. Due to the inherent uncertainty in such an exercise, we perform Monte-Carlo simulations, applying uncertainty ranges for all model parameters and the material inflow data introduced above. This allows us to a) identify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31...81B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31...81B"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> change across the Oligocene-Miocene <span class="hlt">transition</span>: High-resolution stable isotope records from IODP Site U1334 (equatorial Pacific Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Oligocene-Miocene <span class="hlt">transition</span> (OMT) (~23 Ma) is interpreted as a transient <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling event, associated with a large-scale Antarctic ice sheet expansion. Here we present a 2.23 Myr long high-resolution (~3 kyr) benthic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope (δ18O and δ13C) record from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1334 (eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean), covering the interval from 21.91 to 24.14 Ma. To date, five other high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphies across this time interval have been published, showing a ~1‰ increase in benthic foraminiferal δ18O across the OMT. However, these records are still few and spatially limited and no clear understanding exists of the <span class="hlt">global</span> versus local imprints. We show that trends and the amplitudes of change are similar at Site U1334 as in other high-resolution stable isotope records, suggesting that these represent <span class="hlt">global</span> deep water signals. We create a benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stack across the OMT by combining Site U1334 with records from ODP Sites 926, 929, 1090, 1264, and 1218 to best approximate the <span class="hlt">global</span> signal. We find that isotopic gradients between sites indicate interbasinal and intrabasinal variabilities in deep water masses and, in particular, note an offset between the equatorial Atlantic and the equatorial Pacific, suggesting that a distinct temperature gradient was present during the OMT between these deep water masses at low latitudes. A convergence in the δ18O values between infaunal and epifaunal species occurs between 22.8 and 23.2 Ma, associated with the maximum δ18O excursion at the OMT, suggesting climatic changes associated with the OMT had an effect on interspecies offsets of benthic foraminifera. Our data indicate a maximum glacioeustatic sea level change of ~50 m across the OMT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27211798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27211798"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding <span class="hlt">transition</span> underway?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baker, Phillip; Smith, Julie; Salmon, Libby; Friel, Sharon; Kent, George; Iellamo, Alessandro; Dadhich, J P; Renfrew, Mary J</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breast-feeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes <span class="hlt">globally</span>. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. The present study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the <span class="hlt">global</span>, regional and country levels. Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008-2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data. Eighty countries categorized by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with the largest infant/child populations. MF categories included total (for ages 0-36 months), infant (0-6 months), follow-up (7-12 months), toddler (13-36 months) and special (0-6 months). In 2008-2013 world total MF sales grew by 40·8 % from 5·5 to 7·8 kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10·8 kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries. A <span class="hlt">global</span> infant and young child feeding (IYCF) <span class="hlt">transition</span> towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for <span class="hlt">global</span> child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. The observed changes have not been captured by existing IYCF monitoring systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29024032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29024032"><span>Que faire? A Bioeconomy and Solar Energy Institute at Italy's Research Council in the Context of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to the Solar Economy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pagliaro, Mario; Meneguzzo, Francesco</p> <p>2017-10-12</p> <p>Driven by insight for which new research and education requires new institutional organisation, and drawing on two decades of research and educational efforts, we devise the profile and activities of a new bioeconomy and solar energy institute at Italy's Research Council. We further articulate the institute's activities suggesting avenues on how to deploy sound and giving more useful research, education and policy advice in these crucial fields for making tomorrow's common development sustainable. The outcomes of the study are of general interest, because the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to a solar economy is of intrinsic <span class="hlt">global</span> nature and the challenges involved are similar in many countries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24830291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24830291"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> gene expression shift during the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from early neural development to late neuronal differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cantera, Rafael; Ferreiro, María José; Aransay, Ana María; Barrio, Rosa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Regulation of transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in animal development, directing changes in patterning and cell fate specification. Large temporal data series, based on microarrays across the life cycle of the fly Drosophila melanogaster, revealed the existence of groups of genes which expression increases or decreases temporally correlated during the life cycle. These groups of genes are enriched in different biological functions. Here, instead of searching for temporal coincidence in gene expression using the entire genome expression data, we searched for temporal coincidence in gene expression only within predefined catalogues of functionally related genes and investigated whether a catalogue's expression profile can be used to generate larger catalogues, enriched in genes necessary for the same function. We analyzed the expression profiles from genes already associated with early neurodevelopment and late neurodifferentiation, at embryonic stages 16 and 17 of Drosophila life cycle. We hypothesized that during this interval we would find <span class="hlt">global</span> downregulation of genes important for early neuronal development together with <span class="hlt">global</span> upregulation of genes necessary for the final differentiation of neurons. Our results were consistent with this hypothesis. We then investigated if the expression profile of gene catalogues representing particular processes of neural development matched the temporal sequence along which these processes occur. The profiles of genes involved in patterning, neurogenesis, axogenesis or synaptic transmission matched the prediction, with largest transcript values at the time when the corresponding biological process takes place in the embryo. Furthermore, we obtained catalogues enriched in genes involved in temporally matching functions by performing a genome-wide systematic search for genes with their highest expression levels at the corresponding embryonic intervals. These findings imply the use of gene expression data in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181853','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181853"><span>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cardiovascular Risk <span class="hlt">Transition</span>: Associations of Four Metabolic Risk Factors with Macroeconomic Variables in 1980 and 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Danaei, Goodarz; Singh, Gitanjali M; Paciorek, Christopher J; Lin, John K; Cowan, Melanie J; Finucane, Mariel M; Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A; Riley, Leanne M; Lu, Yuan; Rao, Mayuree; Ezzati, Majid</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background It is commonly assumed that <span class="hlt">globally</span> CVD risk factors are associated with affluence and Westernization. We investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and serum total cholesterol (TC) with national income, Western diet, and (for BMI) urbanization in 1980 and 2008. Methods and Results Country-level risk factor estimates for 199 countries between 1980 and 2008 were from a previous systematic analysis of population-based data. We analyzed the associations between risk factors and natural logarithm of per-capita GDP [Ln(GDP)], a measure of Western diet, and (for BMI) percent population living in urban areas. In 1980, there was a positive association between national income and population mean BMI, SBP, and TC. By 2008, the slope of the association between Ln(GDP) and SBP became negative for women and zero for men. TC was associated with national income and Western diet throughout the period. In 1980, BMI rose with per-capita GDP and then flattened at about Int$7000; by 2008, the relationship resembled an inverted-U for women, peaking at middle income levels. BMI had a positive relationship with percent urban population in both 1980 and 2008. FPG had weaker associations with these country macro characteristics, but was positively associated with BMI. Conclusions The changing associations of metabolic risk factors with macroeconomic variables indicate that there will be a <span class="hlt">global</span> pandemic of hyperglycemia and diabetes, together with high blood pressure in low income countries, unless effective lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions are implemented. PMID:23481623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030912','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030912"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> analyses of brachiopod faunas through the Ordovician and Silurian <span class="hlt">transition</span>: Reducing the role of the Lazarus effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rong, J.-Y.; Boucot, A.J.; Harper, D.A.T.; Zhan, R.-B.; Neuman, R.B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> analyses of 88 families and 284 genera of brachiopods from middle Ashgill, Late Ordovician, to early-middle Rhuddanian, Early Silurian, indicate that 18.6% and 12.5% of families and 51.0% and 41.3% of genera were eliminated in the first and second phases of the end-Ordovician mass extinction, respectively, with the total loss of 28.4% of families and 69.0% of genera in the crisis. New investigation demonstrates that brachiopods, at both generic and familial levels, suffered greater during the first phase than during the second phase. Four groups (victims, relicts, survivors, and new arrivals) are distinguished by their stratigraphical ranges. Generic survivors, occurring in the Kosov Province during the Hirnantian, can be split into three types with respect to their changing abundance: increasing, declining, and Lazarus taxa. Among the 88 genera that survived, numerous declining genera occurred in the Hirnantian: 16 Lazarus families and 18 Lazarus genera are provisionally known and may be regarded as end members of the declining type. Comparison of the abundance, population size, and distribution patterns of declining and Lazarus taxa shows important similarities between these two types which contribute to a better understanding of the nature of Lazarus taxa. In addition to these biological attributes, taphonomic failure and generally poor preservation, together with collecting bias and inadequate systematic data, are clearly involved. More collections will undoubtedly <span class="hlt">globally</span> reduce the number of Lazarus taxa. A single, common refugium for end-Ordovician brachiopods probably did not exist; rather, these taxa used paleogeographically scattered locations in a range of environments for survival. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203358"><span>Explaining the slow <span class="hlt">transition</span> of child-appropriate dosage formulations from the <span class="hlt">global</span> to national level in the context of Uganda: a qualitative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nsabagasani, Xavier; Hansen, Ebba; Mbonye, Anthony; Ssengooba, Freddie; Muyinda, Herbert; Mugisha, James; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In 2007, the Sixtieth World Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution entitled "Better medicines for children" and subsequently the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the inclusion of child-appropriate dosage formulations in the essential medicines lists of member countries. However, child-appropriate dosage formulations are not highlighted in the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda (EMHSLU) 2012 and they are still limited in availability in public health facilities. Several stakeholders influenced the status of child-appropriate dosage formulations in the EMHSLU 2012. To explore stakeholders' views about the relevance of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> recommended child-appropriate dosage formulations in the context of Uganda. The findings derive from thirty three in-depth interviews with stakeholder representatives and the results of a follow up validation meeting where preliminary findings were shared with stakeholders. Policy analysis and policy transfer theories were used to guide a deductive analysis for manifest and latent content. According to stakeholders, the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to the <span class="hlt">globally</span> recommended child-appropriate dosage formulations has been slow in Uganda due to a number of factors. These factors include resource constraints at the <span class="hlt">global</span> and national levels, lack of Ministry of Health (MOH) formal commitment to the adoption of the child-appropriate dosage formulations policy and a lack of consensus between those who advocated for the availability of liquid oral dosage formulations for easy administration and effectiveness and those who were more convinced by economic arguments and preferred the procurement of solid oral dosage formulations intended for adults. The <span class="hlt">global</span> policy for child-appropriate dosage formulations still remains to be implemented in Uganda and other low income countries. This has been due to lack of resources that hindered formal transfer of the policy from the <span class="hlt">global</span> to the local level. To achieve this transfer there is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957527"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> characterization of the oocyte-to-embryo <span class="hlt">transition</span> in Caenorhabditis elegans uncovers a novel mRNA clearance mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stoeckius, Marlon; Grün, Dominic; Kirchner, Marieluise; Ayoub, Salah; Torti, Francesca; Piano, Fabio; Herzog, Margareta; Selbach, Matthias; Rajewsky, Nikolaus</p> <p>2014-08-18</p> <p>The oocyte-to-embryo <span class="hlt">transition</span> (OET) is thought to be mainly driven by post-transcriptional gene regulation. However, expression of both RNAs and proteins during the OET has not been comprehensively assayed. Furthermore, specific molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression during OET are largely unknown. Here, we quantify and analyze transcriptome-wide, expression of mRNAs and thousands of proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes, 1-cell, and 2-cell embryos. This represents a first comprehensive gene expression atlas during the OET in animals. We discovered a first wave of degradation in which thousands of mRNAs are cleared shortly after fertilization. Sequence analysis revealed a statistically highly significant presence of a polyC motif in the 3' untranslated regions of most of these degraded mRNAs. Transgenic reporter assays demonstrated that this polyC motif is required and sufficient for mRNA degradation after fertilization. We show that orthologs of human polyC-binding protein specifically bind this motif. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the polyC motif and binding partners direct degradation of maternal mRNAs. Our data also indicate that endogenous siRNAs but not miRNAs promote mRNA clearance during the OET.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11i4009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11i4009S"><span>The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a <span class="hlt">global</span> energy <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes; Bardi, Ugo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Planning the appropriate renewable energy (RE) installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world’s economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a RE infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy <span class="hlt">transition</span> pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the RE technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of RE plants to accelerate from 0.12 TWp yr-1 in 2013 to peak between 7.3 and 11.6 TWp yr-1 in the late 2030s, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.6458Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.6458Z"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> in the waiting-time distribution of price-change events in a <span class="hlt">global</span> socioeconomic system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Guannan; McDonald, Mark; Fenn, Dan; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Nicholas; Johnson, Neil F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The goal of developing a firmer theoretical understanding of inhomogeneous temporal processes-in particular, the waiting times in some collective dynamical system-is attracting significant interest among physicists. Quantifying the deviations between the waiting-time distribution and the distribution generated by a random process may help unravel the feedback mechanisms that drive the underlying dynamics. We analyze the waiting-time distributions of high-frequency foreign exchange data for the best executable bid-ask prices across all major currencies. We find that the lognormal distribution yields a good overall fit for the waiting-time distribution between currency rate changes if both short and long waiting times are included. If we restrict our study to long waiting times, each currency pair’s distribution is consistent with a power-law tail with exponent near to 3.5. However, for short waiting times, the overall distribution resembles one generated by an archetypal complex systems model in which boundedly rational agents compete for limited resources. Our findings suggest that a gradual <span class="hlt">transition</span> arises in trading behavior between a fast regime in which traders act in a boundedly rational way and a slower one in which traders’ decisions are driven by generic feedback mechanisms across multiple timescales and hence produce similar power-law tails irrespective of currency type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4935972','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4935972"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> changes of the RNA-bound proteome during the maternal-to-zygotic <span class="hlt">transition</span> in Drosophila</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sysoev, Vasiliy O.; Fischer, Bernd; Frese, Christian K.; Gupta, Ishaan; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W.; Castello, Alfredo; Ephrussi, Anne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The maternal-to-zygotic <span class="hlt">transition</span> (MZT) is a process that occurs in animal embryos at the earliest developmental stages, during which maternally deposited mRNAs and other molecules are degraded and replaced by products of the zygotic genome. The zygotic genome is not activated immediately upon fertilization, and in the pre-MZT embryo post-transcriptional control by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) orchestrates the first steps of development. To identify relevant Drosophila RBPs organism-wide, we refined the RNA interactome capture method for comparative analysis of the pre- and post-MZT embryos. We determine 523 proteins as high-confidence RBPs, half of which were not previously reported to bind RNA. Comparison of the RNA interactomes of pre- and post-MZT embryos reveals high dynamicity of the RNA-bound proteome during early development, and suggests active regulation of RNA binding of some RBPs. This resource provides unprecedented insight into the system of RBPs that govern the earliest steps of Drosophila development. PMID:27378189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25476889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25476889"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> from control to elimination: impact of the 10-year <span class="hlt">global</span> fund project on malaria control and elimination in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ru-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Zheng, Bin; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Tang, Lin-Hua; Gao, Qi; Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, Rong-Rong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) supported a project on the control and elimination of malaria in People's Republic of China which was one of the biggest-scale international cooperation programmes to control malaria in the country during the past 10 years. The project promoted the effective implementation of the Chinese national malaria control programme. On the basis of epidemiologic data, an overview of the project activities and key performance indicators, the overall impact of the GFATM project was evaluated. We also reviewed relevant programme features including technological and management approaches, with a focus on best practice, innovations in implementation and the introduction of international standards. Last, we summarised the multi-stakeholder cooperation mechanism and comments on its sustainability in the post-GFATM period. Recommendations for the future management of the Chinese national malaria elimination programme are put forward after considering the challenges, shortcomings and lessons learnt during the implementation of the GFATM project in China to sustain past achievements and foster the attainment of the ultimate goal of malaria elimination for the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342948"><span>Pan-HER-An antibody mixture targeting EGFR, HER2 and HER3 abrogates preformed and <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> EGFR homo- and heterodimers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ellebaek, Sofie; Brix, Susanne; Grandal, Michael; Lantto, Johan; Horak, Ivan D; Kragh, Michael; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-family is involved in development of many epithelial cancers. Therefore, HER-family members constitute important targets for anti-cancer therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A limitation to the success of single HER-targeting mAbs is development of acquired resistance through mechanisms such as alterted receptor dimerization patterns and dependencies. Pan-HER is a mixture of six mAbs simultaneously targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2 and HER3 with two mAbs against each receptor. Pan-HER has previously demonstrated broader efficacy than targeting single or dual receptor combinations also in resistant settings. In light of this broad efficacy, we decided to investigate the effect of Pan-HER compared with single HER-targeting with single and dual mAbs on HER-family cross-talk and dimerization focusing on EGFR. The effect of Pan-HER on cell proliferation and HER-family receptor degradation was superior to treatment with single mAbs targeting either single receptor, and similar to targeting a single receptor with two non-overlapping antibodies. Furthermore, changes in EGFR-dimerization patterns after treatment with Pan-HER were investigated by in situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation, demonstrating that Pan-HER and the EGFR-targeting mAb mixture efficiently down-regulate basal EGFR homo- and heterodimerization in two tested cell lines, whereas single mAbs had limited effects. Pan-HER and the EGFR-targeting mAb mixture also blocked EGF-binding and thereby <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> changes in EGFR-dimerization levels. These results suggest that Pan-HER reduces the cellular capability to switch HER-dependency and dimerization pattern in response to treatment and thus hold promise for future clinical development of Pan-HER in resistant settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7511663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7511663"><span><span class="hlt">Ligand-induced</span> adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C</p> <p>1994-04-15</p> <p>Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18398907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18398907"><span>Structure of the partially unliganded met state of 400 kDa hemoglobin: insights into <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> structural changes of giant hemoglobins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Numoto, Nobutaka; Nakagawa, Taro; Kita, Akiko; Sasayama, Yuichi; Fukumori, Yoshihiro; Miki, Kunio</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Recent crystallographic studies have revealed the structures of some invertebrate extracellular giant hemoglobins of 3,600 kDa or 400 kDa and their common quaternary structure of dodecameric subassembly composed of four kinds of globin subunits (A1, A2, B1, and B2). These results have provided insight into the mechanisms of their unique functional properties of oxygen binding and sulfide binding. All of these structures were solved with oxygenated or CO-liganded forms at low or moderate resolutions. We have determined the crystal structure of 400 kDa Hb from a polychaete Oligobrachia mashikoi at 1.95 A resolution. The electron densities at higher resolution confirm the existence of an isoform of the B1 subunit because of the inconsistency with the model that was built from the formerly known amino acid sequence. The brownish color of the crystals used in this study and the absorption spectrum from the dissolved crystals strongly indicated that the obtained structure was a ferric met state, whereas complete absence of electron density around the distal heme pockets were observed at the A2, B1, and B2 subunits. We concluded that the obtained structure was in unliganded met forms at three of four globin subunits in the 24mer assembly and in oxygenated forms at the remaining A1 subunits. The partially unliganded structure showed remarkable structural changes at the AB loop regions causing quaternary rearrangements of the EF-dimer structure. In contrast, few changes occurred at the interface regions composed of the E and F helices. These results suggest that the <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> structural changes of Oligobrachia Hb are quite different from those of the well-studied mollusk Hb having the same EF-dimer structure. The structural rearrangements make the dodecameric subassembly form a tighter conformation than those of fully oxygenated or CO-liganded dodecamer structure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20615993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20615993"><span>The 3-4 loop of an archaeal glutamate transporter homolog experiences <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> structural changes and is essential for transport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Compton, Emma L R; Taylor, Erin M; Mindell, Joseph A</p> <p>2010-07-20</p> <p>Glutamatergic synaptic transmission is terminated by members of the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) family of proteins that remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft by transporting it into surrounding glial cells. Recent structures of a bacterial homolog suggest that major motions within the transmembrane domain translocate the substrate across the membrane. However, the events leading to this large structural rearrangement are much less clear. Two reentrant loops have been proposed to act as extracellular and intracellular gates, but whether other regions of these proteins play a role in the transport process is unknown. We hypothesized that transport-related conformational changes could change the solvent accessibilities of affected residues, as reflected in protease sensitivity or small-molecule reactivity. In the model system Glt(Ph), an archaeal EAAT homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii, limited trypsin proteolysis experiments initially identified a site in the long extracellular loop that stretches between helices 3 and 4 that becomes protected from proteolysis in the presence of a substrate, L-aspartate, or an inhibitor, DL-TBOA in the presence of Na(+), the cotransported ion. Using a combination of site-directed cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and fluorescein-5-maleimide labeling we found that positions throughout the loop experience these <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> conformational changes. By selectively cleaving the 3-4 loop (via introduced Factor Xa sites) we demonstrate that it plays a vital role in the transport process; though structurally intact, the cleaved proteins are unable to transport aspartate. These results inculcate the 3-4 loop as an important player in the transport process, a finding not predicted by any of the available crystal structures of Glt(Ph).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70141469','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70141469"><span>High influx of carbon in walls of agglutinated foraminifers during the Permian-Triassic <span class="hlt">transition</span> in <span class="hlt">global</span> oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nestell, Galina P.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Basu, Asish R.; Ghosh, Nilotpal; Phuong Lan, Luu Thi; Rowe, Harry D.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Ratcliffe, Kenneth T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Permian–Triassic mass extinction is postulated to be related to the rapid volcanism that produced the Siberian flood basalt (Traps). Unrelated volcanic eruptions producing several episodes of ash falls synchronous with the Siberian Traps are found in South China and Australia. Such regional eruptions could have caused wildfires, burning of coal deposits, and the dispersion of coal fly ash. These eruptions introduced a major influx of carbon into the atmosphere and oceans that can be recognized in the wallstructure of foraminiferal tests present in survival populations in the boundary interval strata. Analysis of free specimens of foraminifers recovered from residues of conodont samples taken at aPermian–Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam in northern Vietnam has revealed the presence of a significant amount of elemental carbon, along with oxygen and silica, in their test wall structure, but an absence of calcium carbonate. These foraminifers, identified as Rectocornuspira kalhori, Cornuspira mahajeri, and Earlandia spp. and whose tests previously were considered to be calcareous, are confirmed to be agglutinated, and are now referred to as Ammodiscus kalhori and Hyperammina deformis. Measurement of the 207Pb/204Pb ratios in pyrite clusters attached to the foraminiferal tests confirmed that these tests inherited the Pb in their outer layer from carbon-contaminated seawater. We conclude that the source of the carbon could have been either <span class="hlt">global</span> coal fly ash or forest fire-dispersed carbon, or a combination of both, that was dispersed into the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean immediately after the end-Permian extinction event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5076510','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5076510"><span><span class="hlt">Ligand-induced</span> Epitope Masking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mould, A. Paul; Askari, Janet A.; Byron, Adam; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Humphries, Martin J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against α5β1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-α5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-β1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-β1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the α5β1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking. PMID:27484800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911028P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911028P"><span>Preliminary <span class="hlt">global</span> paleogeographic maps through the Greenhouse-Icehouse <span class="hlt">transition</span>: forcing of the Drake Passage and Asian Monsoons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poblete, Fernando; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Licht, Alexis; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Roperch, Pierrick; Guillocheau, Francois; Baby, Guillaume; Baatsen, Michiel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Paleogeographic maps are essential for understanding Earth dynamics. They provide the necessary boundary conditions for climate and geodynamic modeling, surface processes and biotic interactions. In particular, the opening and closing of ocean gateways and the growth of major mountain belts are major drivers of climate changes and biotic interchange. However, the timing and spatial extent of such events are highly controversial and regularly questioned by new data. As part of the ERC "MAGIC" project focusing on Asian Monsoons during the Icehouse to Greenhouse <span class="hlt">transition</span> we thus produced a set of worldwide Cenozoic paleogeographic maps in the period time between 60 to 20 Ma, with a set of boundary conditions specific to the India-Asia collision zone and the Drake Passage. The creation of a paleogeographic map followed a rigorous and reproductively methodology that integrates paleobathymetric, paleoshoreline and paleotopographic data into a coherent plate tectonic model using the open source software GPlates. (1) We use the model provided by Seton et al. (2012) as a first order tectonic model modified to integrate the full restoration of five regions: the Andes, the Scotia Arc, Africa, The Mediterranean Sea and the Tibet-Himalayan collision zone. (2) The paleobathymetry was provided by Müller et al. (2008) using age-depth relationships and assuming symmetric ridge spreading. (3) Paleoshoreline maps were modified according to the fossil database from fossilworks.org and the geological record and were used to represent the boundary between terrestrial and marine paleo-environments. (4) To reconstruct paleoelevations, the most controversial task, we compiled a wide range of data including stable isotope, leaf physiognomy, and thermochronology combined with regional fossil and geological records (tectonic setting) and geomorphological data. Finally, we use the open source GMT software and a set of masks to modify the current Earth relief model (ETOPO) according to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3394T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3394T"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> characteristics of the upper <span class="hlt">transition</span> height derived from the topside Alouette/ISIS topside sounder electron density profiles, the Formosat-3/COSMIC density profiles and the IRI ion composition model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Truhlik, Vladimir; Triskova, Ludmila; Benson, Robert; Bilitza, Dieter; Chu, Philip; Richards, Phil G.; Wang, Yongli</p> <p></p> <p>The upper <span class="hlt">transition</span> height (Ht) (the altitude of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from heavy atomic ions to light ions or in the simplest form the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from O+ to H+) is an important parameter, representing the boundary between the ionosphere and the plasmasphere. Ht is very sensitive to various geophysical parameters, like solar and magnetic activity and strongly depends on latitude and local time. There were numerous studies of this parameter in past decades. In spite of these efforts, no model satisfactorily represents this parameter so far. Moreover, surprising evidence of very low <span class="hlt">transition</span> heights during the last prolonged solar minimum, of a level never obtained before, have been reported. We investigate the upper <span class="hlt">transition</span> height on the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. We made progress in processing large data sets of Ht deduced from the Alouette/ISIS topside sounder and from the Formosat-3/COSMIC vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h) using the theoretical <span class="hlt">Global</span> Plasma Ionosphere Density (GPID) model (Webb and Essex, 2004) and a revised non-linear function describing the scale height vs. altitude (Titheridge, 1976) to fit the vertical density profiles to the observed profiles and to determine the upper <span class="hlt">transition</span> height. Since both methods require the plasma temperatures and their gradients as input, these are calculated using the IRI2012 model. Both methods are verified using a large amount of electron and ion density profiles simulated by the FLIP theoretical model and their accuracy is discussed. We compare the results from Alouette/ISIS and Formosat-3/COSMIC and present a <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of the calculated Ht and its dependence on geophysical parameters. Finally we compare it with Ht calculated using the IRI ion composition model. Titheridge, J.E., 1976. Ion <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Heights from Topside Electron-Density Profiles. Planetary and Space Science 24 (3), 229-245. Webb, P.A., Essex, E.A., 2004. A dynamic <span class="hlt">global</span> model of the plasmasphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10368B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10368B"><span>Is the northern tethyan carbonate platform drowning D3 (Hauterivian-Barremian <span class="hlt">transition</span>) related to a <span class="hlt">global</span> event?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bodin, S.; Godet, A.; Adatte, T.; Föllmi, K. B.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p> platform development during this period, in wich we put emphasis on the temporal and spatial evolution of platform drowning (regional versus <span class="hlt">global</span> event?), and on the mechanisms involved in drowning (sea level change, nutrients, temperature, paleo CO_2, etc.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMGC53A..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMGC53A..02M"><span>The Last <span class="hlt">Transition</span> From Extreme Glacial to Extreme Interglacial Climate in NW Patagonia: Regional and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, P. I.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The study of interhemispheric climate linkages during and since the last ice age has benefited from the recent development of high-resolution ice core and marine records from the mid- and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Few paleoclimate records from terrestrial environments in these regions, however, have the temporal continuity, time resolution, and adequate chronologic control to allow a detailed examination of the timing, rates, direction, and phasing of climate change at millennial timescales. Stratigraphic, palynologic, and charcoal records from small, high-sediment accumulating lakes in the Chilean Lake District (41ºS) afford useful data for examining the interval between the LGM to the early Holocene (25-8 ka, ka=cal kyr BP). Millennial-scale changes in glacier extent and vegetation patterns within this interval match key events both in the Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic records, in particular the EPICA Dome C data, highlighting the role of an atmosphere-based conduit for the <span class="hlt">global</span> propagation of abrupt climate changes. The onset of the last termination in NW Patagonia is marked by glacial collapse and the expansion of rainforest trees at 17.7 ka. An apparent antiphase relationship among the polar hemispheres between 17.7-14.7 ka, might reflect the hemispheric-scale effects of a quasi-total shut down of Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation driven by Heinrich event 1. Extreme glacial and interglacial modes in the position/strength of the westerlies at multi-millennial timescales in the southern westerlies accompany important shifts in the abundance and composition of rainforest communities during the last termination and the early Holocene. At millennial timescales, this interval is characterised by successive warming pulses interrupted by a generalized reversal in trend with cooling events starting at 14.7 and 13.4 ka. Fires between 12.9-11.5 ka, i.e. Younger Dryas Chron (YDC), led to the expansion of opportunistic rainforest species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26420858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26420858"><span>A Patient-Derived, Pan-Cancer EMT Signature Identifies <span class="hlt">Global</span> Molecular Alterations and Immune Target Enrichment Following Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal <span class="hlt">Transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mak, Milena P; Tong, Pan; Diao, Lixia; Cardnell, Robert J; Gibbons, Don L; William, William N; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Parra, Edwin R; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Heymach, John V; Weinstein, John N; Coombes, Kevin R; Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren Averett</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We previously demonstrated the association between epithelial-to-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> (EMT) and drug response in lung cancer using an EMT signature derived in cancer cell lines. Given the contribution of tumor microenvironments to EMT, we extended our investigation of EMT to patient tumors from 11 cancer types to develop a pan-cancer EMT signature. Using the pan-cancer EMT signature, we conducted an integrated, <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles associated with EMT across 1,934 tumors including breast, lung, colon, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Differences in outcome and in vitro drug response corresponding to expression of the pan-cancer EMT signature were also investigated. Compared with the lung cancer EMT signature, the patient-derived, pan-cancer EMT signature encompasses a set of core EMT genes that correlate even more strongly with known EMT markers across diverse tumor types and identifies differences in drug sensitivity and <span class="hlt">global</span> molecular alterations at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels. Among those changes associated with EMT, pathway analysis revealed a strong correlation between EMT and immune activation. Further supervised analysis demonstrated high expression of immune checkpoints and other druggable immune targets, such as PD1, PD-L1, CTLA4, OX40L, and PD-L2, in tumors with the most mesenchymal EMT scores. Elevated PD-L1 protein expression in mesenchymal tumors was confirmed by IHC in an independent lung cancer cohort. This new signature provides a novel, patient-based, histology-independent tool for the investigation of EMT and offers insights into potential novel therapeutic targets for mesenchymal tumors, independent of cancer type, including immune checkpoints. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737991','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737991"><span>A patient-derived, pan-cancer EMT signature identifies <span class="hlt">global</span> molecular alterations and immune target enrichment following epithelial to mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mak, Milena P.; Tong, Pan; Diao, Lixia; Cardnell, Robert J.; Gibbons, Don L.; William, William N.; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Parra, Edwin R.; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Heymach, John V.; Weinstein, John N.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren Averett</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose We previously demonstrated the association between epithelial-to-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> (EMT) and drug response in lung cancer using an EMT signature derived in cancer cell lines. Given the contribution of tumor microenvironments to EMT, we extended our investigation of EMT to patient tumors from 11 cancer types to develop a pan-cancer EMT signature. Experimental Design Using the pan-cancer EMT signature, we conducted an integrated, <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles associated with EMT across 1,934 tumors including breast, lung, colon, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Differences in outcome and in vitro drug response corresponding to expression of the pan-cancer EMT signature were also investigated. Results Compared to the lung cancer EMT signature, the patient-derived, pan-cancer EMT signature encompasses a set of core EMT genes that correlate even more strongly with known EMT markers across diverse tumor types and identifies differences in drug sensitivity and <span class="hlt">global</span> molecular alterations at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels. Among those changes associated with EMT, pathway analysis revealed a strong correlation between EMT and immune activation. Further supervised analysis demonstrated high expression of immune checkpoints and other druggable immune targets such as PD1, PD-L1, CTLA4, OX40L, and PDL2, in tumors with the most mesenchymal EMT scores. Elevated PD-L1 protein expression in mesenchymal tumors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in an independent lung cancer cohort. Conclusions This new signature provides a novel, patient-based, histology-independent tool for the investigation of EMT and offers insights into potential novel therapeutic targets for mesenchymal tumors, independent of cancer type, including immune checkpoints. PMID:26420858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21847509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21847509"><span>A novel role of Rho-kinase in the regulation of <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> phosphorylated EGFR endocytosis via the early/late endocytic pathway in human fibrosarcoma cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishimura, Yukio; Bereczky, Biborka; Yoshioka, Kiyoko; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The small GTPase RhoA and its downstream effectors, the Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase) family, are known to regulate cell morphology, motility, and tumor progression via the regulation of actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. In the present study, we evaluated the role of Rho-kinase in the intracellular endocytic trafficking of <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR). We investigated the time course of the internalization fate of EGF-induced pEGFR via the early/late endocytic pathway in human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 cells using Y-27632, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor. We found, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis, a large accumulation of pEGFR in the nuclei of HT1080 cells. In contrast, we observed decreased amounts of the pEGFR-positive staining in the nuclei along with an accumulation of cytosolic pEGFR staining when the cells were incubated for 15-30 min in the presence of Y-27632, implying that an aberrant endocytic trafficking mechanism of pEGFR occurs in HT1080 cells whereby pEGFR might be selectively translocated into the nucleus. Moreover, we demonstrated that after 15-min of stimulation with Texas Red-EGF, increasing numbers of pEGFR-positive staining that had colocalized with Texas Red-EGF-positive punctate staining were seen in the cytoplasm of HT1080 cells but after 30-min of stimulation, most of this staining had disappeared from the cytoplasm and a large accumulation of pEGFR-positive staining appeared in the nucleus. Thus, nuclear accumulation of pEGFR appears to occur in an EGF-dependent manner. In contrast, such nuclear pEGFR-positive staining was not seen in the Y-27632-treated cells. Furthermore, silencing of RhoA or Rho-kinases I/II by sequence specific siRNAs considerably inhibited the EGF-dependent nuclear accumulation of pEGFR. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that Rho-kinase signaling pathway plays a suppressive role in the intracellular vesicle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NuPhS.219..133B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NuPhS.219..133B"><span>Pion-photon <span class="hlt">transition</span> form factor using light-cone sum rules: theoretical results, expectations, and a <span class="hlt">global</span>-data fit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakulev, A. P.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">global</span> fit to the data from different collaborations (CELLO, CLEO, BaBar) on the pion-photon <span class="hlt">transition</span> form factor is carried out using light-cone sum rules. The analysis includes the next-to-leading QCD radiative corrections and the twist-four contributions, while the main next-to-next-to-leading term and the twist-six contribution are taken into account in the form of theoretical uncertainties. We use the information extracted from the data to investigate the pivotal characteristics of the pion distribution amplitude. This is done by dividing the data into two sets: one containing all data up to 9 GeV 2, whereas the other incorporates also the high- Q tail of the BaBar data. We find that it is not possible to accommodate into the fit these BaBar data points with the same accuracy and conclude that it is difficult to explain these data in the standard scheme of OCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27720260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27720260"><span>Dissonant health <span class="hlt">transition</span> in the states of Mexico, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Burden of Disease Study 2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fullman, Nancy; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Darney, Blair; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Rivera, Juan A; Barquera, Simon; González-Pier, Eduardo; Aburto-Soto, Tania; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Batis, Carolina; Borges, Guilherme; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Campuzano-Rincón, Julio C; de Jesús Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra G; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; de la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa V; Diaz-Ortega, Jose L; de Lourdes García-García, María; Garcia-Guerra, Armando; de Cossío, Teresita González; González-Castell, Luz D; Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Hijar-Medina, Marta C; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Lopez-Olmedo, Nancy; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Medina-Garcia, Catalina; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Montañez, Julio C; Montero, Pablo; Montoya, Alejandra; Moreno-Banda, Grea L; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Quezada, Amado D; Richardson-López-Collada, Vesta L; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Ríos Blancas, Maria J; Razo-Garcia, Christian; Mendoza, Martha P Romero; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sánchez-Romero, Luz M; Schilmann, Astrid; Servan-Mori, Edson; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Texcalac-Sangrador, José L; Wang, Haidong; Vos, Theo; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Lozano, Rafael</p> <p>2016-11-12</p> <p>Child and maternal health outcomes have notably improved in Mexico since 1990, whereas rising adult mortality rates defy traditional epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span> models in which decreased death rates occur across all ages. These trends suggest Mexico is experiencing a more complex, dissonant health <span class="hlt">transition</span> than historically observed. Enduring inequalities between states further emphasise the need for more detailed health assessments over time. The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013 (GBD 2013) provides the comprehensive, comparable framework through which such national and subnational analyses can occur. This study offers a state-level quantification of disease burden and risk factor attribution in Mexico for the first time. We extracted data from GBD 2013 to assess mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) in Mexico and its 32 states, along with eight comparator countries in the Americas. States were grouped by Marginalisation Index scores to compare subnational burden along a socioeconomic dimension. We split extracted data by state and applied GBD methods to generate estimates of burden, and attributable burden due to behavioural, metabolic, and environmental or occupational risks. We present results for 306 causes, 2337 sequelae, and 79 risk factors. From 1990 to 2013, life expectancy from birth in Mexico increased by 3·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 3·1-3·8), from 72·1 years (71·8-72·3) to 75·5 years (75·3-75·7), and these gains were more pronounced in states with high marginalisation. Nationally, age-standardised death rates fell 13·3% (11·9-14·6%) since 1990, but state-level reductions for all-cause mortality varied and gaps between life expectancy and years lived in full health, as measured by HALE, widened in several states. Progress in women's life expectancy exceeded that of men, in whom</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20828143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20828143"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> fit analysis of glucose binding curves reveals a minimal model for kinetic cooperativity in human glucokinase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larion, Mioara; Miller, Brian G</p> <p>2010-10-19</p> <p>Human pancreatic glucokinase is a monomeric enzyme that displays kinetic cooperativity, a feature that facilitates enzyme-mediated regulation of blood glucose levels in the body. Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe the non-Michaelis-Menten behavior of human glucokinase. The mnemonic mechanism postulates the existence of one thermodynamically favored enzyme conformation in the absence of glucose, whereas the <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> slow <span class="hlt">transition</span> model (LIST) requires a preexisting equilibrium between two enzyme species that interconvert with a rate constant slower than turnover. To investigate whether either of these mechanisms is sufficient to describe glucokinase cooperativity, a transient-state kinetic analysis of glucose binding to the enzyme was undertaken. A complex, time-dependent change in enzyme intrinsic fluorescence was observed upon exposure to glucose, which is best described by an analytical solution comprised of the sum of four exponential terms. Transient-state glucose binding experiments conducted in the presence of increasing glycerol concentrations demonstrate that three of the observed rate constants decrease with increasing viscosity. <span class="hlt">Global</span> fit analyses of experimental glucose binding curves are consistent with a kinetic model that is an extension of the LIST mechanism with a total of four glucose-bound binary complexes. The kinetic model presented herein suggests that glucokinase samples multiple conformations in the absence of ligand and that this conformational heterogeneity persists even after the enzyme associates with glucose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11444803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11444803"><span>Use of surface plasmon resonance for real-time measurements of the <span class="hlt">global</span> conformational <span class="hlt">transition</span> in human phenylalanine hydroxylase in response to substrate binding and catalytic activation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flatmark, T; Stokka, A J; Berge, S V</p> <p>2001-07-15</p> <p>In the present study the optical biosensor technique, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, was used for real-time measurements of the reversible binding of the pterin cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) to human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH). When BH(4) (241 Da) was injected over the sensor chip with immobilized tetrameric wt-hPAH a positive DeltaRU response was observed with a square-wave type of sensorgram and a saturable response (about 25 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2)) with a [S](0.5) value of 5.6 +/- 0.8 microM for the pterin cofactor. The rapid on-and-off rates were, however, not possible to determine. By contrast, when l-Phe (165 Da) was injected a time-dependent increase in RU (up to about 3 min) and a much higher saturable DeltaRU response (about 75 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2)) at 2 mM l-Phe) than expected (i.e., <5 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2))) from the low molecular mass of l-Phe were observed in the sensorgram. The half-time for the on-and-off rates were 6 +/- 2 and 9 +/- 1 s, respectively, at 2 mM l-Phe. The steady-state (apparent equilibrium) response revealed a hyperbolic concentration dependence with a [S](0.5) value of 98 +/- 7 microM. The [S](0.5) values of both pterin cofactor and l-Phe were lower than those determined by steady-state enzyme kinetic analysis. Evidence is presented that the DeltaRU response to l-Phe is accounted for by the <span class="hlt">global</span> conformational <span class="hlt">transition</span> which occurs in the enzyme upon l-Phe binding, i.e., by the slow reversible <span class="hlt">transition</span> from a low activity state ("T"-state) to a high activity state ("R"-state) characteristic of this hysteretic enzyme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8877C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8877C"><span>Impact of the <span class="hlt">global</span> SST gradients changes on the Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance through the Plio/Pliocene <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colleoni, Florence; Florindo, Fabio; McKay, Robert; Golledge, Nicholas; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Montoli, Enea; Masina, Simona; Cherchi, Annalisa; De Santis, Laura</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) reconstructions have shown that the Pliocene <span class="hlt">global</span> zonal and meridional temperature gradients were different from today, implying changes of atmospheric and oceanic circulations, and thus of the main teleconnections. The impact of the main atmospheric teleconnections on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) in the past has been seldom investigated. The ANDRILL marine record have shown that at the end of the Pliocene, the ice sheet expanded in the Ross Sea concomitantly with the expansion of the sea ice cover. This would have enhanced the formation of bottom waters that in turn, would have fostered upwelling along the West African coast and along the coast of Peru. The impact of Antarctica on the tropical climate dynamics has been shown by previous studies. To close the loop, this work investigates the impact of the tropical and high-latitude SST cooling on the main atmospheric teleconnections and then on the Antarctic SMB through the Plio/Pleistocene <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Idealized Atmospheric General Circulation Model simulations are performed, in which high-latitude and tropical SST cooling are prescribed starting from the Pliocene SST. The atmospheric conditions obtained are then used to force an ice sheet model and a stand-alone energy balance model to investigate the impact on the SMB of the two main atmospheric teleconnections active in the Southern Hemisphere, namely the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Pacific-South-American oscillation (PSA. In agreement with ANDRILL marine records, results show that the Easterlies strengthen along the Antarctic coasts during the Plio/Pleistocene <span class="hlt">transition</span>. This, however, occurs only after cooling the tropical SSTs in the AGCM simulations. More importantly, the cooling of the tropical SST, through the strengthening of the PSA, has the largest influence on the spatial distribution of the climatic anomalies over Antarctica. This explains most of the SMB patterns simulated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196425"><span>In Bacillus subtilis LutR is part of the <span class="hlt">global</span> complex regulatory network governing the adaptation to the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from exponential growth to stationary phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irigül-Sönmez, Öykü; Köroğlu, Türkan E; Öztürk, Büşra; Kovács, Ákos T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The lutR gene, encoding a product resembling a GntR-family transcriptional regulator, has previously been identified as a gene required for the production of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin in Bacillus subtilis. To understand the broader regulatory roles of LutR in B. subtilis, we studied the genome-wide effects of a lutR null mutation by combining transcriptional profiling studies using DNA microarrays, reverse transcription quantitative PCR, lacZ fusion analyses and gel mobility shift assays. We report that 65 transcriptional units corresponding to 23 mono-cistronic units and 42 operons show altered expression levels in lutR mutant cells, as compared with lutR(+) wild-type cells in early stationary phase. Among these, 11 single genes and 25 operons are likely to be under direct control of LutR. The products of these genes are involved in a variety of physiological processes associated with the onset of stationary phase in B. subtilis, including degradative enzyme production, antibiotic production and resistance, carbohydrate utilization and transport, nitrogen metabolism, phosphate uptake, fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, protein synthesis and translocation, cell-wall metabolism, energy production, transfer of mobile genetic elements, induction of phage-related genes, sporulation, delay of sporulation and cannibalism, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed in the presence of both SinR and LutR revealed a close overlap between the LutR and SinR targets. Our data also revealed a significant overlap with the AbrB regulon. Together, these findings reveal that LutR is part of the <span class="hlt">global</span> complex, interconnected regulatory systems governing adaptation of bacteria to the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from exponential growth to stationary phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27565328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27565328"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> and gene specific DNA methylation in breast cancer cells was not affected during epithelial-to-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smolkova, B; Miklikova, S; Kajabova, V Horvathova; Babelova, A; Yamani, N El; Zduriencikova, M; Fridrichova, I; Zmetakova, I; Krivulcik, T; Kalinkova, L; Matuskova, M; Kucerova, L; Dusinska, M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Epithelial-to-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> (EMT) significantly affects the risk of metastasising in breast cancer. Plasticity and reversibility of EMT suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be the key drivers of these processes, but little is known about the dynamics of EMT-related epigenetic alterations. We hypothesised that EMT, mediated by autocrine and paracrine signals, will be accompanied by changes in DNA methylation profiles. Therefore, conditioned medium from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells was used for induction of EMT in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line. EMT-related morphological alterations and changes in gene expression of EMT-associated markers were assessed. To reverse EMT, 20 nm size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized by the citrate reduction method were applied. Finally, DNA methylation of LINE-1 sequences and promoter methylation of TIMP3, ADAM23 and BRMS1 genes were quantitatively evaluated by pyrosequencing. Despite the presence of EMT-associated morphological and gene expression changes in tumour cells, EMT induced by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells had almost no effect on LINE-1 and gene-specific DNA methylation patterns of TIMP3, ADAM23 and BRMS1 genes. Although treatment for 24, 48 or 72 hours with 20 nm AuNPs at a concentration of 3 µg/ml slightly decreased gene expression of EMT-associated markers in SK-BR-3 cells, it did not alter <span class="hlt">global</span> or gene-specific DNA methylation. Our results suggest that changes in DNA methylation are not detectable in vitro in early phases of EMT. Previously published positive findings could represent rather the sustained presence of potent EMT-inducing signals or the synergistic effect of various epigenetic mechanisms. Treatment with AuNPs slightly attenuated EMT, and their therapeutic potential needs to be further investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036843','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036843"><span>Reply to the Comment on "Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud <span class="hlt">transition</span>: A <span class="hlt">global</span> survey" by D.A. George and P.S. Hill [Marine Geology 254 (2008) 121-128</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>George, D.A.; Hill, P.S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of concepts presented by George and Hill [George, D.A., Hill, P.S., 2008. Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud <span class="hlt">transition</span>: A <span class="hlt">global</span> survey. Marine Geology, 254, 121-128.] regarding the depth of the sand-mud <span class="hlt">transition</span> (hSMT) was performed by Guill??n and Jim??nez [Jorge Guill??n and Jos?? A. Jim??nez, Comment on "Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud <span class="hlt">transition</span>: A <span class="hlt">global</span> survey" by D.A. George and P.S. Hill [Marine Geology 254 (2008) 121-128], Marine Geology, in press]. We are pleased that our proposed definition of the hSMT was confirmed to be appropriate. We are encouraged that the authors agree that wave period and wave height should both be used to determine hSMT as we demonstrated in our Eq. (1), which calculates the bed shear stress at hSMT. More in-depth research should focus on characterizing the role of sediment supply in determining hSMT. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465832','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465832"><span>Emergent Self-Organized Criticality in Gene Expression Dynamics: Temporal Development of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Phase <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Revealed in a Cancer Cell Line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsuchiya, Masa; Giuliani, Alessandro; Hashimoto, Midori; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Yoshikawa, Kenichi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background The underlying mechanism of dynamic control of the genome-wide expression is a fundamental issue in bioscience. We addressed it in terms of phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> by a systemic approach based on both density analysis and characteristics of temporal fluctuation for the time-course mRNA expression in differentiating MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methodology In a recent work, we suggested criticality as an essential aspect of dynamic control of genome-wide gene expression. Criticality was evident by a unimodal-bimodal <span class="hlt">transition</span> through flattened unimodal expression profile. The flatness on the <span class="hlt">transition</span> suggests the existence of a critical <span class="hlt">transition</span> at which up- and down-regulated expression is balanced. Mean field (averaging) behavior of mRNAs based on the temporal expression changes reveals a sandpile type of <span class="hlt">transition</span> in the flattened profile. Furthermore, around the <span class="hlt">transition</span>, a self-similar unimodal-bimodal <span class="hlt">transition</span> of the whole expression occurs in the density profile of an ensemble of mRNA expression. These singular and scaling behaviors identify the <span class="hlt">transition</span> as the expression phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> driven by self-organized criticality (SOC). Principal Findings Emergent properties of SOC through a mean field approach are revealed: i) SOC, as a form of genomic phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>, consolidates distinct critical states of expression, ii) Coupling of coherent stochastic oscillations between critical states on different time-scales gives rise to SOC, and iii) Specific gene clusters (barcode genes) ranging in size from kbp to Mbp reveal similar SOC to genome-wide mRNA expression and ON-OFF synchronization to critical states. This suggests that the cooperative gene regulation of topological genome sub-units is mediated by the coherent phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> of megadomain-scaled conformations between compact and swollen chromatin states. Conclusion and Significance In summary, our study provides not only a systemic method to demonstrate SOC in whole-genome expression</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475621"><span>Presenilin mediates neuroprotective functions of ephrinB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and regulates <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> internalization and metabolism of EphB2 and TrkB receptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barthet, Gael; Dunys, Julie; Shao, Zhiping; Xuan, Zhao; Ren, Yimin; Xu, Jindong; Arbez, Nicolas; Mauger, Gweltas; Bruban, Julien; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Shioi, Junichi; Robakis, Nikolaos K</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Activation of EphB receptors by ephrinB (efnB) ligands on neuronal cell surface regulates important functions, including neurite outgrowth, axonal guidance, and synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that efnB rescues primary cortical neuronal cultures from necrotic cell death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity and that this function depends on EphB receptors. Importantly, the neuroprotective function of the efnB/EphB system depends on presenilin 1 (PS1), a protein that plays crucial roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurodegeneration. Furthermore, absence of one PS1 allele results in significantly decreased neuroprotection, indicating that both PS1 alleles are necessary for full expression of the neuroprotective activity of the efnB/EphB system. We also show that the ability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to protect neuronal cultures from glutamate-induced cell death depends on PS1. Neuroprotective functions of both efnB and BDNF, however, were independent of γ-secretase activity. Absence of PS1 decreases cell surface expression of neuronal TrkB and EphB2 without affecting total cellular levels of the receptors. Furthermore, PS1-knockout neurons show defective ligand-dependent internalization and decreased <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> degradation of TrkB and Eph receptors. Our data show that PS1 mediates the neuroprotective activities of efnB and BDNF against excitotoxicity and regulates surface expression and <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> metabolism of their cognate receptors. Together, our observations indicate that PS1 promotes neuronal survival by regulating neuroprotective functions of ligand-receptor systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12841150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12841150"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span>, <span class="hlt">global</span> health, and access to healthcare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collins, Téa</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is now commonly realized that the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of the world economy is shaping the patterns of <span class="hlt">global</span> health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of <span class="hlt">transitional</span> economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/464990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/464990"><span>The <span class="hlt">global</span> energy system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Häfele, W; Sassin, W</p> <p>1979-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">global</span> energy system is conceptualized and analyzed, the energy distributor sub-system of the worldwide supranational system. Its many interconnections are examined and traced back to their source to determine the major elements of this <span class="hlt">global</span> energy system. Long-term trends are emphasized. The analysis begins with a discussion of the local systems that resulted from the deployment of technology in the mid-nineteenth century, continues with a description of the <span class="hlt">global</span> system based on oil that has existed for the past two decades, and ends with a scenario implying that an energy <span class="hlt">transition</span> will occur in the future in which use of coal, nuclear, and solar energy will predominate. A major problem for the future will be the management of this energy <span class="hlt">transition</span>. The optimal use of <span class="hlt">global</span> resources and the efficient management of this <span class="hlt">transition</span> will require a stable and persistent <span class="hlt">global</span> order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22124608F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22124608F"><span>The Hetu'u <span class="hlt">Global</span> Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th <span class="hlt">Transit</span> of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a <span class="hlt">transit</span>-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the <span class="hlt">transit</span>, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime <span class="hlt">transit</span> event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMIN51B1840H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMIN51B1840H"><span>Power Watch: Increasing Transparency and Accessibility of Data in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Power Sector to Accelerate the <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to a Lower Carbon Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hennig, R. J.; Friedrich, J.; Malaguzzi Valeri, L.; McCormick, C.; Lebling, K.; Kressig, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Power Watch project will offer open data on the <span class="hlt">global</span> electricity sector starting with power plants and their impacts on climate and water systems; it will also offer visualizations and decision making tools. Power Watch will create the first comprehensive, open database of power plants <span class="hlt">globally</span> by compiling data from national governments, public and private utilities, transmission grid operators, and other data providers to create a core dataset that has information on over 80% of <span class="hlt">global</span> installed capacity for electrical generation. Power plant data will at a minimum include latitude and longitude, capacity, fuel type, emissions, water usage, ownership, and annual generation. By providing data that is both comprehensive, as well as making it publically available, this project will support decision making and analysis by actors across the economy and in the research community. The Power Watch research effort focuses on creating a <span class="hlt">global</span> standard for power plant information, gathering and standardizing data from multiple sources, matching information from multiple sources on a plant level, testing cross-validation approaches (regional statistics, crowdsourcing, satellite data, and others) and developing estimation methodologies for generation, emissions, and water usage. When not available from official reports, emissions, annual generation, and water usage will be estimated. Water use estimates of power plants will be based on capacity, fuel type and satellite imagery to identify cooling types. This analysis is being piloted in several states in India and will then be scaled up to a <span class="hlt">global</span> level. Other planned applications of of the Power Watch data include improving understanding of energy access, air pollution, emissions estimation, stranded asset analysis, life cycle analysis, tracking of proposed plants and curtailment analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19616690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19616690"><span>Principle component analysis (PCA) and second-order <span class="hlt">global</span> hard-modelling for the complete resolution of <span class="hlt">transition</span> metal ions complex formation with 1,10-phenantroline.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Hasani, Masoumeh</p> <p>2009-08-19</p> <p>Second-order <span class="hlt">global</span> hard-modelling was applied to resolve the complex formation between Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cd(2+) cations and 1,10-phenantroline. The highly correlated spectral and concentration profiles of the species in these systems and low concentration of some species in the individual collected data matrices prevent the well-resolution of the profiles. Therefore, a collection of six equilibrium data matrices including series of absorption spectra taken with pH changes at different reactant ratios were analyzed. Firstly, a precise principle component analysis (PCA) of different augmented arrangements of the individual data matrices was used to distinguish the number of species involved in the equilibria. Based on the results of PCA, the equilibria included in the data were specified and second-order <span class="hlt">global</span> hard-modelling of the appropriate arrangement of six collected equilibrium data matrices resulted in well-resolved profiles and equilibrium constants. The protonation constant of the ligand (1,10-phenantroline) and spectral profiles of its protonated and unprotonated forms are the additional information obtained by <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis. For comparison, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the same data. The results showed that second-order <span class="hlt">global</span> hard-modelling is more convenient compared with MCR-ALS especially for systems with completely known model. It can completely resolve the system and the concentration profiles which are closer to correct ones. Moreover, parameters showing the goodness of fit are better with second-order <span class="hlt">global</span> hard-modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901284"><span>The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural <span class="hlt">transition</span> in Yuchisi, China and its <span class="hlt">global</span> linkage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural <span class="hlt">transition</span> horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. PMID:27283832</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcA....65..117S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcA....65..117S"><span>The Properties of XO-5b and WASP-82b Redetermined Using New High-Precision <span class="hlt">Transit</span> Photometry and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, A. M. S.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents new <span class="hlt">transit</span> photometry from the Isaac Newton Telescope of two <span class="hlt">transiting</span> exoplanetary systems, XO-5 and WASP-82. In each case the new <span class="hlt">transit</span> light curve is more precise than any other of that system previously published. The new data are analyzed alongside previously-published photometry and radial velocities, resulting in an improved orbital ephemeris and a refined set of system parameters in each case. The observational baseline of XO-5 is extended by very nearly four years, resulting in a determination of the orbital period of XO-5b to a precision of just 50 ms. The mass and radius of XO-5b are 1.19±0.03 and 1.14±0.03 times those of Jupiter, respectively. The light curve of WASP-82 is only the second published for this system. The planetary mass is 1.25±0.05 MJup, and the radius is 1.71±0.08 RJup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627723W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627723W"><span>The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural <span class="hlt">transition</span> in Yuchisi, China and its <span class="hlt">global</span> linkage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050-4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400-4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural <span class="hlt">transition</span> horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02198&hterms=Smooth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSmooth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02198&hterms=Smooth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSmooth"><span>Smooth <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><p/> 22 February 2006 This Mars <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a <span class="hlt">transition</span> from one of the many layered troughs in the north polar region of Mars to the relatively homogeneous-looking upper surface of the polar cap. The difference in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors, one of which is the amount of dust versus that of ice in any given location. The bright material that dominates the scene is largely water ice. <p/> <i>Location near</i>: 83.2oN, 297.8oW <i>Image width</i>: 3 km (1.9 mi) <i>Illumination from</i>: lower right <i>Season</i>: Northern Summer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815099','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815099"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Transcriptome Profiling of Developing Leaf and Shoot Apices Reveals Distinct Genetic and Environmental Control of Floral <span class="hlt">Transition</span> and Inflorescence Development in Barley[OPEN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Timing of the floral <span class="hlt">transition</span> and inflorescence development strongly affect yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Therefore, we examined the effects of daylength and the photoperiod response gene PHOTOPERIOD1 (Ppd-H1) on barley development and analyzed gene expression changes in the developing leaves and main shoot apices (MSAs) of barley by RNA sequencing. The daylength sensitivity of MSA development had two phases, floret primordia initiated under long and short days, whereas successful inflorescence development occurred only under long days. The transcripts associated with floral <span class="hlt">transition</span> were largely regulated independently of photoperiod and allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The photoperiod- and Ppd-H1-dependent differences in inflorescence development and flower fertility were associated with the induction of barley FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologs: FT1 in leaves and FT2 in MSAs. FT1 expression was coregulated with transcripts involved in nutrient transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell cycle regulation, suggesting that FT1 might alter source-sink relationships. Successful inflorescence development correlated with upregulation of FT2 and transcripts related to floral organ development, phytohormones, and cell cycle regulation. Identification of photoperiod and stage-specific transcripts gives insights into the regulation of reproductive development in barley and provides a resource for investigation of the complexities of development and yield in temperate grasses. PMID:26307377</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307377"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Transcriptome Profiling of Developing Leaf and Shoot Apices Reveals Distinct Genetic and Environmental Control of Floral <span class="hlt">Transition</span> and Inflorescence Development in Barley.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Digel, Benedikt; Pankin, Artem; von Korff, Maria</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Timing of the floral <span class="hlt">transition</span> and inflorescence development strongly affect yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Therefore, we examined the effects of daylength and the photoperiod response gene PHOTOPERIOD1 (Ppd-H1) on barley development and analyzed gene expression changes in the developing leaves and main shoot apices (MSAs) of barley by RNA sequencing. The daylength sensitivity of MSA development had two phases, floret primordia initiated under long and short days, whereas successful inflorescence development occurred only under long days. The transcripts associated with floral <span class="hlt">transition</span> were largely regulated independently of photoperiod and allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The photoperiod- and Ppd-H1-dependent differences in inflorescence development and flower fertility were associated with the induction of barley FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologs: FT1 in leaves and FT2 in MSAs. FT1 expression was coregulated with transcripts involved in nutrient transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell cycle regulation, suggesting that FT1 might alter source-sink relationships. Successful inflorescence development correlated with upregulation of FT2 and transcripts related to floral organ development, phytohormones, and cell cycle regulation. Identification of photoperiod and stage-specific transcripts gives insights into the regulation of reproductive development in barley and provides a resource for investigation of the complexities of development and yield in temperate grasses. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27249101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27249101"><span><span class="hlt">Ligand-Induced</span> Stabilization of a Duplex-like Architecture Is Crucial for the Switching Mechanism of the SAM-III Riboswitch.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suresh, Gorle; Srinivasan, Harini; Nanda, Shivani; Priyakumar, U Deva</p> <p>2016-06-21</p> <p>Riboswitches are structured RNA motifs that control gene expression by sensing the concentrations of specific metabolites and make up a promising new class of antibiotic targets. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM)-III riboswitch, mainly found in lactic acid bacteria, is involved in regulating methionine and SAM biosynthetic pathways. SAM-III riboswitch regulates the gene expression by switching the translation process on and off with respect to the absence and presence of the SAM ligand, respectively. In this study, an attempt is made to understand the key conformational <span class="hlt">transitions</span> involved in ligand binding using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed in an explicit solvent environment. G26 is found to recognize the SAM ligand by forming hydrogen bonds, whereas the absence of the ligand leads to opening of the binding pocket. Consistent with experimental results, the absence of the SAM ligand weakens the base pairing interactions between the nucleobases that are part of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) and anti-Shine-Dalgarno (aSD) sequences, which in turn facilitates recognition of the SD sequence by ribosomes. Detailed analysis reveals that a duplex-like structure formed by nucleotides from different parts of the RNA and the adenine base of the ligand is crucial for the stability of the completely folded state in the presence of the ligand. Previous experimental studies have shown that the SAM-III riboswitch exists in equilibrium between the unfolded and partially folded states in the absence of the ligand, which completely folds upon binding of the ligand. Comparison of the results presented here to the available experimental data indicates the structures obtained using the MD simulations resemble the partially folded state. Thus, this study provides a detailed understanding of the fully and partially folded structures of the SAM-III riboswitch in the presence and absence of the ligand, respectively. This study hypothesizes a dual role for the SAM ligand</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED533414.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED533414.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Statfeld, Jenna L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Post-school <span class="hlt">transition</span> is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school <span class="hlt">transition</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">transition</span> plan; (3) <span class="hlt">transition</span> services; (4) <span class="hlt">transition</span> planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922390"><span>A <span class="hlt">global</span> view of gene activity at the flowering <span class="hlt">transition</span> phase in precocious trifoliate orange and its wild-type [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] by transcriptome and proteome analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ai, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Guang; Sun, Lei-Ming; Hu, Chun-Gen; Guo, Wen-Wu; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Zhi</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>Most of what we know about the molecular genetics of flowering time regulation comes from studies in the model plants. However, little is known about the regulation of flowering <span class="hlt">transition</span> in perennial species or in species with particular growth habits compared with model plants. Here comparative transcriptome and proteome profiling of spring shoots was performed on an early flowering trifoliate orange mutant (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata) and its wild-type. A total of 19,215 read-mapped genes were observed in two genotypes by RNA-Seq. Of these, 1450 and 1159 genes were specifically observed in the mutant and wild-type libraries, respectively. There were 355 genes that were expressed differently in the two genotypes. A total of 1664 proteins were identified by the iTRAQ technique, and transcript and protein profiles were parallel across the time course for 50% of the comparisons made, but divergent patterns were also observed, indicative of post-transcriptional events. In addition, a <span class="hlt">global</span> survey of messenger RNA splicing events identified 16,343 splice junctions among 12,688 genes and showed that alternative 3' splice is the most prevalent form of alternative splicing. We further identify 5698 novel transcribed regions that are not overlapping with annotated citrus transcriptome in two genotypes. Understanding of the regulation of flowering <span class="hlt">transition</span> in citrus can help in the development of new genetic or management strategies to improve fruit production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1029053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1029053"><span>Harmonization of Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100: 600 Years of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Gridded Annual Land-Use <span class="hlt">Transitions</span>, Wood Harvest, and Resulting Secondary Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hurtt, George; Chini, Louise Parsons; Frolking, Steve; Betts, Richard; Feddema, Johannes; Fischer, Gavin M.; Fisk, J.P.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Houghton, R. A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Jones, C.; Kindermann, G.; Kinoshita, Tsuguki; Goldeweijk, Kees K.; Riahi, Keywan; Shevliakova, Elena; Smith, Steven J.; Stehfest, Eike; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, P.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wang, Y.</p> <p>2011-08-08</p> <p>In preparation for the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the international community is developing new advanced Earth System Models (ESM) to assess the combined effects of human activities (e.g. land use and fossil fuel emissions) on the carbon-climate system. In addition, four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios of the future (2005-2100) are being provided by four Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) teams to be used as input to the ESMs for future carbon-climate projections (Moss et al., 2010). The diversity of approaches and requirements among IAMs and ESMs for tracking land-use change, along with the dependence of model projections on land-use history, presents a challenge for effectively passing data between these communities and for smoothly <span class="hlt">transitioning</span> from the historical estimates to future projections. Here, a harmonized set of land-use scenarios are presented that smoothly connects historical reconstructions of land use with future projections, in the format required by ESMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMR....68..289S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMR....68..289S"><span><span class="hlt">Transitions</span> in sandflat biota since the 1930s: effects of sea-level rise, eutrophication and biological <span class="hlt">globalization</span> in the tidal bay Königshafen, northern Wadden Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schumacher, Juliane; Dolch, Tobias; Reise, Karsten</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Conspicuous macrozoobenthos and vegetation of intertidal sandflats in Königshafen (Island of Sylt, SE North Sea) were mapped in 1932, 1988 and 2008. Higher water levels since the 1930s with a concomitant increase in tidal dynamics are assumed to have weakened sediment stability. This dissolved the distinctly banded macrobenthic zonation of the 1930s. Near high water level, cyanobacterial mats with associated beetles, belts of the mudshrimp Corophium volutator and the seagrass Zostera noltii have vanished, while the range of the lugworm Arenicola marina has extended towards the shore. Near low water level, sandy elevations have become permanently submerged because a tidal creek has widened its bed. In 1988, extensive green algal mats and the almost complete absence of seagrass are attributed to peak eutrophication. This partially reversed until 2008. The mussel Mytilus edulis had strongly extended its beds along the creek in 1988. These were taken over by introduced Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 2008. Also in 2008, the cordgrass Spartina anglica, another introduced species, grew into large tussocks where cyanobacterial mats and a Corophium-belt had been mapped in the 1930s. Former benthic patterns may have little chance of resurrection by conventional nature protection because these small-scale shifts represent responses to regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20109579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20109579"><span>Oncogenic RAS alters the <span class="hlt">global</span> and gene-specific histone modification pattern during epithelial-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> in colorectal carcinoma cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peláez, Ignacio Mazón; Kalogeropoulou, Margarita; Ferraro, Angelo; Voulgari, Angeliki; Pankotai, Tibor; Boros, Imre; Pintzas, Alexander</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The presence of different forms of histone covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation in localized promoter regions are markers for chromatin packing and transcription. Activation of RAS signalling pathways through oncogenic RAS mutations is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Overexpression of Harvey-Ras oncogene induces epithelial-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> (EMT) in Caco-2 cells. We focused on the role of epigenetic modifications of histone H3 and its dependence on RAS signal transduction pathways and oncogenic transformation. Using cell lines stably overexpressing oncogenic Harvey-RAS with EMT phenotype, we studied the acquired changes in the H3 histone modification patterns. Two genes show inverse protein expression patterns after Ha-RAS overexpression: Cyclin D1, a cell cycle-related gene, and the EMT marker-gene E-cadherin. We report that these two genes demonstrate matching inverse histone repression patterns on their promoter, while histone markers associated with an active state of genes were affected by the RAS-activated signalling pathway MEK-ERK-MSK1. Furthermore, we show that though the level of methyltransferases enzymes was increased, the status of H3 three-methylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me(3)), associated with gene repression on the promoter of Cyclin D1, was lower. Together, these results suggest that histone covalent modifications can be affected by oncogenic RAS pathways to regulate the expression of target genes like Cyclin D1 or E-cadherin and that the dynamic balance of opposing histone-modifying enzymes is critical for the regulation of cell proliferation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993531','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993531"><span>Molecular Epidemiology of Contemporary G2P[4] Human Rotaviruses Cocirculating in a Single U.S. Community: Footprints of a <span class="hlt">Globally</span> <span class="hlt">Transitioning</span> Genotype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dennis, Allison F.; McDonald, Sarah M.; Payne, Daniel C.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new <span class="hlt">globally</span> dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011FrES....5....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011FrES....5....1Y"><span>How severe is the modern biotic crisis?—A comparison of <span class="hlt">global</span> change and biotic crisis between Permian-Triassic <span class="hlt">transition</span> and modern times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Hongfu; He, Weihong; Xie, Shucheng</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A comparison of the modern condition with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) times was made to estimate how severe the modern biotic crisis is. About the <span class="hlt">global</span> changes, the two periods are correlative in carbon dioxide concentration and carbon isotope negative excursion, UV strengthening, temperature increase, ocean acidification, and weathering enhancement. The following tendencies of biotic crises are also correlative: acceleration of extinction rates accompanied by parabolic curve of extinction with a turning interval representing the critical crisis; decline of the three main ecosystems: reefs, tropical rain forests and marine phytoplankton. It is also interesting to note that certain leading organism in both periods undergo accelerated evolution during the crisis. The comparison shows that the modern crisis is about at the turning point from decline to decimation. The extinction curve is now parabolic, and the extinction rate has been accelerated, but the decimation is not yet in real. This is also justified by the modern situation of the three main ecosystems. Modern biotic decline may worsen into decimation and mass extinction but may also get better and recover to ordinary evolution. Since human activities are the main cause of the deterioration of environments and organisms, mankind should be responsible and able to strive for the recovery of the crisis. For the future of mankind, Homo sapiens may become extinct, i.e., disappear without leaving descendants, or evolve into a new and more advanced species, i.e., disappear but leave descendants. For a better future, mankind should be conscious of the facing danger and act as a whole to save biodiversity and harmonize with the environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3814307','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3814307"><span>Xbp1 Directs <span class="hlt">Global</span> Repression of Budding Yeast Transcription during the <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Quiescence and Is Important for the Longevity and Reversibility of the Quiescent State</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miles, Shawna; Li, Lihong; Davison, Jerry; Breeden, Linda L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pure populations of quiescent yeast can be obtained from stationary phase cultures that have ceased proliferation after exhausting glucose and other carbon sources from their environment. They are uniformly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and display very high thermo-tolerance and longevity. We find that G1 arrest is initiated before all the glucose has been scavenged from the media. Maintaining G1 arrest requires transcriptional repression of the G1 cyclin, CLN3, by Xbp1. Xbp1 is induced as glucose is depleted and it is among the most abundant transcripts in quiescent cells. Xbp1 binds and represses CLN3 transcription and in the absence of Xbp1, or with extra copies of CLN3, cells undergo ectopic divisions and produce very small cells. The Rad53-mediated replication stress checkpoint reinforces the arrest and becomes essential when Cln3 is overproduced. The XBP1 transcript also undergoes metabolic oscillations under glucose limitation and we identified many additional transcripts that oscillate out of phase with XBP1 and have Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Further <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis revealed that Xbp1 represses 15% of all yeast genes as they enter the quiescent state and over 500 of these transcripts contain Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Xbp1-repressed transcripts are highly enriched for genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell division and metabolism. Failure to repress some or all of these targets leads xbp1 cells to enter a permanent arrest or senescence with a shortened lifespan. PMID:24204289</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378531"><span>TNFR2 increases the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways and signals TRAF2 protein degradation in macrophages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruspi, Gerhard; Schmidt, Emily M; McCann, Fiona; Feldmann, Marc; Williams, Richard O; Stoop, A Allart; Dean, Jonathan L E</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Tumour necrosis factor (p55 or p60) receptor (TNFR) 1 is the major receptor that activates pro-inflammatory signalling and induces gene expression in response to TNF. Consensus is lacking for the function of (p75 or p80) TNFR2 but experiments in mice have suggested neuro-, cardio- and osteo-protective and anti-inflammatory roles. It has been shown in various cell types to be specifically required for the induction of TNFR-associated factor-2 (TRAF2) degradation and activation of the alternative nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway, and to contribute to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the classical NF-kappaB pathway. We have investigated the signalling functions of TNFR2 in primary human and murine macrophages. We find that in these cells TNF induces TRAF2 degradation, and this is blocked in TNFR2(-/-) macrophages. TRAF2 has been previously reported to be required for TNF-induced activation of p38 MAPK. However, TRAF2 degradation does not inhibit TNF-induced tolerance of p38 MAPK activation. Neither TNF, nor lipopolysaccharide treatment, induced activation of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway in macrophages. Activation by TNF of the p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways was blocked in TNFR1(-/-) macrophages. In contrast, although TNFR2(-/-) macrophages displayed robust p38 MAPK activation and IkappaBα degradation at high concentrations of TNF, at lower doses the concentration dependence of signalling was weakened by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that, in addition to inducing TRAF2 protein degradation, TNFR2 also plays a crucial auxiliary role to TNFR1 in sensitising macrophages for the <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> activation of the p38 MAPK and classical NF-kappaB pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2798913','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2798913"><span>Inositol Hexaphosphate Down-regulates both Constitutive and <span class="hlt">Ligand-Induced</span> Mitogenic and Cell Survival Signaling, and Causes Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Death of Human Prostate Carcinoma PC-3 cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gu, Mallikarjuna; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Constitutively active mitogenic and pro-survival signaling cascades due to aberrant expression and interaction of growth factors and their receptors are well documented in human prostate cancer (PCa). EGF and IGF-1 are potent mitogens that regulate proliferation and survival of PCa cells via autocrine and paracrine loops involving both MAPK- and Akt-mediated signaling. Accordingly, here we assessed the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on constitutive and ligand (EGF and IGF-1)-induced biological responses and associated signaling cascades in advanced and androgen-independent human PCa PC-3 cells. Treatment of PC-3 cells with 2 mM IP6 strongly inhibited both growth and proliferation and decreased cell viability; similar effects were also observed in other human PCa DU145 and LNCaP cells. IP6 also caused a strong apoptotic death of PC-3 cells together with caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Mechanistic studies showed that biological effects of IP6 were associated with inhibition of both constitutive and <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> Akt phosphorylation together with a decrease in total Akt levels, but a differential inhibitory effect on MAPKs ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 under constitutive and ligand-activated conditions. Under similar condition, IP6 also inhibited AP-1 DNA binding activity and decreased nuclear levels of both phospho and total c-Fos and c-Jun. Together, these findings for the first time establish IP6 efficacy in inhibiting aberrant EGFR or IGF-1R pathway-mediated sustained growth promoting and survival signaling cascades in advanced and androgen-independent human PCa PC-3 cells, which might have translational implications in advanced human PCa control and management. PMID:19544333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27285817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27285817"><span>Exploration of electrostatic interaction in the hydrophobic pocket of lysozyme: Importance of <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> perturbation of the secondary structure on the mode of binding of exogenous ligand and possible consequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panja, Sudipta; Halder, Mintu</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Exogenous ligand binding can be adequate to alter the secondary structure of biomolecules besides other external stimuli. In such cases, structural alterations can complicate on the nature of interaction with the exogenous molecules. In order to accommodate the exogenous ligand, the biomolecule has to unfold resulting in a considerable change to its properties. If the bound ligand can be unbound, the biomolecule gets the opportunity to refold back and return to its native state. Keeping this in mind, we have purposely investigated the interaction of tartrazine (TZ), a well abundant azo food colorant, with two homologous lysozymes, namely, human lysozyme (HLZ) and chicken egg white lysozyme (CEWLZ) in physiological pH condition. The binding of TZ with lysozymes has been identified to accompany a <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> secondary structure alteration as indicated by the circular dichroism spectra, and the reduction of α-helical content is more with HLZ than CEWLZ. Interestingly, the binding is identified to occur in the electronic ground state of TZ with lysozyme in its hydrophobic cavity, containing excess of positive charge, predominantly via electrostatic interaction. With increase of salinity of the medium the protein tends to refold back due to wakening of electrostatic forces and consequent reduction of strength of ligand interaction and unbinding. The entropy enthalpy compensation (EEC) has been probed to understand the binding features and it is found that CEWLZ-TZ shows better compensation than HLZ-TZ complex. This is presumably due to the fact that with CEWLZ the binding does not accompany substantial change in the protein secondary structure and hence ineffective to scramble the EEC. The present study initiates the importance of ligand-perturbed structural alteration of biomolecule in controlling the thermodynamics of binding. If there is a considerable alteration of the protein secondary structure due to binding, it is indicative that such changes should bring in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming elucidated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, S.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. <span class="hlt">Global</span> warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to <span class="hlt">transition</span> to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth <span class="hlt">transitions</span> to another equilibrium state in its young history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I"><span><span class="hlt">Transitional</span> changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene related to <span class="hlt">global</span> climatic and local tectonic events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Itaki, Takuya</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Many micropaleontological studies based on data from on-land sections, oil wells, and deep-sea drilling cores have provided important information about environmental changes in the Japan Sea that are related to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and the local tectonics of the Japanese Islands. Here, major changes in the microfossil assemblages during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene are reviewed. Late Pliocene (3.5-2.7 Ma) surface-water assemblages were characterized mainly by cold-temperate planktonic flora and fauna (nannofossils, diatoms, radiolarians, and planktonic foraminifera), suggesting that nutrient-rich North Pacific surface waters entered the Japan Sea via northern straits. The common occurrence of Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians during this period also suggests that deep water from the North Pacific entered the Japan Sea via the northern straits, indicating a sill depth >500 m. A weak warm-water influence is recognized along the Japanese coast, suggesting a small inflow of warm water via a southern strait. Nannofossil and sublittoral ostracod assemblages record an abrupt cooling event at 2.75 Ma that correlates with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Subsequently, cold intermediate- and deep-water assemblages of ostracods and radiolarians increased in abundance, suggesting active ventilation and the formation of the Japan Sea Proper Water, associated with a strengthened winter monsoon. Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians also disappeared around 2.75 Ma, which is attributed to the intermittent occurrence of deep anoxic environments and limited migration from the North Pacific, resulting from the near-closure or shallowing of the northern strait by a eustatic fall in sea level and tectonic uplift of northeastern Japan. A notable reduction in primary productivity from 2.3 to 1.3 Ma also suggests that the nutrient supply from the North Pacific was restricted by the near-closure of the northern strait. An increase in the abundance of subtropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21298166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21298166"><span><span class="hlt">Ligand</span> <span class="hlt">inducible</span> assembly of a DNA tetrahedron.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dohno, Chikara; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Kazuhiko</p> <p>2011-03-28</p> <p>Here we show that a small synthetic ligand can be used as a key building component for DNA nanofabrication. Using naphthyridinecarbamate dimer (NCD) as a molecular glue for DNA hybridization, we demonstrate NCD-triggered formation of a DNA tetrahedron.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53A1675D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53A1675D"><span>Focusing on the Interfaces, Estuaries and Redox <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Zones, for Understanding the Microbial Processes and Biogeochemical Cycling of Carbon under the Looming Influence of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming and Anthropogenic Perturbations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dang, H.; Jiao, N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> the phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish communities in major world estuaries and coastal oceans. However, due to the rapid evolution rate and high adaptive nature of environmental microorganisms, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and anthropogenic perturbations may change the structure and function of the aquatic microbial communities. The estuarine redox <span class="hlt">transition</span> zones may harbor diverse and novel microbial function groups and communities. How the different microbial processes may influence the ecological functionality and efficiency of estuarine ecosystems needs to be thoroughly investigated to be fully understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18473609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18473609"><span>Work <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fouad, Nadya A; Bynner, John</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Individuals make choices in, and adjust to, a world of work that is often a moving target. Because work is so central to human functioning, and <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in and out of work can have major mental health repercussions, the authors argue that applied psychologists in health services need to understand those <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. This article focuses on the different types of <span class="hlt">transition</span> throughout a person's working life and the resources needed at different stages to ensure the success of these <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. The authors start by examining the roles of capability and adaptability in supporting and facilitating adjustment to work <span class="hlt">transitions</span> and their relation to identity development. They then examine the role of social and institutional contexts in shaping work <span class="hlt">transitions</span> and their outcomes. The authors focus on voluntary versus involuntary <span class="hlt">transitions</span> and then broaden the lens in discussing the policy implications of research on work <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESASP.660E..79H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESASP.660E..79H"><span>Pivotal <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> - Historical and Today</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurley, M.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The goal of this paper is to enable readers to better "design" successful <span class="hlt">transitions</span> that move Science and Technology or Research and Development (S&T/R&D) technologies and systems into operational capabilities for users. <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> from S&T/R&D into acquisition and operations are challenging and critical to providing capab ilities to end users. Two historical examples, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System (GPS) and the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), are explored. Two current examples are also explored, including one from Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) which is in th e early stages of <span class="hlt">transition</span>. While <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are necessary, <span class="hlt">transition</span> periods are inherently challenging and dynamically changing situations. These situations must be carefully managed and led in order to succeed. Characteristics, approaches, and incentives that foster effective <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are discussed. Understanding the <span class="hlt">transition</span> process and the communities involved allows one to maximize the chance of successfully moving an S&T/R&D development into an operational capability supporting end users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-201206050001HQ.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-201206050001HQ.html"><span>Venus <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>It appeared that New Yorkers were not going to be able to see the <span class="hlt">transit</span> of the planet Venus across the Sun, but just before the <span class="hlt">transit</span> was over the sun broke through the clouds and Yvette Lee Kang was able to catch a glimpse of the <span class="hlt">transit</span> on Tuesday, June 5, 2012 in New York. A <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus occurs when the planet passes directly between the sun and earth. This alignment is rare, coming in pairs that are eight years apart but separated by over a century. The next Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span> will be in December 2117. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-201206050002HQ.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-201206050002HQ.html"><span>Venus <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>It appeared that New Yorkers were not going to be able to see the <span class="hlt">transit</span> of the planet Venus across the Sun, but just before the <span class="hlt">transit</span> was over the sun broke through the clouds and Liz Heller and Andriel Mesznik were able to catch a glimpse of the <span class="hlt">transit</span> on Tuesday, June 5, 2012 in New York. A <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus occurs when the planet passes directly between the sun and earth. This alignment is rare, coming in pairs that are eight years apart but separated by over a century. The next Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span> will be in December 2117. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10141422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10141422"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> to new <span class="hlt">global</span> standards on hold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>St George, J</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The nation's major standard-setting body for health care financial transactions has delayed a decision on migrating to new, international standards. An immediate move to EDIFACT standards would have been a setback for efforts to encourage the use of standards-based EDI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21028177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21028177"><span>Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.</p> <p>2007-08-31</p> <p>The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on <span class="hlt">global</span> effective interactions, can describe not only general features of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and <span class="hlt">transition</span> rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321261"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span>, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, Christopher J L; Barber, Ryan M; Foreman, Kyle J; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D; Blosser, Christopher D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Bolliger, Ian W; Bora Başara, Berrak; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R A; Boyers, Lindsay N; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D; Brooks, Peter M; Brown, Jonathan C; Brugha, Traolach S; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C; Budke, Christine M; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Carabin, Hélène; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M; Coffeng, Luc E; Coggeshall, Megan S; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Cooke, Graham S; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T; Coppola, Luis M; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H; Crump, John A; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Diaz-Torné, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C; Ebel, Beth E; Edmond, Karen M; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F; Feigin, Valery L; Felson, David T; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G; Ferrari, Alize J; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Fürst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; González-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J; Hansen, Gillian M; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hay, Roderick J; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hosgood, H Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A; Khan, Ejaz A; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kyu, Hmwe H; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E B; Leasher, Janet L; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly E; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S; Lind, Maggie; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Lofgren, Katherine T; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Robyn M; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A; Ma, Stefan; Macintyre, Michael F; Mackay, Mark T; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marzan, Melvin B; Masci, Joseph R; Mashal, Mohammad T; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; Mcgill, Neil W; Mcgrath, John J; Mckee, Martin; Mclain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mitchell, Philip B; Mock, Charles N; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L D; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J; Mooney, Meghan D; Moore, Ami R; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Moyer, Madeline L; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Msemburi, William T; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murdoch, Michele E; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Nguyen, Grant; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer L; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Opio, John Nelson; Ortblad, Katrina; Ortiz, Alberto; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patten, Scott B; Patton, George C; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phillips, Bryan K; Phillips, David E; Piel, Frédéric B; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Pullan, Rachel L; Qato, Dima M; Quistberg, D Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahman, Sajjad U; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, D Allen; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roth, Gregory A; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H; Rowley, Jane T; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Saeedi, Mohammad Y; Saha, Sukanta; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Sanabria, Juan R; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Scarborough, Peter; Schneider, Ione J; Schöttker, Ben; Schumacher, Austin E; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serina, Peter T; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shackelford, Katya A; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shamah Levy, Teresa; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J; Stevens, Antony; Stewart, Andrea; Stovner, Lars J; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R; Te Ao, Braden J; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Temesgen, Awoke M; Templin, Tara; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Uzun, Selen B; Van Brakel, Wim H; Van De Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H; Van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi J; Venketasubramanian, N; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Wagner, Joseph; Waller, Stephen G; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Linhong; Warouw, Tati S; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Thomas N; Wolfe, Charles D; Wolock, Timothy M; Woolf, Anthony D; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiaonong; Salomon, Joshua A; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo</p> <p>2015-11-28</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span> with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22medical+care+evaluation%22&pg=7&id=EJ987390','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22medical+care+evaluation%22&pg=7&id=EJ987390"><span><span class="hlt">Transitional</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transitional</span> care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality <span class="hlt">transitional</span> care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=transfers+AND+Hospital&pg=3&id=EJ987390','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=transfers+AND+Hospital&pg=3&id=EJ987390"><span><span class="hlt">Transitional</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transitional</span> care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality <span class="hlt">transitional</span> care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/index.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/index.html"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Security HIV & Tuberculosis <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Protection Malaria & Parasitic Diseases Immunization Other Diseases & Threats Travelers' Health ... Seasonal changes in climate may muddle results of malaria interventions in Africa Medical Xpress September 28, 2017 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=japanese+AND+american+AND+internment&pg=7&id=ED211994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=japanese+AND+american+AND+internment&pg=7&id=ED211994"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berkley, June, Ed.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The articles in this collection deal with various methods of <span class="hlt">global</span> education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of <span class="hlt">global</span> education; (2) <span class="hlt">global</span> education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization+AND+affects+AND+business&pg=2&id=ED428216','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization+AND+affects+AND+business&pg=2&id=ED428216"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> HRD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>1997</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers from a symposium on <span class="hlt">global</span> human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a <span class="hlt">global</span> organization.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED309119.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED309119.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of <span class="hlt">Globalism</span>," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> education for today's schools. "<span class="hlt">Global</span> Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+resource+AND+management+OR+hrm&pg=5&id=ED428216','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+resource+AND+management+OR+hrm&pg=5&id=ED428216"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> HRD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>1997</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers from a symposium on <span class="hlt">global</span> human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a <span class="hlt">global</span> organization.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673910','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673910"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span>, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span> with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA18785.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA18785.html"><span>Geological <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-11</p> <p>This image, taken by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the <span class="hlt">transition</span> between the Murray Formation, in which layers are poorly expressed and difficult to trace from orbit, and the hematite ridge, which is made up of continuous layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMP....58e1703A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMP....58e1703A"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> operators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcock-Zeilinger, J.; Weigert, H.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of 𝖲𝖴 (N ) , using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in the work of Alcock-Zeilinger and Weigert [eprint arXiv:1610.10088 [math-ph</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA462115','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA462115"><span>Presidential <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-06-09</p> <p>Podesta for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, “Presidential <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Guidance,” Nov. 13, 2000. 89 U.S. General Services Administration...2000, presidential election, White House Chief of Staff John Podesta issued a November 13, 2000, memorandum to executive branch agencies stating that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Escher&id=EJ574479','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Escher&id=EJ574479"><span>Tessellations & <span class="hlt">Transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cassidy, Joan</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes two sixth-grade lessons on the work of M. C. Escher: (1) the first lesson instructs students on tessellations, or tiles that interlock in a repeated pattern; (2) the second lesson explores Escher's drawings of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> from two- to three-dimensional space. (DSK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-SSC-20120605-S00967SE.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-SSC-20120605-S00967SE.html"><span>Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>Leslie Lowes from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., views the June 5, 2012, Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span> through a solar telescope. Lowes participated in an education workshop at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center visitor center and joined others to view the rare celestial event when Venus traverses the face of the sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-SSC-20120605-S00966V.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-SSC-20120605-S00966V.html"><span>Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>Guests at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center visitor center use special solar sunglasses to catch a lifetime view of the Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span> June 5, 2012. The rare celestial event in which the planet Venus traverses the face of the sun will not be visible from Earth again until 2117.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=jenny&id=EJ817887','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=jenny&id=EJ817887"><span>Muted <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kofoed, Jette</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This analysis concentrates on the case of a child, Jenny. The paper suggests that the concept of liminality may hold the key to an understanding of muted subject positions like the one assumed by Jenny in a school class. Liminality is proposed as a way of conceptualizing <span class="hlt">transitions</span> where the subject in question transgresses established rules and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Escher&id=EJ574479','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Escher&id=EJ574479"><span>Tessellations & <span class="hlt">Transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cassidy, Joan</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes two sixth-grade lessons on the work of M. C. Escher: (1) the first lesson instructs students on tessellations, or tiles that interlock in a repeated pattern; (2) the second lesson explores Escher's drawings of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> from two- to three-dimensional space. (DSK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3004570','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3004570"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> cancer research initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Love, Richard R</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic <span class="hlt">transition</span> from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived <span class="hlt">global</span> policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing <span class="hlt">global</span> cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by <span class="hlt">global</span> standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a <span class="hlt">global</span> cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested. PMID:21188101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22272595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22272595"><span>Salutogenesis, <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, and communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a <span class="hlt">global</span> context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in <span class="hlt">global</span> coherence is played by the attractor '<span class="hlt">global</span> affinity'. The <span class="hlt">transitions</span> from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to <span class="hlt">global</span> coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a <span class="hlt">global</span> salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_composite','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_composite"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>... cover from one day to another. The lower panel is a composite in which red, green, and blue radiances from MISR's 70-degree ... In relatively clear ocean areas, the oblique-angle composite is generally brighter than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced ... Mar 2002 Images:  <span class="hlt">Global</span> Composite location:  <span class="hlt">Global</span> Images thumbnail:  ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25327515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25327515"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> health and cardiovascular disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nascimento, Bruno R; Brant, Luisa C C; Moraes, Diego N; Ribeiro, Antonio L P</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The modern definition of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health has expanded its scope beyond neglected diseases and low-income and underdeveloped countries. The current initiatives focus on improvement of health, reduction of disparities and protection against <span class="hlt">global</span> threats, seeking for interaction with health practices, policies and systems. There has been a growing interest on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health research, given the epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span> currently underway in low and mid-income countries and the increasing epidemiological importance of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases, to the detriment of infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. Various aspects-formerly neglected-of these diseases, such as epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and therapy, have been addressed in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health publications, leading to a better understanding of the importance of health as a public good, beyond borders. Scientific evidence supports broader initiatives in which governments, foundations and the civil society must share responsibilities and funding to achieve health equity, the main goal of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spent+AND+wash&id=EJ913836','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spent+AND+wash&id=EJ913836"><span>Eliminating <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Adults often find themselves <span class="hlt">transitioning</span> from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19750647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19750647"><span>Structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in clusters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartke, Bernd</p> <p>2002-05-03</p> <p>If one adds more particles to a cluster, the energetically optimal structure is neither preserved nor does it change in a continuous fashion. Instead, one finds several cluster size regions where one structural principle dominates almost without exception, and rather narrow boundary regions in-between. The structure of the solid is usually reached only at relatively large sizes, after more than one structural <span class="hlt">transition</span>. The occurrence of this general phenomenon of size-dependent structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> does not seem to depend on the nature of the particles, it is found for atomic, molecular, homogeneous, and heterogeneous clusters alike. Clearly, it is a collective many-body phenomenon which can in principle be calculated but not understood in a fully reductionistic manner. Actual calculations with sufficient accuracy are not feasible today, because of the enormous computational expense, even when unconventional evolutionary algorithms are employed for <span class="hlt">global</span> geometry optimization. Therefore, simple rules for cluster structures are highly desirable. In fact, we are dealing here not just with the academic quest for linkages between cluster structure and features of the potential energy surface, but structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in clusters are also of immediate relevance for many natural and industrial processes, ranging from crystal growth all the way to nanotechnology. This article provides an exemplary overview of research on this topic, from simple model systems where first qualitative explanations start to be successful, up to more realistic complex systems which are still beyond our understanding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343908"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> and local superconductivity in boron-doped granular diamond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Gufei; Turner, Stuart; Ekimov, Evgeny A; Vanacken, Johan; Timmermans, Matias; Samuely, Tomás; Sidorov, Vladimir A; Stishov, Sergei M; Lu, Yinggang; Deloof, Bart; Goderis, Bart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Van de Vondel, Joris; Moshchalkov, Victor V</p> <p>2014-04-02</p> <p>Strong granularity-correlated and intragrain modulations of the superconducting order parameter are demonstrated in heavily boron-doped diamond situated not yet in the vicinity of the metal-insulator <span class="hlt">transition</span>. These modulations at the superconducting state (SC) and at the <span class="hlt">global</span> normal state (NS) above the resistive superconducting <span class="hlt">transition</span>, reveal that local Cooper pairing sets in prior to the <span class="hlt">global</span> phase coherence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577162','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577162"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming, <span class="hlt">global</span> research, and <span class="hlt">global</span> governing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The anticipated dangers of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a <span class="hlt">global</span> warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a <span class="hlt">global</span> governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001726.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001726.html"><span>Venus <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>A "<span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus" occurs when the planet Venus passes directly between the sun and the Earth. During the event, Venus will be seen from Earth as a small black sphere moving across the face of the sun. Such an event won’t occur again until the year 2117. The Goddard Visitor Center hosted a watch party that included near real-time images from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, coverage of the event from several locations via NASA TV, in-person presentations by NASA experts, hands-on activities for children of all ages. Heavy cloud cover did not allow viewing opportunities of the <span class="hlt">transit</span> via solar telescopes. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Bill Hrybyk NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21422801L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21422801L"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>IYA2009 is a <span class="hlt">global</span> collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are <span class="hlt">global</span> activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing <span class="hlt">global</span> projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114340','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114340"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Diabetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes is a <span class="hlt">global</span> public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition <span class="hlt">transition</span>, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the “normal-weight metabolically obese” phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a <span class="hlt">global</span> public policy priority. PMID:21617109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987609"><span>Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public <span class="hlt">Transit</span> Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to <span class="hlt">transit</span> use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of <span class="hlt">transit</span>-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and <span class="hlt">transit</span> use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into <span class="hlt">transit</span>- and non–<span class="hlt">transit</span>-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between <span class="hlt">transit</span> users and nonusers, between less and more frequent <span class="hlt">transit</span> users, and between <span class="hlt">transit</span> and nontransit days for <span class="hlt">transit</span> users. Results. <span class="hlt">Transit</span> users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–<span class="hlt">transit</span>-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent <span class="hlt">transit</span> users had more walking time than least frequent <span class="hlt">transit</span> users. Higher physical activity levels for <span class="hlt">transit</span> users were observed only on <span class="hlt">transit</span> days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with <span class="hlt">transit</span> use. Conclusions. Because <span class="hlt">transit</span> use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in <span class="hlt">transit</span> access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404222.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404222.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoubrey, Sharon</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This theme issue focuses on topics related to <span class="hlt">global</span> issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> militarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; <span class="hlt">Global</span> Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ484206"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+united+AND+states&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+united+AND+states&id=EJ391198"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+evidence&pg=2&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+evidence&pg=2&id=EJ484206"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=AIR+AND+POLLUTION+AND+Climate+AND+change&pg=4&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=AIR+AND+POLLUTION+AND+Climate+AND+change&pg=4&id=EJ391198"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb//pubs/teachers-packets/globalchange/globalhtml/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb//pubs/teachers-packets/globalchange/globalhtml/"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+block&id=EJ834679','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+block&id=EJ834679"><span>Panwapa: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Kids, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Connections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to <span class="hlt">global</span> communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SESAME&pg=4&id=EJ834679','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SESAME&pg=4&id=EJ834679"><span>Panwapa: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Kids, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Connections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to <span class="hlt">global</span> communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896361"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> health diplomacy and peace.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid <span class="hlt">transition</span>, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the <span class="hlt">global</span> policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and <span class="hlt">global</span> levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574742','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574742"><span>ONR <span class="hlt">Global</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>ONRG provides seed funding for innovative research CSP Liaison Visit VSP NICOP Proposal NICOP ADs Making a Difference Graphene • A...better than silicon. ONR <span class="hlt">Global</span> partnered with UK’s Dr Geim, who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research on graphene . Reducing...total life-cycle costs • Pitch-Adapting Propeller - a propeller blade tip redesign deform as it rotates provides improved efficiency, lower</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DR.+AND+KING&pg=5&id=EJ889844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DR.+AND+KING&pg=5&id=EJ889844"><span>Going <span class="hlt">Global</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boulard, Garry</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their <span class="hlt">global</span> recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20871432','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20871432"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> topological k-defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Babichev, E.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>We consider <span class="hlt">global</span> topological defects in symmetry-breaking models with a noncanonical kinetic term. Apart from a mass parameter entering the potential, one additional dimensional parameter arises in such models - a kinetic mass. The properties of defects in these models are quite different from standard <span class="hlt">global</span> domain walls, vortices, and monopoles, if their kinetic mass scale is smaller than their symmetry-breaking scale. In particular, depending on the concrete form of the kinetic term, the typical size of such a defect can be either much larger or much smaller than the size of a standard defect with the same potential term. The characteristic mass of a nonstandard defect, which might have been formed during a phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> in the early universe, depends on both the temperature of a phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> and the kinetic mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327179','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327179"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transition+AND+energy&pg=6&id=EJ517335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transition+AND+energy&pg=6&id=EJ517335"><span><span class="hlt">Transitions</span>: A Personal Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wood, Ann Stace</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Distinguishes between unchosen <span class="hlt">transitions</span> (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial <span class="hlt">transition</span>, and the completed <span class="hlt">transition</span>. (JOW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LTP....43...47V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LTP....43...47V"><span>Topological Lifshitz <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volovik, G. E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Different types of Lifshitz <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are governed by topology in momentum space. They involve the topological <span class="hlt">transitions</span> with the change of topology of Fermi surfaces, Weyl and Dirac points, nodal lines, and also the <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between the fully gapped states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/transitionadult/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/transitionadult/"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Adulthood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Centers Workspaces Workspaces Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Adulthood Link-checked, June ... reading… Back to top IDEA’s Definition of <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Services Any discussion of <span class="hlt">transition</span> services must begin with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21357520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21357520"><span>The epithelial-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> induced by keratinocyte growth conditions is overcome by E6 and E7 from HPV16, but not HPV8 and HPV38: Characterization of <span class="hlt">global</span> transcription profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Azzimonti, Barbara; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Chiorino, Giovanna; Scatolini, Maria; Ghimenti, Chiara; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa</p> <p>2009-06-05</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth properties of primary human keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7 proteins, which are from either the beta- or alpha-genotypes, under different culture conditions. We demonstrated that keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7, from both HPV8 and 38, irreversibly underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> (EMT) when grown on plastic with FAD medium (F12/DMEM/5%FBS). Expression of E6/E7 from HPV16 was capable of fully overcoming the FAD-induced EMT. Immortalization was only observed in HPV16-transduced cell lines, while the more proliferating phenotype of both KerHPV8 and 38 was mainly related to FAD-induced EMT. Microarray analysis of exponentially growing cells identified 146 cellular genes that were differentially regulated in HPV16 compared to HPV8- and 38-transduced cells. A large accumulation of transcripts associated with epidermal development and differentiation was observed in HPV16-transduced cells, whereas transcripts of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, multicellular organismal processes, and inflammatory response were affected in HPV8 and 38-transduced cells.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26k3119W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26k3119W"><span>Continuous and discontinuous <span class="hlt">transitions</span> to synchronization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chaoqing; Garnier, Nicolas B.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We describe how the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to synchronization in a system of <span class="hlt">globally</span> coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators changes from continuous to discontinuous when the nature of the coupling is moved from diffusive to reactive. We explain this drastic qualitative change as resulting from the co-existence of a particular synchronized macrostate together with the trivial incoherent macrostate, in a range of parameter values for which the latter is linearly stable. In contrast to the paradigmatic Kuramoto model, this particular state observed at the synchronization <span class="hlt">transition</span> contains a finite, non-vanishing number of synchronized oscillators, which results in a discontinuous <span class="hlt">transition</span>. We consider successively two situations where either a fully synchronized state or a partially synchronized state exists at the <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Thermodynamic limit and finite size effects are briefly discussed, as well as connections with recently observed discontinuous <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> teaching of <span class="hlt">global</span> seismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stein, S.; Wysession, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of <span class="hlt">global</span> data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a <span class="hlt">global</span> view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a <span class="hlt">global</span> approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024046','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024046"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Geomorphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Douglas, I.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Any <span class="hlt">global</span> view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RPPh...68.1343H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RPPh...68.1343H"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houghton, John</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>'<span class="hlt">Global</span> warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747163"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> gamesmanship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of <span class="hlt">global</span> chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for <span class="hlt">global</span> corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCAP...07..026L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCAP...07..026L"><span>Cosmic microwave background constraints for <span class="hlt">global</span> strings and <span class="hlt">global</span> monopoles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Hindmarsh, Mark; Urrestilla, Jon</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the <span class="hlt">global</span> O(N) linear σ-model, with N=2,3, which have <span class="hlt">global</span> strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter <span class="hlt">transition</span>. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the <span class="hlt">transition</span> is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for <span class="hlt">global</span> strings and <span class="hlt">global</span> monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large-N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large-N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of <span class="hlt">global</span> strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for <span class="hlt">global</span> strings and 2.4% for <span class="hlt">global</span> monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 1015 GeV (6.3× 1014 GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 1015 GeV respectively. The bound on <span class="hlt">global</span> strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses ma lesssim 10-28 eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from <span class="hlt">global</span> topological defects will not be observable at the gravitational wave observatory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28374038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28374038"><span>Preexisting domain motions underlie protonation-dependent structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> of the P-type Ca(2+)-ATPase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández-de Gortari, Eli; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel</p> <p>2017-04-12</p> <p>We have performed microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the mechanism for protonation-dependent structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), one of the most prominent members of the large P-type ATPase superfamily that transports ions across biological membranes. The release of two H(+) from the transport sites activates SERCA by inducing a structural <span class="hlt">transition</span> between low (E2) and high (E1) Ca(2+)-affinity states (E2-to-E1 <span class="hlt">transition</span>), but the structural mechanism by which transport site deprotonation facilitates this <span class="hlt">transition</span> is unknown. We performed microsecond all-atom MD simulations to determine the effects of transport site protonation on the structural dynamics of the E2 state in solution. We found that the protonated E2 state has structural characteristics that are similar to those observed in crystal structures of E2. Upon deprotonation, a single Na(+) ion rapidly (<10 ns) binds to the transmembrane transport sites and induces a kink in M5, disrupts the M3-M5 interface, and increases the mobility of the M3/A-M3 linker. Principal component analysis showed that counter-rotation of the cytosolic N-A domains about the membrane normal axis, which is the primary motion driving the E2-to-E1 <span class="hlt">transition</span>, is present in both protonated and deprotonated E2 states; however, protonation-dependent structural changes in the transmembrane domain control the hierarchical organization and amplitude of this motion. We propose that preexisting rigid-body domain motions underlie structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> of SERCA, where the functionally important directionality is preserved while transport site protonation controls the dominance and amplitude of motion to shift the equilibrium between the E1 and E2 states. We conclude that <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> modulation of preexisting domain motions is likely a common theme in structural <span class="hlt">transitions</span> of the P-type ATPase superfamily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28977817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28977817"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and obesity: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>An, R; Ji, M; Zhang, S</p> <p>2017-10-04</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); <span class="hlt">global</span> warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences <span class="hlt">global</span> warming (n = 13); and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3). We constructed a conceptual model linking <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and the obesity epidemic - the fossil fuel economy, population growth and industrialization impact land use and urbanization, motorized transportation and agricultural productivity and consequently influences <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by excess greenhouse gas emission and the obesity epidemic by nutrition <span class="hlt">transition</span> and physical inactivity; <span class="hlt">global</span> warming also directly impacts obesity by food supply/price shock and adaptive thermogenesis, and the obesity epidemic impacts <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by the elevated energy consumption. Policies that endorse deployment of clean and sustainable energy sources, and urban designs that promote active lifestyles, are likely to alleviate the societal burden of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12829798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12829798"><span>Long-term trends and a sustainability <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kates, Robert W; Parris, Thomas M</p> <p>2003-07-08</p> <p>How do long-term <span class="hlt">global</span> trends affect a <span class="hlt">transition</span> to sustainability? We emphasize the "multitrend" nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability <span class="hlt">transition</span> more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of <span class="hlt">global</span> trends that impact place-based sustainability studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=166182','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=166182"><span>Long-term trends and a sustainability <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kates, Robert W.; Parris, Thomas M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>How do long-term <span class="hlt">global</span> trends affect a <span class="hlt">transition</span> to sustainability? We emphasize the “multitrend” nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability <span class="hlt">transition</span> more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of <span class="hlt">global</span> trends that impact place-based sustainability studies. PMID:12829798</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=forecasting+AND+trends&pg=3&id=EJ799101','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=forecasting+AND+trends&pg=3&id=EJ799101"><span>The <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to a Highly Qualified Workforce</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bosworth, Derek; Jones, Paul; Wilson, Rob</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is putting increasing pressure on jobs in the United Kingdom, particularly among less skilled activities. The European response through the Lisbon Strategy has been diffuse, while UK policy appears much more focused, concentrating on the need to raise education and skill levels. The present paper examines the <span class="hlt">transition</span> towards a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED566671.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED566671.pdf"><span>Guidelines for <span class="hlt">Transitional</span> Education Plan Preparation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lattanzio, Raphaëlle Martinez; Bethke, Lynne; Haas, Anna; Perrier, Janne Kjaersgaard; De Grauwe, Anton; Sigsgaard, Morten; Bird, Lyndsay; Coury, Diane; Gay, Dorian; MacEwan, Leonora; Seeger, Anna</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The "Guidelines for the <span class="hlt">Transitional</span> Education Plan Preparation" are the result of an extensive consultation process and the product of fruitful guidance and contributions from key partners active in the field of education in emergencies and protracted crises. The new <span class="hlt">global</span> education agenda 2030 places strong emphasis on countries…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cooperation+AND+Interagency&pg=7&id=ED538877','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cooperation+AND+Interagency&pg=7&id=ED538877"><span>Tips for <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kellems, Ryan, Comp.; Morningstar, Mary E., Comp.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Tips for <span class="hlt">Transition</span> contains 134 <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Tips submitted from all over the country by practitioners. The purpose of the Tips was to identify grassroots <span class="hlt">transition</span> practices being used by practitioners. Tips are categorized into the following domains: (1) <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Planning; (2) Student Involvement; (3) Family Involvement; (4) Curriculum and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006214"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable <span class="hlt">global</span> sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008024&hterms=Michael+Brown&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMichael%2BBrown','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008024&hterms=Michael+Brown&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMichael%2BBrown"><span>Mode <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> in Hall Effect Thrusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Mode <span class="hlt">transitions</span> have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. <span class="hlt">Global</span> and local oscillation modes are identified. In the <span class="hlt">global</span> mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the <span class="hlt">global</span> mode can be 100% of the mean value. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> between <span class="hlt">global</span> and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode <span class="hlt">transition</span> but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the <span class="hlt">global</span> mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode <span class="hlt">transitions</span> provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202394','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202394"><span>FES kinase participates in KIT-<span class="hlt">ligand</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> chemotaxis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Voisset, Edwige; Lopez, Sophie; Chaix, Amandine; Vita, Marina; George, Coralie; Dubreuil, Patrice; De Sepulveda, Paulo</p> <p>2010-02-26</p> <p>FES is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activated by several membrane receptors, originally identified as a viral oncogene product. We have recently identified FES as a crucial effector of oncogenic KIT mutant receptor. However, FES implication in wild-type KIT receptor function was not addressed. We report here that FES interacts with KIT and is phosphorylated following activation by its ligand SCF. Unlike in the context of oncogenic KIT mutant, FES is not involved in wild-type KIT proliferation signal, or in cell adhesion. Instead, FES is required for SCF-induced chemotaxis. In conclusion, FES kinase is a mediator of wild-type KIT signalling implicated in cell migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA344945','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA344945"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">Ligand-Induced</span> Endocytosis of EGF-Receptors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Dili domain of Epsl5. They showed that a GST-protein containing the entire COOH-terminal domain of Epsl5 could efficiently precipitate AP- 2 complexes...from cytosol. A construct lacking amino acids 661-739, GST-DfflAl, could also precipitate AP- 2 complexes albiet less efficiently . In contrast...purified AP- 2 complexes restored highly efficient endocytosis. Furhter confirmation of this hypothesis was obtained in another set of experiments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28571874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28571874"><span>Organic <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C). The addition of EDTA, tartaric acid, thiolactic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH3.7 and catechol at pH8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony. In the 10mmol/L thiolactic acid solution, up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120min reaction. There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb2O3 for the other ligands. A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found. All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb2O3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex, but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface. This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands, but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549776"><span><span class="hlt">Ligand</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> galectin-3 protein self-association.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lepur, Adriana; Salomonsson, Emma; Nilsson, Ulf J; Leffler, Hakon</p> <p>2012-06-22</p> <p>Many functions of galectin-3 entail binding of its carbohydrate recognition site to glycans of a glycoprotein, resulting in cross-linking thought to be mediated by its N-terminal noncarbohydrate-binding domain. Here we studied interaction of galectin-3 with the model glycoprotein asialofetuin (ASF), using a fluorescence anisotropy assay to measure the concentration of free galectin carbohydrate recognition sites in solution. Surprisingly, in the presence of ASF, this remained low even at high galectin-3 concentrations, showing that many more galectin-3 molecules were engaged than expected due to the about nine known glycan-based binding sites per ASF molecule. This suggests that after ASF-induced nucleation, galectin-3 associates with itself by the carbohydrate recognition site binding to another galectin-3 molecule, possibly forming oligomers. We named this type-C self-association to distinguish it from the previously proposed models (type-N) where galectin-3 molecules bind to each other through the N-terminal domain, and all carbohydrate recognition sites are available for binding glycans. Both types of self-association can result in precipitates, as measured here by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering. Type-C self-association and precipitation occurred even with a galectin-3 mutant (R186S) that bound poorly to ASF but required much higher concentration (∼50 μM) as compared with wild type (∼1 μM). ASF also induced weaker type-C self-association of galectin-3 lacking its N-terminal domains, but as expected, no precipitation. Neither a monovalent nor a divalent N-acetyl-D-lactosamine-containing glycan induced type-C self-association, even if the latter gave precipitates with high concentrations of galectin-3 (>∼50 μM) in agreement with published results and perhaps due to type-N self-association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367504"><span>Constitutive and <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> nuclear localization of oxytocin receptor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kinsey, Conan G; Bussolati, Gianni; Bosco, Martino; Kimura, Tadashi; Pizzorno, Marie C; Chernin, Mitchell I; Cassoni, Paola; Novak, Josef F</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Oxytocin receptor (OTR) is a membrane protein known to mediate oxytocin (OT) effects, in both normal and neoplastic cells. We report here that human osteosarcoma (U2OS, MG63, OS15 and SaOS2), breast cancer (MCF7), and primary human fibroblastic cells (HFF) all exhibit OTR not only on the cell membrane, but also in the various nuclear compartments including the nucleolus. Both an OTR-GFP fusion protein and the native OTR appear to be localized to the nucleus as detected by transfection and/or confocal immunofluorescence, respectively. Treatment with oxytocin causes internalization of OTR and the resulting vesicles accumulate in the vicinity of the nucleus and some of the perinuclear OTR enters the nucleus. Western blots indicate that OTR in the nucleus and on the plasma membrane are likely to be the same biochemical and immunological entities. It appears that OTR is first visible in the nucleoli and subsequently disperses within the nucleus into 4-20 spots while some of the OTR diffuses throughout the nucleoplasm. The behaviour and kinetics of OTR-GFP and OTR are different, indicating interference by GFP in both OTR entrance into the nucleus and subsequent relocalization of OTR within the nucleus. There are important differences among the tested cells, such as the requirement of a ligand for transfer of OTR in nuclei. A constitutive internalization of OTR was found only in osteosarcoma cells, while the nuclear localization in all other tested cells was dependent on ligand binding. The amount of OTR-positive material within and in the vicinity of the nucleus increased following a treatment with oxytocin in both constitutive and ligand-dependent type of cells. The evidence of OTR compartmentalization at the cell nucleus (either ligand-dependent or constitutive) in different cell types suggests still unknown biological functions of this protein or its ligand and adds this G-protein-coupled receptor to other heptahelical receptors displaying this atypical and unexpected nuclear localization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2667204','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2667204"><span><span class="hlt">Ligand-induced</span> ErbB receptor dimerization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lemmon, Mark A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Structural studies have provided important new insights into how ligand binding promotes homodimerization and activation of the EGF receptor and the other members of the ErbB family or receptor tyrosine kinases. These structures have also suggested possible explanations for the unique properties of ErbB2, which has no known ligand and can cause cell transformation (and tumorigenesis) by simple overexpression. In parallel with these advances, studies of the EGF receptor at the cell surface increasingly argue that the structural studies are missing key mechanistic components. This is particularly evident in the structural prediction that EGF binding linked to receptor dimerization should be positively cooperative, whereas cell-surface EGF-binding studies suggest negative cooperativity. In this review, I summarize studies of ErbB receptor extracellular regions in solution and of intact receptors at the cell surface, and attempt to reconcile the differences suggested by the two approaches. By combining results obtained with receptor ‘parts’, it is qualitatively possible to explain some models for the properties of the whole receptor. These considerations underline the need to consider the intact ErbB receptors as intact allosterically regulated enzymes, and to combine cellular and structural studies into a complete picture. PMID:19038249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335814','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335814"><span>Methods for creating <span class="hlt">ligand</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> paramagnetism in nanocrystalline structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Meulenberg, Robert W.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.</p> <p>2016-12-13</p> <p>A method according to one general embodiment includes applying an organic surfactant to a nanoparticle having a d.sup.10 configuration for altering a magnetic property of the nanoparticle. A method according to another general embodiment includes applying an organic surfactant to a II-VI semiconductor nanoparticle having a d.sup.10 configuration for altering a magnetic property of the nanoparticle, wherein the nanoparticle has a mean radius of less than about 50 .ANG..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2671246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2671246"><span>Epithelial-Mesenchymal <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Savagner, Pierre</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Epithelial-mesenchymal <span class="hlt">transition</span> (EMT) describes a series of rapid changes in cellular phenotype. During EMT, epithelial cells down-modulate cell-cell adhesion structures, alter their polarity, reorganize their cytoskeleton, and become isolated, motile, and resistant to anoikis. The term EMT is often applied to distinct biological events as if it were a single conserved process, but in fact EMT-related processes can vary in intensity from a transient loss of cell polarity to the total cellular reprogramming, as found by transcriptional analysis. Based on clinical observations, it is more appropriate in most cases to describe the emergence of an EMT-like phenotype during tumor progression. Although EMT implies complete trans-differentiation, EMT-like emphasizes the intermediary phenotype associated with tumor cell renewal and adaptation to specific microenvironments. Here, we categorize the various EMT-like phenotypes found in human carcinomas that, depending on the tumor type, may or not represent analogous stages in tumor progression. We based these categories on the <span class="hlt">global</span> tumor phenotype. The tumor microenvironment, which is associated with stromal reactions, hypoxia, paucity of nutrients, impaired differentiation, and activation of various EMT-associated pathways, modulates overall tumor phenotype and leads to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:19342369</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adolescence&pg=3&id=EJ1140562','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adolescence&pg=3&id=EJ1140562"><span>The Development of Self-Representations during the <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Puberty, and School <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Allemand, Mathias; Schwarz, Beate</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The present study investigated the development of <span class="hlt">global</span> and domain-specific self-representations in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from late childhood to early adolescence and tested whether gender, puberty, and school <span class="hlt">transition</span> help explain individual differences in change. The study was based on three measurement occasions over 2 years and included 248…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED394774.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED394774.pdf"><span>Partners in <span class="hlt">Transition</span>: Preparing <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Specialists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sample, Pat; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Colorado rural special educators are experiencing tremendous challenges in providing mandated <span class="hlt">transition</span> services to students with special needs. The School of Education and the Department of Occupational Therapy at Colorado State University have developed a program to create rural <span class="hlt">transition</span> specialists through preservice and inservice training…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+Change+AND+impacts&id=EJ924271','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+Change+AND+impacts&id=EJ924271"><span>The Psychological Impacts of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An appreciation of the psychological impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological <span class="hlt">transitions</span>; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450751.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450751.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Knowledge: A Challenge for Librarians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edwards, Christopher</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are creating the knowledge society, which will impact on developing and <span class="hlt">transitional</span> economies as well as developed nations. It argues that librarians have an important role to play in overcoming the digital divide and makes reference to the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Knowledge Partnership.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+climate+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ924271','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+climate+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ924271"><span>The Psychological Impacts of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An appreciation of the psychological impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological <span class="hlt">transitions</span>; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6373213','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6373213"><span>Gas turbine combustor <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.</p> <p>1999-05-25</p> <p>A method is described for converting a steam cooled <span class="hlt">transition</span> to an air cooled <span class="hlt">transition</span> in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the <span class="hlt">transition</span> disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the <span class="hlt">transition</span> and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872296','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872296"><span>Gas turbine combustor <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A method of converting a steam cooled <span class="hlt">transition</span> to an air cooled <span class="hlt">transition</span> in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the <span class="hlt">transition</span> disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the <span class="hlt">transition</span> and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47836','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47836"><span>Grassland to shrubland state <span class="hlt">transitions</span> enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>M. D. Petrie; S. L. Collins; A. M. Swann; P. L. Ford; M. E. Litvak</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The replacement of native C4-dominated grassland by C3-dominated shrubland is considered an ecological state <span class="hlt">transition</span> where different ecological communities can exist under similar environmental conditions. These state <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are occurring <span class="hlt">globally</span>, and may be exacerbated by climate change. One consequence of the <span class="hlt">global</span> increase in woody vegetation may be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conceptual+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ1039106','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conceptual+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ1039106"><span>Conceptualizing <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> to Adulthood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wyn, Johanna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This chapter provides an overview of theories of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of <span class="hlt">transition</span> for adult education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Overview&pg=3&id=EJ1039106','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Overview&pg=3&id=EJ1039106"><span>Conceptualizing <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> to Adulthood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wyn, Johanna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This chapter provides an overview of theories of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of <span class="hlt">transition</span> for adult education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+administrative+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ235928','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+administrative+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ235928"><span>The Managerial <span class="hlt">Transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kneeland, Steven J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Having identified the problem of managerial <span class="hlt">transition</span> in a previous article (CE 510 277), the author outlines a strategy for change which includes performance appraisal, definition of the management structure, and counselling for the individual in <span class="hlt">transition</span>. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850023120','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850023120"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> in Turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of <span class="hlt">transition</span> is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on <span class="hlt">transition</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">transition</span> prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) <span class="hlt">transition</span> and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194674"><span>Cosmological phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kolb, E.W. |</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> early in its history. The study of cosmological phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span>: the electroweak <span class="hlt">transition</span>, texture, and axions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992449','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992449"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> F-theory GUTs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blumenhagen, Ralph; Grimm, Thomas W.; Jurke, Benjamin; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC</p> <p>2010-08-26</p> <p>We construct <span class="hlt">global</span> F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit <span class="hlt">global</span> model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo <span class="hlt">transition</span> of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3071725','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3071725"><span>Trust <span class="hlt">Transitivity</span> in Social Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust <span class="hlt">transitivity</span>. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust <span class="hlt">transitivity</span> in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of <span class="hlt">global</span> trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous <span class="hlt">transition</span> at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10234068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10234068"><span>Financing pharmaceuticals in <span class="hlt">transition</span> economies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanavos, P</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in <span class="hlt">transition</span>; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. <span class="hlt">Global</span> policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into <span class="hlt">transition</span> economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED357544.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED357544.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span>. Feature Issue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This feature issue of a quarterly bulletin on community integration addresses the topic of <span class="hlt">transition</span> services for preparing youth with disabilities for adult community living. It contains articles with the following titles and authors: "<span class="hlt">Transition</span>: The Next Five Years" (David R. Johnson and others); "<span class="hlt">Transition</span> Policy in the 1990s:…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500210.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500210.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span>: Preschool to Kindergarten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arizona Department of Education, 2007</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transition</span> is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the <span class="hlt">transition</span> plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, <span class="hlt">transition</span> can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28131853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28131853"><span>Conformational <span class="hlt">transitions</span> and interactions underlying the function of membrane embedded receptor protein kinases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bocharov, Eduard V; Sharonov, Georgy V; Bocharova, Olga V; Pavlov, Konstantin V</p> <p>2017-01-25</p> <p>Among membrane receptors, the single-span receptor protein kinases occupy a broad but specific functional niche determined by distinctive features of the underlying transmembrane signaling mechanisms that are briefly overviewed on the basis of some of the most representative examples, followed by a more detailed discussion of several hierarchical levels of organization and interactions involved. All these levels, including single-molecule interactions (e.g., dimerization, liganding, chemical modifications), local processes (e.g. lipid membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal interactions), and larger scale phenomena (e.g., effects of membrane surface shape or electrochemical potential gradients) appear to be closely integrated to achieve the observed diversity of the receptor functioning. Different species of receptor protein kinases meet their specific functional demands through different structural features defining their responses to stimulation, but certain common patterns exist. Signaling by receptor protein kinases is typically associated with the receptor dimerization and clustering, <span class="hlt">ligand-induced</span> rearrangements of receptor domains through allosteric conformational <span class="hlt">transitions</span> with involvement of lipids, release of the sequestered lipids, restriction of receptor diffusion, cytoskeleton and membrane shape remodeling. Understanding of complexity and continuity of the signaling processes can help identifying currently neglected opportunities for influencing the receptor signaling with potential therapeutic implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions between membrane receptors in cellular membranes edited by Kalina Hristova.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6874038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6874038"><span><span class="hlt">Transit</span> pricing and performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pickerell, D.H.; Abkowitz, M.; Tozzi, J.; McCord, M.R.; Cheng, L.H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Federal operating assistance for urban mass <span class="hlt">transit</span>; a decade of experience; <span class="hlt">transit</span> route characteristics and headway-based reliability control; day-of-week and part-of-month variation in bus ridership; job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">transit</span> operator recognition programs; results of a survey of muni operators; bus marketing costs: the experience of 18 section 15 reporters from 1981 to 1983; prospects for differential <span class="hlt">transit</span> pricing in the United States; an initial analysis of total factor productivity for public-<span class="hlt">transit</span> coordination of transportation resources: the Georgia experience; absenteeism, accidents, and attrition: part-time versus full-time bus drivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2872288','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2872288"><span>The Changing Disease-Scape in the Third Epidemiological <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harper, Kristin; Armelagos, George</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span> model describes the changing relationship between humans and their diseases. The first <span class="hlt">transition</span> occurred with the shift to agriculture about 10,000 YBP, resulting in a pattern of infectious and nutritional diseases still evident today. In the last two centuries, some populations have undergone a second <span class="hlt">transition</span>, characterized by a decline in infectious disease and rise in degenerative disease. We are now in the throes of a third epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span>, in which a resurgence of familiar infections is accompanied by an array of novel diseases, all of which have the potential to spread rapidly due to <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. PMID:20616997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1158..203N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1158..203N"><span>Gifts from Exoplanetary <span class="hlt">Transits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narita, Norio</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The discovery of <span class="hlt">transiting</span> extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. <span class="hlt">Transit</span> photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of <span class="hlt">transiting</span> planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of <span class="hlt">transiting</span> planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, <span class="hlt">transit</span> timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for <span class="hlt">transiting</span> planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from <span class="hlt">transiting</span> planets and introduce previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA583787','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA583787"><span>America’s <span class="hlt">Transitional</span> Capacity: War, Systems, and <span class="hlt">Globalization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-23</p> <p>such as the United Nations (UN), the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). During the Cold War, American foreign policy focused on...free markets abroad are deeply rooted in America’s foreign policy objectives. The United States selectively uses its military as a means to implement... policy objectives. The United States selectively uses its military as a means to implement these ideas abroad. However, the American way of war creates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AIPC..661..262K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AIPC..661..262K"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Culture: A Noise Induced <span class="hlt">Transition</span> in Finite Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We analyze Axelrod's model for the unbiased transmission of culture in the presence of noise. In a one-dimensional lattice, the dynamics is described in terms of a Lyapunov potential, where the disordered configurations are metastable states of the dynamics. In a two-dimensional lattice the dynamics is governed by the average relaxation time T for perturbations to the homogeneous configuration. If the noise rate is smaller than 1/T, the perturbations drive the system to a completely ordered configuration, whereas the system remains disordered for larger noise rates. Based on a mean-field approximation we obtain the average relaxation time T(N) = Nln(N) for system size N. Thus in the limit of infinite system size the system is disordered for any finite noise rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Korea+AND+exchange&id=EJ1031937','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Korea+AND+exchange&id=EJ1031937"><span>Seoul Searching: <span class="hlt">Transitioning</span> Basic Writers within the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Frontiers Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adkins, Tabetha; Meyer, Connie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The course described here was designed especially for students enrolled in a collaborative program between Texas A&M University-Commerce and Konkuk University in South Korea. This course was created specifically for students who did not earn a qualifying score on a standardized placement exam required of all first-year students for enrollment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=commerce&pg=3&id=EJ1031937','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=commerce&pg=3&id=EJ1031937"><span>Seoul Searching: <span class="hlt">Transitioning</span> Basic Writers within the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Frontiers Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adkins, Tabetha; Meyer, Connie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The course described here was designed especially for students enrolled in a collaborative program between Texas A&M University-Commerce and Konkuk University in South Korea. This course was created specifically for students who did not earn a qualifying score on a standardized placement exam required of all first-year students for enrollment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...219.9004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...219.9004B"><span><span class="hlt">Transit</span> of Venus Culture: A Celestial Phenomenon Intrigues the Public</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bueter, Chuck</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>When Jeremiah Horrocks first observed it in 1639, the <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus was a desirable telescopic target because of its scientific value. By the next <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus in 1761, though, the enlightened public also embraced it as a popular celestial phenomenon. Its stature elevated over the centuries, the <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus has been featured in music, poetry, stamps, plays, books, and art. The June 2004 <span class="hlt">transit</span> emerged as a surprising <span class="hlt">global</span> sensation, as suggested by the search queries it generated. Google's Zeitgeist deemed Venus <span class="hlt">Transit</span> to be the #1 Most Popular Event in the world for that month. New priorities, technologies, and media have brought new audiences to the rare alignment. As the 2012 <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus approaches, the trend continues with publicly accessible capabilities that did not exist only eight years prior. For example, sites from which historic observations have been made are plotted and readily available on Google Earth. A <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus phone app in development will, if fully funded, facilitate a <span class="hlt">global</span> effort to recreate historic expeditions by allowing smartphone users to submit their observed <span class="hlt">transit</span> timings to a database for quantifying the Astronomical Unit. While maintaining relevance in modern scientific applications, the <span class="hlt">transit</span> of Venus has emerged as a cultural attraction that briefly intrigues the mainstream public and inspires their active participation in the spectacle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RPPh...66.2069V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RPPh...66.2069V"><span>Quantum phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vojta, Matthias</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>In recent years, quantum phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> have attracted the interest of both theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These <span class="hlt">transitions</span>, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a non-thermal control parameter, can influence the behaviour of electronic systems over a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> occur as a result of competing ground state phases. The cuprate superconductors which can be tuned from a Mott insulating to a d-wave superconducting phase by carrier doping are a paradigmatic example. This review introduces important concepts of phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> and discusses the interplay of quantum and classical fluctuations near criticality. The main part of the article is devoted to bulk quantum phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in condensed matter systems. Several classes of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> will be briefly reviewed, pointing out, e.g., conceptual differences between ordering <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in metallic and insulating systems. An interesting separate class of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> is boundary phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> where only degrees of freedom of a subsystem become critical; this will be illustrated in a few examples. The article is aimed at bridging the gap between high-level theoretical presentations and research papers specialized in certain classes of materials. It will give an overview on a variety of different quantum <span class="hlt">transitions</span>, critically discuss open theoretical questions, and frequently make contact with recent experiments in condensed matter physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094841"><span>Veterans in <span class="hlt">Transition</span>: Implications for Nurse Educators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dyar, Kelly L</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recently the United States military has begun strategic reductions in force and as a result many veterans are utilizing education benefits to <span class="hlt">transition</span> from combat to classroom. During this <span class="hlt">transitional</span> period, veterans entering nursing programs may struggle to <span class="hlt">transition</span> from the combat experience to the college campus. Barriers to <span class="hlt">transition</span> can include stigma, difficulty with peer relationships, differences in military and nursing education structure, and personal and financial responsibilities. Regardless of these barriers, this population, which may include highly trained combat medics and corpsmen, may also bring assets gained through military training and experience that can enhance the nursing profession. These strengths include teamwork, perseverance, ability to focus on assignments, <span class="hlt">global</span> awareness, and increased self-efficacy. Nursing education research is lacking in the area of combat veterans <span class="hlt">transitioning</span> into nursing programs, prompting the concern that nursing education is not prepared to meet the needs of this unique population. Gaining better understanding of the barriers to <span class="hlt">transition</span> and strengths gained through combat can aid the nurse educator in better meeting the needs of this unique population of students. Dyar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93l2006L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93l2006L"><span>Gravitationally induced quantum <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing <span class="hlt">transitions</span> is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255433"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and human cooperation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret</p> <p>2009-03-17</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. However, what does <span class="hlt">globalization</span> imply for the cooperation needed to address such <span class="hlt">global</span> social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring <span class="hlt">globalization</span> at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or <span class="hlt">global</span> accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> increase, so too does individual cooperation at the <span class="hlt">global</span> level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "<span class="hlt">globalized</span>" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of <span class="hlt">global</span> public goods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE2267H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE2267H"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> Region Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansteen, V.; Murdin, P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The SOLAR <span class="hlt">TRANSITION</span> REGION comprises the PLASMA between the CHROMOSPHERE and the CORONA. In both of these regions the temperature is fairly uniform. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> region, by contrast, is believed to be characterized by a very steep temperature rise from a chromospheric temperature of slightly less than 104 K to coronal temperatures on the order of 106 K. The goal of modeling the <span class="hlt">transition</span> regi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802507','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802507"><span>Analyzing sustainability <span class="hlt">transitions</span> as a shift between socio-metabolic regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fischer-Kowalski, Marina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This essay seeks to specify the theoretical choices and assumptions involved in studying sociometabolic <span class="hlt">transitions</span>, such as sustainability <span class="hlt">transitions</span>, in a way that distinguishes them from mere “changes”. These generalizations draw on experiences with the empirical analysis of historical <span class="hlt">transitions</span> on various scale levels. This perspective is illustrated by using material and energy flow data to demonstrate <span class="hlt">global</span> sociometabolic regime <span class="hlt">transitions</span> during the 20th century. PMID:27066392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ecological+AND+Engineering&pg=2&id=EJ831929','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ecological+AND+Engineering&pg=2&id=EJ831929"><span>Transforming Academic <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> into <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> for All</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ramalhoto, M. F.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Driving innovation and continuous improvement with regard to ecological, environmental and human sustainability is essential for win-win <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. That calls for research on strategic and monitoring planning to manage <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and technological and scientific change. This paper describes a new basic function of the university institution…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1073942.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1073942.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Awareness and Perspectives in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burnouf, Laura</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the whole notion of <span class="hlt">global</span> education by discussing theoretical and practical understandings by major figures in the field. <span class="hlt">Global</span> education is a recent addition in social studies and there are many different understandings and conceptual which effectively teach the concepts in schools as part of the entire curriculum. A review…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1353168-spin-polarization-induced-preedge-transitions-sulfur-edge-xas-spectra-open-shell-transition-metal-sulfates-spectroscopic-validation-bond-electron-transfer','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1353168-spin-polarization-induced-preedge-transitions-sulfur-edge-xas-spectra-open-shell-transition-metal-sulfates-spectroscopic-validation-bond-electron-transfer"><span>Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell <span class="hlt">Transition</span>-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Frank, Patrick; Szilagyi, Robert K.; Gramlich, Volker; ...</p> <p>2017-01-09</p> <p>Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the monodentate sulfate complexes [MII(itao)(SO4)(H2O)0,1] (M = Co, Ni, Cu) and [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] exhibit well-defined preedge <span class="hlt">transitions</span> at 2479.4, 2479.9, 2478.4, and 2477.7 eV, respectively, despite having no direct metal–sulfur bond, while the XAS preedge of [Zn(itao)(SO4)] is featureless. The sulfur K-edge XAS of [Cu(itao)(SO4)] but not of [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] uniquely exhibits a weak <span class="hlt">transition</span> at 2472.1 eV, an extraordinary 8.7 eV below the first inflection of the rising K-edge. Preedge <span class="hlt">transitions</span> also appear in the sulfur K-edge XAS of crystalline [MII(SO4)(H2O)] (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, but not Zn) and inmore » sulfates of higher-valent early <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals. Ground-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations show that charge transfer from coordinated sulfate to paramagnetic late <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals produces spin polarization that differentially mixes the spin-up (α) and spin-down (β) spin orbitals of the sulfate <span class="hlt">ligand</span>, <span class="hlt">inducing</span> negative spin density at the sulfate sulfur. Ground-state DFT calculations show that sulfur 3p character then mixes into metal 4s and 4p valence orbitals and various combinations of ligand antibonding orbitals, producing measurable sulfur XAS <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. TDDFT calculations confirm the presence of XAS preedge features 0.5–2 eV below the rising sulfur K-edge energy. The 2472.1 eV feature arises when orbitals at lower energy than the frontier occupied orbitals with S 3p character mix with the copper(II) electron hole. Transmission of spin polarization and thus of radical character through several bonds between the sulfur and electron hole provides a new mechanism for the counterintuitive appearance of preedge <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in the XAS spectra of <span class="hlt">transition</span>-metal oxoanion ligands in the absence of any direct metal–absorber bond. The 2472.1 eV <span class="hlt">transition</span> is evidence for further radicalization from copper(II), which extends across</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068071"><span>Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell <span class="hlt">Transition</span>-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frank, Patrick; Szilagyi, Robert K; Gramlich, Volker; Hsu, Hua-Fen; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O</p> <p>2017-02-06</p> <p>Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the monodentate sulfate complexes [M(II)(itao)(SO4)(H2O)0,1] (M = Co, Ni, Cu) and [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] exhibit well-defined preedge <span class="hlt">transitions</span> at 2479.4, 2479.9, 2478.4, and 2477.7 eV, respectively, despite having no direct metal-sulfur bond, while the XAS preedge of [Zn(itao)(SO4)] is featureless. The sulfur K-edge XAS of [Cu(itao)(SO4)] but not of [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] uniquely exhibits a weak <span class="hlt">transition</span> at 2472.1 eV, an extraordinary 8.7 eV below the first inflection of the rising K-edge. Preedge <span class="hlt">transitions</span> also appear in the sulfur K-edge XAS of crystalline [M(II)(SO4)(H2O)] (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, but not Zn) and in sulfates of higher-valent early <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals. Ground-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations show that charge transfer from coordinated sulfate to paramagnetic late <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals produces spin polarization that differentially mixes the spin-up (α) and spin-down (β) spin orbitals of the sulfate <span class="hlt">ligand</span>, <span class="hlt">inducing</span> negative spin density at the sulfate sulfur. Ground-state DFT calculations show that sulfur 3p character then mixes into metal 4s and 4p valence orbitals and various combinations of ligand antibonding orbitals, producing measurable sulfur XAS <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. TDDFT calculations confirm the presence of XAS preedge features 0.5-2 eV below the rising sulfur K-edge energy. The 2472.1 eV feature arises when orbitals at lower energy than the frontier occupied orbitals with S 3p character mix with the copper(II) electron hole. Transmission of spin polarization and thus of radical character through several bonds between the sulfur and electron hole provides a new mechanism for the counterintuitive appearance of preedge <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in the XAS spectra of <span class="hlt">transition</span>-metal oxoanion ligands in the absence of any direct metal-absorber bond. The 2472.1 eV <span class="hlt">transition</span> is evidence for further radicalization from copper(II), which extends across a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657440','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657440"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and human cooperation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. However, what does <span class="hlt">globalization</span> imply for the cooperation needed to address such <span class="hlt">global</span> social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring <span class="hlt">globalization</span> at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or <span class="hlt">global</span> accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> increase, so too does individual cooperation at the <span class="hlt">global</span> level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of <span class="hlt">global</span> public goods. PMID:19255433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22080325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22080325"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> quantum discord in multipartite systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">global</span> measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the <span class="hlt">global</span> quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=goodwin+AND+model&pg=3&id=EJ799969','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=goodwin+AND+model&pg=3&id=EJ799969"><span><span class="hlt">Transitive</span> and Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Transitive</span> Inferences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Given that A is longer than B, and that B is longer than C, even 5-year-old children can infer that A is longer than C. Theories of reasoning based on formal rules of inference invoke simple axioms ("meaning postulates") to capture such <span class="hlt">transitive</span> inferences. An alternative theory proposes instead that reasoners construct mental models of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Causes+AND+onset+AND+labor&id=ED296065','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Causes+AND+onset+AND+labor&id=ED296065"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Old Age (<span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Retirement).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bergman, Simon</p> <p></p> <p>Several conceptualizations and definitions of retirement have been proposed. One of them--the three-stage <span class="hlt">transition</span> process--can be illustrated from studies in Israel: (1) leaving the old role; (2) going through the act of formal separation; and (3) adjusting to the new situation and role. Today's higher rate of survival into later years means…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18300514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18300514"><span>[From epidemiological <span class="hlt">transition</span> to health <span class="hlt">transition</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meslé, F; Vallin, J</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The "Epidemiological <span class="hlt">Transition</span>" concept proposed by Abdel Omran in 1971 was the first theory attempting to explain the extraordinary progess that industrialized countries have achieved in health since the 18th century. Within the broader framework of the demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span>, an important implication of this concept was that life expectancy in modern societies would converge toward limits determined by the new epidemiological conditions. In the ensuing decades, however the convergence process appears to have stopped as a result of a number of setbacks including the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa. These setbacks do not fundamentally contradict the theory. A much greater contradiction was the unexpected dramatic decrease in cardiovascular disease that began as early as the 70s and had a major positive impact on life expectancy. Based on the concept of "Health <span class="hlt">Transition</span>" described by Julio Frenk et al., we propose a complete revision of the health implications of the demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span> based the idea of successive cycles of divergences/convergences induced by the appearance and generalization of major breakthroughs in health technologies and strategies. Three such cycles can be clearly identified on an international level corresponding to control of infectious then cardiovascular diseases, and perhaps most recently to the initial successes achieved in the field of ageing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18958783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18958783"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> health diplomacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A variety of shifts emergent with <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "<span class="hlt">Global</span> Public Health," "<span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Sciences," and "<span class="hlt">Global</span> Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in <span class="hlt">global</span> health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED371502.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED371502.pdf"><span>Issues in <span class="hlt">Transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McNair, Jeff, Ed.; Kronick, Nancy, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Six papers address issues in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> of students with disabilities into the adult world of work. In "Workplace Support," Jeff McNair defines "support," differentiates types of support, and considers various foci of intervention. The second paper titled, "Cross-Cultural <span class="hlt">Transition</span>: An Exigent Topic for Study" by Nancy Kronick, reviews…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED366754.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED366754.pdf"><span>School <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Bibliography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pautler, Albert</p> <p></p> <p>This bibliography on school <span class="hlt">transition</span> includes 240 entries of books, journal articles, papers, reports, bibliographies, and dissertations. These entries deal with <span class="hlt">transitions</span> of the following populations: adult learners, youth, Plains Indian women, high school students, people with learning disabilities, disadvantaged youth, high school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dacum&pg=3&id=EJ560986','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dacum&pg=3&id=EJ560986"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> Coordinators: Define Yourselves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Asselin, Susan B.; Todd-Allen, Mary; deFur, Sharon</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes a technique that was used successfully to identify the changing roles and responsibilities of special educators as <span class="hlt">transition</span> coordinators. The Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) model uses people who are currently working in the occupation to define job responsibilities. The duties of a <span class="hlt">transition</span> coordinator are identified. (CR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973979.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973979.pdf"><span>Good <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> = Great Starts!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The smooth <span class="hlt">transition</span> of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=animal+AND+society&pg=5&id=EJ911947','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=animal+AND+society&pg=5&id=EJ911947"><span><span class="hlt">Transitivity</span> of Preferences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transitivity</span> of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have <span class="hlt">transitive</span> preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1248474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1248474"><span>Matter in <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington</p> <p>2016-04-13</p> <p>In this study, we explore a novel type of <span class="hlt">transition</span> in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such <span class="hlt">transitions</span> can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the <span class="hlt">transition</span> point. We explore these <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter <span class="hlt">transitions</span> can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter <span class="hlt">transition</span> between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=All+AND+al+AND+all&pg=6&id=EJ889357','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=All+AND+al+AND+all&pg=6&id=EJ889357"><span>Seamless <span class="hlt">Transition</span> for All</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Test, David W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to <span class="hlt">transition</span> into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=repetto&pg=3&id=EJ522850','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=repetto&pg=3&id=EJ522850"><span>Expanding Views on <span class="hlt">Transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Repetto, Jeanne B.; Correa, Vivian I.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This position paper proposes an expanded definition of <span class="hlt">transition</span>, based on common components of early childhood and secondary perspectives. It advocates for a seamless model of <span class="hlt">transition</span> service delivery for students with disabilities, including program planning, from birth through age 21. The model addresses curriculum, location of services,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=repetto&pg=2&id=EJ676206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=repetto&pg=2&id=EJ676206"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> to Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Repetto, Jeanne B.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of <span class="hlt">transition</span> for students with disabilities emphasizes <span class="hlt">transition</span> skills needed for life beyond work. The importance of assisting students in planning for their life roles as workers, family members, friends, consumers, and community members is discussed. Suggestions are offered to better prepare students for all their life roles by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=succession+AND+planning&pg=3&id=EJ919734','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=succession+AND+planning&pg=3&id=EJ919734"><span><span class="hlt">Transitioning</span> between Clerkship Directors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth <span class="hlt">transition</span> resulting in one case. Results: Gradually <span class="hlt">transitioning</span> allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994scpt.agarR....S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994scpt.agarR....S"><span>Modeling the <span class="hlt">transition</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singer, Bart A.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>The calculation of engineering flows undergoing laminar-turbulent <span class="hlt">transition</span> presents special problems. Mean-flow quantities obey neither the fully laminar nor the fully turbulent correlations. In addition, local maxima in skin friction, wall temperature, and heat transfer often occur near the end of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> region. Traditionally, modeling this region has been important for the design of turbine blades, where the <span class="hlt">transition</span> region is long in relation to the chord length of the blade. More recently, the need for better <span class="hlt">transition</span>-region models has been recognized by designers of hypersonic vehicles where the high Mach number, the low Reynolds number, and the low-disturbance flight environment emphasize the importance of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> region. Needless to say, a model that might work well for the <span class="hlt">transitional</span> flows typically found in gas turbines will not necessarily work well for the external surface of a hypersonic vehicle. In Section 2 of this report, some of the important flow features that control the <span class="hlt">transition</span> region will be discussed. In Section 3, different approaches to the modeling problem will be summarized and cataloged. Fully turbulent flow models will be discussed in detail in Section 4; models specifically designed for <span class="hlt">transitional</span> flow, in Section 5; and the evaluation of models, in Section 6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Outplacement&pg=5&id=EJ316288','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Outplacement&pg=5&id=EJ316288"><span>Outplacement as <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Counseling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mirabile, Richard J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The author discusses five predictable stages of development in <span class="hlt">transition</span> counseling. They include comfort (reassurances about self-worth and identity); reflection (exploration and understanding); clarification (with respect to career and self); direction (exploring possible life/career directions); and perspective shift (putting the <span class="hlt">transition</span> in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Burton&pg=4&id=EJ664131','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Burton&pg=4&id=EJ664131"><span><span class="hlt">Transitions</span> in Spousal Caregiving.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burton, Lynda C.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Jackson, Sharon; Hirsch, Calvin</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Describes <span class="hlt">transitions</span> over 5 years among community-dwelling elderly spouses into and within caregiving roles and associated health outcomes. The trajectory of health outcomes associated with caregiving was generally downward. Those who <span class="hlt">transitioned</span> to heavy caregiving had more symptoms of depression, and poorer self-reported health and health…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=analysis+AND+stochastic&pg=5&id=EJ911947','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=analysis+AND+stochastic&pg=5&id=EJ911947"><span><span class="hlt">Transitivity</span> of Preferences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transitivity</span> of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have <span class="hlt">transitive</span> preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Smooth&pg=6&id=EJ919734','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Smooth&pg=6&id=EJ919734"><span><span class="hlt">Transitioning</span> between Clerkship Directors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth <span class="hlt">transition</span> resulting in one case. Results: Gradually <span class="hlt">transitioning</span> allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090015.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090015.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower center of image, as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090002.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090002.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower third of image, as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090012.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090012.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left of image, as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090001.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090001.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left, as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20027251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20027251"><span>The United States and <span class="hlt">global</span> health: inseparable and synergistic? The Institute of Medicine's report on <span class="hlt">global</span> health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat</p> <p>2009-10-29</p> <p>In the wake of dynamic economic and political <span class="hlt">transitions</span> worldwide, the Institute of Medicine recently released its report advocating investments in <span class="hlt">global</span> health from the United States (US). The expert panel reinforces the 'transnational and interdisciplinary' nature of <span class="hlt">global</span> health research and practice as an endeavor 'to improve health and achieve greater equity for all people worldwide.' This report was judiciously timed given the growing recognition of <span class="hlt">global</span> health, and is also acknowledged for incorporating themes that are particularly pertinent to the twenty-first century. New paradigms are introduced, denouncing the dichotomous distinction between rich and poor countries with the rapidly <span class="hlt">transitioning</span> countries emerging as <span class="hlt">global</span> powers, and affirming the need for models of respectful partnership and wider translation of science into practice. Cultivating sustainable partnerships and investing in the understanding and combat of diseases worldwide will become increasingly important for the US to maintain its <span class="hlt">global</span> competitiveness, and may offer lessons in innovation, efficiency, and organization of institutions and human resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21045785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21045785"><span>Urgent need for human resources to promote <span class="hlt">global</span> cardiovascular health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a <span class="hlt">global</span> shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing <span class="hlt">global</span> burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in <span class="hlt">global</span> human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall <span class="hlt">global</span> HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for <span class="hlt">global</span> CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current <span class="hlt">global</span> epidemiologic <span class="hlt">transition</span> from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the <span class="hlt">global</span> health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980041304','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980041304"><span>Aerothermodynamics of the Mars <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surveyor Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shane, Russell W.; Tolson, Robert H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The aerothermodynamics characteristics of the Mars <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surveyor spacecraft are investigated and reported. These results have been used by the Mars <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surveyor mission planners to design the aerobraking phase of the mission. Analytical and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computer codes were used with a detailed, three dimensional model of the spacecraft to evaluate spacecraft aerobraking characteristics for flight in free molecular and <span class="hlt">transitional</span> flow regimes. The spacecraft is found to be aerodynamically stable in aerobraking and planned contingency configurations. Aerodynamic forces, moments, and heating are found to be highly dependent on atmospheric density. Accommodation coefficient. is seen to strongly influence drag coefficient. <span class="hlt">Transitional</span> flow effects are found to reduce overall solar panel heating. Attitude control thruster plumes are shown to interact with the freestream, diminishing the effectiveness of the attitude control system and even leading to thrust reversal. These plume-freestream interaction effects are found to be highly dependent on freestream density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC13C1170V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC13C1170V"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change in Local Places: Capturing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change and Local Impacts in a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Land System Change Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verburg, P.; Eitelberg, D.; Ornetsmueller, C.; van Vliet, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> land use models are driven by demands for food and urban space. However, at the same time many <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in land use and land cover are driven by societal changes and the demand for a wide range of landscape functions or ecosystem services, including the conservation of biodiversity, regulation of climate and floods, and recreation. Some of these demands lead to tele-connected land use change through the transport of good and services, others are place-based and shape the local realities of land system change. Most current land use change models focus on land cover changes alone and ignore the importance of changes in land management and landscape configuration that affect climate, biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. This talk will present an alternative approach to <span class="hlt">global</span> land use modelling based on the simulation of changes in land systems in response to a wide set of ecosystem service demands. Simulations at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale illustrate that accounting for demands for livestock products, carbon sequestration and biological conservation (following the Aichi targets) leads to different outcomes of land change models and allows the identification of synergies between carbon and biodiversity targets. An application in Laos indicates the complex <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in land systems and landscapes that occur upon the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture and tree-crop plantations. We discuss the implications of such land system representations for Earth system modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI14A..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI14A..07S"><span>Towards mapping attenuation and water content in the <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savage, B. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The mantle <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone is suggested to play a significant role in water storage due to the high solubility of H2O in <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone minerals. However, quantifying the water content of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone has proven difficult. Previous investigations of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone using a variety of techniques have identified variations in water content <span class="hlt">globally</span>, associated melt at 400 km, and variable thickness. The resulting water distribution models indicate substantially different Earth models and subsequent seismic responses. Water enhances attenuation with minimal change to seismic wave speed in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone. Taken in combination with correlated temperature induced wave speed / attenuation reductions, the water content and temperature in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone can be inferred. Using upper mantle seismic phases that propagate within the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone, we can isolate the effects of attenuation, or anelasticity, and seismic wave speeds. Synthetic seismograms at high frequency, around 1 Hz, from models with a "wet" <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone show a distinct amplitude reduction and phase delay. Conversely, models with melt on top of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone produce a delayed, secondary arrival with an upper mantle moveout velocity. These diagnostic arrivals, based on synthetic seismic responses, are best identified at the end of the triplicated 660 km branch. Full modeling of the seismic phases from the <span class="hlt">transition</span> zone will enable a mapping of water content and temperature, while deciphering how water is distributed and transported throughout the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26345469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26345469"><span>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Menace.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodges, Sarah</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The history of medicine has gone '<span class="hlt">global</span>.' Why? Can the proliferation of the '<span class="hlt">global</span>' in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects' categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new '<span class="hlt">global</span>' problematic or performed serious '<span class="hlt">global</span>' analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the <span class="hlt">global</span> as descriptor and an analytics of the <span class="hlt">global</span> that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and <span class="hlt">global</span>-talk; (2) that the embrace of the '<span class="hlt">global</span>' authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=empathy+AND+towards+AND+environment&pg=6&id=EJ533354','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=empathy+AND+towards+AND+environment&pg=6&id=EJ533354"><span>Promoting "<span class="hlt">Global</span>" Attitudes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Case, Roland</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards <span class="hlt">global</span> issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about <span class="hlt">global</span> issues. Offers illustrative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3OhA_f3-Ig','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3OhA_f3-Ig"><span>IMERG <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA's <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first <span class="hlt">global</span> map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Present processes of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change are reviewed. The processes determining <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=Climate+Change+greenhouse+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%252C%2Bgreenhouse%2Beffect','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=Climate+Change+greenhouse+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%252C%2Bgreenhouse%2Beffect"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Present processes of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change are reviewed. The processes determining <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA415876','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA415876"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and State Soverignty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>Grahame Thompson, <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> in Question , (Macitutious, Polity Press, 2000, 2nd edition), 256-257. Islam, M. Monwarul., “<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and Future of... in Question , (Macitutious, Polity Press, 2000, 2nd edition), 256-257. 8 Martin Wolf, “Will the Nation State Survive <span class="hlt">Globalization</span>?” Foreign Affairs...Among Many?” Interview with Lebel France- January 2000; available from <http://www.france.diplomatie.fr. 7 Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, <span class="hlt">Globalization</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011689','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011689"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352799.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352799.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> Implementation Guide. Instructor Materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyer-Stephens, Arden, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">transition</span> model, called Guiding Education toward Adult Roles for Success (GEARS), provides a comprehensive framework from which <span class="hlt">transition</span> services and programs can evolve. Three components of <span class="hlt">transition</span> services are considered: <span class="hlt">transition</span> partners, the <span class="hlt">transition</span> process, and adult outcomes. After an introduction, the report's second…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+culture&pg=5&id=EJ809875','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+culture&pg=5&id=EJ809875"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and American Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> for education, presents applications of important aspects of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> that teachers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33321','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33321"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and world trade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This chapter discusses economic <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of <span class="hlt">global</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/cgh/blog/2015/humanitarian-award','NCI'); return false;" href="https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/cgh/blog/2015/humanitarian-award"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Cancer Humanitarian Award</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Symposium for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304940.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304940.pdf"><span>An Attainable <span class="hlt">Global</span> Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen</p> <p></p> <p>Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a <span class="hlt">global</span> studies curriculum that encourages the development of a <span class="hlt">global</span> perspective in future business leaders. <span class="hlt">Global</span> perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=global&pg=3&id=EJ1090077','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=global&pg=3&id=EJ1090077"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Global</span> Citizenship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stein, Sharon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The demand to cultivate <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "<span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+Classrooms&pg=3&id=EJ653675','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+Classrooms&pg=3&id=EJ653675"><span>Shaping <span class="hlt">Global</span> Classrooms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bacon, Nancy A.; Kischner, Gerrit A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Describes the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Classroom, a set of <span class="hlt">global</span>-studies resources for teachers in Seattle, Washington, to provide students with authentic learning experiences integrating knowledge of other countries and diverse cultures. Includes description of <span class="hlt">global</span> themes, partner schools, international visitors, travelers' tales, and community partnerships.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SSCI&pg=4&id=EJ561436','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SSCI&pg=4&id=EJ561436"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> Takes Off.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Tibor</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database determined the growth of frequency of use of the term <span class="hlt">globalization</span> during 1989-1995. Lists <span class="hlt">globalized</span> items during 1989-1995: business, industry, production, and technology. Notes that science has not become <span class="hlt">globalized</span> because it is still supported and managed by national governments.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+entrepreneurship&pg=3&id=EJ1090077','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+entrepreneurship&pg=3&id=EJ1090077"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Global</span> Citizenship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stein, Sharon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The demand to cultivate <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "<span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22international+relations%22&pg=7&id=EJ774307','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22international+relations%22&pg=7&id=EJ774307"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Governance, Educational Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mundy, Karen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social <span class="hlt">globalization</span> require analysis in terms of governance at the <span class="hlt">global</span> level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of <span class="hlt">global</span> governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+citation+AND+index&pg=7&id=EJ561436','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+citation+AND+index&pg=7&id=EJ561436"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> Takes Off.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Tibor</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database determined the growth of frequency of use of the term <span class="hlt">globalization</span> during 1989-1995. Lists <span class="hlt">globalized</span> items during 1989-1995: business, industry, production, and technology. Notes that science has not become <span class="hlt">globalized</span> because it is still supported and managed by national governments.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA217266','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA217266"><span>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System ( GPS ) and current program status are provided. The importance of...the NAVSTAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS or GPS ) will have on future weapons employment. The study will: examine why we need a high...Washington, D.C., 24 January, 1984. Malone, Daniel K. GPS /NAVSTAR. Military Review, March 1986. Nepean, Phillip The NAVSTAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization&pg=5&id=EJ809875','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization&pg=5&id=EJ809875"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and American Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> for education, presents applications of important aspects of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> that teachers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=magazine&pg=6&id=EJ931156','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=magazine&pg=6&id=EJ931156"><span>Developing Successful <span class="hlt">Global</span> Leaders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Training, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a <span class="hlt">global</span> workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for <span class="hlt">global</span> leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop <span class="hlt">global</span> leaders, and, if so, are they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=magazine&pg=6&id=EJ931156','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=magazine&pg=6&id=EJ931156"><span>Developing Successful <span class="hlt">Global</span> Leaders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Training, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a <span class="hlt">global</span> workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for <span class="hlt">global</span> leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop <span class="hlt">global</span> leaders, and, if so, are they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92e2905Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92e2905Z"><span>Predictability of critical <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Critical <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical <span class="hlt">transitions</span> to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the <span class="hlt">transition</span>. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of <span class="hlt">transitions</span> on the predictive performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASSL..428...89C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASSL..428...89C"><span>Extrasolar Planetary <span class="hlt">Transits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cameron, Andrew Collier</p> <p></p> <p>An extrasolar planet will <span class="hlt">transit</span> the visible hemisphere of its host star if its orbital plane lies sufficiently close to the observer's line of sight. The resulting periodic dips in stellar flux reveal key system parameters, including the density of the host star and, if radial-velocity observations are available, the surface gravitational acceleration of the planet. In this chapter I present the essential methodology for modelling the time-dependent flux variation during a <span class="hlt">transit</span>, and its use in determining the posterior probability distribution for the physical parameters of the system. Large-scale searches for <span class="hlt">transiting</span> systems are an efficient way of discovering planets whose bulk densities, and hence compositions, can be accessed if their masses can also be determined. I present algorithms for detrending large ensembles of light curves, for searching for <span class="hlt">transit</span>-like signals among them. I also discuss methods for identifying diluted stellar eclipsing binaries mimicking planetary <span class="hlt">transit</span> signals, and validation of <span class="hlt">transit</span> candidates too faint for radial-velocity follow-up. I review the use of time-resolved spectrophotometry and high-resolution spectroscopy during <span class="hlt">transits</span> to identify the molecular constituents of exoplanetary atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789754','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789754"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> sea level linked to <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We propose a simple relationship linking <span class="hlt">global</span> sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100. PMID:19995972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3052329','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3052329"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Health and the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Economic Crisis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved <span class="hlt">global</span> health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on <span class="hlt">global</span> health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved <span class="hlt">global</span> health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved <span class="hlt">global</span> health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..OSS.C1002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..OSS.C1002A"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> temperatures and the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming ``debate''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubrecht, Gordon</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's <span class="hlt">global</span> warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, not human beings. Is there <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.135v4109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.135v4109H"><span>Milestoning with <span class="hlt">transition</span> memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular processes occurring on time scales that are not accessible to brute force molecular dynamics (MD). In milestoning, the conformation space of the system is sectioned by hypersurfaces (milestones), an ensemble of trajectories is initialized on each milestone, and MD simulations are performed to calculate <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between milestones. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> probabilities and <span class="hlt">transition</span> time distributions are then used to model the dynamics of the system with a Markov renewal process, wherein a long trajectory of the system is approximated as a succession of independent <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between milestones. This approximation is justified if the <span class="hlt">transition</span> probabilities and <span class="hlt">transition</span> times are statistically independent. In practice, this amounts to a requirement that milestones are spaced such that trajectories lose position and velocity memory between subsequent <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. Unfortunately, limiting the number of milestones limits both the resolution at which a system's properties can be analyzed, and the computational speedup achieved by the method. We propose a generalized milestoning procedure, milestoning with <span class="hlt">transition</span> memory (MTM), which accounts for memory of previous <span class="hlt">transitions</span> made by the system. When a reaction coordinate is used to define the milestones, the MTM procedure can be carried out at no significant additional expense as compared to conventional milestoning. To test MTM, we have applied its version that allows for the memory of the previous step to the toy model of a polymer chain undergoing Langevin dynamics in solution. We have computed the mean first passage time for the chain to attain a cyclic conformation and found that the number of milestones that can be used, without incurring significant errors in the first passage time is at least 8 times that permitted by conventional milestoning. We further demonstrate that, unlike conventional milestoning, MTM permits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1324939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1324939"><span>Variational <span class="hlt">Transition</span> State Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Truhlar, Donald G.</p> <p>2016-09-29</p> <p>This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational <span class="hlt">transition</span> state theory. This project involved the development of variational <span class="hlt">transition</span> state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational <span class="hlt">transition</span> state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333736','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333736"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> nozzle combustion system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier</p> <p>2016-11-29</p> <p>The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a <span class="hlt">transition</span> nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the <span class="hlt">transition</span> nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322799"><span>Holographic magnetic phase <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this <span class="hlt">transition</span> are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6628897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6628897"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> perspectives: A new <span class="hlt">global</span> ethic, a new <span class="hlt">global</span> partnership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brundtland, G.H.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new <span class="hlt">global</span> partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18813494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18813494"><span>[<span class="hlt">Globalization</span>, poverty and health].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buss, Paulo Marchiori</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, poverty and health, defining and presenting the main characteristics of contemporary <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. It also establishes the characteristics of poverty today, both <span class="hlt">globally</span> and regionally. Reviewing articles and world reports, it presents a set of evidence on the relationships between <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and poverty, as well as their influence on health. Furthermore, it presents the opportunities offered by <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, through a series of worldwide initiatives prompted by actions among countries under the aegis of the United Nations in general and the WHO in particular, in addition to intergovernmental alliances and coalitions and other civil society representatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/special_topics/World_Oil_Transit_Chokepoints/wotc.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/special_topics/World_Oil_Transit_Chokepoints/wotc.pdf"><span>World Oil <span class="hlt">Transit</span> Chokepoints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) defines world oil chokepoints as narrow channels along widely-used <span class="hlt">global</span> sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of the vessel that can navigate through them. Chokepoints are a critical part of <span class="hlt">global</span> energy security because of the high volume of petroleum and other liquids transported through their narrow straits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3524M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3524M"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative STEM Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of <span class="hlt">global</span> collaboration. Successful <span class="hlt">global</span> partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the <span class="hlt">global</span> STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.109p4101O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.109p4101O"><span>Nonuniversal <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> to Synchrony in the Sakaguchi-Kuramoto Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to synchrony in a system of phase oscillators that are <span class="hlt">globally</span> coupled with a phase lag (Sakaguchi-Kuramoto model). We show that for certain unimodal frequency distributions there appear unusual types of synchronization <span class="hlt">transitions</span>, where synchrony can decay with increasing coupling, incoherence can regain stability for increasing coupling, or multistability between partially synchronized states and/or the incoherent state can appear. Our method is a bifurcation analysis based on a frequency dependent version of the Ott-Antonsen method and allows for a universal description of possible synchronization <span class="hlt">transition</span> scenarios for any given distribution of natural frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3438G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3438G"><span>Future Earth - Research for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for <span class="hlt">transitions</span> to <span class="hlt">global</span> sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; <span class="hlt">Global</span> Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqQ1xKsNIQE','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqQ1xKsNIQE"><span><span class="hlt">Transit</span> Timing Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The animation shows the difference between planet <span class="hlt">transit</span> timing of single and multiple planet system. In tightly packed planetary systems, the gravitational pull of the planets among themselves ca...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836225"><span>Oligocyclopentadienyl <span class="hlt">transition</span> metal complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.</p> <p>2002-01-18</p> <p>Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl <span class="hlt">transition</span> metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=jerusalem&pg=7&id=EJ311296','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=jerusalem&pg=7&id=EJ311296"><span>Coping with <span class="hlt">Transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bendersky, Nora; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes a workshop for nine South American students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two-day session focussed on exploring coping behaviors that could help students adjust to <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=jerusalem&pg=7&id=EJ311296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=jerusalem&pg=7&id=EJ311296"><span>Coping with <span class="hlt">Transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bendersky, Nora; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes a workshop for nine South American students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two-day session focussed on exploring coping behaviors that could help students adjust to <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666075"><span>Superconductivity in <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P</p> <p>2015-03-13</p> <p>A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/385601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/385601"><span>Alternative fuel <span class="hlt">transit</span> buses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the <span class="hlt">transit</span> bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public <span class="hlt">Transit</span> Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 <span class="hlt">transit</span> buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new <span class="hlt">transit</span> buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787042"><span>Palaeontology: turtles in <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Michael S Y</p> <p>2013-06-17</p> <p>One of the major remaining gaps in the vertebrate fossil record concerns the origin of turtles. The enigmatic little reptile Eunotosaurus could represent an important <span class="hlt">transitional</span> form, as it has a rudimentary shell that resembles the turtle carapace.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5242126','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5242126"><span>Urban guideway <span class="hlt">transit</span> workshop: Proceedings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Larsen, H. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>On March 20--21, 1991, EPRI sponsored a workshop on urban guideway <span class="hlt">transit</span>. The purpose of this workshop was to provide utility managers with increased knowledge about urban guideway <span class="hlt">transit</span> options, public policy regarding <span class="hlt">transit</span>, and the effect of <span class="hlt">transit</span> options on utility operations. With this information utilities should be better prepared to make decisions about <span class="hlt">transit</span> development in their service areas. The workshop also provided EPRI with ideas and information for developing an R D project plan for urban guideway <span class="hlt">transit</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24729828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24729828"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Governance at a Crossroads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, Nora Y; Ruger, Jennifer Prah</p> <p>2011-06-21</p> <p>This review takes stock of the <span class="hlt">global</span> health governance (GHG) literature. We address the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from international health governance (IHG) to <span class="hlt">global</span> health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and <span class="hlt">global</span> public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG's major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health's multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a <span class="hlt">global</span> public good); 6) <span class="hlt">global</span> health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3983705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3983705"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Governance at a Crossroads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ng, Nora Y.; Ruger, Jennifer Prah</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This review takes stock of the <span class="hlt">global</span> health governance (GHG) literature. We address the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from international health governance (IHG) to <span class="hlt">global</span> health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and <span class="hlt">global</span> public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG’s major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health’s multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a <span class="hlt">global</span> public good); 6) <span class="hlt">global</span> health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise. PMID:24729828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612852"><span>Innovative financing for late-stage <span class="hlt">global</span> health research and development: the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Investment Fund.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitchett, Joseph Robert; Fan Li, Julia; Atun, Rifat</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Innovative financing strategies for <span class="hlt">global</span> health are urgently needed to reinvigorate investment and new tools for impact. Bottleneck areas along the research and development (R&D) pipeline require particular attention, such as the <span class="hlt">transitions</span> from preclinical discovery to clinical study, and product development to implementation and delivery. Successful organizations mobilizing and disbursing resources through innovating financing mechanisms include UNITAID, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fund, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Although precise numbers are poorly documented, estimated investment in low-income settings falls seriously short of local need. This commentary discusses the newly established <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Investment Fund as a case study to support late-stage <span class="hlt">global</span> health R&D. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA609077','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA609077"><span>Quantum Phase <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Thoery Phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> Subir Sachdev Harvard University Office of Sponsored Research 1350...magnetism, and solvable models obtained from string theory. After introducing the basic theory, it moves on to a detailed description of the canonical...students and researchers in condensed matter physics and particle and string theory. Print | Close Quantum Phase <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> 2nd Edition Subir Sachdev</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1248474-matter-transition','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1248474-matter-transition"><span>Matter in <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; ...</p> <p>2016-04-13</p> <p>In this study, we explore a novel type of <span class="hlt">transition</span> in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such <span class="hlt">transitions</span> can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the <span class="hlt">transition</span> for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the <span class="hlt">transition</span> point. We explore these <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, wheremore » a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter <span class="hlt">transitions</span> can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter <span class="hlt">transition</span> between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090005.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090005.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>Boyertown Area High School astronomy teacher Peter Detterline prepares high powered binoculars with a solar filter so that his students may view the planet Mercury as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun , Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown Area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090003.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090003.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>Boyertown Area High School students, 12th grader Bransen Mackey, left, and 11th grader Nick Cioppi wear solar safety glasses and attempt to see the planet Mercury as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090014.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090014.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>Boyertown Area High School 12th grade student Ben Maurer uses his smartphone and a photographers lens with a solar filter to make a photograph of the planet Mercury <span class="hlt">transitting</span> the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090004.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-NHQ201605090004.html"><span>Mercury Solar <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>Boyertown Area High School 12th grade student Jay Hallman looks through a photographers lens and solar filter to see the planet Mercury as it <span class="hlt">transits</span> across the face of the sun , Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous <span class="hlt">transit</span> taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22827320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22827320"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> solidarity, migration and <span class="hlt">global</span> health inequity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The grounds for <span class="hlt">global</span> solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a <span class="hlt">global</span> concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to <span class="hlt">global</span> inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of <span class="hlt">global</span> solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of <span class="hlt">global</span> solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: <span class="hlt">global</span> solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address <span class="hlt">global</span> health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvX...7b1013K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvX...7b1013K"><span>Critical Properties of the Many-Body Localization <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khemani, Vedika; Lim, S. P.; Sheng, D. N.; Huse, David A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transition</span> from a many-body localized phase to a thermalizing one is a dynamical quantum phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> that lies outside the framework of equilibrium statistical mechanics. We provide a detailed study of the critical properties of this <span class="hlt">transition</span> at finite sizes in one dimension. We find that the entanglement entropy of small subsystems looks strongly subthermal in the quantum critical regime, which indicates that it varies discontinuously across the <span class="hlt">transition</span> as the system size is taken to infinity, even though many other aspects of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> look continuous. We also study the variance of the half-chain entanglement entropy, which shows a peak near the <span class="hlt">transition</span>, and find substantial variation in the entropy across eigenstates of the same sample. Furthermore, the sample-to-sample variations in this quantity are strongly growing and are larger than the intrasample variations. We posit that these results are consistent with a picture in which the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to the thermal phase is driven by an eigenstate-dependent sparse resonant "backbone" of long-range entanglement, which just barely gains enough strength to thermalize the system on the thermal side of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> as the system size is taken to infinity. This discontinuity in a <span class="hlt">global</span> quantity—the presence of a fully functional bath—in turn implies a discontinuity even for local properties. We discuss how this picture compares with existing renormalization group treatments of the <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming without <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate models simulate a robust increase of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation to the net <span class="hlt">global</span> warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming without <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate models simulate a robust increase of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation to the net <span class="hlt">global</span> warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1699S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1699S"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming without <span class="hlt">Global</span> Mean Precipitation Increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate models simulate a robust increase of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large (3-4% per kelvin). This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7%K-1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol since the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean hydrological response to GHG warming has until recently been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean precipitation to the net <span class="hlt">global</span> warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHGs increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383533"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> diets link environmental sustainability and human health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tilman, David; Clark, Michael</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a <span class="hlt">global</span> dietary <span class="hlt">transition</span> in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to <span class="hlt">global</span> land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower <span class="hlt">global</span> life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a <span class="hlt">global</span> challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.515..518T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.515..518T"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> diets link environmental sustainability and human health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilman, David; Clark, Michael</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a <span class="hlt">global</span> dietary <span class="hlt">transition</span> in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to <span class="hlt">global</span> land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower <span class="hlt">global</span> life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a <span class="hlt">global</span> challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1339446','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1339446"><span>Make Locally and Sell <span class="hlt">Globally</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Majumdar, Arun</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>The world is in <span class="hlt">transition</span> and is offering possibly the biggest economic opportunity of the 21st century. The question is: Can we grab it? I believe we can, but we need to be both smart and strategic about it. Let me explain this through a macro-picture and some <span class="hlt">global</span> trends. First, the long-term trend shows that the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy (1) will undergo steady growth and, on average, people’s income levels and buying power will rise around the world. This prosperity is the good news. History tells us, however, that consequently in many countries, energy use per person is likely to rise as well (2), especially for developing economies. Access to affordable energy supply as well as their environmental impact poses many risks. Second, the world population is also growing from 6.5 billion people today to almost double by the end of the century, mostly in developing economies. This dual growth of population and the economy suggests that the total world energy demand will very likely increase steadily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5643334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5643334"><span>The science of <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dunnette, D.A.; O'Brien, R.J. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This book covers the following topics: <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental chemistry, <span class="hlt">global</span> change and the atmosphere, acid deposition, air, water, and land pollution, UV radiation, <span class="hlt">global</span> change and the carbon cycle, and <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DPS....34.3104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DPS....34.3104M"><span>Venus <span class="hlt">Transit</span> 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayo, L. A.; Odenwald, S. F.</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>December 6th, 1882 was the last <span class="hlt">transit</span> of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each <span class="hlt">transit</span> has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the astronomical unit, calculation of longitudes on the earth, and detection of Venus' atmosphere. The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum in partnership with the Solar System Exploration Forum, DPS, and a number of NASA space missions is developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span>. The <span class="hlt">transit</span> will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the <span class="hlt">transit</span> that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will also use Venus <span class="hlt">transit</span> as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in the US and Europe will offer real time viewing of the <span class="hlt">transit</span> and conduct educational programs through professional development seminars, public lectures, and planetarium shows. We are interested in soliciting advice from the research community to coordinate professional research interests with this program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739536','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739536"><span>The New <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> health reflects the realities of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. <span class="hlt">Global</span> health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine <span class="hlt">global</span> health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of <span class="hlt">global</span> illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new <span class="hlt">global</span> health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23876365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23876365"><span>The new <span class="hlt">global</span> health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> health reflects the realities of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. <span class="hlt">Global</span> health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine <span class="hlt">global</span> health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of <span class="hlt">global</span> illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new <span class="hlt">global</span> health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343628"><span><span class="hlt">Globalization</span>, culture and psychology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melluish, Steve</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. It looks at the impact of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant '<span class="hlt">global</span> north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by <span class="hlt">globalization</span> allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly <span class="hlt">global</span> problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......457S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......457S"><span>Phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in fluids and biological systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sipos, Maksim</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of <span class="hlt">global</span> non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between these <span class="hlt">global</span> states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the <span class="hlt">transition</span> between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar <span class="hlt">transition</span> is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the <span class="hlt">transition</span> between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151008"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> health for a <span class="hlt">globally</span> minded president.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daulaire, Nils</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>President-elect Barack Obama can build on historic initiatives championed by his predecessor in <span class="hlt">global</span> AIDS and malaria. These should serve as the platform for a more comprehensive and evidence-based set of activities aimed at addressing the major causes of ill health and instability in low-income countries. Obama should launch a new <span class="hlt">Global</span> Family Health Action Plan aimed at saving the lives of six million children and women annually in impoverished nations. Existing policies driven by U.S. domestic ideological battles, particularly those relating to sexual and reproductive health, should be revised and brought into line with solid science and evidence from the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdWR...51..326D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdWR...51..326D"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> desertification: Drivers and feedbacks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of <span class="hlt">global</span> desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve <span class="hlt">global</span> food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a <span class="hlt">transition</span> between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14736113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14736113"><span>Health <span class="hlt">transition</span> among Pacificans: unpacking imperialism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Finau, Sitaleki A; Wainiqolo, Iris L; Cuboni, Giuseppe G</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>What and who defines health? In the Pacific at least, health is not only an individual's state of well-being. It also refers to the positive state of the social body i.e. how people within a community interact with each other and with their environment to produce positive and desired effects. Even death can be viewed as a positive stage in human life if it facilitates the achievement of well-being as one <span class="hlt">transit</span> or translocates to the next stage of 'eternal bliss'. The pursuit of health and well-being has resulted in many challenges over time in many communities. Health <span class="hlt">transition</span> has been seen as a phenomenon that can be defined by the various eras of disease occurrence. Various morbidity and mortality indicators are used to measure these. According to health <span class="hlt">transition</span> theorists, this phenomenon is linear and similar for all societies. However, this linear approach is not cognizant of the many dimensions of social, mental, physical and spiritual well-being that encompasses the life and death of Pacificans. This paper attempts to tease out the various forces that have influenced the health <span class="hlt">transition</span> phenomenon in the Pacific. Specifically, it argues that the forces of imperialism, colonialism and <span class="hlt">globalization</span> have largely influenced health <span class="hlt">transition</span> in the Pacific in a manner that is to some extent, both unfavorable and oppressive. It raises the difficulty of using morbidity and mortality as measures of <span class="hlt">transition</span> in societies where people do not die but are believed to just translocate to another life. The paper ends by suggesting alternate ways of looking at the multidimensional processes of health changes in the Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA192609','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA192609"><span>NAVSTAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>number) The NAVSTAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, Jam-resistant, continuous-operations space-based, passive radio navigation and...with an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the NAVSTAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System ( GPS ). II. Problem: To fight the next battle...navigation equipment and was not able to navigate on instruments or across a distant 9000-foot mountain. Had a NAVSTAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System ( GPS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849626','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849626"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> Rietveld Refinement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shankland, Kenneth</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> optimisation methods of structure determination from powder diffraction data have risen to prominence in a relatively short space of time and they now constitute a key approach in the examination of polycrystalline molecular organic materials. A correctly formulated <span class="hlt">global</span> optimisation approach may be regarded as a “<span class="hlt">global</span> Rietveld refinement” that is capable of delivering accurate crystal structures from high-quality powder diffraction data. This paper focuses on how accuracy at all stages of a powder diffraction experiment impacts upon the overall structure solution process and particular attention is paid to assessing the degree of accuracy with which structures are returned from the <span class="hlt">global</span> optimisation process. PMID:27366603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017744','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017744"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hawk Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Naftel, Chris</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hawks range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the completed science campaigns. In addition, the future science plans, using the NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hawk System, will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010889','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010889"><span><span class="hlt">Global</span> water cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the <span class="hlt">global</span> water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the <span class="hlt">global</span> water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) <span class="hlt">global</span> modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980037670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980037670"><span>Hypersonic Boundary-Layer <span class="hlt">Transition</span> for X-33 Phase 2 Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Richard A.; Hamilton, Harris H., II; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Nowak, Robert J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A status review of the experimental and computational work performed to support the X-33 program in the area of hypersonic boundary-layer <span class="hlt">transition</span> is presented. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">transition</span> fronts are visualized using thermographic phosphor measurements. Results are used to derive <span class="hlt">transition</span> correlations for "smooth body" and discrete roughness data and a computational tool is developed to predict <span class="hlt">transition</span> onset for X-33 using these results. The X-33 thermal protection system appears to be conservatively designed for <span class="hlt">transition</span> effects based on these studies. Additional study is needed to address concerns related to surface waviness. A discussion of future test plans is included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..880..195D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..880..195D"><span>RTGs on <span class="hlt">Transit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dassoulas, John; McNutt, Ralph L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transit</span>, the US Navy's Navigation Satellite System was conceived at the Applied Physics Laboratory in 1957 by observing the Doppler shift while tracking Sputnik I. As spacecraft development proceeded there was concern about the ability of batteries to maintain the hermetic seal over a 5-year operational life requirement; therefore, alternate energy sources were investigated. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) concept was pursued and resulted in the launch of SNAP 3s, providing partial power on both <span class="hlt">Transit</span> 4A and 4B. SNAP 9s provided full power on three <span class="hlt">Transit</span> 5BNs. All launches occurred in the early 1960s. When the U.S. conducted the high altitude nuclear test from Johnson Island, several spacecraft were lost due to artificial enhancement of charged particles in the Earth's magnetosphere resulting in rapid degradation of solar cell power production. This led to the decision to have both an RTG and Solar cell/battery design for <span class="hlt">Transit</span> power systems; hence, a new RTG design, with a separable heat source and radiative coupling to the thermoelectric elements, was flown on TRIAD. This pioneering effort provided the impetus for future RTGs on interplanetary spacecraft. This paper describes the origin and purpose of the <span class="hlt">Transit</span> program and provides details on the five satellites in that program that were powered by the first American RTGs used in space. The rationale and some of the challenges inherent in that use are also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..328..356L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..328..356L"><span>High Energy Exoplanet <span class="hlt">Transits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>X-ray and ultraviolet <span class="hlt">transits</span> of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy <span class="hlt">transits</span> have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet <span class="hlt">transits</span> using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate <span class="hlt">transits</span> over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy <span class="hlt">transits</span> of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12280194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12280194"><span>The demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coale, A J</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span> is a set of changes in reproductive behavior that are experienced as a society is transformed from a traditional pre-industrial state to a highly developed, modernized structure. The transformation is the substitution of slow growth achieved with low fertility and mortality for slow growth maintained with relatively high fertility and mortality rates. Contrary to early descriptions of the <span class="hlt">transition</span>, fertility in pre-modern societies was well below the maximum that might be attained. However, it was kept at moderate levels by customs (such as late marriage or prolonged breastfeeding) not related to the number of children already born. Fertility has been reduced during the demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span> by the adoption of contraception as a deliberate means of avoiding additional births. An extensive study of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> in Europe shows the absence of a simple link of fertility with education, proportion urban, infant mortality and other aspects of development. It also suggests the importance of such cultural factors as common customs associated with a common language, and the strength of religious traditions. Sufficient modernization nevertheless seems always to bring the <span class="hlt">transition</span> to low fertility and mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.138lA301B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.138lA301B"><span>Perspective: The glass <span class="hlt">transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biroli, Giulio; Garrahan, Juan P.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>We provide here a brief perspective on the glass <span class="hlt">transition</span> field. It is an assessment, written from the point of view of theory, of where the field is and where it seems to be heading. We first give an overview of the main phenomenological characteristics, or "stylised facts," of the glass <span class="hlt">transition</span> problem, i.e., the central observations that a theory of the physics of glass formation should aim to explain in a unified manner. We describe recent developments, with a particular focus on real space properties, including dynamical heterogeneity and facilitation, the search for underlying spatial or structural correlations, and the relation between the thermal glass <span class="hlt">transition</span> and athermal jamming. We then discuss briefly how competing theories of the glass <span class="hlt">transition</span> have adapted and evolved to account for such real space issues. We consider in detail two conceptual and methodological approaches put forward recently, that aim to access the fundamental critical phenomenon underlying the glass <span class="hlt">transition</span>, be it thermodynamic or dynamic in origin, by means of biasing of ensembles, of configurations in the thermodynamic case, or of trajectories in the dynamic case. We end with a short outlook.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914962"><span>Examining hydrogen <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a <span class="hlt">transition</span> to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen <span class="hlt">transition</span> models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen <span class="hlt">transition</span> models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a <span class="hlt">transition</span> and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a <span class="hlt">transition</span>, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARH44009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARH44009C"><span>Noise and Phase <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Noise is present in many physical systems and is often viewed as a nuisance. Yet it can also be a probe of microscopic fluctuations. There have been indications recently that the noise in the resistivity increases in the vicinity of the metal-insulator <span class="hlt">transition</span>. But what are the characteristics of the noise associated with well-understood first and second order phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span>? It is well known that critical fluctuations are associated with second order phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span>, but do these fluctuations lead to enhanced noise? We have addressed these questions using Monte Carlo simulations to study the noise in the 2D Ising model which undergoes a second order phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>, and in the 5-state Potts model which undergoes a first order phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>. We monitor these systems as the temperature drops below the critical temperature. At each temperature, after equilibration is established, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization per site. We apply different methods, such as the noise power spectrum, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations in these quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+poverty+AND+poverty&pg=3&id=EJ922671','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+poverty+AND+poverty&pg=3&id=EJ922671"><span>"Becoming Somebody": Youth <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> through Education and Migration in Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crivello, Gina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The past few decades have witnessed international pressure to get more children in the world educated, for longer. The view that school education is core to definitions of good childhoods and successful youth <span class="hlt">transitions</span> is increasingly widespread, <span class="hlt">globally</span> and locally. However, structural inequalities persist and migration for education has…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=market+AND+research+AND+analysis&pg=3&id=EJ1047327','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=market+AND+research+AND+analysis&pg=3&id=EJ1047327"><span>Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market <span class="hlt">Transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market <span class="hlt">transitions</span> and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the <span class="hlt">global</span> economic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=migration+AND+data+AND+definition&id=EJ922671','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=migration+AND+data+AND+definition&id=EJ922671"><span>"Becoming Somebody": Youth <span class="hlt">Transitions</span> through Education and Migration in Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crivello, Gina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The past few decades have witnessed international pressure to get more children in the world educated, for longer. The view that school education is core to definitions of good childhoods and successful youth <span class="hlt">transitions</span> is increasingly widespread, <span class="hlt">globally</span> and locally. However, structural inequalities persist and migration for education has…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/875441','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/875441"><span>Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth <span class="hlt">Transition</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Artemove, Y.V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Novikov, I.D.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>We have constructed numerically <span class="hlt">global</span> solutions of advective accretion disks around black holes that describe a continuous <span class="hlt">transition</span> between the effectively optically thick outer and optically thin inner disk regions. We have concentrated on models of accretion flows with large mass accretion rates, and we have employed a bridging formula for radiative losses at high and low effective optical depths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319771"><span>Population momentum across the demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blue, Laura; Espenshade, Thomas J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Population momentum is the main driver of <span class="hlt">global</span> population growth today, and this makes an appreciation of momentum critical to understanding contemporary worldwide growth dynamics. This article traces population momentum along with two recently defined measures of momentum decomposed—stable and nonstable momentum—across the demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span>. We use historical data and population projections from 16 countries to illustrate some previously ignored empirical regularities of the demographic <span class="hlt">transition</span> in both the developed and the developing world. We also demonstrate the dynamic nature of stable and nonstable momentum, as changes in stable momentum lead to predictable changes in current and future nonstable momentum. These results suggest that momentum, which by definition is measured at a point in time, can also be considered as a process that unfolds over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EJPh...34.1451B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EJPh...34.1451B"><span>Kuramoto-type phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> with metronomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boda, Sz; Ujvári, Sz; Tunyagi, A.; Néda, Z.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Metronomes placed on the perimeter of a disc-shaped platform, which can freely rotate in a horizontal plane, are used for a simple classroom illustration of the Kuramoto-type phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>. The rotating platform induces a <span class="hlt">global</span> coupling between the metronomes, and the strength of this coupling can be varied by tilting the metronomes’ swinging plane relative to the radial direction on the disc. As a function of the tilting angle, a <span class="hlt">transition</span> from spontaneously synchronized to unsynchronized states is observable. By varying the number of metronomes on the disc, finite-size effects are also exemplified. A realistic theoretical model is introduced and used to reproduce the observed results. Computer simulations of this model allow a detailed investigation of the emerging collective behaviour in this system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eclecticism&pg=2&id=EJ811476','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eclecticism&pg=2&id=EJ811476"><span>The Concept of <span class="hlt">Transition</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raffe, David</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The term "<span class="hlt">transition</span> system" describes features of a country's institutional arrangements which shape young people's education-work <span class="hlt">transitions</span>. It explains why national differences in <span class="hlt">transition</span> processes and outcomes persist despite apparent pressures for convergence. This paper asks how the concept of <span class="hlt">transition</span> system has been…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+Climate+AND+Change+AND+Health&id=EJ830654','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+Climate+AND+Change+AND+Health&id=EJ830654"><span>"<span class="hlt">Global</span> Competency" Is Imperative for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reimers, Fernando</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>According to a recent report of scenarios prepared by the National Intelligence Council, the next 15 years will bring significant <span class="hlt">global</span> changes, including the transformation of the international political system built after World War II, a transfer of wealth from the West to the East, pressure on natural resources resulting from continuing…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C13B0455G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C13B0455G"><span>Future <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cryosphere: Impacts of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gan, T. Y.; Barry, R. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In recent years, the Earth is undergoing potentially rapid changes in all cryospheric components, including Arctic sea ice shrinkage, mountain glacier recession, thawing permafrost, diminishing snow cover, and accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. This has significant implications for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate, hydrology, water resources, and <span class="hlt">global</span> sea level. Physical evidences of changes observed in the cryosphere are: (a) Duration of ice cover of rivers and lakes in high latitudes of N. H. decreased by about two weeks over the 20th Century; (b) Significant retreat of glaciers world wide during the 20th Century; (c) Thinning of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness by about 40% in late summer in recent decades, with the minimum sea ice concentration mapped by the SSM/I sensor of NASA in 2007; (d) Snow cover decreased in area by about 10% since <span class="hlt">global</span> observations by satellites began in the late 1960s, in various places of the Northern Hemisphere; (e) In North America, snow water equivalent decreased by about 10mm since observations by passive microwave sensors began in the late 1970s; (f) Degradations of permafrost have been detected in some parts of the polar and sub-polar regions, and (g) The total 20th Century <span class="hlt">global</span> average sea level rise was about 0.17m, likely due to decline in glaciers, snow, ice sheets, and losses from Greenland and Antarctica ice. Next, projected changes to the Cryosphere: northern hemisphere snow cover, avalanches, land ice, permafrost, freshwater ice, and sea ice changes, are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=political+AND+science+AND+citizenship&pg=3&id=EJ1024124','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=political+AND+science+AND+citizenship&pg=3&id=EJ1024124"><span>From <span class="hlt">Global</span> Knowledge to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Civic Engagement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lorenzini, Michelle</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about <span class="hlt">global</span> challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Evolution+AND+evidence&pg=4&id=EJ1024124','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Evolution+AND+evidence&pg=4&id=EJ1024124"><span>From <span class="hlt">Global</span> Knowledge to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Civic Engagement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lorenzini, Michelle</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about <span class="hlt">global</span> challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+Politics&pg=5&id=EJ830654','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+Politics&pg=5&id=EJ830654"><span>"<span class="hlt">Global</span> Competency" Is Imperative for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reimers, Fernando</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>According to a recent report of scenarios prepared by the National Intelligence Council, the next 15 years will bring significant <span class="hlt">global</span> changes, including the transformation of the international political system built after World War II, a transfer of wealth from the West to the East, pressure on natural resources resulting from continuing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12295800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12295800"><span>Balancing <span class="hlt">global</span> city with <span class="hlt">global</span> village.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afshar, F</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The discourse on habitat and human settlements is increasingly dominated by that of the <span class="hlt">global</span>, mega-city. If the aim of those of us in the human settlements field are to improve our understanding of and action on habitat and human settlements, this, often exclusive, focus is a mistake. Our habitat is better understood and acted upon as a network of interwoven settlements and surrounding countryside, large and small, themselves interwoven within our larger ecosystem. In this network the habitat of our smaller settlements (smaller cities, towns, villages) and rural areas and our <span class="hlt">global</span> village also plays a critical role. The assumption can be challenged that urbanization and the mega-city are the critical issues of habitat and human settlements. Evidence suggests that with some rurbanization there is also counter urbanization, the ruralization of cities, and, perhaps most important, a growing urbanization as city-country interactions intensify. Habitat for all and habitat for a healthy, sustainable planet demands our openness to these new concepts and realities. It demands an integrated, balanced, approach which helps a wide range of living settlement nodes, large and small, to nurture each other. <span class="hlt">Global</span> City and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Village must go hand in hand. Our planetary and human health depends on it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2233169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2233169"><span>Navajo childbirth in <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waxman, A G</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>For the Navajo Indians, the <span class="hlt">transition</span> from home-centered childbearing practices based on religious ritual to biomedically directed childbirth in hospitals was completed over a relatively short time in the middle decades of this century. For Anglo-American society, the acceptance of medically oriented childbirth occurred during an equally short period earlier in the century. The <span class="hlt">transition</span> was driven for both by many common factors. For Navajo women it was additionally influenced by the social and economic changes that affected the Reservation following the beginning of the Second World War. This paper examines the changes in Navajo childbearing practices and, for comparison, those of the dominant American society. It reviews factors that permitted the acceptance of biomedical childbirth by Navajo women and explores the health implications of the <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86g5142J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86g5142J"><span>Quantum interface unbinding <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jakubczyk, P.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We consider interfacial phenomena accompanying bulk quantum phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> in the presence of surface fields. On general grounds we argue that the surface contribution to the system free energy involves a line of singularities characteristic of an interfacial phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>, occurring below the bulk <span class="hlt">transition</span> temperature Tc down to T=0. This implies the occurrence of an interfacial quantum critical regime extending into finite temperatures and located within the portion of the phase diagram where the bulk is ordered. Even in situations where the bulk order sets in discontinuously at T=0, the system's behavior at the boundary may be controlled by a divergent length scale if the tricritical temperature is sufficiently low. Relying on an effective interfacial model we compute the surface phase diagram in bulk spatial dimensionality d⩾2 and extract the values of the exponents describing the interfacial singularities in d⩾3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017114','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017114"><span><span class="hlt">Transition</span> and laminar instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mack, L. M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The linear stability theory was applied to the problem of boundary layer <span class="hlt">transition</span> in incompressible flow. The theory was put into a form suitable for three-dimensional boundary layers; both the temporal and spatial theories were examined; and a generalized Gaster relation for three-dimensional boundary layers was derived. Numerical examples include the stability characteristics of Falkner-Skan boundary layers, the accuracy of the two-dimensional Gaster relation for these boundary layers, and the magnitude and direction of the group velocity for oblique waves in the Blasius boundary layer. Available experiments which bear on the validity of stability theory and its relation to <span class="hlt">transition</span> are reviewed and the stability theory is applied to <span class="hlt">transition</span> prediction. The amplitude method is described in which the wide band disturbance amplitude in the boundary layer is estimated from stability theory and an interaction relation for the initial amplitude density of the most unstable frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106114','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106114"><span>Electroweak phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, G.W.</p> <p>1991-09-16</p> <p>An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> is given. The phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6049891','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6049891"><span>Electroweak phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, G.W.</p> <p>1991-09-16</p> <p>An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> is given. The phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase <span class="hlt">transition</span> is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase <span class="hlt">transitions</span> can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28282184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28282184"><span>Unconventional Superconductivity in Bilayer <span class="hlt">Transition</span> Metal Dichalcogenides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chao-Xing</p> <p>2017-02-24</p> <p>Bilayer <span class="hlt">transition</span> metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) belong to a class of materials with two unique features, the coupled spin-valley-layer degrees of freedom and the crystal structure that is <span class="hlt">globally</span> centrosymmetric but locally noncentrosymmetric. In this Letter, we will show that the combination of these two features can lead to a rich phase diagram for unconventional superconductivity, including intralayer and interlayer singlet pairings and interlayer triplet pairings, in bilayer superconducting TMDs. In particular, we predict that the inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state can exist in bilayer TMDs under an in-plane magnetic field. We also discuss the experimental relevance of our results and possible experimental signatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ascl.soft12003D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ascl.soft12003D"><span>UTM: Universal <span class="hlt">Transit</span> Modeller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deeg, Hans J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Universal <span class="hlt">Transit</span> Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of <span class="hlt">transiting</span> or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368505"><span>Network observability <span class="hlt">transitions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yang; Wang, Jianhui; Motter, Adilson E</p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>In the modeling, monitoring, and control of complex networks, a fundamental problem concerns the comprehensive determination of the state of the system from limited measurements. Using power grids as example networks, we show that this problem leads to a new type of percolation <span class="hlt">transition</span>, here termed a network observability <span class="hlt">transition</span>, which we solve analytically for the configuration model. We also demonstrate a dual role of the network's community structure, which both facilitates optimal measurement placement and renders the networks substantially more sensitive to "observability attacks." Aside from their immediate implications for the development of smart grids, these results provide insights into decentralized biological, social, and technological networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11283369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11283369"><span>Biospheric primary production during an ENSO <span class="hlt">transition</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Behrenfeld, M J; Randerson, J T; McClain, C R; Feldman, G C; Los, S O; Tucker, C J; Falkowski, P G; Field, C B; Frouin, R; Esaias, W E; Kolber, D D; Pollack, N H</p> <p>2001-03-30</p> <p>The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) provides <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly measurements of both oceanic phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass and light harvesting by land plants. These measurements allowed the comparison of simultaneous ocean and land net primary production (NPP) responses to a major El Niño to La Niña <span class="hlt">transition</span>. Between September 1997 and August 2000, biospheric NPP varied by 6 petagrams of carbon per year (from 111 to 117 petagrams of carbon per year). Increases in ocean NPP were pronounced in tropical regions where El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on upwelling and nutrient availability were greatest. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, land NPP did not exhibit a clear ENSO response, although regional changes were substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA610320','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA610320"><span>Aviation Security Cooperation: Advancing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Vigilance, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reach, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Power in a Dynamic World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Views September–October 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 92 Aviation Security Cooperation Advancing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Vigilance, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reach, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Power...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aviation Security Cooperation: Advancing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Vigilance, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reach, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Power in a Dynamic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+place&id=EJ890558','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+place&id=EJ890558"><span>Learning to Plunder: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Education, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Inequality and the <span class="hlt">Global</span> City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tannock, Stuart</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Most research and policy discussions of education in the <span class="hlt">global</span> city have focused on the ways in which <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and the emergence of <span class="hlt">global</span> or <span class="hlt">globalizing</span> cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the <span class="hlt">global</span> city itself. <span class="hlt">Global</span> cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=partnership+AND+definition&pg=6&id=EJ890558','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=partnership+AND+definition&pg=6&id=EJ890558"><span>Learning to Plunder: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Education, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Inequality and the <span class="hlt">Global</span> City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tannock, Stuart</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Most research and policy discussions of education in the <span class="hlt">global</span> city have focused on the ways in which <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and the emergence of <span class="hlt">global</span> or <span class="hlt">globalizing</span> cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the <span class="hlt">global</span> city itself. <span class="hlt">Global</span> cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91d3842J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91d3842J"><span>Control of atomic <span class="hlt">transition</span> rates via laser-light shaping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jáuregui, R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A modular systematic analysis of the feasibility of modifying atomic <span class="hlt">transition</span> rates by tailoring the electromagnetic field of an external coherent light source is presented. The formalism considers both the center of mass and internal degrees of freedom of the atom, and all properties of the field: frequency, angular spectrum, and polarization. General features of recoil effects for internal forbidden <span class="hlt">transitions</span> are discussed. A comparative analysis of different structured light sources is explicitly worked out. It includes spherical waves, Gaussian beams, Laguerre-Gaussian beams, and propagation invariant beams with closed analytical expressions. It is shown that increments in the order of magnitude of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> rates for Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian beams, with respect to those obtained in the paraxial limit, require waists of the order of the wavelength, while propagation invariant modes may considerably enhance <span class="hlt">transition</span> rates under more favorable conditions. For <span class="hlt">transitions</span> that can be naturally described as modifications of the atomic angular momentum, this enhancement is maximal (within propagation invariant beams) for Bessel modes, Mathieu modes can be used to entangle the internal and center-of-mass involved states, and Weber beams suppress this kind of <span class="hlt">transition</span> unless they have a significant component of odd modes. However, if a recoil effect of the <span class="hlt">transition</span> with an adequate symmetry is allowed, the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">transition</span> rate (center of mass and internal motion) can also be enhanced using Weber modes. The <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis presented reinforces the idea that a better control of the <span class="hlt">transitions</span> between internal atomic states requires both a proper control of the available states of the atomic center of mass, and shaping of the background electromagnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+culture+AND+US&id=EJ1102077','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+culture+AND+US&id=EJ1102077"><span>Identity, Family, and Faith: U.S. Third Culture Kids <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to College</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kortegast, Carrie; Yount, Emily M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">globalization</span> have increased the number of U.S. children and adolescents being raised outside the United States. Using the framework of adults in <span class="hlt">transition</span>, the authors sought to understand the structure of Third Culture Kids' (TCKs), specifically Missionary Kids', <span class="hlt">transition</span> to college. Findings indicate that participants must…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kids&id=EJ1102077','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kids&id=EJ1102077"><span>Identity, Family, and Faith: U.S. Third Culture Kids <span class="hlt">Transition</span> to College</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kortegast, Carrie; Yount, Emily M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">globalization</span> have increased the number of U.S. children and adolescents being raised outside the United States. Using the framework of adults in <span class="hlt">transition</span>, the authors sought to understand the structure of Third Culture Kids' (TCKs), specifically Missionary Kids', <span class="hlt">transition</span> to college. Findings indicate that participants must…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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