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Sample records for light chain assay

  1. The use of immunoglobulin light chain assays in the diagnosis of paraprotein-related kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Punit; Leung, Nelson; Sanders, Paul W.; Cockwell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Kidney involvement is common in paraprotein-related diseases. A diversity of clinical presentations and histopathological features can occur secondary to tissue injury caused by precipitation or deposition of a clonal immunoglobulin, usually an immunoglobulin light chain. The paraprotein is either produced by multiple myeloma or by a clone of B-cell lineage that does not fulfill diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma. The recent introduction of serum immunoglobulin free light chain assays, which accurately quantify both light chain isotypes to produce a ratio that indicates the presence or absence of a light chain paraprotein, is a major clinical development. However, as the interpretation of the assay can be challenging, the aim of this review is to clarify the role of serum and urinary light chain assays in the screening and diagnosis of paraprotein-related kidney disease. PMID:25296094

  2. The evolving use of serum free light chain assays in haematology.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Guy

    2008-05-01

    Over the last few years new immunoassays have emerged that allow the measurement of free immunoglobulin light chains (FLCs) in serum to a level of 2-4 mg/l and provide a much greater sensitivity than older methods, such as immunofixation, which is able to detect FLCs at a minimum concentration of 100-150 mg/l. The new FLC assay has enabled the detection of monoclonal protein in some patients with non-secretory myeloma and amyloidosis that were previously undetectable. FLC measurements are quantitative, correlating with disease activity, and are an advance in monitoring light chain only multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, non-secretory and oligo-secretory multiple myeloma. Serum FLC concentrations also reflect the disease course in the majority of myeloma patients producing intact monoclonal immunoglobulin proteins and have been incorporated into the new response criteria. The rapid half life of lambda and kappa free light chains means that FLC assays may provide a more rapid indication of the response to treatment but their clinical utility in this setting needs further study. An abnormal FLC ratio has been shown to be a risk factor for progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma of bone and is prognostic in multiple myeloma.

  3. Comparison of the Freelite serum free light chain (SFLC) assay with serum and urine electrophoresis/immunofixation and the N Latex FLC assay.

    PubMed

    Sasson, S C; McGill, K; Wienholt, L; Carr, A; Brown, D A; Kelleher, A D; Breit, S N; Sewell, W A

    2015-10-01

    Few reports have compared available serum free light chain (SFLC) assays. Here, a retrospective audit of the Freelite SFLC assay compared results to electrophoresis (EP)/immunofixation (IFX) and the N Latex FLC assay.A total of 244 samples collected over 3.5 months were studied using the Freelite and N Latex FLC nephelometry assays. Results were compared with serum and/or urine EP/IFX. The precision and linearity of the N Latex FLC assay was examined.Detectable paraprotein by serum or urine EP/IFX was present in 94% of samples with kappa and 100% with lambda FLC restriction. The correlation between the assays was higher for kappa (rho = 0.97) than lambda (rho = 0.89) especially when lambda results were above the upper limit of normal (rho = 0.62). Agreement in the categorical diagnosis as measured by the Cohen's kappa statistic was good (0.70). The N Latex FLC assay displayed good precision and linearity. In discordant samples the Freelite and N Latex FLC assays had equivalent agreement with IFX.Traditional methods of EP/IFX detected paraproteins in the majority of cases. Correlation between the Freelite and N Latex FLC assay is better for kappa than lambda FLC. The two assays are not entirely equivalent. Care should be taken by interpreting physicians and laboratories considering switching assays.

  4. IgD multiple myeloma: Clinical, biological features and prognostic value of the serum free light chain assay.

    PubMed

    Djidjik, R; Lounici, Y; Chergeulaïne, K; Berkouk, Y; Mouhoub, S; Chaib, S; Belhani, M; Ghaffor, M

    2015-09-01

    IgD multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare subtype of myeloma, it affects less than 2% of patients with MM. To evaluate the clinical and prognostic attributes of serum free light chains (sFLCs) analysis, we examined 17 cases of IgD MM. From 1998 to 2012, we obtained 1250 monoclonal gammapathies including 590 multiple myeloma and 17 patients had IgD MM. With preponderance of men patients with a mean age at diagnosis of: 59±12years. Patients with IgD MM have a short survival (Median survival=9months). The presenting features included: bone pain (75%), lymphadenopathy (16%), hepatomegaly (25%), splenomegaly (8%), associated AL amyloidosis (6%), renal impairment function (82%), infections (47%), hypercalcemia (37%) and anemia (93%). Serum electrophoresis showed a subtle M-spike (Mean=13.22±10g/L) in all patients associated to a hypogammaglobulinemia. There was an over-representation of Lambda light chain (65%); high serum β2-microglobulin in 91% and Bence Jones proteinuria was identified in 71%. The median rate of sFLCs κ was 19.05mg/L and 296.75mg/L for sFLCs λ. sFLCR was abnormal in 93% of patients and it showed concordance between baseline sFLCR and the survival (P=0.034). The contribution of FLC assay is crucial for the prognosis of patients with IgD MM.

  5. Clathrin heavy chain, light chain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, F K; Stanley, K K

    1983-01-01

    Purified pig brain clathrin can be reversibly dissociated and separated into heavy chain trimers and light chains in the presence of non-denaturing concentrations of the chaotrope thiocyanate. The isolated heavy chain trimers reassemble into regular polygonal cage structures in the absence of light chains. The light chain fraction can be further resolved into its two components L alpha and L beta which give different one-dimensional peptide maps. Radiolabelled light chains bind with high affinity (KD < 10(-10) M) to heavy chain trimers, to heavy chain cages and to a 110,000 mol. wt. tryptic fragment of the heavy chain. Both light chains compete with each other and with light chains from other sources for the same binding sites on heavy chains and c.d. spectroscopy shows that the two pig brain light chains possess very similar structures. We conclude that light chains from different sources, despite some heterogeneity, have a highly conserved, high affinity binding site on the heavy chain but are not essential for the formation of regular cage structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:10872336

  6. Serum Free Light Chain Assay and κ/λ Ratio: Performance in Patients With Monoclonal Gammopathy-High False Negative Rate for κ/λ Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-01-01

    Background Serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) and κ/λ ratio, and protein electrophoretic methods are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies. Methods Results for serum free light chains, serum and urine protein electrophoreses and immunofixation electrophoreses in 468 patients with a diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy were compared. The results of the two methods were graded as concordant, non-concordant or discordant with the established diagnoses to assess the relative performance of the methods. Results of κ/λ ratio in samples with monoclonal protein detectable by electrophoretic methods were also analyzed. Results Protein electrophoreses results were concordant with the established diagnoses significantly more often than κ/λ ratio. The false negative rate for κ/λ ratio was higher than that for electrophoretic methods. κ/λ ratio was falsely negative in about 27% of the 1,860 samples with detectable monoclonal immunoglobulin. The false negative rate was higher in lesions with lambda chains (32%) than those with kappa chains (24%). The false negative rate for κ/λ ratio was over 55% in samples with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Even at first encounter, the false negative rates for κ/λ ratios for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering myeloma and multiple myeloma were 66.98%, 23.08%, and 30.15%, respectively, with false negative rate for lambda chain lesions being higher. Conclusions Electrophoretic studies of serum and urine are superior to SFLCA and κ/λ ratio. Abnormal κ/λ ratio, per se, is not diagnostic of monoclonal gammopathy. A normal κ/λ ratio does not exclude monoclonal gammopathy. False negative rates for lesions with lambda chain are higher than those for lesions with kappa chains. Electrophoretic studies of urine are underutilized. Clinical usefulness and medical necessity of SFLCA and κ/λ ratio is of questionable value in routine clinical testing. PMID:27924175

  7. Microdroplet chain array for cell migration assays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Zhao, Shi-Ping; Lou, Qi; Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2016-11-29

    Establishing cell migration assays in multiple different microenvironments is important in the study of tissue repair and regeneration, cancer progression, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. In this work, we developed a miniaturized and massive parallel microfluidic platform for multiple cell migration assays combining the traditional membrane-based cell migration technique and the droplet-based microfluidic technique. Nanoliter-scale droplets are flexibly assembled as building blocks based on a porous membrane to form microdroplet chains with diverse configurations for different assay modes. Multiple operations including in-droplet 2D/3D cell culture, cell co-culture and cell migration induced by a chemoattractant concentration gradient in droplet chains could be flexibly performed with reagent consumption in the nanoliter range for each assay and an assay scale-up to 81 assays in parallel in one microchip. We have applied the present platform to multiple modes of cell migration assays including the accurate cell migration assay, competitive cell migration assay, biomimetic chemotaxis assay, and multifactor cell migration assay based on the organ-on-a-chip concept, for demonstrating its versatility, applicability, and potential in cell migration-related research.

  8. Molecular identification of the light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California using a polymerase chain reaction assay of the internal transcribed spacer 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Vasquez, J D; Epstein, M; Kerr, P H; Kinnee, S; Sage, O; Gilligan, T M

    2009-12-01

    A molecular protocol using a hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) is reported for the diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. This protocol distinguishes the light brown apple moth from other moths in California based on size differences of PCR amplicons that are visualized on agarose gels. The molecular diagnostic tool generated no false negatives based on analysis of 337 light brown apple moths collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 424 moths representing other tortricid species generated correct identification for >95% of the samples and only two false positives. Of the 761 moths tested only fourteen produced no PCR amplicons and five generated inconclusive data.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Phalen, D N; Wilson, V G; Graham, D L

    1991-05-01

    A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV). The assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the BFDV VP1 gene. The observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from BFDV DNA by its restriction digestion pattern. This assay was specific for BFDV and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. By using the polymerase chain reaction, BFDV was detected in adult, nestling, and embryo budgerigar (Melopsitticus undulatus) tissue DNAs and in sera from adult and nestling budgerigars. These results suggest the possibility of persistent infections in adult birds and lend further support to previously described evidence of possible in ovo transmission. BFDV was also detected in chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures and chicken eggs inoculated with the virus. A 550-bp product with identical restriction enzyme sites was amplified from a suspected polyomavirus isolated from a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis pesonata) and from tissue DNA from a Hahn's macaw (Ara nobilis) and a sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) with histological lesions suggestive of polyomavirus infection. These fragments also hybridized with a BFDV-derived probe, proving that they were derived from a polyomavirus very similar, if not identical, to BFDV.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, D N; Wilson, V G; Graham, D L

    1991-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV). The assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the BFDV VP1 gene. The observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from BFDV DNA by its restriction digestion pattern. This assay was specific for BFDV and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. By using the polymerase chain reaction, BFDV was detected in adult, nestling, and embryo budgerigar (Melopsitticus undulatus) tissue DNAs and in sera from adult and nestling budgerigars. These results suggest the possibility of persistent infections in adult birds and lend further support to previously described evidence of possible in ovo transmission. BFDV was also detected in chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures and chicken eggs inoculated with the virus. A 550-bp product with identical restriction enzyme sites was amplified from a suspected polyomavirus isolated from a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis pesonata) and from tissue DNA from a Hahn's macaw (Ara nobilis) and a sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) with histological lesions suggestive of polyomavirus infection. These fragments also hybridized with a BFDV-derived probe, proving that they were derived from a polyomavirus very similar, if not identical, to BFDV. Images PMID:1647403

  11. Atypical immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Xinxin; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a plasma cell disorder which mainly affects heart, kidneys, liver, and peripheral nervous system. Cases of atypical AL amyloidosis presented as spontaneous vertebral compression fractures have been rarely reported, and data about the management and clinical outcomes of the patients are scarce. Methods: Herein, we present 3 new cases of AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture and review 13 cases retrieved from the literature. Results: Moreover, we observed overrepresentations of liver involvement and bone marrow involvement in AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture. Conclusion: We believe that better awareness of the rare clinical presentation as spontaneous vertebral compression fracture of AL amyloidosis can facilitate earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment. PMID:27603350

  12. Development of a highly-sensitive multi-plex assay using monoclonal antibodies for the simultaneous measurement of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin free light chains in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John P; Cobbold, Mark; Wang, Yanyun; Goodall, Margaret; Bonney, Sarah L; Chamba, Anita; Birtwistle, Jane; Plant, Timothy; Afzal, Zaheer; Jefferis, Roy; Drayson, Mark T

    2013-05-31

    Monoclonal κ and λ immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) paraproteins in serum and urine are important markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of B cell dyscrasias. Current nephelometric and turbidimetric methods that use sheep polyclonal antisera to quantify serum FLC have a number of well-observed limitations. In this report, we describe an improved method using specific mouse anti-human FLC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Anti-κ and anti-λ FLC mAbs were, separately, covalently coupled to polystyrene Xmap® beads and assayed, simultaneously, in a multi-plex format by Luminex® (mAb assay). The mAbs displayed no cross-reactivity to bound LC, the alternate LC type, or other human proteins and had improved sensitivity and specificity over immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) and Freelite™. The assay gives good linearity and sensitivity (<1 mg/L), and the competitive inhibition format gave a broad calibration curve up to 437.5 mg/L and prevented anomalous results for samples in antigen excess i.e. high FLC levels. The mAbs displayed good concordance with Freelite™ for the quantitation of normal polyclonal FLC in plasma from healthy donors (n=249). The mAb assay identified all monoclonal FLC in serum from consecutive patient samples (n=1000; 50.1% with monoclonal paraprotein by serum IFE), and all FLC in a large cohort of urine samples tested for Bence Jones proteins (n=13090; 22.8% with monoclonal κ, 9.0% with monoclonal λ, and 0.8% with poly LC detected by urine IFE). Importantly this shows that the mAbs are at least close to the ideal of detecting FLC from all patients and neoplastic plasma cell clones. Given the overall effectiveness of the anti-FLC mAbs, further clinical validation is now warranted on serial samples from a range of patients with B cell disorders. Use of these mAbs on other assay platforms should also be investigated.

  13. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  14. Immunoglobulin light chains, glycosaminoglycans and amyloid.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Kisilevsky, R.; Biosciences Division; Queen's Univ.

    2000-03-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins for fibrils that are formed during primary amyloidosis and in amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma. As found for the approximately 20 currently described forms of focal, localized, or systemic amyloidoses, light chain-related fibrils extracted from physiological deposits are invariably associated with glycosaminoglycans, predominantly heparan sulfate. Other amyloid-related proteins are either structurally normal, such as g2-microglobulin and islet amyloid polypeptide, fragments of normal proteins such as serum amyloid A protein or the precursor protein of the g peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease, or are inherited forms of single amino acid variants of a normal protein such as found in the familial forms of amyloid associated with transthyretin. In contrast, the primary structures of light chains involved in fibril formation exhibit extensive mutational diversity rendering some proteins highly amyloidogenic and others non-pathological. The interactions between light chains and glycosaminoglycans are also affected by amino acid variation and may influence the clinical course of disease by enhancing fibril stability and contributing to resistance to protease degradation. Relatively little is currently known about the mechanisms by which glycosaminoglycans interact with light chains and light-chain fibrils. It is probable that future studies of this uniquely diverse family of proteins will continue o shed light on the processes of amyloidosis, and contribute as well to a greater understanding of the normal physiological roles of glycosaminoglycans.

  15. Yemen's light, sweet Alif crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-23

    Crude oil from Yemen's Alif field has been assayed. The light sweet crude, also known as Marib, is part of the Marib al-Jawf concession in northern Yemen. Alif field was discovered in 1984 by Hunt Oil Co. The field was declared commercial in November 1985. Alif production averaged 118,500 b/d in 1992. Physical and chemical properties are listed for the whole crude and its fractions.

  16. Light chain amyloidosis: Where are the light chains from and how they play their pathogenic role?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlan; Huang, Xufei; Li, Jian

    2017-03-08

    Amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a plasma-cell dyscrasia, as well as the most common type of systematic amyloidosis. Pathogenic plasma cells that have distinct cytogenetic and molecular properties secrete an excess amount of amyloidogenic light chains. Assisted by post-translational modifications, matrix components, and other environmental factors, these light chains undergo a conformational change that triggers the formation of amyloid fibrils that overrides the extracellular protein quality control system. Moreover, the amyloidogenic light-chain itself is cytotoxic. As a consequence, organ dysfunction is caused by both organ architecture disruption and the direct cytotoxic effect of amyloidogenic light chains. Here, we reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying this sequence of events that ultimately leads to AL amyloidosis and also discuss current in vitro and in vivo models, as well as relevant novel therapeutic approaches.

  17. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains.

    PubMed

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo; Cirillo, Davide; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-05-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition.

  18. Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. It covers aspects of the myosin light chain in the localization of the myosin holoenzyme, protein-protein interactions and light chain binding to non-myosin binding partners. Finally, this review challenges the dogma that myosin regulatory and essential light chain exclusively associate with conventional myosin heavy chains while unconventional myosin heavy chains usually associate with calmodulin. PMID:26155737

  19. Two light, sweet Indonesian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-10-31

    Two crudes from Southeast Asia have been assayed. Belida, from the South Natuna Sea, is a light, sweet crude, with an API gravity of 45.1 [degree] and almost no sulfur (0.02 wt %). Hydra, from the Zone of Cooperation between Indonesia and Australia in the Timor Sea, has a gravity of 37.5 API and a sulfur content of 0.08 wt%. Belida operator Conoco Indonesia Ltd. began phase-two oil flow from a directional development well last October. Production from the field was 84,665 b/d on Oct. 21, 1993, and was expected to reach 90,000 b/d by the end of that month. The operator expected a peak of 100,00 b/d some time this year. The second crude, Hydra, is from the first well drilled in the Zone of Cooperation between Indonesia and Australia. Marathon Oil Co. spudded the first Hydra well in block ZOCA 9-11 in late 1992. As of early last year, five operating groups were expected to drill seven wells in second-half 1993. And a total of 26 wells has been committed for the Zone of Cooperation between 1995 and 1997, making the area a hotbed of exploration. Although the Journal has acquired no additional information on the Hydra program since that time, the assay may provided an idea of the quality of the crudes from that area.

  20. Systemic Light Chain Amyloidosis Mimicking Rheumatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Secondary amyloidosis can complicate chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, the clinical findings of primary amyloidosis may mimic those of primary rheumatologic disorders. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with dystrophic nail changes, dry eyes, bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, Raynaud's phenomenon, and high titer positive nucleolar pattern antinuclear antibody. She was initially misdiagnosed as having Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD). On further workup, she was eventually diagnosed with lambda light chain systemic amyloidosis by abdominal fat pad biopsy. Her symptoms completely resolved after autologous stem cell transplantation. With this case, we would like to highlight the similarities in the clinical features between light chain amyloidosis and rheumatological disorders. We would also like to emphasize the importance of the prompt recognition of the clinical features of amyloidosis which are crucial to triggering appropriate diagnostic procedures, since early diagnosis is a key to improving outcomes in this disease with an otherwise poor prognosis. PMID:28042297

  1. Shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mateja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Narat, Mojca; Benčina, Dušan; Dovč, Peter

    2014-04-15

    Like all jawed vertebrates, birds (Aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (Igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. Their Igs are composed of two identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains which are of lambda isotype. The L chain consists of variable (VL), joining (JL) and constant (CL) region. Using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (3C10 and CH31) to chicken L chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nine different orders. Among Galliformes tested, mAbs 3C10 and CH31 reacted with L chains of chicken, turkey, four genera of pheasants, tragopan and peafowl, but not with sera of grey partridge, quail and Japanese quail. Immunoglobulins of guinea-fowl reacted only with mAb 3C10. Both mAbs reacted also with the L chain of Eurasian griffon (order Falconiformes) and domestic sparrow (order Passeriformes). Sera from six other orders of Aves did not react with either of the two mAbs. EIA using mAbs 3C10 and CH31 enabled detection of antibodies to major avian pathogens in sera of chickens, turkeys, pheasants, peafowl, Eurasian griffon and guinea-fowl (only with mAb 3C10). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of pheasant L chain (19 residues) was identical to that of chicken. Sequences of genes encoding the L chain constant regions of pheasants, turkey and partridge were determined and deposited in the public database (GenBank accession numbers: FJ 649651, FJ 649652 and FJ 649653, respectively). Among them, amino acid sequence of pheasants is the most similar to that of chicken (97% similarity), whereas those of turkey and partridge have greater similarity to each other (89%) than to any other avian L chain sequence. The characteristic deletion of two amino acids which is present in the L chain constant region in Galliformes has been most likely introduced to their L chain after their divergence from Anseriformes.

  2. Method for altering antibody light chain interactions

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.; Stevens, Priscilla Wilkins; Raffen, Rosemarie; Schiffer, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A method for recombinant antibody subunit dimerization including modifying at least one codon of a nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in the interface segment of the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a first polarity; and modifying at least one codon of the nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in an interface segment of the heavy polypeptide variable region corresponding to a position in the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a second polarity opposite the first polarity. Nucleic acid sequences which code for novel light chain proteins, the latter of which are used in conjunction with the inventive method, are also provided.

  3. Myeloma light chains are ligands for cubilin (gp280).

    PubMed

    Batuman, V; Verroust, P J; Navar, G L; Kaysen, J H; Goda, F O; Campbell, W C; Simon, E; Pontillon, F; Lyles, M; Bruno, J; Hammond, T G

    1998-08-01

    Although myeloma light chains are known to undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis in the kidney, the molecular identity of the receptor has not been characterized. We examined the interaction between cubilin (gp280) and four species of light chains isolated from the urine of patients with multiple myeloma. Four lines of evidence identify cubilin, a giant glycoprotein receptor, which is restricted in distribution to endocytic scavenger pathways and which has potent effects on endosomal trafficking, as a potentially physiologically relevant binding site for light chains: 1) light chains coeluted during immunoaffinity purification of cubilin; 2) polyclonal antisera to cubilin but not control sera, displaced human light chain binding from rat renal brush-border membranes; 3) cubilin bound to multiple species of light chains during surface plasmon resonance; 4) anti-cubilin antiserum interfered with light chain endocytosis by visceral yolk sac epithelial cells. However, both binding of light chains to brush-border membranes and endocytosis of light chains by yolk sac epithelial cells were only partially inhibited by anticubilin antibodies, suggesting presence of additional or alternate binding sites for light chains. Excess light chain had a potent inhibitory effect on endosomal fusion in vitro. Binding showed dose and time-dependent saturability with low-affinity, high-capacity equilibrium binding parameters. These data demonstrate that cubilin plays a role in the endocytosis and trafficking of light chains in renal proximal tubule cells.

  4. Identification of Erwinia stewartii by a ligase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W J; Wiedmann, M; Dillard, H R; Batt, C A

    1994-01-01

    A PCR-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay was developed to distinguish the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia stewartii from other erwiniae. This new technique allows discrimination to the species level on the basis of a single-base-pair difference in the 16S rRNA gene which is unique to E. stewartii. Portions of the 16S rRNA genes of E. stewartii and the closely related Erwinia herbicola were sequenced. From comparison of the two 16S rRNA gene regions, two primer pairs were constructed such that only E. stewartii DNA gave a product in the LCR assay. The ligated product was separated from the radioactively labelled primers by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography. Twenty-four different Erwinia species and strains were tested by PCR-coupled LCR to verify the specificity of the assay, and only E. stewartii strains gave a positive reaction. In addition, infected and healthy plant material was also assayed. E. stewartii was detected in infected plant material, even when large populations of epiphytic bacteria were present. No enrichment was necessary for detection of the pathogen in corn leaves. This assay has potential as a diagnostic technique for the detection of E. stewartii in infected plant and vector material. Images PMID:7509585

  5. Update on treatment of light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Shameem; Palladini, Giovanni; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Wechalekar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Light chain amyloidosis is the most common type of amyloidosis as a consequence of protein misfolding of aggregates composed of amyloid fibrils. The clinical features are dependent on the organs involved, typically cardiac, renal, hepatic, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and soft tissue. A tissue biopsy or fat aspirate is needed to confirm the presence/type of amyloid and prognostic tools are important in a risk stratified approach to treatment. Autologous stem cell transplant eligibility should be assessed at baseline, weighing the reversible or non-reversible contraindications, toxicity of treatment and chemotherapy alternatives available. Chemotherapy options include melphalan, thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide, bendamustine in combination with dexamethasone. Many studies have explored these treatment modalities, with ongoing debate about the optimal first line and sequential treatment thereafter. Attaining a very good partial response or better is the treatment goal coupled with early assessment central to optimizing treatment. One major challenge remains increasing the awareness of this disease, frequently diagnosed late as the presenting symptoms mimic many other medical conditions. This review focuses on the treatments for light chain amyloidosis, how these treatments have evolved over the years, improved patient risk stratification, toxicities encountered and future directions. PMID:24497558

  6. Serum free light chains for monitoring multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mead, G P; Carr-Smith, H D; Drayson, M T; Morgan, G J; Child, J A; Bradwell, A R

    2004-08-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) are found in the serum and urine of patients with a number of B-cell proliferative disorders, including multiple myeloma. Automated immunoassays, which can measure FLC in serum, are useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of light chain (AL) amyloidosis, Bence Jones myeloma and non-secretory myeloma patients. We report the results of a study investigating the utility of serum FLC measurements in myeloma patients producing monoclonal intact immunoglobulin proteins. FLC concentrations were measured in presentation sera from 493 multiple myeloma patients with monoclonal, intact immunoglobulin proteins. Serial samples were assayed from 17 of these patients and the FLC measurements were compared with other disease markers. Serum FLC concentrations were abnormal in 96% of patients at presentation. FLC concentrations fell more rapidly in response to treatment than intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) and showed greater concordance with serum beta2 microglobulin concentrations and bone marrow plasma cell assessments. It was concluded that serum FLC assays could be used to follow the disease course in nearly all multiple myeloma patients. In addition, because of their short serum half-life, changes in serum FLC concentrations provide a rapid indication of the response to treatment.

  7. Isolation of cardiac myosin light-chain isotypes by chromatofocusing. Comparison of human cardiac atrial light-chain 1 and foetal ventricular light-chain 1.

    PubMed

    Vincent, N D; Cummins, P

    1985-04-01

    Cardiac myosin light chain isotypes have been resolved using chromatofocusing, a new preparative column chromatographic technique. The method relies on production of narrow-range, shallow and stable pH gradients using ion-exchange resins and buffers with even buffering capacity over the required pH range. Light chains were resolved in order of decreasing isoelectric point in the pH range 5.2-4.5. Gradients of delta pH = 0.004-0.006/ml elution volume were achieved which were capable of resolving light chains with isoelectric point differences of only 0.03. Analytical isoelectric focusing of light chains in polyacrylamide gels could be used to predict the results of preparative chromatofocusing for method development. Chromatofocusing was capable of resolving human and bovine cardiac light chain 1 and 2 subunits, atrial (ALC) and ventricular (VLC) light chain isotypes and homologous VLC-2 and VLC-2* light chains. The technique was used to purify and resolve the human foetal ventricular light chain 1 (FLC-1) from adult ventricular light chain 1 (VLC-1) present in foetal ventricles and the atrial light chain 1 (ALC-1) in adult atria. Comparative peptide mapping studies and amino acid analyses were carried out on FLC-1 and ALC-1. No differences were detected between FLC-1 and ALC-1 using three different proteases and amino acid compositions were similar with the exception of glycine content. The studies indicate that FLC-1 and ALC-1 are homologous, and possibly identical, light chains. Comparison of human FLC-1/ALC-1 with VLC-1 suggested marked structural and chemical differences in these light chain isotypes, in particular in the contents of methionine, proline, lysine and alanine residues. Differences in the contents of these residues were also apparent in the corresponding bovine atrial and ventricular light chains [Wikman-Coffelt, J. & Srivastava, S. (1979) FEBS Lett. 106, 207-212]. The latter three residues are known to be rich in the N-termini of cardiac and

  8. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  9. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Farris, R E; Epstein, M E; Gilligan, T M

    2011-10-01

    A molecular assay for diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North America is reported. The assay multiplexes two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) probe systems that are designed to target DNA segments of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and 18S rRNA gene. The RT-PCR probe designed for the 18S target recognizes a DNA sequence conserved in all of the moths included in the study and functions as a control in the assay. The second probe recognizes a segment of the ITS2 specifically found in E. postvittana and not found in the other moths included in the study, i.e., this segment is not conserved. Inclusion of the two markers in a single multiplex reaction did not affect assay performance. The assay was tested against 637 moths representing > 90 taxa in 15 tribes in all three subfamilies in the Tortricidae. The assay generated no false negatives based on analysis of 355 E. postvittana collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 282 moths representing 41 genera generated no false positives. Only three inconclusive results were generated from the 637 samples. Spike experiments demonstrated that DNA contamination in the assay can affect samples differently. Contaminated samples analyzed with the ITS2 RT-PCR assay and DNA barcode methodology by using the cytochrome oxidase I gene can generate contradictory diagnoses.

  10. Comparison of serum free light chain and urine electrophoresis for the detection of the light chain component of monoclonal immunoglobulins in light chain and intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Dejoie, Thomas; Attal, Michel; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Avet-Loiseau, Herve

    2016-03-01

    Response criteria for multiple myeloma are based upon changes in monoclonal protein levels quantified using serum and/or urine protein electrophoresis. The latter lacks sensitivity at low monoclonal protein levels and since 2001, the serum free light chain test has been available and its clinical utility proven, yet guidelines have not recommended it as a replacement for urine assessment. Herein we evaluated responses using serum free light chain measurements and serum and urine electrophoresis after 2 and 4 cycles of therapy and after stem cell transplantation in 25 light chain and 157 intact immunoglobulin myeloma patients enrolled in the IFM 2007-02 MM trial. All 25 light chain patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain and urine methods at presentation. By contrast 98 out of 157 intact immunoglobulin patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain compared to 55 out of 157 by urine electrophoresis. In all patients there was substantial agreement between predicate (serum/urine protein electrophoresis) and test (serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light chain) methods for response assessment (Weighted Kappa=0.83). Urine immunofixation became negative in 47% light chain and 43% intact immunoglobulin patients after 2 cycles of therapy. At this time the serum free light chain ratio normalised in only 11% and 27% patients, respectively. In summary we found good agreement between methods for response assessment, but the serum free light chain test provided greater sensitivity than urine electrophoresis for monitoring. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing both methods for response assignment based on the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines. (Clinical Trials Register.eu identifier: 2007-005204-40).

  11. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction-coupled ligase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Barany, F; Batt, C A

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay for the specific detection of Listeria monocytogenes (M. Wiedmann, J. Czajka, F. Barany, and C. A. Batt, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3443-3447, 1992) has been modified for detection of the LCR products with a nonisotopic readout. When a chemiluminescent or a colorimetric substrate for the nonisotopic detection of the LCR products was used, the PCR-coupled LCR gave a sensitivity of 10 CFU of L. monocytogenes. The detection method with the chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos 530 permitted detection of the LCR products in less than 3 h, so that the whole assay can be completed within 10 h. Images PMID:8368859

  12. Serum free light chains in clinical laboratory diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal free light chains (FLCs) are important disease biomarkers in patients with plasma cell-proliferative disorders. The increasing evidence for clonal diversity and evolution in multiple myeloma highlights the importance of laboratory algorithms that measure both intact immunoglobulins and monoclonal FLCs, at diagnosis and when monitoring response to treatment. A particular focus in the field has been on the utility of serum FLC (sFLC) assays to replace urine electrophoresis for monoclonal FLC measurement. Due to the limited sensitivity and practical constraints of urine analysis, a serum-based algorithm of SPE and sFLC has been adopted by many laboratories as a first line screen in patients with suspected monoclonal gammopathies. This review will discuss the data supporting the use of this simple serum-based algorithm at initial diagnosis, including its utility for the rapid identification of monoclonal FLC in the setting of unexplained acute kidney injury, and provide a comprehensive review of the diagnostic sensitivity of sFLC in patients with multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis and light chain deposition disease.

  13. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    PubMed

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products.

  14. Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B

    2006-01-12

    We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.

  15. Polyclonal free light chain of Ig may interfere with interpretation of monoclonal free light chain κ/λ ratio.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stanley S

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy about whether a sensitive assay for the serum Ig free light chain (FLC) κ/λ ratio can replace urine immunofixation electrophoresis (UIFE). This report describes two untreated patients in whom monoclonal FLCs were identified in urine despite normal serum FLC κ/λ ratios. Unlike the classical serum electrophoretic patterns in multiple myeloma, both serum samples showed adequate amounts of polyclonal Ig. The most likely explanation is a masking effect by polyclonal FLC on the serum κ/λ ratio when sufficient concentrations of polyclonal FLC exist. These cases illustrate this likely effect and attest to the continued importance of UIFE for initial screening of patients for Bence-Jones protein.

  16. Assay of gliadin by real-time immunopolymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Henterich, Nadine; Osman, Awad A; Méndez, Enrique; Mothes, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    Patients with coeliac disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy) are intolerant against gliadins from wheat and the respective proteins from related cereals and have to keep a lifelong gluten-free diet. For control of gliadin in gluten-free food sensitive assay techniques are necessary. We developed an immunopolymerase chain reaction (iPCR) assay for gliadin. In this technique immunological detection of gliadin by a monoclonal antibody R5 conjugated with an oligonucleotide is amplified by PCR. For quantification, iPCR was performed as real-time PCR (real-time iPCR) in one step. By means of real-time iPCR, the sensitivity of gliadin analysis was increased more than 30-fold above the level reached by enzyme immunoassay. Real time-iPCR using R5 directly conjugated with oligonucleotide was clearly more sensitive than real time-iPCR applying sequentially biotinylated R5, streptavidin, and biotinylated oligonucleotide. With directly conjugated R5 gliadin was detected at a concentration as low as 0.16 ng/mL corresponding to 16 microg gliadin/100 g food or 0.16 ppm (corresponding to 0.25 g of food extracted in 10 mL of solvent and 25-fold dilution of the extract prior to analysis). This is the first report applying the highly sensitive technique of iPCR for gliadin analysis. Furthermore, this is the first approach to perform real-time iPCR in one step without changing the reaction vessels after enzyme immunoassay for subsequent PCR analysis thus minimizing risks of contamination and loss of sensitivity.

  17. Formation of Amyloid Fibers by Monomeric Light Chain Variable Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R.; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Phillips, Martin L.; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. PMID:25138218

  18. Biochemical characterization of human enteropeptidase light chain.

    PubMed

    Gasparian, M E; Ostapchenko, V G; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2006-02-01

    The synthetic gene encoding human enteropeptidase light chain (L-HEP) was cloned into plasmid pET-32a downstream from the gene of fusion partner thioredoxin immediately after the DNA sequence encoding the enteropeptidase recognition site. The fusion protein thioredoxin (Trx)/L-HEP was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Autocatalytic cleavage of the fusion protein and activation of recombinant L-HEP were achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies and refolding of Trx/L-HEP fusion protein. The kinetic parameters of human and bovine enteropeptidases in the presence of different concentrations of Ca2+ and Na+ for cleavage of the specific substrate GD4K-na and nonspecific substrates such as small ester Z-Lys-SBzl and chromogenic substrates Z-Ala-X-Arg-pNA have been comparatively analyzed. It is demonstrated that positively charged ions increased the Michaelis constant (Km) for cleavage of specific substrate GD4K-na, while the catalytic constant (k(cat)) remained practically unchanged. L-HEP demonstrated secondary specificity to the chromogenic substrate Z-Ala-Phe-Arg-pNA with k(cat)/Km 260 mM(-1) x sec(-1). Enzymatic activity of L-HEP was suppressed by inhibitors of trypsin-like and cysteine (E-64), but not metallo-, amino-, or chymotrypsin-like proteinases. L-HEP was active over a broad range of pH (6-9) with optimum activity at pH 7.5, and it demonstrated high stability to different denaturing agents.

  19. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Lee, Chun Kiat; Lee, Hong Kai; Chiu, Lily; Koay, Evelyn S C; Tang, Julian W

    2012-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Infection results in a dengue-like illness with fever, headache, malaise, and a maculopapular rash. Nearly all cases are mild and self-limiting but in 2007, a large outbreak of ZIKV was reported from the island of Yap (in Micronesia, northwest of Indonesia). Singapore is already endemic for dengue, and its impact on public health and economic burden is significant. Other dengue-like infections (e.g., Chikungunya virus) are present. Yet only 10% of reported dengue cases have laboratory confirmation. The identification and control of other dengue-like, mosquito-transmitted infections is thus important for the health of Singapore's population, as well as its economy. Given that ZIKV shares the same Aedes mosquito vector with both dengue and Chikungunya, it is possible that this virus is present in Singapore and causing some of the mild dengue-like illness. A specific and sensitive one-step, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with an internal control (IC) was designed and tested on 88 archived samples of dengue-negative, Chikungunya-negative sera from patients presenting to our hospital with a dengue-like illness, to determine the presence of ZIKV in Singapore. The assay was specific for detection of ZIKV and displayed a lower limit of detection (LoD) of 140 copies viral RNA/reaction when tested on synthetic RNA standards prepared using pooled negative patient plasma. Of the 88 samples tested, none were positive for ZIKV RNA, however, the vast majority of these were from patients admitted to hospital and further study may be warranted in community-based environments.

  20. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Rickettsial Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    agents in the blood stream the diseases are also difficult to diagnose by laboratory methods. For that reason we have developed real - time PCR assays to...detect rickettsial disease agents both at the genus and the species level. Real - time PCR assays were developed to identify: 1) pathogenic Rickettsia...calculate the sensitivity of the assays. These real - time PCR assays were found to be capable of detecting rickettsial disease agents quickly and with great sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Light chain replacement: a new model for antibody gene rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    A functional B cell antigen receptor is thought to regulate antibody gene rearrangement either by stopping further rearrangement (exclusion) or by promoting additional rearrangement (editing). We have developed a new model to study the regulation of antibody gene rearrangement. In this model, we used gene targeting to replace the J kappa region with a functional V kappa-J kappa light chain gene. Two different strains of mice were created; one, V kappa 4R, has a V kappa 4-J kappa 4 rearrangement followed by a downstream J kappa 5 segment, while the other, V kappa 8R, has a V kappa 8-J kappa 5 light chain. Here, we analyze the influence of these functional light chains on light chain rearrangement. We show that some V kappa 4R and V kappa 8R B cells only have the V kappa R light chain rearrangement, whereas others undergo additional rearrangements. Additional rearrangement can occur not only at the other kappa allele or isotype (lambda), but also at the targeted locus in both V kappa 4R and V kappa 8R. Rearrangement to the downstream J kappa 5 segment is observed in V kappa 4R, as is deletion of the targeted locus in both V kappa 4R and V kappa 8R. The V kappa R models illustrate that a productively rearranged light chain can either terminate further rearrangement or allow further rearrangement. We attribute the latter to editing of autoantibodies and to corrections of dysfunctional receptors. PMID:7629511

  2. Physicochemical consequences of amino acid variations that contribute to fibril formation by immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Raffen, R.; Dieckman, L. J.; Szpunar, M.; Wunschl, C.; Pokkuluri, P. R.; Dave, P.; Wilkins Stevens, P.; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M.; Stevens, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    The most common form of systemic amyloidosis originates from antibody light chains. The large number of amino acid variations that distinguish amyloidogenic from nonamyloidogenic light chain proteins has impeded our understanding of the structural basis of light-chain fibril formation. Moreover, even among the subset of human light chains that are amyloidogenic, many primary structure differences are found. We compared the thermodynamic stabilities of two recombinant kappa4 light-chain variable domains (V(L)s) derived from amyloidogenic light chains with a V(L) from a benign light chain. The amyloidogenic V(L)s were significantly less stable than the benign V(L). Furthermore, only the amyloidogenic V(L)s formed fibrils under native conditions in an in vitro fibril formation assay. We used site-directed mutagenesis to examine the consequences of individual amino acid substitutions found in the amyloidogenic V(L)s on stability and fibril formation capability. Both stabilizing and destabilizing mutations were found; however, only destabilizing mutations induced fibril formation in vitro. We found that fibril formation by the benign V(L) could be induced by low concentrations of a denaturant. This indicates that there are no structural or sequence-specific features of the benign V(L) that are incompatible with fibril formation, other than its greater stability. These studies demonstrate that the V(L) beta-domain structure is vulnerable to destabilizing mutations at a number of sites, including complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and that loss of variable domain stability is a major driving force in fibril formation. PMID:10091653

  3. Interaction of protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) with smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi

    2003-06-01

    The interaction of a protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) isolated from Basidiomycetes with smooth muscle myosin components was evaluated by limited digestion, urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis, affinity chromatography and overlay assay using a peptide array. PSK was bound to the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin, but not to the essential light chain. The binding to PSK was definitely observed for unphosphorylated RLC, compared to phosphorylated one. From the amino acid sequence of the RLC, 490 peptides were synthesized on a cellulose membrane. Overlay assays showed that the PSK-binding on the molecule of RLC were localized in the N- and C-terminal basic regions and these sites were conserved in RLC from the human smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells.

  4. Chronic myopathy due to immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Irini; Kwan, Justin Y.; Wang, Qian; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Tsokos, Maria; Arai, Andrew E.; Burch, Warner M.; Dispenzieri, Angela; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Gahl, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid myopathy associated with a plasma cell dyscrasia is a rare cause of muscle hypertrophy. It can be a challenging diagnosis, since pathological findings are often elusive. In addition, the mechanism by which immunoglobulin light-chain deposition stimulates muscle overgrowth remains poorly understood. We present a 53–year old female with a 10-year history of progressive generalized muscle overgrowth. Congo-red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed perivascular lambda light chain amyloid deposits, apparent only in a second muscle biopsy. The numbers of central nuclei and satellite cells were increased, suggesting enhanced muscle progenitor cell formation. Despite the chronicity of the light chain disease, the patient showed complete resolution of hematologic findings and significant improvement of her muscle symptoms following autologous bone marrow transplantation. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and therapy for this treatable cause of a chronic myopathy with muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23465863

  5. Detection of normal B-cell precursors that give rise to colonies producing both kappa and lambda light immunoglobulin chains.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, H; Paige, C J

    1987-01-01

    The pre-B-cell cloning assay is an in vitro differentiation system in which B-lymphocyte precursors expand and generate colonies containing immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Analysis of surface characteristics, growth requirements, and kinetics suggested that these cells represent early stages of the B-cell differentiation pathway. Here we describe a modification of the assay, which allowed us to determine the differentiative potential of these clonable pre-B cells. Using a nitrocellulose protein-transfer technique, we studied immunoglobulin light chain expression in colonies derived from fetal mouse liver B-cell precursors; in particular, we explored whether the B-cell precursors are already committed to the expression of a particular light chain gene at the initiation of culture. Our results show that fetal liver-derived B-cell progenitors generate colonies in vitro that secrete kappa and lambda light chains at a ratio similar to that found in colonies derived from adult splenic B cells. Further, we document the existence of colonies that are derived from single cells and that simultaneously secrete both types of light chains. This indicates that the progenitors of (kappa + lambda)-producing colonies are light chain-uncommitted at the initiation of culture. These cells are able to rearrange their light chain genes in vitro and differentiate along the B-cell pathway to form colonies secreting both kappa and lambda chains. PMID:3110779

  6. Kinesin light chains are essential for axonal transport in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gindhart, J G; Desai, C J; Beushausen, S; Zinn, K; Goldstein, L S

    1998-04-20

    Kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two 115-kD heavy chains and two 58-kD light chains. The microtubule motor activity of kinesin is performed by the heavy chains, but the functions of the light chains are poorly understood. Mutations were generated in the Drosophila gene Kinesin light chain (Klc), and the phenotypic consequences of loss of Klc function were analyzed at the behavioral and cellular levels. Loss of Klc function results in progressive lethargy, crawling defects, and paralysis followed by death at the end of the second larval instar. Klc mutant axons contain large aggregates of membranous organelles in segmental nerve axons. These aggregates, or organelle jams (Hurd, D.D., and W.M. Saxton. 1996. Genetics. 144: 1075-1085), contain synaptic vesicle precursors as well as organelles that may be transported by kinesin, kinesin-like protein 68D, and cytoplasmic dynein, thus providing evidence that the loss of Klc function blocks multiple pathways of axonal transport. The similarity of the Klc and Khc (. Cell 64:1093-1102; Hurd, D.D., and W.M. Saxton. 1996. Genetics 144: 1075-1085) mutant phenotypes indicates that KLC is essential for kinesin function, perhaps by tethering KHC to intracellular cargos or by activating the kinesin motor.

  7. Coexistence of chronic neutrophilic leukemia with light chain myeloma.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, C; Undar, B; Akkoc, N; Onvural, B; Altungoz, O

    1994-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman who presented with weakness, night sweats, bone pain, easy bruising and weight loss was found to have ecchymoses and hepatosplenomegaly. Blood counts showed persistent neutrophilia of mature cell type with Döhle bodies and toxic granulation. Coexistence of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and multiple myeloma of kappa light chain type was documented by bone marrow examination and immunofixation.

  8. Effect of specimen type on free immunoglobulin light chains analysis on the Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Louis S; Steussy, Bryan; Morris, Cory S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of free immunoglobulin light chains is typically performed on serum; however, the use of alternative specimen types has potential benefits. Using the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay on a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 c502 analyzer, we compared three specimen types (serum, EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma separator gel-plasma) on 100 patients. Using Deming regression and eliminating outliers (limiting data to light chain concentrations below 400 mg/L), the three specimen types showed comparable results for kappa light chain concentration, lambda light chain concentration, and kappa/lambda ratio with slopes close to 1.0 and y-intercepts close to zero. EDTA-plasma showed slightly more positive bias relative to serum than lithium heparin. Analysis using EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma showed comparable linearity, precision, and temperature stability. A single sample showing hook effect (not in the comparison set) gave comparable results using either plasma specimen type. For the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay, both EDTA-plasma or lithium heparin-plasma can serve as acceptable substitutes for serum, at least for the Roche cobas 8000 analyzer.

  9. Surface-mediated light transmission in metal nanoparticle chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaijen, P. Jasper; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-05-01

    We study theoretically the efficiency of the transmission of optical signals through a linear chain consisting of identical and equidistantly spaced silver metal nanoparticles. Two situations are compared: the transmission efficiency through an isolated chain and through a chain in close proximity of a reflecting substrate. The Ohmic and radiative losses in each nanoparticle strongly affect the transmission efficiency of an isolated chain and suppress it to large extent. It is shown that the presence of a reflecting interface may enhance the guiding properties of the array. The reason for this is the energy exchange between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the array and the substrate. We focus on the dependence of the transmission efficiency on the frequency and polarization of the incoming light, as well as on the influence of the array-interface spacing. Sometimes the effect of these parameters turns out to be counterintuitive, reflecting a complicated interplay of several transmission channels.

  10. Evaluation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in isolated pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, D.B.; Soeling, H.D.; Williams, J.A. Universitaet Goettingen )

    1988-01-01

    The role of contractile proteins in secretory granule exocytosis was evaluated by determining whether myosin light chain phosphorylation was altered during stimulation of secretion in mouse pancreatic acini. Acinar myosin was purified by extraction into isosmotic sucrose solution containing 40 mM pyrophosphate followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sepharose 4B-CL chromatography. Myosin was eluted as a single peak of K{sup +}-EDTA ATPase activity and was purified over 2,000-fold to a final ATPase specific activity of 0.96 {mu}mol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mg protein {sup {minus}1}. Three major myosin subunits of apparent M{sub r} of 200,000, 20,000, and 17,000 were present in the purified myosin preparation. A fourth protein of M{sub r} 21,000 was also present. Purification of myosin from {sup 32}P-labeled acini revealed that M{sub r} 200,000, 21,000, and 20,000 proteins to be heavily labeled. The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on myosin phosphorylation was studied after isolation of myosin from {sup 32}P-labeled acinar lysates by immunoprecipitation. Treatment of acini for 1-10 min with a concentration of CCK-8 that gives a maximal secretory response caused a 25-40% increase in light chain labeling. Treatment with a supramaximal CCK-8 concentration produced a 50-80% increase in light chain labeling. Phosphorylation of myosin heavy chain was not significantly affected by secretagogue treatment. These results indicate that stimulation of pancreatic acinar secretion is accompanied by an increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  11. Yeast clathrin has a distinctive light chain that is important for cell growth

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The structure and physiologic role of clathrin light chain has been explored by purification of the protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, molecular cloning of the gene, and disruption of the chromosomal locus. The single light chain protein from yeast shares many physical properties with the mammalian light chains, in spite of considerable sequence divergence. Within the limited amino acid sequence identity between yeast and mammalian light chains (18% overall), three regions are notable. The carboxy termini of yeast light chain and mammalian light chain LCb are 39% homologous. Yeast light chain contains an amino- terminal region 45% homologous to a domain that is completely conserved among mammalian light chains. Lastly, a possible homolog of the tissue- specific insert of LCb is detected in the yeast gene. Disruption of the yeast gene (CLC1) leads to a slow-growth phenotype similar to that seen in strains that lack clathrin heavy chain. However, light chain gene deletion is not lethal to a strain that cannot sustain a heavy chain gene disruption. Light chain-deficient strains frequently give rise to variants that grow more rapidly but do not express an immunologically related light chain species. These properties suggest that clathrin light chain serves an important role in cell growth that can be compensated in light chain deficient cells. PMID:2211819

  12. Indolent systemic mastocytosis associated with light chain deposition disease

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Chang, Alice; Najafian, Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by infiltration of neoplastic mast cells in one or more organ systems. SM in association with plasma cell dyscrasia is very rare. We report a first case of indolent SM (ISM) associated with light chain deposition disease (LCDD) in a kidney biopsy from a 59-year-old female presenting with skin rash, elevated serum creatinine, hematuria and mild proteinuria. Subsequent workup demonstrated IgG kappa monoclonal protein in serum and urine. A bone marrow biopsy revealed neoplastic mast cells involving bone marrow without evidence of clonal myeloid or lymphoid proliferation. Kidney biopsy demonstrated modest mesangial expansion detected by light microscopy and unequivocal evidence of monoclonal kappa light chain deposition within glomerular capillaries, tubular basement membranes and vascular walls detected by immunofluorescence and/or electron microscopy, along with equivocal evidence of light chain cast nephropathy. Despite treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone, her renal function was progressively declined over the next 6 months. This case is a reminder that SM can coincide with LCDD, which requires clinical suspicion and multimodality workup on a kidney biopsy including immunofluorescence and electron microscopy to reach the correct diagnosis. PMID:26019820

  13. Tertiary structure of human {Lambda}6 light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Solomon, A.; Weiss, D. T.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center /Graduate School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic. Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup--lambda 6--has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. Notably, the variable region of lambda 6 proteins (V lambda 6) has distinctive primary structural features including the presence in the third framework region (FR3) of two additional amino acid residues that distinguish members of this subgroup from other types of light chains. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient (Wil) who had documented AL amyloidosis and another (Jto) with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits. The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 (not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised) extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region (CDR1). Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased protein

  14. Thermal Stability Threshold for Amyloid Formation in Light Chain Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Poshusta, Tanya L.; Katoh, Nagaaki; Gertz, Morie A.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a devastating disease characterized by amyloid deposits formed by immunoglobulin light chains. Current available treatments involve conventional chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. We have recently concluded a phase III trial comparing these two treatments. AL amyloidosis patients who achieve hematological complete response (CR) do not necessarily achieve organ response regardless of the treatment they received. In order to investigate the possible correlation between amyloid formation kinetics and organ response, we selected AL amyloidosis patients from the trial with kidney involvement and CR after treatment. Six patients were selected and their monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains were characterized. The proteins showed differences in their stability and their kinetics of amyloid formation. A correlation was detected at pH 7.4, showing that less stable proteins are more likely to form amyloid fibrils. AL-T03 is too unstable to form amyloid fibrils at pH 7.4. This protein was found in the only patient in the study that had organ response, suggesting that partially folded species are required for amyloid formation to occur in AL amyloidosis. PMID:24248061

  15. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Foster, Carmen M.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. These data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils. PMID:26393799

  16. Light chain (AL) amyloidosis: update on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the pathologic production of fibrillar proteins comprised of monoclonal light chains which deposit in tissues and cause organ dysfunction. The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. The goal of treatment is eradication of the monoclonal plasma cell population and suppression of the pathologic light chains which can result in organ improvement and extend patient survival. Standard treatment approaches include high dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) or oral melphalan with dexamethasone (MDex). The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib) alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. A risk adapted approach to SCT followed by novel agents as consolidation reduces treatment related mortality with promising outcomes. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting pathologic plasma cells and amyloid precursor proteins or fibrils are being developed. Referral of patients to specialized centers focusing on AL amyloidosis and conducting clinical trials is essential to improving patient outcomes. PMID:22100031

  17. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Foster, Carmen M.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2015-09-22

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. Ultimately, these data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.

  18. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    DOE PAGES

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; ...

    2015-09-22

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presencemore » of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. Ultimately, these data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.« less

  19. Biased immunoglobulin light chain gene usage in the shark1

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This study of a large family of kappa light (L) chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical immunoglobulin (Ig) gene content (two heavy chain classes, mu and omega, and four L chain isotopes, kappa, lambda, sigma, and sigma-2). The shark kappa clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over a ~500 bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ca. 39 kappa clusters are pre-rearranged in the germline (GL-joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, non-productive, and sterile transcripts of the kappa clusters compared to the other three L chain isotypes. Kappa cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and non-productive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant kappa clusters is non-random. Although both split and GL-joined kappa genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing. PMID:26342033

  20. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity.

  1. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-16

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis.

  2. [Light chain deposition disease as a cause of renal failure].

    PubMed

    Wohl, P; Chadimová, M; Englis, M; Táborský, P; Rossmann, P; Matl, I

    1998-11-30

    The objective of the paper is to draw attention to a rare cause of rapidly progressing renal failure which developed in the course of four months as a result of light chain deposition disease. The authors submit two case-histories of the disease assessed by renal biopsy after previous clinical and laboratory suspicion of monoclonal gammapathy. In one patient in the sternal punctate plasmacytoma was diagnosed and in the second case it was not possible to detect any type of monoclonal gammapathy or another possible cause of disease. Renal failure was in both cases irreversible and both patients were enlisted in regular haemodialyzation treatment.

  3. RNA metabolism in isolated nuclei: processing and transport of immunoglobulin light chain sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, C; Patterson, R J

    1981-01-01

    Transport of prelabeled RNA from isolated myeloma nuclei is studied using conditions that permit RNA synthesis. Cytosol and spermidine are not required to maintain nuclear stability and inhibited RNA release. Omission of ATP or GTP decreased release 25 to 40%. The stimulatory effect of ATP or GTP is not due to hydrolysis of the triphosphates by the nuclear envelope NTPase, since addition of quercetin (an inhibitor of this NTPase) has no effect on the quantity of RNA released. The size distribution and percentage of poly A-containing species released from nuclei incubated with or without ATP or the other rNTPs are identical. Hybridization analysis of nuclear RNA before the transport assay revealed mature and precursor k light chain mRNA sequences. Following the transport assay, a significant fraction of k mRNA precursors is chased into mature k mRNA which is found both in nuclear-retained and released RNA. PMID:6795596

  4. Serum free light chains, not urine specimens, should be used to evaluate response in light-chain multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Thomas; Corre, Jill; Caillon, Helene; Hulin, Cyrille; Perrot, Aurore; Caillot, Denis; Boyle, Eileen; Chretien, Marie-Lorraine; Fontan, Jean; Belhadj, Karim; Brechignac, Sabine; Decaux, Olivier; Voillat, Laurent; Rodon, Philippe; Fitoussi, Olivier; Araujo, Carla; Benboubker, Lotfi; Fontan, Charlotte; Tiab, Mourad; Godmer, Pascal; Luycx, Odile; Allangba, Olivier; Pignon, Jean-Michel; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Legros, Laurence; Stoppa, Anne Marie; Dib, Mamoun; Pegourie, Brigitte; Orsini-Piocelle, Frederique; Karlin, Lionel; Arnulf, Bertrand; Roussel, Murielle; Garderet, Laurent; Mohty, Mohamad; Meuleman, Nathalie; Doyen, Chantal; Lenain, Pascal; Macro, Margaret; Leleu, Xavier; Facon, Thierry; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for monitoring multiple myeloma (MM) patients expressing light chains only (light-chain MM [LCMM]) rely on measurements of monoclonal protein in urine. Alternatively, serum free light chain (sFLC) measurements have better sensitivity over urine methods, however, demonstration that improved sensitivity provides any clinical benefit is lacking. Here, we compared performance of serum and urine measurements in 113 (72κ, 41λ) newly diagnosed LCMM patients enrolled in the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) 2009 trial. All diagnostic samples (100%) had an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio, and involved (monoclonal) FLC (iFLC) expressed at levels deemed measurable for monitoring (≥100 mg/L). By contrast, only 64% patients had measurable levels of monoclonal protein (≥200 mg per 24 hours) in urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP). After 1 and 3 treatment cycles, iFLC remained elevated in 71% and 46% of patients, respectively, whereas UPEP reported a positive result in 37% and 18%; all of the patients with positive UPEP at cycle 3 also had elevated iFLC levels. Importantly, elevated iFLC or an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio after 3 treatment cycles associated with poorer progression-free survival (P = .006 and P < .0001, respectively), whereas positive UPEP or urine immunofixation electrophoresis (uIFE) did not. In addition, patients with an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio had poorer overall survival (P = .022). Finally, early normalization of κ:λ sFLC ratio but not negative uIFE predicted achieving negative minimal residual disease, as determined by flow cytometry, after consolidation therapy (100% positive predictive value). We conclude that improved sensitivity and prognostic value of serum over urine measurements provide a strong basis for recommending the former for monitoring LCMM patients. PMID:27729323

  5. Immunoglobulin light chain isotypes in the teleost Trematomus bernacchii.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Giacomelli, Stefano; De Santi, Concetta; Varriale, Sonia; Oreste, Umberto

    2008-06-01

    Three immunoglobulin light chain (IgL) isotypes TrbeL1, TrbeL2, and TrbeL3 were identified in the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii by immunoscreening a cDNA expression library, and using RT-PCR, and 5' RACE. One of them was distinguished in two subisotypes TrbeL1A and TrbeL1B. Real-time PCR experiments showed that the different isotypes were expressed in similar ratios in the various tissues analyzed. Interestingly, the expression level of TrbeL1A isotype was very high in all tissues. Molecular models of the CH1-CL domain pairings were built and minimized for the different isotypes. Several differences were identified in the superimposable structures mainly in the loops. In addition, the isotype-specific residues determined a different distribution of the charges on the external CL domain surface. Phylogenetic trees of 43 isotype representative sequences of CL domain from teleost species, built by different methods, indicated that all teleost light chain isotypes are distributed into three groups. Furthermore, the split of the group IgL1 into two subgroups, one of them carrying a micro-satellite DNA insertion, may have occurred in the Acanthopterygean ancestor.

  6. Regulatory myosin light-chain genes of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, C; Anderson, P

    1988-01-01

    We have cloned and analyzed the Caenorhabditis elegans regulatory myosin light-chain genes. C. elegans contains two such genes, which we have designated mlc-1 and mlc-2. The two genes are separated by 2.6 kilobases and are divergently transcribed. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of both mlc-1 and mlc-2. A single, conservative amino acid substitution distinguishes the sequences of the two proteins. The C. elegans proteins are strongly homologous to regulatory myosin light chains of Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrates and weakly homologous to a superfamily of eucaryotic calcium-binding proteins. Both mlc-1 and mlc-2 encode abundant mRNAs. We mapped the 5' termini of these transcripts by using primer extension sequencing of mRNA templates. mlc-1 mRNAs initiate within conserved hexanucleotides at two different positions, located at -28 and -38 relative to the start of translation. The 5' terminus of mlc-2 mRNA is not encoded in the 4.8-kilobase genomic region upstream of mlc-2. Rather, mlc-2 mRNA contains at its 5' end a short, untranslated leader sequence that is identical to the trans-spliced leader sequence of three C. elegans actin genes. Images PMID:3244358

  7. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Wall, Jonathan S; González Andrade, Martín; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Pérez Carreón, Julio I; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro

    2014-01-10

    It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V(L)) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V(L) protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  8. A highly sensitive immuno-polymerase chain reaction assay for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hai-Yuan; Wang, Yeau-Ching; Tang, Shiao-Shek; Liu, Hwan-Wun

    2004-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a sensitive method for detecting Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). We were able to detect BoNT/A in the femtogram (10(-15)g) range using an indirect immuno-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR) assay and an indirect sandwich immuno-PCR assay. For the indirect immuno-PCR assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates were coated with BoNT/A that was recognized by anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibody. For the indirect sandwich immuno-PCR assay, the monoclonal antibody was immobilized on ELISA plates for detecting BoNT/A that was recognized by its polyclonal antibodies. Reporter DNA was prepared by PCR amplification using biotinylated 5'-primers, and it was coupled with biotinylated antibodies through streptavidin. In order to increase sensitivity and reduce background noise, the amounts of reporter DNA (ranging from 50 fg to 50 ng) and streptavidin (ranging from 0.125 ng to 8 ng) were optimized. Using the optimized concentration of reporter DNA and streptavidin, both indirect and indirect sandwich immuno-PCR assays detected BoNT/A as low as 50 fg. These results are a 10(5)-fold improvement over conventional indirect ELISA and indirect sandwich ELISA methods. The assays we developed are currently the most sensitive methods for detecting BoNT/A.

  9. Detection of kappa and lambda light chain monoclonal proteins in human serum: automated immunoassay versus immunofixation electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jaskowski, Troy D; Litwin, Christine M; Hill, Harry R

    2006-02-01

    Recently, turbidimetric immunoassays for detecting and quantifying kappa and lambda free light chains (FLC) have become available and are promoted as being more sensitive than immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in detecting FLC monoclonal proteins. In this study, we assessed the ability of these turbidimetric assays to detect serum monoclonal proteins involving both free and heavy-chain-bound kappa and lambda light chains compared to standard immunofixation electrophoresis. Sera demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration (other than a definite M spike) by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), which may represent early monoclonal proteins, were also examined. When compared to IFE, percent agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for the kappa-FLC and lambda-FLC were 94.6, 72.9, and 99.5% and 98.5, 91.4, and 99.7%, respectively, in detecting monoclonal proteins involving free and heavy-chain-bound light chains. The majority of sera (73.7%) demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration on SPE demonstrated abnormal IFE patterns suggestive of multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, but gave normal kappa/lambda FLC ratios using the turbidimetric immunoassays. In conclusion, the kappa and lambda FLC assays are significantly less sensitive (72.9 to 91.4%) than IFE, but specific in detecting serum monoclonal proteins. Moreover, the kappa/lambda ratio has little value in routine screening since the majority of sera with abnormal IFE patterns had normal kappa/lambda FLC ratios.

  10. Serum-free light-chain analysis in diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the serum-free light-chain (S-FLC) assay has been a breakthrough in the diagnosis and management of plasma cell dyscrasias, particularly monoclonal light-chain diseases. The first method, proposed in 2001, quantifies serum-free light-chains using polyclonal antibodies. More recently, assays based on monoclonal antibodies have entered into clinical practice. S-FLC measurement plays a central role in the screening for multiple myeloma and related conditions, in association with electrophoretic techniques. Analysis of S-FLC is essential in assessing the risk of progression of precursor diseases to overt plasma cell dyscrasias. It is also useful for risk stratification in solitary plasmacytoma and AL amyloidosis. The S-FLC measurement is part of the new diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma, and provides a marker to follow changes in clonal substructure over time. Finally, the evaluation of S-FLC is fundamental for assessing the response to treatment in monoclonal light chain diseases.

  11. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by leukotoxin gene-specific hybridization and polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed Central

    Tønjum, T; Haas, R

    1993-01-01

    Eleven strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from cases of systemic infections, local abscesses, and periodontitis were identified by genetic assays using the leukotoxin gene as the target. We have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, based on the leukotoxin structural gene of this pathogen, which clearly identified all tested strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans and separated them from the closely related Haemophilus aphrophilus as well as other bacterial species. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization was performed with the cloned partial leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) as a probe, which again clearly distinguished A. actinomycetemcomitans from H. aphrophilus, parts of the normal oral flora, and species harboring RTX (repeats in toxin) family-related cytotoxins. The PCR fragment amplified from the leukotoxin structural gene gave results similar to those given by the cloned leukotoxin gene when used as a probe in hybridization experiments. The hybridization and PCR assays described here are fundamental improvements for the identification of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Images PMID:8349764

  12. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  13. Development and implementation of standardized respiratory chain spectrophotometric assays for clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Medja, F; Allouche, S; Frachon, P; Jardel, C; Malgat, M; Mousson de Camaret, B; Slama, A; Lunardi, J; Mazat, J P; Lombès, A

    2009-09-01

    Diversity of respiratory chain spectrophotometric assays may lead to difficult comparison of results between centers. The French network of mitochondrial diseases diagnostic centers undertook comparison of the results obtained with different protocols in the French diagnostic centers. The diversity of protocols was shown to have striking consequences, which prompted the network to undertake standardization and optimization of the protocols with respect to clinical diagnosis, i.e. high velocity while maintaining linear kinetics relative to time and enzyme concentration. Assays were set up on animal tissues and verified on control human muscle and fibroblasts. Influence of homogenization buffer and narrow range of optimal concentration of phosphate, substrate and tissue were shown. Experimental data and proposed protocols have been posted on a free access website. Their subsequent use in several diagnostic centers has improved consistency for all assays.

  14. Acanthamoeba can be differentiated by the polymerase chain reaction and simple plating assays.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Jarroll, E L; Paget, T A

    2001-09-01

    Acanthamoeba are opportunistic pathogens with invasive and noninvasive species. For clinical purposes it is important to differentiate potentially pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. For the rapid and sensitive identification of Acanthamoeba at the genus level, we used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method which detected as few as five cells. Further, we tested nine isolates of Acanthamoeba for their ability to produce cytopathic effects (CPE) on corneal epithelial cells. On the basis of the results, Acanthamoeba were divided into pathogenic or nonpathogenic groups. However, because CPE assays are not available to every diagnostic laboratory, we developed a simple plating assay based on osmotolerance which correlated well with the CPE assays. Pathogenic Acanthamoeba showed growth on higher osmolarity (agar plates containing one molar mannitol), while growth of nonpathogens was inhibited on these plates. In conclusion, we have developed methods for the rapid identification and differentiation of Acanthamoeba.

  15. Sequence and structure of VH domain from naturally occurring camel heavy chain immunoglobulins lacking light chains.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, S; Atarhouch, T; Saldanha, J; Barbosa, J A; Hamers, R

    1994-09-01

    We cloned 17 different PCR fragments encoding VH genes of camel (Camelus dromedarius). These clones were derived from the camel heavy chain immunoglobulins lacking the light chain counterpart of normal immunoglobulins. Insight into the camel VH sequences and structure may help the development of single domain antibodies. The most remarkable difference in the camel VH, consistent with the absence of the VL interaction, is the substitution of the conserved Leu45 by an Arg or Cys. Another noteworthy substitution is the Leu11 to Ser. This amino acid normally interacts with the CH1 domain, a domain missing in the camel heavy chain immunoglobulins. The nature of these substitutions agrees with the increased solubility behavior of an isolated camel VH domain. The VH domains of the camels are also characterized by a long CDR3, possibly compensating for the absence of the VL contacts with the antigen. The CDR3 lacks the salt bridge between Arg94 and Asp101. However, the frequent occurrence of additional Cys residues in both the CDR1 and CDR3 might lead to the formation of a second internal disulfide bridge, thereby stabilizing the CDR structure as in the DAW antibody. Within CDRs of the camel VH domains we observe a broad size distribution and a different amino acid pattern compared with the mouse or human VH. Therefore the camel hypervariable regions might adopt structures which differ substantially from the known canonical structures, thereby increasing the repertoire of the camel antigen binding sites within a VH.

  16. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pozo-Yauner, Luis del; Wall, Jonathan S.; González Andrade, Martín; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L.; Pérez Carreón, Julio I.; and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand of 6aJL2 protein. •Mutations destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner. •Destabilizing mutations accelerated the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time. •The effect on the kinetic of fibril elongation by seeding was of different nature. •The N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. -- Abstract: It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V{sub L} protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  17. Verification of serum reference intervals for free light chains in a local South African population.

    PubMed

    Zemlin, Annalise E; Rensburg, Megan A; Ipp, Hayley; Germishuys, Jurie J; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2013-11-01

    Monoclonal serum free light chain measurements are used to follow up and manage patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and abnormal serum free light chain ratios are associated with risk of progression in certain diseases. We aimed to validate the reference intervals in our population. Reference intervals for κ and λ free light chains were established on 120 healthy adults. Creatinine levels were measured to exclude renal dysfunction and serum protein electrophoresis was performed. All creatinine values were within normal limits. After exclusion of subjects with abnormal serum protein electrophoreses, 113 subjects were available for analysis. The 95% reference interval was 6.3-20.6 mg/L for κ free light chains, 8.7-25.9 mg/L for λ free light chains and 0.46-1.23 for free light chain ratio. Most of the values fell within the manufacturer's recommended limits and therefore could be used for our population.

  18. Clinical validation of 3 commercial real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from upper respiratory tract specimens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Deqa H; AlHetheel, AbdulKarim F; Mohamud, Hanat S; Aldosari, Kamel; Alzamil, Fahad A; Somily, Ali M

    2017-04-01

    Since discovery of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel betacoronavirus first isolated and characterized in 2012, MERS-CoV real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays represent one of the most rapidly expanding commercial tests. However, in the absence of extensive evaluations of these assays on positive clinical material of different sources, evaluating their diagnostic effectiveness remains challenging. We describe the diagnostic performance evaluation of 3 common commercial MERS-CoV rRT-PCR assays on a large panel (n = 234) of upper respiratory tract specimens collected during an outbreak episode in Saudi Arabia. Assays were compared to the RealStar® MERS-CoV RT-PCR (Alton Diagnostics, Hamburg, Germany) assay as the gold standard. Results showed i) the TIB MolBiol® LightMix UpE and Orf1a assays (TIB MolBiol, Berlin, Germany) to be the most sensitive, followed by ii) the Anyplex™ Seegene MERS-CoV assay (Seegene, Seoul, Korea), and finally iii) the PrimerDesign™ Genesig® HCoV_2012 assay (PrimerDesign, England, United Kingdom). We also evaluate a modified protocol for the PrimerDesign™ Genesig® HCoV_2012 assay.

  19. Characterization of the native and denatured herceptin by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and quartz crystal microbalance using a high-affinity single chain fragment variable recombinant antibody.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yuqin; Mernaugh, Ray; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2012-10-02

    Herceptin/Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1κ light chain antibody used to treat some forms of breast cancer. A phage-displayed recombinant antibody library was used to obtain a single chain fragment variable (scFv, designated 2B4) to a linear synthetic peptide representing Herceptin's heavy chain CDR3. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and piezoimmunosensor/quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assays were used to characterize 2B4-binding activity to both native and heat denatured Herceptin. The 2B4 scFv specifically bound to heat denatured Herceptin in a concentration dependent manner over a wide (35-220.5 nM) dynamic range. Herceptin denatures and forms significant amounts of aggregates when heated. UV-vis characterization confirms that Herceptin forms aggregates as the temperature used to heat Herceptin increases. QCM affinity assay shows that binding stoichiometry between 2B4 scFv and Herceptin follows a 1:2 relationship proving that 2B4 scFv binds strongly to the dimers of heat denatured Herceptin aggregates and exhibits an affinity constant of 7.17 × 10(13) M(-2). The 2B4-based QCM assay was more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA. Combining QCM with ELISA can be used to more fully characterize nonspecific binding events in assays. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of these results and the advantages of the use of QCM to characterize human therapeutic antibodies in samples are also discussed.

  20. ELISA assays and alcohol: increasing carbon chain length can interfere with detection of cytokines.

    PubMed

    von Maltzan, Kristine; Pruett, Stephen B

    2011-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are frequently used in studies on cytokine production in response to treatment of cell cultures or laboratory animals. When an ELISA assay is performed on cell culture supernatants, samples often contain the treatment agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if some of the agents evaluated might inhibit cytokine detection by interfering with the ELISA, leaving the question of whether cytokine production was inhibited unanswered. Mouse and human cytokine ELISA kits from BD Biosciences were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cytokine proteins were subjected to one to five carbon alcohols at 86.8mM (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol). After treating cell cultures with alcohols of different carbon chain lengths, we found that some of the alcohols interfered with measurement of some cytokines by ELISA, thus making their effects on cytokine production by cells in culture unclear. Increasing carbon chain length of straight chain alcohols positively correlated with their ability to inhibit detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), but not with the detection of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8, (IL-8), and interleukin 12 (IL-12). To avoid misinterpretation of treatment effects, ELISA assays should be tested with the reference protein and the treatment agent first, before testing biological samples. These results along with other recent results we obtained using circular dichroism indicate that alcohols with two or more carbons can directly alter protein conformation enough to disrupt binding in an ELISA (shown in the present study) or to inhibit ligand-induced conformational changes (results not shown). Such direct effects have not been given enough consideration as a mechanism of ethanol action in the immune system.

  1. Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus-1 keratitis using Giemsa stain, immunofluorescence assay, and polymerase chain reaction assay on corneal scrapings

    PubMed Central

    Farhatullah, S; Kaza, S; Athmanathan, S; Garg, P; Reddy, S B; Sharma, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate three tests used routinely for the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. Methods: Corneal scrapings from 28 patients with clinically typical dendritic corneal ulcer suggestive of HSV keratitis, and 30 patients with clinically non-viral corneal ulcers, were tested by (i) Giemsa stain for multinucleated giant cells, (ii) immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for HSV-1 antigen, and (iii) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV-1 DNA, by investigators masked to clinical diagnosis. The control subjects were also investigated by smears and cultures for bacteria, fungus, and Acanthamoeba. Results: The specificity and positive predictive values of all three tests for the diagnosis of HSV keratitis were between 95–100%. The sensitivity of IFA and PCR was 78.6% and 81.2%, respectively, and the difference was not significant; however, their sensitivity and negative predictive value were significantly higher than Giemsa stain. Conclusions: While a combination of IFA and PCR constitute the choice of tests in clinically suspected cases of HSV keratitis, multinucleated giant cells in Giemsa stain can pre-empt testing by IFA and PCR in otherwise atypical cases of HSV keratitis. PMID:14693792

  2. Mutations in Myosin Light Chain Kinase Cause Familial Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Guo, Dong-chuan; Cao, Jiumei; Gong, Limin; Kamm, Kristine E.; Regalado, Ellen; Li, Li; Shete, Sanjay; He, Wei-Qi; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Offermanns, Stephan; Gilchrist, Dawna; Elefteriades, John; Stull, James T.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoforms of α-actin and β-myosin heavy chain, two major components of the SMC contractile unit, cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (FTAAD). To investigate whether mutations in the kinase that controls SMC contractile function (myosin light chain kinase [MYLK]) cause FTAAD, we sequenced MYLK by using DNA from 193 affected probands from unrelated FTAAD families. One nonsense and four missense variants were identified in MYLK and were not present in matched controls. Two variants, p.R1480X (c.4438C>T) and p.S1759P (c.5275T>C), segregated with aortic dissections in two families with a maximum LOD score of 2.1, providing evidence of linkage of these rare variants to the disease (p = 0.0009). Both families demonstrated a similar phenotype characterized by presentation with an acute aortic dissection with little to no enlargement of the aorta. The p.R1480X mutation leads to a truncated protein lacking the kinase and calmodulin binding domains, and p.S1759P alters amino acids in the α-helix of the calmodulin binding sequence, which disrupts kinase binding to calmodulin and reduces kinase activity in vitro. Furthermore, mice with SMC-specific knockdown of Mylk demonstrate altered gene expression and pathology consistent with medial degeneration of the aorta. Thus, genetic and functional studies support the conclusion that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYLK are associated with aortic dissections. PMID:21055718

  3. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA by a combined reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Young, K K; Resnick, R M; Myers, T W

    1993-01-01

    Amplification of RNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is normally a two-step process requiring separate enzymes and buffer conditions. We describe a combined reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA amplification in which a single enzyme and buffer condition are used. In this assay, both the RT and PCR steps are carried out with the thermoactive DNA polymerase of Thermus thermophilus. A transcription vector containing HCV sequences has also been constructed to generate quantifiable HCV RNA templates that can be used to optimize reaction conditions and to assess the efficiency of amplification. Amplification from < or = 100 copies of RNA was detected reproducibly by gel electrophoresis. The assay sensitivity was increased to 10 RNA copies by hybridization to a probe. The patterns of viremia in three individuals infected with HCV were examined by amplification of HCV RNA from plasma samples collected serially over a period of 1 year. These results were correlated with the times of seroconversion and the onset of rise in levels of alanine aminotransferase in serum. In all three subjects, HCV RNA was detected prior to seroconversion and the initial rise in levels of alanine aminotransferase in serum. Upon seroconversion, HCV RNA fell to a level below the detection limit of the assay. This pattern of transient viremia appears to be characteristic of acute, resolving HCV infections. The combined RT-PCR assay is a sensitive method which circumvents the problems associated with PCR amplification of RNA. Using this assay, we demonstrated that three donors infected by the same index case all have similar patterns of viremia. Images PMID:8385151

  4. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting Highlands J virus.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, C A; Guibeau, A; McGuire, D; Takeda, T; Mather, T N

    2001-01-01

    Highlands J (HJ) virus is an arbovirus frequently recovered at high rates in mosquitoes collected in the eastern United States. HJ virus is primarily a veterinary pathogen causing disease in domestic birds including turkeys, chickens, and partridges. It has an enzootic cycle similar to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus and is often used as an indicator species in EEE surveillance programs. Current immunologic techniques to identify HJ virus are often inefficient and can involve cross-reactivity of antibodies. Therefore, we developed a molecular-based assay by a reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Primers were constructed from conserved sequences of the E1 coding region from 19 strains of HJ virus. PCR amplifications from serial dilutions of HJ virus-infected Vero cell culture supernatants indicated that this assay could detect viral RNA at concentrations of 10 plaque-forming units per reaction. Extracted RNAs from western equine encephalitis, EEE, LaCrosse, and Jamestown Canyon viruses were not detected with this assay. RNA extracted directly from the brain tissue of a dead house sparrow and from a pool of Culiseta mosquitoes yielded a PCR product of the expected size. The RT-PCR technique developed was both sensitive and specific for detecting HJ virus from infected cell culture supernatants, bird brain tissues, and mosquitoes. This new assay will permit rapid and accurate diagnosis of HJ virus, both enhancing surveillance activities for EEE transmission risk and monitoring infections in domestic poultry and wild birds.

  5. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Vogelbein, W K; Rhodes, M W; Reece, K S

    2008-12-01

    Wild striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay are experiencing a high prevalence of mycobacteriosis, which produces granulomatous lesions of the skin and visceral organs. Culture-based studies have indicated that the newly described species Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates from diseased fish. The classical fish pathogen M. marinum is also found, albeit at much lower frequencies. Both M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are extremely slow-growing on standard selective media, and up to 12 months may be required for isolation and characterization. Epidemiological studies of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay would therefore benefit from rapid molecular assays with which to detect these species in fish. In this paper, we describe the development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays capable of detecting M. shottsii, M. pseudoshottsii, and, in most instances, coinfections thereof in striped bass tissues. In addition, PCR-RFLP assays were designed to detect M. marinum and other as-yet-undescribed Mycobacterium spp. present in Chesapeake Bay striped bass. Comparison of these molecular assays with culture-based techniques using splenic tissue from wild striped bass yielded generally concordant results and demonstrated the applicability of these techniques to the study of wild fish.

  6. [Non-amyloidotic glomerular disease caused by light-chain deposits: a case report].

    PubMed

    Cantillo, Jorge de Jesús; López, Rocío del Pilar; Andrade, Rafael Enrique

    2009-12-01

    The nephropathy of monoclonal gammopathies is principally caused by light chain deposits of fragmented immunoglobins. Paraprotein-related renal diseases are associated with such deposits of intact (heavy chain) or fragmentary (light chain) immunoglobins. A condition of pathological light chain deposits is rare and characterized by deposits of fragments of monoclonal immunoglobulins in many organs. Renal deposits occur primarily in glomeruli and tubular basement membranes. This disease is frequently associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. The majority of cases are caused by deposits of kappa light chains. Whereas this disease is most frequently associated with hematologic malignancies, occasionally a case occurs without detectable hematological pathologies; these cases are called idiopathic or primary. They usually manifest themselves as severe renal insufficiencies with nephrotic-range proteinuria. No treatment regime has been clearly established and the prognosis is poor. Herein, the clinical and histological characteristics are described regarding the first case in Colombia of light chain deposit disease without symptoms of malignancy.

  7. Purification, Characterization, and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xia; Chen, Heng-Li; Maleki, Soheila J; Cao, Min-Jie; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-07-15

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in shrimp. In this study, MLC with a molecular mass of 18 kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the purified MLC is a glycoprotein with 4.3% carbohydrate, highly stable to heat, acid-alkali, and digestion, and weakly retains IgE-binding activity when its secondary structure was altered. Serological assays suggested that conformational epitopes predominate over linear epitopes in the purified MLC. Two isoforms of the MLC gene (MLC1 and MLC2) were cloned, and the purified MLC was identified as MLC1. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of the MLCs indicated that MLC1 has four conformational epitopes and three linear epitopes, whereas MLC2 had a major conformational epitope and three linear epitopes. These results are significant for understanding hypersensitization of humans to crayfish.

  8. Lambda Immunoglobulin Light Chain Restricted B Cells in the Ascitic Fluid in Association with Terminal Ileal Florid Follicular Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Barina; Xie, Wei; Szigeti, Reka

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing reactive changes from neoplastic processes during lymphoid tissue evaluation is oftentimes difficult. Ancillary studies, such as flow cytometry, may aid the diagnosis by demonstrating monotypic or polytypic light chain expression on the B cells. The detection of immunoglobulin light chain restricted B cell population is considered a surrogate marker of clonality, which can be confirmed by molecular assays. In general, the presence of a monotypic B cell population in the ascitic fluid is considered lymphomatous involvement rather than a reactive condition. We describe a young, previously healthy male patient who developed ascites with a lambda light chain restricted B cell population. Further investigation revealed florid follicular hyperplasia, histologically mimicking diffuse large B cell lymphoma, in the terminal ileum. Follicular hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract with lambda light chain restricted B cells has been recently described in the pediatric population. Importantly, our case demonstrates that such entity can occur in older age groups. This recognition could prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment in similar cases.

  9. Immunoglobulin K light chain deficiency: A rare, but probably underestimated, humoral immune defect.

    PubMed

    Sala, Pierguido; Colatutto, Antonio; Fabbro, Dora; Mariuzzi, Laura; Marzinotto, Stefania; Toffoletto, Barbara; Perosa, Anna R; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Human immunoglobulin molecules are generated by a pair of identical heavy chains, which identify the immunoglobulin class, and a pair of identical light chains, Kappa or Lambda alternatively, which characterize the immunoglobulin type. In normal conditions, Kappa light chains represent approximately 2/3 of the light chains of total immunoglobulins, both circulating and lymphocyte surface bound. Very few cases of immunoglobulin Kappa or Lambda light chain defects have been reported. Furthermore, the genetic basis of this defect has been extensively explored only in a single case. We report a case of a patient suffering of serious recurrent bacterial infections, which was caused by a very rare form of immunoglobulin disorder, consisting of a pure defect of Kappa light chain. We evaluated major serum immunoglobulin concentrations, as well as total and free Kappa and Lambda light chain concentrations. Lymphocyte phenotyping was also performed and finally we tested the Kappa chain VJ rearrangement as well as the constant Kappa region sequence. Studies performed on VJ rearrangement showed a polyclonal genetic arrangement, whereas the gene sequencing for the constant region of Kappa chain showed a homozygous T to G substitution at the position 1288 (rs200765148). This mutation causes a substitution from Cys to Gly in the protein sequence and, therefore, determines the abnormal folding of the constant region of Kappa chain. We suggest that this defect could lead to an effective reduction of the variability of total antibody repertoire and a consequent defect of an apparently normal immunoglobulin response to common antigens.

  10. A microtiter plate assay for factor XIII A-chain-fibrin interactions.

    PubMed

    Achyuthan, K E; Santiago, M A; Greenberg, C S

    1994-05-15

    Factor XIII A-chain-fibrin interactions regulate factor XIIIa formation and fibrin cross-linking. A microtiter plate assay was developed for studying these interactions. Microtiter plate wells were coated with fibrinogen and converted to fibrin by thrombin. After blocking the wells with bovine serum albumin, factor XIII A-chain was added and binding was monitored by incubating first with anti-factor XIII followed by anti-rabbit IgG-alkaline phosphatase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate was quantitated by the absorbance at 405 nm. BInding was specific, sensitive, rapid, saturable, and reversible, requiring only nanograms of either factor XIII or fibrin. Binding was time- and concentration-dependent and independent of divalent cations. The bound material was identified as factor XIII A-chain by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Factor XIII binding was inhibited > 75% by 250 mM sodium chloride or 250 nM anti-factor XIII IgG. The method was also suitable for demonstrating binding using 0.8% plasma or with r-factor XIII expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli. This method is suitable for identifying the binding sites that are important for plasma factor XIII activation and factor XIIIa activity.

  11. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  12. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  13. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  14. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  15. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of pseudorabies virus in clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Lester J.; de Arce, Heidy Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Aujeszky’s disease, also known as pseudorabies causes severe economic losses in swine industry and affects the pig husbandry all over the world. The conventional diagnostic procedure is time-consuming and false-negative results may occur in submissions from latently infected animals. The development, optimization and evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay are presented for the diagnosis of pseudorabies infection. This assay was based on the amplification of a highly conserved viral gD gene fragment. PCR products of the expected size were obtained from PRV strains. Non-specific reactions were not observed when a related herpesvirus, other porcine DNA genome viruses and uninfected cells were used to assess PCR. The analytical sensitivity of the test was estimated to be 1.34 TCID50/ 50 uL. The analysis of tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected animals proved the potential usefulness of the method for a rapid disease diagnosis from field cases. A rapid, sensitive and specific PCR-based diagnostic assay to detect pseudorabies virus in clinical samples is provided. PMID:24031383

  16. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of pseudorabies virus in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lester J; de Arce, Heidy Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Aujeszky's disease, also known as pseudorabies causes severe economic losses in swine industry and affects the pig husbandry all over the world. The conventional diagnostic procedure is time-consuming and false-negative results may occur in submissions from latently infected animals. The development, optimization and evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay are presented for the diagnosis of pseudorabies infection. This assay was based on the amplification of a highly conserved viral gD gene fragment. PCR products of the expected size were obtained from PRV strains. Non-specific reactions were not observed when a related herpesvirus, other porcine DNA genome viruses and uninfected cells were used to assess PCR. The analytical sensitivity of the test was estimated to be 1.34 TCID50/ 50 uL. The analysis of tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected animals proved the potential usefulness of the method for a rapid disease diagnosis from field cases. A rapid, sensitive and specific PCR-based diagnostic assay to detect pseudorabies virus in clinical samples is provided.

  17. Abnormal heavy/light chain ratio after treatment is associated with shorter survival in patients with IgA myeloma.

    PubMed

    Suehara, Yasuhito; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Kota; Fujisawa, Manabu; Narita, Kentaro; Usui, Yoshiaki; Takeuchi, Masami; Endean, Kelly; Matsue, Kosei

    2017-02-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy/light chain (HLC) assays enable the separate quantification of the different light chain types of each Ig class. We retrospectively analyzed the correlation of heavy/light chain ratio (HLCR) with clinical status and its impact on outcome in 120 patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Abnormal HLCR was seen more frequently in patients with poorer myeloma response, and it appeared to be more sensitive for detecting clonality in IgA myeloma compared to IgG myeloma after treatment. Among the 85 patients who achieved ≥VGPR, the patients remained HLCR abnormal were showed significantly shorter overall survival (OS) compared to those achieving a normal HLCR (not reached vs 55.5 months, P = 0.032). This correlation was seen in IgA myeloma patients (not reached vs 30.1 months, P = 0.014), but not in IgG myeloma patients when patients were analyzed separately. Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors that may affect survival identified abnormal HLCR at the best response as the only independent risk factor (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 - 15.26; P = 0.012) for shorter OS in this subset of patients. This study highlighted the HLC assay as a prognostic predictor in patients with IgA myeloma.

  18. Assessment of Intrathecal Free Light Chain Synthesis: Comparison of Different Quantitative Methods with the Detection of Oligoclonal Free Light Chains by Isoelectric Focusing and Affinity-Mediated Immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Kušnierová, Pavlína; Švagera, Zdeněk; Všianský, František; Byrtusová, Monika; Hradílek, Pavel; Kurková, Barbora; Zapletalová, Olga; Bartoš, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to compare various methods for free light chain (fLC) quantitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum and to determine whether quantitative CSF measurements could reliably predict intrathecal fLC synthesis. In addition, we wished to determine the relationship between free kappa and free lambda light chain concentrations in CSF and serum in various disease groups. Methods We analysed 166 paired CSF and serum samples by at least one of the following methods: turbidimetry (Freelite™, SPAPLUS), nephelometry (N Latex FLC™, BN ProSpec), and two different (commercially available and in-house developed) sandwich ELISAs. The results were compared with oligoclonal fLC detected by affinity-mediated immunoblotting after isoelectric focusing. Results Although the correlations between quantitative methods were good, both proportional and systematic differences were discerned. However, no major differences were observed in the prediction of positive oligoclonal fLC test. Surprisingly, CSF free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were lower than those in serum in about 75% of samples with negative oligoclonal fLC test. In about a half of patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, profoundly increased free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were found in the CSF. Conclusions Our results show that using appropriate method-specific cut-offs, different methods of CSF fLC quantitation can be used for the prediction of intrathecal fLC synthesis. The reason for unexpectedly low free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios in normal CSFs remains to be elucidated. Whereas CSF free kappa light chain concentration is increased in most patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, CSF free lambda light chain values show large interindividual variability in these patients and should be investigated further for possible immunopathological and prognostic significance. PMID:27846293

  19. Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of malaria in patients from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Swan, Heather; Sloan, Lynne; Muyombwe, Anthony; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Krudsood, Srivicha; Leowattana, Wattana; Wilairatana, Polrat; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Rosenblatt, Jon

    2005-11-01

    We compared the diagnosis of malaria in 297 patients from Thailand by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using the LightCycler with conventional microscopy using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. The PCR assay can be completed in one hour and has the potential to detect and identify four species of Plasmodium in a single reaction by use of melting temperature curve analysis (however, we did not detect Plasmodium ovale in this study). Blood was collected, stored, and transported on IsoCode STIX, which provide a stable matrix for the archiving and rapid simple extraction of DNA. A genus-specific primer set corresponding to the 18S ribosomal RNA was used to amplify the target sequence. Fluorescence resonance energy technology hybridization probes were designed for P. falciparum over a region containing basepair mismatches, which allowed differentiation of the other Plasmodium species. The PCR results correlated with the microscopic results in 282 (95%) of 297 patient specimens. Most of these were single-species infections caused by P. vivax (150) and P. falciparum (120), along with 5 P. malariae, 2 mixed infections (P. falciparum and P. vivax), and 5 negative specimens. No negative microscopy specimens were positive by PCR (100% specificity for detection of any Plasmodium). The 15 discrepant results could not be resolved, but given the subjective nature of microscopy and the analytical objectivity of the PCR, the PCR results may be correct. The ability of the PCR method to detect mixed infections or to detect P. ovale could not be determined in this study. Within the limitations of initial equipment costs, this real-time PCR assay is a rapid, accurate, and efficient method for the specific diagnosis of malaria. It may have application in clinical laboratories, as well as in epidemiologic studies and antimalarial efficacy trials.

  20. Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; Haley, Kathleen; James, Judith A

    2016-05-27

    Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145μg/mL kappa, 2.82μg/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Yaxian; Bai, Liyun; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Chunfang; Ma, An; Yu, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.

  2. A hereditary immunoglobulin A abnormality: absence of light-heavy—chain assembly

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Chaya; Amir, Jacob; Vries, Andre De

    1971-01-01

    A new immunoglobulin A abnormality, absence of assembly of α-chain and light-chain, was found in an adult female suffering from recurrent upper respiratory infection and tonsillitis since childhood, but otherwise healthy. The IgA abnormality was manifest in her serum by the presence of free α-chains, in her saliva by the presence of α-chains bound to secretory piece, and in her urine by the presence of free α-chains and free light-chains. The serum IgG and IgM were found to be complete, containing both heavy-chains and light-chains. Evidence for this immunoglobulin A abnormality was also found in the proposita's mother and elder son, demonstrating it to be a hereditary disorder. Studies performed with patient's tonsillar cells in short-term culture, using amino acids-14C, revealed synthesis and secretion of both free α-chains and free light-chains, in addition to synthesis and secretion of normally assembled IgG and IgM. Images PMID:5129320

  3. Optical Nanofluidic Piston: Assay for Dynamic Force-Compression of Single Confined Polymer Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, Ahmed; Zimny, Philip; Macos, Patrick; Massarelli, Geremia; Tétreault-La Roche, David; Reisner, Walter

    2014-03-01

    While single-molecule approaches now have a long-history in polymer physics, past methodology has a key limitation : it is not currently possible to apply well-defined forces to a precise number of chains in a well-defined volume. To this end,we have developed a nanofluidic assay for the study of DNA compression in vitro, the optical nanofluidic piston. The optical nanofluidic piston is a nanofluidic analog of a macroscopic piston-cylinder apparatus based on a nanosphere (``the piston'') optically trapped inside a 200-400nm nanochannel with embedded barrier (the ``cylinder''). The nanofluidic piston enables quantification of force required to compress single or multiple chains within a defined volume. We present combined fluorescence and force-measurements for the compression of T4 DNA under a variety of compression rates. Surprisingly, we find that compression occurs on a force-scale roughly 100x higher than that predicted by equilibrium theories, suggesting that the DNA is present in highly entangled states during the compression. Moreover, we observe that compression at high rates induces a ``shock-wave'' of high-polymer concentration near the bead, suggesting that our setup can quantitatively access novel non-equilibrium polymer phenomena.

  4. Mutagenicity Assessment of Organophosphates using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In this study we have evaluated the mutagenicity of organophosphate pesticides acephate, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. Materials and Methods: Second instar larvae were treated with LC20 of each pesticide for 24 h and mutations induced in the sequence of mitochondrial COII gene (690bp) were studied from restriction patterns generated with AluI, PacI, and PsiI restriction endonucleases. Results: Variations in the number and size of digested fragments were recorded from treated individuals compared with controls showing that the restriction enzymes created a cut at different locations. In addition, sequences of COII gene from control and treated individuals were also used to confirm the RFLP patterns. From the sequence alignment data, it was found that mutations caused the destruction and generation of restriction sites in the gene sequence of treated individuals. Conclusion: This study indicates that all the three pesticides had potential to induce mutations in the normal sequence of COII gene and also advocates the use of PCR-RFLP assay as an efficient, rapid, and sensitive technique to detect mutagenicity of pesticides. PMID:24403735

  5. Investigation of polymerase chain reaction assays to improve detection of bacterial involvement in bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Colin J; Blackburn, Paul; Elliott, Mark; Patterson, Tony I A P; Ellison, Sean; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Ball, Hywel J

    2014-09-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes severe economic losses to the cattle farming industry worldwide. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the BRD complex are Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Trueperella pyogenes. The postmortem detection of these organisms in pneumonic lung tissue is generally conducted using standard culture-based techniques where the presence of therapeutic antibiotics in the tissue can inhibit bacterial isolation. In the current study, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to assess the prevalence of these 5 organisms in grossly pneumonic lung samples from 150 animals submitted for postmortem examination, and the results were compared with those obtained using culture techniques. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected in 51 cases (34%) by PCR and in 33 cases (22%) by culture, H. somni was detected in 35 cases (23.3%) by PCR and in 6 cases (4%) by culture, Myc. bovis was detected in 53 cases (35.3%) by PCR and in 29 cases (19.3%) by culture, P. multocida was detected in 50 cases (33.3%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, and T. pyogenes was detected in 42 cases (28%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, with all differences being statistically significant. The PCR assays indicated positive results for 111 cases (74%) whereas 82 cases (54.6%) were culture positive. The PCR assays have demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of all 5 organisms in cases of pneumonia in cattle in Northern Ireland than was detected by current standard procedures.

  6. Human myeloma light chains with increased molecular weight: high frequency among lambda chains.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, J P; Pillot, J; Liacopoulos, P

    1983-04-01

    The discovery of a human myeloma protein comprising a kappa L-chain with an increased mol. wt of 30,000) (Bouvet et. al., 1980) prompted investigations on the incidence of such heavier L-chains among other human myeloma proteins. In 105 samples examined, 34 were found to have L-chains heavier than normal (23,000-24,000), ranging from 25,000 up to 31,000, and five of lighter mol. wt (21,000-22,000). These mol. wt abnormalities were detected by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE) after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. The mol. wt of three of the heavier kappa or lambda chains was also estimated by filtration through a Sephadex G100 column and by sedimentation equilibrium. All three methods indicated a mol. wt increase of about 15-25% as compared with the usual mol. wt. The distribution of the high mol. wt chains among all L-chains examined was found to be 11 out of 62 kappa chains (17.7%) and 23 out of 43 lambda chains (53%) (P less than 0.001). A preferential association of such L-chains with H-chains producing multiple bands in SDS-PAGE (P less than 0.01) and an association between multiple L-chain and multiple H-chain band (P less than 0.05) were also observed. In contrast, no abnormal L-chain was found in immunoglobulins from normal subjects. Spontaneous degradation of the normal H-chains sometimes yielded fragments of 30,000 mol. wt. These fragments were easily distinguishable from abnormal L-chains. The nature of extra mol. wt in heavy L-chains was investigated for the presence of carbohydrate moiety. Four large and three normal size L-chains were examined for amino-sugar and sialic acid content. A small amount (one residue per molecule) of amino-sugar was detected only in two normal and two heavy L-chains, whereas sialic acid was only found in the heaviest (27,000-30,000) L-chains (Lh) and in small percentage (one or two residues per molecule). Total sugar estimation in one Lh chain indicated a proportion not exceeding

  7. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Further, the AUC values in patients with active RA were 0.871 for free κ light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high serum levels of free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction assay targeting cytochrome b gene for the detection of dog meat adulteration in meatball formulation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Hashim, Uda; Hanapi, Ummi Kalthum

    2014-08-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the assessment of dog meat adulteration in meatballs was developed. The assay selectively amplified a 100-bp region of canine mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from pure, raw, processed and mixed backgrounds. The specificity of the assay was tested against 11 animals and 3 plants species, commonly available for meatball formulation. The stability of the assay was proven under extensively autoclaving conditions that breakdown target DNA. A blind test from ready to eat chicken and beef meatballs showed that the assay can repeatedly detect 0.2% canine meat tissues under complex matrices using 0.04 ng of dog DNA extracted from differentially treated meatballs. The simplicity, stability and sensitivity of the assay suggested that it could be used in halal food industry for the authentication of canine derivatives in processed foods.

  9. Biased Immunoglobulin Light Chain Gene Usage in the Shark.

    PubMed

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-10-15

    This study of a large family of κ L chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical Ig gene content (two H chain isotypes, μ and ω, and four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2). The shark κ clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over an ~500-bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ~39 κ clusters are prerearranged in the germline (germline joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, nonproductive, and sterile transcripts of the κ clusters compared with the other three L chain isotypes. κ cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and nonproductive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant κ clusters is nonrandom. Although both split and germline-joined κ genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing.

  10. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of immunoglobulins. XII. Intact light chain and heavy chain isotype-restricted Vk-associated epitopes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M; Hardie, D; Lowe, J; Ling, N R; De Lange, G; Jefferis, R

    1985-06-01

    Immunization with intact IgG has allowed the isolation of four hybridomas producing antibodies recognizing epitopes expressed within subpopulations of human kappa light chains unrelated to known polymorphisms (Km) and previously defined V-region subgroups. The V-region-associated epitopes recognized are conformation-dependent, being expressed on intact light chain but not on isolated VK or CK fragments. The frequency of expression within paraprotein panels of different heavy chain isotypes varied between individual antibodies. An epitope recognized by B2A6, expressed by greater than 85% IgGK paraproteins, was not represented in 16 IgM paraproteins tested, suggesting that association of VK with mu chains does not result in display of the epitope recognized, or alternatively, that selective association between VK and CH gene products occurs. These data contrast with the reactivity of other McAb for CK epitopes which were reactive with isolated CK fragments, and for all kappa-bearing paraproteins, regardless of heavy chain isotypes.

  11. Myosin subunit interactions. Properties of the 19,000-dalton light chain-deficient myosin.

    PubMed

    Pastra-Landis, S C; Lowey, S

    1986-11-05

    The 19,000-dalton light chain (LC2) can be completely and reversibly removed from chicken pectoralis myosin in 1 mM EDTA and 5 mM ATP using immunoaffinity chromatography at 37 degrees C. Earlier methods have led to only partial removal of LC2 or have caused limited degradation of the heavy chain. Electron microscopy of LC2-deficient myosin showed it to have a marked tendency to aggregate into oligomers through the "neck" region of the myosin head. Myosin reverted to the monomeric form when it was reconstituted with light chains. LC2-deficient myosin retained full K+ (EDTA) or Ca2+-ATPase activity, and the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase was similar to that of the native molecule. Alkali light chain exchange at 37 degrees C, which has been demonstrated in subfragment 1 prepared with chymotrypsin, does not occur with intact myosin molecules or with papain subfragment 1, both of which contain LC2. However, a temperature-dependent exchange of alkali light chains was observed in myosin lacking LC2. The interaction of the alkali light chain with the heavy chain thus appears to be influenced by the presence of LC2, which may have an important stabilizing effect on the myosin molecule.

  12. Characteristics of light chains of Chara myosin revealed by immunological investigation

    PubMed Central

    KAKEI, Toshihito; SUMIYOSHI, Hiroki; HIGASHI-FUJIME, Sugie

    2012-01-01

    Chara myosin is plant myosin responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and moves actin filaments at 60 µm/s, which is the fastest of all myosins examined. The neck of the myosin molecule has usually mechanical and regulatory roles. The neck of Chara myosin is supposed to bind six light chains, but, at present, we have no knowledge about them. We found Ca++-calmodulin activated Chara myosin motility and its actin-activated ATPase, and actually bound with the Chara myosin heavy chain, indicating calmodulin might be one of candidates for Chara myosin light chains. Antibody against essential light chain from Physarum myosin, and antibodies against Chara calmodulin and chicken myosin light chain from lens membranes reacted with 20 kDa and 18 kDa polypeptides of Chara myosin preparation, respectively. Correspondingly, column purified Chara myosin had light chains of 20 kDa, and 18 kDa with the molar ratio of 0.7 and 2.5 to the heavy chain, respectively. PMID:22687741

  13. Age- and Activity-Related Differences in the Abundance of Myosin Essential and Regulatory Light Chains in Human Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cobley, James N.; Ab. Malik, Zulezwan; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Edwards, Ben J.; Burniston, Jatin G.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for phenotyping skeletal muscle (e.g., immunohistochemistry) are labor-intensive and ill-suited to multixplex analysis, i.e., assays must be performed in a series. Addressing these concerns represents a largely unmet research need but more comprehensive parallel analysis of myofibrillar proteins could advance knowledge regarding age- and activity-dependent changes in human muscle. We report a label-free, semi-automated and time efficient LC-MS proteomic workflow for phenotyping the myofibrillar proteome. Application of this workflow in old and young as well as trained and untrained human skeletal muscle yielded several novel observations that were subsequently verified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). We report novel data demonstrating that human ageing is associated with lesser myosin light chain 1 content and greater myosin light chain 3 content, consistent with an age-related reduction in type II muscle fibers. We also disambiguate conflicting data regarding myosin regulatory light chain, revealing that age-related changes in this protein more closely reflect physical activity status than ageing per se. This finding reinforces the need to control for physical activity levels when investigating the natural process of ageing. Taken together, our data confirm and extend knowledge regarding age- and activity-related phenotypes. In addition, the MRM transitions described here provide a methodological platform that can be fine-tuned to suite multiple research needs and thus advance myofibrillar phenotyping. PMID:28248225

  14. IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY REVISITED, WITH EMPHASIS ON REACTIVE FOLLICULAR HYPERPLASIA VS. FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Lawrence M.; Loera, Sofia; Bacchi, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of monotypic light chains is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma, yet is often difficult to reliably perform on formalin-fixed paraffin sections. We have evaluated a new set of monoclonal antibodies to kappa and lambda light chain that are reactive in paraffin sections. In reactive lymphoid tissues, polytypic staining was noted in greater than 95% of cases, with strong staining of plasma cells, moderate staining of the follicular dendritic cell network, and weak staining of mantle zone cells. Strong staining for the appropriate light chain was seen in each of 7 cases of multiple myeloma. In a series of 58 cases of B-cell lymphoma, correlation between the results of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry was obtained in 36 cases (62%), including 32 cases (21 kappa and 11 lambda) in which a single light chain was expressed. Monotypic staining also seen in 6 additional cases (10%) in which the flow cytometry had been negative. Thirty of 46 cases (65%) of follicular lymphoma showed monotypic light chain expression, in contrast to 64 of 67 cases (95%) of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, which showed polytypic light chain expression. These antibodies may provide an effective adjunct to the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in routine diagnostic work. PMID:20042853

  15. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay differentiates between Bolbphorus damnificus and Bolbophorus type II sp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate between Bolbophorus damnificus and Bolbophorus type II species cercariae. Both trematode species are prevalent throughout the commercial catfish industry,.as both infect the ram’s horn snail, Plano...

  16. A bio-inspired sensor coupled with a bio-bar code and hybridization chain reaction for Hg(2+) assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huifeng; Zhu, Xi; Ye, Hongzhi; Yu, Lishuang; Chen, Guonan; Chi, Yuwu; Liu, Xianxiang

    2015-10-18

    In this article, a bio-inspired DNA sensor is developed, which is coupled with a bio-bar code and hybridization chain reaction. This bio-inspired sensor has a high sensitivity toward Hg(2+), and has been used to assay Hg(2+) in the extraction of Bauhinia championi with good satisfaction.

  17. Nano-magnetic primer based electrochemiluminescence-polymerase chain reaction (NMPE-PCR) assay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

    2012-01-15

    Here we have developed a novel nano-magnetic primer based electrochemiluminescence-polymerase chain reaction (NMPE-PCR) strategy for detection of genome. The key idea of this method is integrating the two in situ processes: PCR on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic beads based ECL readout platform, to avoid some laborious manual operations and achieve rapid yet sensitive detection. At first, the approach employs a pair of functional primers for amplification: one is tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR) labeled primer; the other one is nano-magnetic primer which is prepared by attaching the primer to the surfaces of MNPs. With the presence of DNA analyte and PCR mixture, the TBR labeled products are directly loaded and enriched on the surface of MNPs during PCR cycling. Then the MNPs-TBR complexes can be analyzed by a magnetic ECL platform without any post-modification or post-incubation. Finally, we used Listeria monocytogenes as the target to examine these desirable properties of this assay, reaching a detection limit of 500 fg/μL for genome in 1 h. The proposed study has provided the evidence as a proof-of-concept, thus having potential for development of automatic mode for detection of specific gene.

  18. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese with the magnetic immuno-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Fluit, A C; Torensma, R; Visser, M J; Aarsman, C J; Poppelier, M J; Keller, B H; Klapwijk, P; Verhoef, J

    1993-05-01

    A new detection system, the magnetic immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (MIPA) has been developed to detect Listeria monocytogenes in food. This method separates Listeria cells from PCR-inhibitory factors present in enrichment broths containing food samples by using magnetic beads coated with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The separated bacteria were lysed, and the supernatant containing the bacterial DNA was subjected to the PCR. Detection of L. monocytogenes in three naturally contaminated cheese samples with two different MAbs and PCR primers specific for the gene encoding the delayed-hypersensitivity factor showed that with MAb 55 all three samples were positive whereas with MAb A two samples were positive. A further improvement of the method was obtained by using a PCR step based on the listeriolysin O gene. A MIPA employing MAb 55 and the listeriolysin O gene primer set detected L. monocytogenes after 24 h of culture in Listeria Enrichment Broth samples from Port Salut artificially contaminated with 40 CFU/25 g. We could detect 1 CFU of L. monocytogenes per g of cheese after a second enrichment for 24 h in Fraser broth. The analysis time including both enrichments is approximately 55 h.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction–based assays for the diagnosis of human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed. PMID:25082566

  20. "Light-cone" dynamics after quantum quenches in spin chains.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Lars; Essler, Fabian H L; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2014-10-31

    Signal propagation in the nonequilibrium evolution after quantum quenches has recently attracted much experimental and theoretical interest. A key question arising in this context is what principles, and which of the properties of the quench, determine the characteristic propagation velocity. Here we investigate such issues for a class of quench protocols in one of the central paradigms of interacting many-particle quantum systems, the spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ chain. We consider quenches from a variety of initial thermal density matrices to the same final Hamiltonian using matrix product state methods. The spreading velocities are observed to vary substantially with the initial density matrix. However, we achieve a striking data collapse when the spreading velocity is considered to be a function of the excess energy. Using the fact that the XXZ chain is integrable, we present an explanation of the observed velocities in terms of "excitations" in an appropriately defined generalized Gibbs ensemble.

  1. Plasmonic graded-chains as deep-subwavelength light concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves-López, Natalia; Pastawski, Horacio M.; Bustos-Marún, Raúl A.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied the plasmonic properties of aperiodic arrays of identical nanoparticles (NPs) formed by two opposite and equal graded-chains (a chain where interactions change gradually). We found that these arrays concentrate the external electromagnetic fields even in the long wavelength limit. The phenomenon was understood by identifying the system with an effective cavity where plasmonics excitations are trapped between effective band edges, resulting from the change of passband with the NP's position. Dependence of excitation concentration on several system parameters was also assessed. This includes different gradings as well as NP couplings, damping, and resonant frequencies. In the spirit of the scaling laws in condensed matter physics, we developed a theory that allows us to rationalize all these system parameters into universal curves. The theory is quite general and can also be used in many other situations (different arrays for example). Additionally, we also provided an analytical solution, in the tight-binding limit, for the plasmonic response of homogeneous linear chains of NPs illuminated by a plane wave. Our results can find applications in sensing, near field imaging, plasmon-enhanced photodetectors, as well as to increase solar cell efficiency.

  2. Plasmonic graded-chains as deep-subwavelength light concentrators.

    PubMed

    Esteves-López, Natalia; Pastawski, Horacio M; Bustos-Marún, Raúl A

    2015-04-01

    We have studied the plasmonic properties of aperiodic arrays of identical nanoparticles (NPs) formed by two opposite and equal graded-chains (a chain where interactions change gradually). We found that these arrays concentrate the external electromagnetic fields even in the long wavelength limit. The phenomenon was understood by identifying the system with an effective cavity where plasmonics excitations are trapped between effective band edges, resulting from the change of passband with the NP's position. Dependence of excitation concentration on several system parameters was also assessed. This includes different gradings as well as NP couplings, damping, and resonant frequencies. In the spirit of the scaling laws in condensed matter physics, we developed a theory that allows us to rationalize all these system parameters into universal curves. The theory is quite general and can also be used in many other situations (different arrays for example). Additionally, we also provided an analytical solution, in the tight-binding limit, for the plasmonic response of homogeneous linear chains of NPs illuminated by a plane wave. Our results can find applications in sensing, near field imaging, plasmon-enhanced photodetectors, as well as to increase solar cell efficiency.

  3. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  4. Demonstration of structural polymorphism among MB3 light chains by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, N; Kasahara, M; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Hawkin, S; Takenouchi, T; Wakisaka, A; Kikuchi, Y; Aizawa, M

    1985-01-01

    The heavy and light chain subunits of MB3 molecules were isolated from KT2 (DKT2, DR4, MB3 homozygous), ER (Dw4, DR4, MB3 homozygous), JMe (Dw5, DR5, MB3 homozygous), EBV-Sh (DSh, DRw6.2, MB3 homozygous), and EBV-Ky (DKy, DRw9, MB3 homozygous) cells and were compared with one another by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The MB3 light chains from KT2, ER, and EBV-Ky cells were clearly different in terms of their isoelectric points, whereas those from ER, JMe, and EBV-Sh cells were indistinguishable. No differences in charge or m.w. were noted for the MB3 heavy chains from the five cell lines. Thus, three out of the five MB3-positive, D/DR-disparate cell lines were found to express structurally distinct MB3 molecules, demonstrating that MB3 is a public serologic specificity shared by at least three structurally distinct MB (human I-A-like) molecules. Because the DR light chain subunits isolated from EBV-Wa, KT2, ER, JMe, EBV-Sh, and EBV-Ky cells differed from one another in their isoelectric points, the DR light chains were apparently more polymorphic than the MB3 light chains.

  5. The interdomain disulfide bond of a homogeneous rabbit pneumococcal antibody light chain.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, A D; Margolies, M N; Haber, E

    1975-11-01

    Rabbit light chain 3315, prepared from a homogeneous antipneumococcal antibody, was subjected to hydrolysis by pepsin without prior reduction and alkylation of the intrachain disulfide bonds. Gel filtration of the hydrolysate on Sephadex G-10, G-15, and G-25 and ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex yielded several disulfide bridge peptides. These were fully reduced and alkulated and sequenced by Edman degradation. The peptides were located in the light chain sequence determined in independent studies from our laboratory. The half-cystine residues in this KB rabbit chain are located at positions 23, 80, 88, 134, 171, 194, and 214. The extra disulfide bridge extends between residues 80 and 171, thus joining the variable and constant domains. This is consistent with x-ray diffraction crystallographic studies showing that the corresponding residues in human light chains are separated by a distance compatible with disulfide bond formation.

  6. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  7. The long myosin light chain kinase is differentially phosphorylated during interphase and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Dulyaninova, Natalya G; Bresnick, Anne R

    2004-10-01

    We have shown previously that the activity of the long myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is cell cycle regulated with a decrease in specific activity during mitosis that can be restored following treatment with alkaline phosphatase. To better understand the role and significance of phosphorylation in regulating MLCK function during mitosis, we examined the phosphorylation state of in vivo derived MLCK. Phosphoamino acid analysis and phosphopeptide mapping demonstrate that the long MLCK is differentially phosphorylated on serine residues during interphase and mitosis with the majority of the phosphorylation sites located within the N-terminal IgG domain. Biochemical assays show that Aurora B binds and phosphorylates the IgG domain of the long MLCK. In addition, phosphopeptide maps of the endogenous full-length MLCK from mitotic cells and in vitro phosphorylated IgG domain demonstrate that Aurora B phosphorylates the same sites as those observed in vivo. Altogether, these studies suggest that the long MLCK may be a cellular target for Aurora B during mitosis.

  8. Latex immunoagglutination assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus utilizing forward light scattering in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.

  9. Expression and Functional Properties of an Anti-Triazophos High-Affinity Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody with Specific Lambda Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Liang, Xiao; Xiang, Dandan; Guo, Yirong; Liu, Yihua; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos is a widely used organophosphorous insecticide that has potentially adverse effects to organisms. In the present study, a high-affinity single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody with specific lambda light chain was developed for residue monitoring. First, the specific variable regions were correctly amplified from a hybridoma cell line 8C10 that secreted monoclonal antibody (mAb) against triazophos. The regions were then assembled as scFv via splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the recombinant anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain HB2151 in soluble form, purified through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and verified via Western blot and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses. Afterward, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established based on the purified anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 antibody. The assay exhibited properties similar to those based on the parent mAb, with a high sensitivity (IC50 of 1.73 ng/mL) to triazophos and no cross reaction for other organophosphorus pesticides; it was reliable in detecting triazophos residues in spiked water samples. Moreover, kinetic measurement using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor indicated that the purified scFv-8C10 antibody had a high affinity of 1.8 × 10−10 M and exhibited good binding stability. Results indicated that the recombinant high-affinity scFv-8C10 antibody was an effective detection material that would be promising for monitoring triazophos residues in environment samples. PMID:27338340

  10. BiP and immunoglobulin light chain cooperate to control the folding of heavy chain and ensure the fidelity of immunoglobulin assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Brewer, J W; Hellman, R; Hendershot, L M

    1999-07-01

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule is composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains (H2L2). Transport of this heteromeric complex is dependent on the correct assembly of the component parts, which is controlled, in part, by the association of incompletely assembled Ig heavy chains with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, BiP. Although other heavy chain-constant domains interact transiently with BiP, in the absence of light chain synthesis, BiP binds stably to the first constant domain (CH1) of the heavy chain, causing it to be retained in the ER. Using a simplified two-domain Ig heavy chain (VH-CH1), we have determined why BiP remains bound to free heavy chains and how light chains facilitate their transport. We found that in the absence of light chain expression, the CH1 domain neither folds nor forms its intradomain disulfide bond and therefore remains a substrate for BiP. In vivo, light chains are required to facilitate both the folding of the CH1 domain and the release of BiP. In contrast, the addition of ATP to isolated BiP-heavy chain complexes in vitro causes the release of BiP and allows the CH1 domain to fold in the absence of light chains. Therefore, light chains are not intrinsically essential for CH1 domain folding, but play a critical role in removing BiP from the CH1 domain, thereby allowing it to fold and Ig assembly to proceed. These data suggest that the assembly of multimeric protein complexes in the ER is not strictly dependent on the proper folding of individual subunits; rather, assembly can drive the complete folding of protein subunits.

  11. Differential recruitment efficacy of patient-derived amyloidogenic and myeloma light chain proteins by synthetic fibrils—A metric for predicting amyloid propensity

    PubMed Central

    Wooliver, Craig; Heidel, R. Eric; Adams, Sarah; Dunlap, John; Lands, Ronald H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Monoclonal free light chain (LC) proteins are present in the circulation of patients with immunoproliferative disorders such as light chain (AL) amyloidosis and multiple myeloma (MM). Light chain-associated amyloid is a complex pathology composed of proteinaceous fibrils and extracellular matrix proteins found in all patients with AL and in ~10–30% of patients who presented with MM. Amyloid deposits systemically in multiple organs and tissues leading to dysfunction and ultimately death. The overall survival of patients with amyloidosis is worse than for those with early stage MM. Methods and findings We have developed a sensitive binding assay quantifying the recruitment of full length, patient-derived LC proteins by synthetic amyloid fibrils, as a method for studying their amyloidogenic potential. In a survey of eight urinary LC, both AL and MM-associated proteins were recruited by synthetic amyloid fibrils; however, AL-associated LC bound significantly more efficiently (p < 0.05) than did MM LCs. The LC proteins used in this study were isolated from urine and presumed to represent a surrogate of serum free light chains. Conclusion The binding of LC to synthetic fibrils in this assay accurately differentiated LC with amyloidogenic propensity from MM LC that were not associated with clinical amyloid disease. Notably, the LC from a MM patient who subsequently developed amyloid behaved as an AL-associated protein in the assay, indicating the possibility for identifying MM patients at risk for developing amyloidosis based on the light chain recruitment efficacy. With this information, at risk patients can be monitored more closely for the development of amyloidosis, allowing timely administration of novel, amyloid-directed immunotherapies—this approach may improve the prognosis for these patients. PMID:28350808

  12. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the beta light chain of clathrin from rat liver coated vesicles.

    PubMed

    Loeb, J E; Cantournet, B; Vartanian, J P; Goris, J; Merlevede, W

    1989-06-01

    The phosphorylation in vitro, on serine residues by endogenous casein kinase 2, of the clathrin beta light chain (33 kDa) of rat liver coated vesicles requires the presence of poly(L-lysine) which acts through binding to the beta light chain. The phosphorylation of other proteins is also increased in the presence of poly(L-lysine) and casein kinase 2. In contrast, the phosphorylation of the upper band of the 50-kDa protein doublet from rat liver coated vesicles is inhibited. Rat liver coated vesicles display a protein phosphatase activity which preferentially dephosphorylates clathrin beta light chain. This activity is different from the protein phosphatase which dephosphorylates the 50-kDa protein. This enzyme seems to be unrelated to the ATP/Mg-dependent protein phosphatase, or the polycation-stimulated protein phosphatases, which dephosphorylate the 50-kDa protein and beta light chain very efficiently, but with a different specificity. After dissociation of coated vesicles the beta-light-chain phosphatase activity is recovered in the membrane fraction. This phosphatase activity is inhibited by 50 microM orthovanadate and 5 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate but not by 10 mM EDTA.

  13. Minimum requirements for inhibition of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase by synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J T; Floyd, D M; Lee, V G; Little, D K; Moreland, S

    1989-01-01

    Although the amino acid residues that are important for peptide substrates of myosin light-chain kinase have been reported, those that are important for peptide inhibitors of this enzyme have not previously been investigated. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence Lys11-Lys12-Arg13-Ala-Ala-Arg16-Ala-Thr-Ser19 -Asn-Val21-Phe22-Ala of the chicken gizzard myosin light chain were tested as inhibitors of pig carotid-artery myosin light-chain kinase. The basic amino acid residues of the known myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Thr-Ser-NH2 (IC50 = 14 microM) [Pearson, Misconi & Kemp (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 25-27] were shown to be the important residues that contribute to inhibitor potency, as evidence by the finding that the hexapeptide Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-NH2 had an IC50 value of 22 microM. This indicates that binding of the phosphorylatable serine residue to myosin light-chain kinase, which is of obvious importance for a substrate, does not enhance the potency of an inhibitor. With the aim of preparing more potent inhibitors, peptides Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-Xaa-NH2 were prepared with a variety of amino acids substituted for the phosphorylatable serine residue. None of these peptides was a more potent inhibitor than the serine peptide. PMID:2920029

  14. Rapid and inexpensive species differentiation using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction high-resolution melt assay.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M; Perez, Anjelica C U; Sweetin, Katherine C

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for developing real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melt (HRM) assays to identify multiple species present in a mixture simultaneously using LCGreen Plus and melt temperatures. Highly specific PCR primers are designed to yield amplicons with different melt temperatures for simple routine species identification compared with differentiating melt curve kinetics traces or difference plots. This method is robust and automatable, and it leads to savings in time and reagent costs, is easily modified to probe any species of interest, eliminates the need for post-PCR gel or capillary electrophoresis in routine assays, and requires no expensive dye-labeled primers.

  15. Low-Power Light Guiding and Localization in Optoplasmonic Chains Obtained by Directed Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2016-01-01

    Optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and, at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth. PMID:26931149

  16. Low-power light guiding and localization in optoplasmonic chains obtained by directed self-assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; ...

    2016-03-02

    Here, optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and,more » at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth.« less

  17. Low-power light guiding and localization in optoplasmonic chains obtained by directed self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Bjorn M.

    2016-03-02

    Here, optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and, at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth.

  18. Differential Light Chain Assembly Influences Outer Arm Dynein Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    DiBella, Linda M.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Sakato, Miho; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Witman, George B.; King, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Tctex1 and Tctex2 were originally described as potential distorters/sterility factors in the non-Mendelian transmission of t-haplotypes in mice. These proteins have since been identified as subunits of cytoplasmic and/or axonemal dyneins. Within the Chlamydomonas flagellum, Tctex1 is a subunit of inner arm I1. We have now identified a second Tctex1-related protein (here termed LC9) in Chlamydomonas. LC9 copurifies with outer arm dynein in sucrose density gradients and is missing only in those strains completely lacking this motor. Zero-length cross-linking of purified outer arm dynein indicates that LC9 interacts directly with both the IC1 and IC2 intermediate chains. Immunoblot analysis revealed that LC2, LC6, and LC9 are missing in an IC2 mutant strain (oda6-r88) that can assemble outer arms but exhibits significantly reduced flagellar beat frequency. This defect is unlikely to be due to lack of LC6, because an LC6 null mutant (oda13) exhibits only a minor swimming abnormality. Using an LC2 null mutant (oda12-1), we find that although some outer arm dynein components assemble in the absence of LC2, they are nonfunctional. In contrast, dyneins from oda6-r88, which also lack LC2, retain some activity. Furthermore, we observed a synthetic assembly defect in an oda6-r88 oda12-1 double mutant. These data suggest that LC2, LC6, and LC9 have different roles in outer arm assembly and are required for wild-type motor function in the Chlamydomonas flagellum. PMID:16195342

  19. K-252a, a novel microbial product, inhibits smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, S.; Yamada, K.; Kase, H.; Nakamura, S.; Nonomura, Y.

    1988-05-05

    Effects of K-252a, purified from the culture broth of Nocardiopsis sp., on the activity of myosin (light chain kinase were investigated. 1) K-252a affected three characteristic properties of chicken gizzard myosin-B, natural actomyosin, to a similar degree: the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent activity of ATPase, superprecipitation, and the phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. 2) K-252a inhibited the activities of the purified myosin light chain kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent form of the enzyme which was constructed by cross-linking of myosin light chain kinase and calmodulin using glutaraldehyde. The degrees of inhibition by 3 x 10/sup -6/ M K-252a were 69 and 48% of the control activities with the purified enzyme and the cross-linked complex, respectively. Chlorpromazine (3 x 10/sup -4/ M), a calmodulin antagonist, inhibited the native enzyme, but not the cross-linked one. These results suggested that K-252a inhibited myosin light chain kinase by direct interaction with the enzyme, whereas chlorpromazine suppressed the enzyme activation by interacting with calmodulin. 3) The inhibition by K-252a of the cross-linked kinase was affected by the concentration of ATP, a phosphate donor. The concentration causing 50% inhibition was two orders magnitude lowere in the presence of 100 ..mu..M ATP than in the presence of 2 mM ATP. 4) Kinetic analyses using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP indicated that the inhibitory mode of K-252a was competitive with respect to ATP. These results suggest that K-252a interacts at the ATP-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase.

  20. Plasmonic nanoparticle chain in a light field: a resonant optical sail.

    PubMed

    Albaladejo, Silvia; Sáenz, Juan José; Marqués, Manuel I

    2011-11-09

    Optical trapping and driving of small objects has become a topic of increasing interest in multidisciplinary sciences. We propose to use a chain made of metallic nanoparticles as a resonant light sail, attached by one end point to a transparent object and propelling it by the use of electromagnetic radiation. Driving forces exerted on the chain are theoretically studied as a function of radiation's wavelength and chain's alignments with respect to the direction of radiation. Interestingly, there is a window in the frequency spectrum in which null-torque equilibrium configuration, with minimum geometric cross section, corresponds to a maximum in the driving force.

  1. Lambda light chain myeloma presenting as nodular hepatic lesion: a clinical rarity.

    PubMed

    Pal, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Bitoti; Chatterjee, Atri; Bhattacharya, Biswamit

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old lady presenting with pain in the right hypochondrium, jaundice, anorexia, and firm tender hepatomegaly with remarkably high serum alkaline phosphatase. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic solid space-occupying lesion in right lobe of liver which was cytologically diagnosed as hepatic plasmacytoma. Serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis, serum free light chain ratio, and bone marrow examination further confirmed the presence of lambda light chain multiple myeloma in the background. The patient achieved complete remission after four cycles of induction therapy with thalidomide and dexamethasone protocol and consolidated with further four cycles of the same regimen.

  2. Systemic lambda light-chain deposition presenting with predominant cardiac involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Garton, M. J.; Walton, S.; Ewen, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    An 82 year old woman with suspected Bence Jones myeloma developed intractable fluid retention presumed secondary to cardiac failure. In addition she experienced angina pectoris, and required permanent cardiac pacing for symptomatic sinus bradycardia. Postmortem studies revealed prominent myocardial and renal deposits of lambda light-chains which were Congo Red negative, and had a non-fibrillar ultrastructure. Non-amyloidotic light-chain deposition is uncommon, and a rare cause of cardiac disease. Previous work regarding possible pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical and laboratory features and treatment is reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8415352

  3. Evaluation of a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay STDFinder for the simultaneous detection of 7 sexually transmitted disease pathogens.

    PubMed

    Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Dhont, Nathalie; Verhelst, Rita; Crucitti, Tania; Reijans, Martin; Mulders, Brit; Simons, Guus; Temmerman, Marleen; Claeys, Geert; Padalko, Elizaveta

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), "STDFinder assay", a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the simultaneous detection of 7 clinically relevant pathogens of STDs, i.e., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). An internal amplification control was included in the mPCR reaction. The limits of detection for the STDFinder assay varied among the 7 target organisms from 1 to 20 copies per MLPA assay. There were no cross-reactions among any of the probes. Two hundred and forty-two vaginal swabs and an additional 80 specimens with known results for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, obtained from infertile women seen at an infertility research clinic at the Kigali Teaching Hospital in Rwanda, were tested by STDFinder assay and the results were confirmed by single real-time PCR using different species-specific targets. Compared to the reference standard, the STDFinder assay showed specificities and sensitivities of 100% and 100%, respectively, for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium; 90.2% and 100%, respectively, for Trichomonas vaginalis; and 96.1% and 100%, respectively, for HSV-2. No specimen was found to be positive for HSV-1 by either the STDFinder assay or the comparator method. Similarly, the sensitivity for Treponema pallidum could not be calculated due to the absence of any Treponema pallidum-positive samples. In conclusion, the STDFinder assays have comparable clinical sensitivity to the conventional mono and duplex real-time PCR assay and are suitable for the routine detection of a broad spectrum of these STDs at relatively low cost due to multiplexing.

  4. Characterization of vitellogenin gene expression in round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Lucas A; Alam, Farhana; Marentette, Julie R; Balshine, Sigal; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2010-12-01

    A growing concern over endocrine disruption in aquatic species has prompted the development of molecular assays to monitor environmental impacts. This study describes the development of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to characterize the expression of two vitellogenin (Vtg) genes in the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Fragments from the 18SrRNA (housekeeping gene), Vtg II, and Vtg III genes were cloned and sequenced. The qPCR assays were developed to detect hepatic Vtg expression in goby. The assays detected induction of both Vtg genes in nonreproductive males following a two-week laboratory exposure to 17β-estradiol (≥1 mg/kg i.p. injection). The assays were applied to goby from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario (Canada), including those from sites where feminization and intersex of goby has been documented. Both Vtg genes had significantly higher expression in females compared to males. Male reproductive goby adopt either parental or sneaker tactics; Vtg II expression was higher in sneaker than in parental males but parental and nonreproductive males did not differ from each other. The Vtg III expression was significantly higher in sneaker males followed by parental males and nonreproductive males, respectively. The Vtg II and III expression in nonreproductive males was elevated in the contaminated site with documented intersex. This assay provides an important tool for the use of an invasive species in monitoring endocrine disruption in the Great Lakes region.

  5. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of minute virus of mice and mouse parvovirus infections in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, K W; Chueh, L L; Wang, M H; Huang, Y T; Fang, B H; Chang, C Y; Fang, M C; Chou, J Y; Hsieh, S C; Wan, C H

    2013-04-01

    Mouse parvoviruses are among the most prevalent infectious pathogens in contemporary mouse colonies. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for mouse parvovirus infections, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the VP gene was developed. The assay detected minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse parvovirus (MPV) and a mouse housekeeping gene (α-actin) and was able to specifically detect MVM and MPV at levels as low as 50 copies. Co-infection with the two viruses with up to 200-fold differences in viral concentrations can easily be detected. The multiplex PCR assay developed here could be a useful tool for monitoring mouse health and the viral contamination of biological materials.

  6. Aggregation of Full-length Immunoglobulin Light Chains from Systemic Light Chain Amyloidosis (AL) Patients Is Remodeled by Epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Andrich, Kathrin; Hegenbart, Ute; Kimmich, Christoph; Kedia, Niraja; Bergen, H Robert; Schönland, Stefan; Wanker, Erich; Bieschke, Jan

    2017-02-10

    Intervention into amyloid deposition with anti-amyloid agents like the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is emerging as an experimental secondary treatment strategy in systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL). In both AL and multiple myeloma (MM), soluble immunoglobulin light chains (LC) are produced by clonal plasma cells, but only in AL do they form amyloid deposits in vivo We investigated the amyloid formation of patient-derived LC and their susceptibility to EGCG in vitro to probe commonalities and systematic differences in their assembly mechanisms. We isolated nine LC from the urine of AL and MM patients. We quantified their thermodynamic stabilities and monitored their aggregation under physiological conditions by thioflavin T fluorescence, light scattering, SDS stability, and atomic force microscopy. LC from all patients formed amyloid-like aggregates, albeit with individually different kinetics. LC existed as dimers, ∼50% of which were linked by disulfide bridges. Our results suggest that cleavage into LC monomers is required for efficient amyloid formation. The kinetics of AL LC displayed a transition point in concentration dependence, which MM LC lacked. The lack of concentration dependence of MM LC aggregation kinetics suggests that conformational change of the light chain is rate-limiting for these proteins. Aggregation kinetics displayed two distinct phases, which corresponded to the formation of oligomers and amyloid fibrils, respectively. EGCG specifically inhibited the second aggregation phase and induced the formation of SDS-stable, non-amyloid LC aggregates. Our data suggest that EGCG intervention does not depend on the individual LC sequence and is similar to the mechanism observed for amyloid-β and α-synuclein.

  7. Two kappa immunoglobulin light chains are secreted by an anti-DNA hybridoma: implications for isotypic exclusion.

    PubMed

    Zack, D J; Wong, A L; Stempniak, M; Weisbart, R H

    1995-12-01

    An anti-DNA hybridoma derived from an MRL/lpr mouse secretes two different kappa light chains in combination with a single heavy chain. Multiple single cell clones express and secrete immunoglobulin containing both kappa light chains. The N-terminal protein sequences of the light chains correspond to sequences predicted from functionally rearranged mRNAs subjected to reverse transcription and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Karyotype analysis of the hybridoma indicates a clonal line derived from the fusion of two cells. By amino acid sequence comparison and PCR analysis, both functional kappa light chains are derived from the MRL/lpr spleen. The two functional light chain cDNAs were cloned and co-transfected into COS-7 cells with the heavy chain cDNA. Only one of the light chains in combination with mAb 3E10 heavy chain confers anti-DNA reactivity. The presence of two separate kappa light chains and, therefore, two separate antigen receptors on a single B cell may have ramifications for both polyclonal activation and toleration of lupus B cells.

  8. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Elizabeth M; Newell, Jennifer M; González, María J; Vanni, Michael J

    2008-11-25

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in food chains with 3 or more trophic levels. In a field experiment manipulating light, nutrients, and food-chain length, we show that FCE is constrained by algal food quality and food-chain length. FCE across 3 trophic levels (phytoplankton to carnivorous fish) was highest under low light and high nutrients, where algal quality was best as indicated by taxonomic composition and nutrient stoichiometry. In 3-level systems, FCE was constrained by the efficiency at which both herbivores and carnivores converted food into production; a strong nutrient effect on carnivore efficiency suggests a carryover effect of algal quality across 3 trophic levels. Energy transfer efficiency from algae to herbivores was also higher in 2-level systems (without carnivores) than in 3-level systems. Our results support the hypothesis that FCE is strongly constrained by light, nutrients, and food-chain length and suggest that carryover effects across multiple trophic levels are important. Because many environmental perturbations affect light, nutrients, and food-chain length, and many ecological services are mediated by FCE, it will be important to apply these findings to various ecosystem types.

  9. λ Light Chain Bias Associated With Enhanced Binding and Function of Anti-HIV Env Glycoprotein Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Mohammad M; Farshidpour, Maham; Brown, Eric P; Ouyang, Xin; Seaman, Michael S; Pazgier, Marzena; Ackerman, Margaret E; Robinson, Harriet; Tomaras, Georgia; Parsons, Matthew S; Charurat, Manhattan; DeVico, Anthony L; Redfield, Robert R; Lewis, George K

    2016-01-01

    The humoral response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains incompletely understood. In this report, we describe biased λ light chain use during the HIV Env glycoprotein (Env) response in HIV infection and vaccination. We examined HIV Env binding (and neutralization) in the context of light chain use in subjects with acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and among HIV vaccinees. In all populations tested, there was a λ chain bias for HIV Env binding antibodies, compared with other HIV antigens (such as p24) or tetanus toxoid. In subjects with chronic HIV infection, a λ bias was noted for neutralization, with λ antibodies accounting for up to 90% of all neutralization activity observed. This is the first report of antibody function in a human infection being tied to light chain use. In HIV infection, antibodies expressing λ light chains tended to have longer CDRL3s, increased light chain contact with HIV Env, and less hypermutation in the heavy chain, compared with antibodies using the κ light chain. These data also support an evolutionary model for the understanding the various κ to λ light chain ratios observed across species and suggest that the λ light chain bias against HIV provides the host an advantage in developing a more efficient humoral response.

  10. Early Prognostic Value of Monitoring Serum Free Light Chain in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Özkurt, Zübeyde Nur; Sucak, Gülsan Türköz; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Yağcı, Münci; Haznedar, Rauf

    2017-03-16

    We hypothesized the levels of free light chains obtained before and after autologous stem cell transplantation can be useful in predicting transplantation outcome. We analyzed 70 multiple myeloma patients. Abnormal free light chain ratios before stem cell transplantation were found to be associated early progression, although without any impact on overall survival. At day +30, the normalization of levels of involved free light chain related with early progression. According to these results almost one-third reduction of free light chain levels can predict favorable prognosis after autologous stem cell transplantation.

  11. Silencing megalin and cubilin genes inhibits myeloma light chain endocytosis and ameliorates toxicity in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Simon, Eric E; Batuman, Vecihi

    2008-07-01

    Using target-specific short interfering (si) RNAs, we silenced the tandem endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin genes in cultured human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transfection by siRNA resulted in up to 90% suppression of both megalin and cubilin protein and mRNA expression. In HK-2 cells exposed to kappa-light chain for up to 24 h, light chain endocytosis was reduced in either megalin- or cubilin-silenced cells markedly but incompletely. Simultaneous silencing of both the cubilin and megalin genes, however, resulted in near-complete inhibition of light chain endocytosis, as determined by measuring kappa-light chain protein concentration in cell cytoplasm and by flow cytometry using FITC-labeled kappa-light chain. In these cells, light chain-induced cytokine responses (interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as the associated cellular and morphological alterations were also markedly suppressed. The results demonstrate that light chain endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the megalin-cubilin tandem endocytic receptor and identify endocytosis as a key step in light chain cytotoxicity. Blocking light chain endocytosis prevents its nephrotoxic effects on human kidney proximal tubule cells.

  12. FhCaBP3: a Fasciola hepatica calcium binding protein with EF-hand and dynein light chain domains.

    PubMed

    Banford, Samantha; Drysdale, Orla; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2013-04-01

    A DNA sequence encoding a protein with predicted EF-hand and dynein light chain binding domains was identified in a Fasciola hepatica EST library. Sequence analysis of the encoded protein revealed that the most similar known protein was the Fasciola gigantica protein FgCaBP3 and so this newly identified protein was named FhCaBP3. Molecular modelling of FhCaBP3 predicted a highly flexible N-terminal region, followed by a domain containing two EF-hand motifs the second of which is likely to be a functioning divalent ion binding site. The C-terminal domain of the protein contains a dynein light chain like region. Interestingly, molecular modelling predicts that calcium ion binding to the N-terminal domain destabilises the β-sheet structure of the C-terminal domain. FhCaBP3 can be expressed in, and purified from, Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerises and the absence of calcium ions appeared to promote dimerisation. Native gel shift assays demonstrated that the protein bound to calcium and manganese ions, but not to magnesium, barium, zinc, strontium, nickel, copper or cadmium ions. FhCaBP3 interacted with the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and chlorpromazine as well as the myosin regulatory light chain-binding drug praziquantel. Despite sequence and structural similarities to other members of the same protein family from F. hepatica, FhCaBP3 has different biochemical properties to the other well characterised family members, FH22 and FhCaBP4. This suggests that each member of this trematode calcium-binding family has discrete functional roles within the organism.

  13. Use of Nonclonal Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains to Predict Overall Survival in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Larson, Dirk R.; Therneau, Terry M.; Colby, Colin L.; Clark, Raynell J.; Mead, Graham P.; Kumar, Shaji; Melton, L. Joseph; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the free light chain (FLC) assay provides prognostic information relevant to the general population. Methods After excluding persons with a known plasma cell disorder, we studied 15,859 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents 50 years or older in whom unmasked data and samples for FLC testing were available. Baseline information was obtained between March 13, 1995, and November 21, 2003, and follow-up status and cause of death were identified through June 30, 2009. The κ and λ FLC sum (Σ FLC) was evaluated for its ability to predict overall survival. Specific causes of death were also investigated. Results In 158,003 person-years of follow-up, 4348 individuals died. A high Σ FLC was significantly predictive of worse overall survival; the risk ratio for death for those with the highest decile of Σ FLC (ie, ≥4.72 mg/dL) was 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.1-4.7) relative to the remaining study participants. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that this excess risk of death was independent of age, sex, and renal insufficiency, with a corrected risk ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.2). The increased mortality was not restricted to any particular cause of death because the observed-to-expected risk of death from most causes was significantly higher among those individuals with an antecedent Σ FLC of 4.72 mg/dL or higher, which is near the upper limit of normal for the test. Conclusion A nonclonal elevation of Σ FLC is a significant predictor of worse overall survival in the general population of persons without plasma cell disorders. PMID:22677072

  14. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level.

  15. ATYPICAL MACULOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH LIGHT CHAIN DEPOSITION DISEASE MIMICKING ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Oshry, Lauren J.; Reichel, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report a previously unreported presentation of advanced geographic atrophy of the macula mimicking nonneovascular (dry) age-related macular degeneration in a patient with light chain deposition disease. Methods: Ocular examination included dilated fundus examination, fundus autofluorescence, full-field electroretinography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Patients: Single-patient case report. Results: Dilated fundus examination demonstrated diffuse loss of the retinal pigment epithelium in a geographic atrophy pattern in the macula and drusenlike deposits localized to the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. There were no signs of choroidal neovascularization or retinal pigment epithelium detachments. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated wide areas of retinal pigment epithelium loss. Full-field electroretinography was normal. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography displayed atrophy of the outer retinal layers. Discussion: This is the first documented case of drusenlike deposits and maculopathy in a patient with light chain deposition disease that mimics advanced geographic atrophy that is typically observed in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. Physicians should be aware of the macular changes that can be associated with light chain deposition disease, and patients with light chain deposition disease should be regularly evaluated for associated macular disease. PMID:26934302

  16. A novel approach for the chromatographic purification and peptide mass fingerprinting of urinary free light chains.

    PubMed

    Mali, Bhupesh C; Badgujar, Shamkant B; Shukla, Kunal K; Bhanushali, Paresh B

    2017-02-01

    We describe a chromatographic approach for the purification of urinary free light chains (FLCs) viz., lambda free light chains (λ-FLCs) and kappa free light chains (κ-FLCs). Isolated urinary FLCs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS). The relative molecular masses of λ-FLC and κ-FLC are 22,933.397 and 23,544.336Da respectively. Moreover, dimer forms of each FLC were also detected in mass spectrum which corresponds to 45,737.747 and 47,348.028Da respectively for λ-FLCs and κ-FLCs. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis of the purified λ-FLCs and κ-FLCs has yielded peptides that partially match with known light chain sequences viz., gi|218783338 and gi|48475432 respectively. The tryptic digestion profile of isolated FLCs infers the exclusive nature of them and they may be additive molecules in the dictionary of urinary proteins. This is the first report of characterization and validation of FLCs from large volume samples by peptide sequencing. This simple and cost-effective approach to purification of FLCs, together with the easy availability of urine samples make the large-scale production of FLCs possible, allowing exploration of various bioclinical as well as biodiagnostic applications.

  17. A molecular model for self-assembly of amyloid fibrils: Immunoglobulin light chains

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F.J.; Myatt, E.A.; Westholm, F.A.

    1995-08-29

    The formation and pathological deposition of amyloid fibrils are defining features of many acquired and inherited disorders, including primary or light-chain-associated amyloidosis, Alzheimer`s disease, and adult-onset diabetes. No pharmacological methods exist to block this process or to effect the removal of fibrils from tissue, and thus, little can be done to prevent organ failure and ultimate death that result from deposition of amyloid. Knowledge of the pathogenesis, treatment, or prevention of these presently incurable diseases is limited due to the relative paucity of information regarding the biophysical basis of amyloid formation. Antibody light chains of different amino acid sequence show differential amyloid-forming tendencies and, as such, can provide insight into the structural organization of amyloid fibrils as well as into basic mechanisms of protein self-assembly. We have compared primary structures of 180 human monoclonal light chains and have identified particular residues and positions within the variable domain that differentiate amyloid-from nonamyloid-associated proteins. We propose a molecular model that accounts for amyloid formation by antibody light chains and might also have implications for other forms of amyloidosis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Purification, Characterization and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in close species. In this study, MLC with the molecular mass of 18kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle fibrils. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the...

  19. Bone marrow lambda-type light chain crystalline structures associated with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schvartz, H; Bonhomme, P; Caulet, S; Beorchia, A; Patey, M; Caulet, T

    1985-01-01

    A 58-year-old man showed bone marrow crystalline structures associated with a lambda light chain producing multiple myeloma. Analysis and processing of electron images clearly displayed the periodic structure of the crystals. Immunochemistry suggested that they contained the whole or a fragmented constant portion of immunoglobulin.

  20. Rapid quantitative analysis of monoclonal antibody heavy and light chain charge heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Vanam, Ram P; Schneider, Michael A; Marlow, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    An alternative method to traditional 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and its application in characterizing the inherent charge heterogeneity of chromatographically isolated monoclonal antibody heavy and light chains is described. This method, referred to as ChromiCE, utilizes analytical size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), performed under reducing and denaturing conditions, followed by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF) of the chromatographically separated heavy and light chains. Under conditions suitable for the subsequent icIEF analysis, the absolute and relative SEC elution volumes of the heavy and light chains were found to be highly pH dependent, a phenomenon that can be exploited in optimizing chromatographic separation. Compared to 2D-PAGE, the ChromiCE method substantially decreases the time and labor needed to complete the analysis, improves reproducibility, and provides fully quantitative assessment of charge heterogeneity. The ChromiCE methodology was applied to a set of diverse monoclonal antibodies to demonstrate suitability for quantitative charge variant analysis of heavy and light chains. A typical application of ChromiCE in extended characterization and stability studies of a purified antibody is shown. PMID:26305772

  1. Abnormal kappa:lambda light chain ratio in circulating immune complexes as a marker for B cell activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Low, J M; Chauhan, A K; Moore, T L

    2007-01-01

    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) which correlated with disease activity. Our aim was to assess B cell activity by measuring the amount of and the kappa:lambda chain immunoglobulin light (L) chain ratio in CICs from JIA patients and to determine potential evidence for either an antigen-driven response or B-cell receptor editing. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure kappa and lambda chains present in the CICs from the sera of patients with JIA. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Sera from 44 JIA patients were examined for the concentration of L chains in CICs. Healthy controls had a kappa:lambda chain ratio of 1.2:1, whereas this ratio was reversed among JIA subgroups with RF-positive polyarthritis (1:1.2), RF-negative polyarthritis (1:1.3), oligoarthritis (1:2.3) and systemic-onset arthritis (1:2.5). In addition, overall lambda chain selection was not significantly associated with a particular immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and occurred with all immunoglobulin isotypes. We showed preferential selection of lambda chains contributing to the formation of potentially pathogenic CICs from JIA patients, of all onset types compared to healthy controls, in an H chain-independent manner. The reversal of kappa:lambda chain ratio within the JIA CICs and association with all immunoglobulin isotypes demonstrated the potential for L chain editing. Furthermore, we conclude that a reversal of the normal kappa:lambda chain ratio in JIA CICs may be used as a marker for increased B-cell activity.

  2. Characterization of axolotl heavy and light immunoglobulin chains by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chardin, H; Vilain, C; Charlemagne, J

    1987-12-01

    Axolotl specific antibodies to 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) were purified by affinity chromatography from the sera of animals immunized with 2,4,6-trinitrophenylated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC). The purified anti-TNP/DNP antibodies, when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, were constituted of high molecular weight molecules, which in reducing conditions, were separated into heavy 72-88 kD and light 27-30 kD polypeptides. The axolotl heavy antibody chains strongly bound Concanavalin-A and migrate faster in SDS-PAGE after endoglycosidase-F (Endo-F) treatment. Using the same techniques, no carbohydrate components were detected onto light chains. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained against these purified axolotl immunoglobulins (Ig) and their specificities were studied by immunoblotting. MAbs 33.45.1 and 33.101.2 respectively recognized heavy and light chains determinants of the Ig molecule. These determinants were resistant to Endo-F digestion, suggesting that the two MAbs were not directed to polypeptide-associated N-linked high mannose or complex oligosaccharides. MAbs 33.45.1 and 33.101.2 were compared to 11.5.2, an anti-axolotl thymocytes MAb which was reactive for both axolotl leucocytes and soluble Ig. MAb 11.5.2 reacted in immunoblotting against several high molecular weight axolotl serum proteins, including heavy Ig chains. Light chains were not recognized. However, 11.5.2 did not further recognize Endo-F treated Ig, suggesting its specificity for a carbohydrate determinant of the heavy chain, and link to a large diversity of soluble or membrane glycoproteins.

  3. Phenotyping polyclonal kappa and lambda light chain molecular mass distributions in patient serum using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barnidge, David R; Dasari, Surendra; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Fontan, Adrian; Willrich, Maria A V; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane F; Snyder, Melissa R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-11-07

    We previously described a microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS method for identifying monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and then tracking them over time using their accurate molecular mass. Here we demonstrate how the same methodology can be used to identify and characterize polyclonal immunoglobulins in serum. We establish that two molecular mass distributions observed by microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS are from polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains using a combination of theoretical molecular masses from gene sequence data and the analysis of commercially available purified polyclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda from normal human serum. A linear regression comparison of kappa/lambda ratios for 74 serum samples (25 hypergammaglobulinemia, 24 hypogammaglobulinemia, 25 normal) determined by microflowLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and immunonephelometry had a slope of 1.37 and a correlation coefficient of 0.639. In addition to providing kappa/lambda ratios, the same microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis can determine the molecular mass for oligoclonal light chains observed above the polyclonal background in patient samples. In 2 patients with immune disorders and hypergammaglobulinemia, we observed a skewed polyclonal molecular mass distribution which translated into biased kappa/lambda ratios. Mass spectrometry provides a rapid and simple way to combine the polyclonal kappa/lambda light chain abundance ratios with the identification of dominant monoclonal as well as oligoclonal light chain immunoglobulins. We anticipate that this approach to evaluating immunoglobulin light chains will lead to improved understanding of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and antibody responses.

  4. Development, optimization, and validation of a Classical swine fever virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Eberling, August J; Bieker-Stefanelli, Jill; Reising, Monica M; Siev, David; Martin, Barbara M; McIntosh, Michael T; Beckham, Tammy R

    2011-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically devastating disease of pigs. Instrumental to the control of CSF is a well-characterized assay that can deliver a rapid, accurate diagnosis prior to the onset of clinical signs. A real-time fluorogenic-probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CSF was developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (CSF PIADC assay) and evaluated for analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. A well-characterized panel including Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV) isolates was utilized in initial feasibility and optimization studies. The assay was initially designed and validated for use on the ABI 7900HT using the Qiagen QuantiTect® Probe RT-PCR chemistry. However, demonstrating equivalency with multiple one-step RT-PCR chemistries and PCR platforms increased the versatility of the assay. Limit of detection experiments indicated that the Qiagen QuantiTect® Multiplex (NoROX) and the Invitrogen SuperScript® III RT-PCR kits were consistently the most sensitive one-step chemistries for use with the CSF PIADC primer/probe set. Analytical sensitivity of the CSF PIADC assay ranged from <1-2.95 log(10) TCID(50)/ml on both the ABI 7900HT and ABI 7500 platforms. The CSF PIADC assay had 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when tested on a panel of 152 clinical samples from the Dominican Republic and Colombia. The ability to perform this newly developed assay in 96-well formats provides an increased level of versatility for use in CSF surveillance programs.

  5. Detection of low numbers of Salmonella in environmental water, sewage and food samples by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Waage, A S; Vardund, T; Lund, V; Kapperud, G

    1999-09-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with two nested pairs of primers selected from conserved sequences within a 2.3 kb randomly cloned DNA fragment from the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome was developed. The nested PCR assay correctly identified 128 of a total of 129 Salmonella strains belonging to subspecies I, II, IIIb and IV. One strain of Salm. arizona (ssp. IIIa) tested negative. No PCR products were obtained from any of the 31 non-Salmonella strains examined. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 cfu, as determined by analysis of proteinase K-treated boiled lysates of Salm. typhimurium. The performance of the assay was evaluated for environmental water, sewage and food samples spiked with Salm. typhimurium. Water and sewage samples were filtered and filters were enriched overnight in a non-selective medium. Prior to PCR, the broth cultures were subjected to a rapid and simple preparation procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase K treatment and boiling. This assay enabled detection of 10 cfu 100 ml(-1) water with background levels of up to 8700 heterotrophic organisms ml(-1) and 10000 cfu of coliform organisms 100 ml(-1) water. Spiked food samples were analysed with and without overnight enrichment in a non-selective medium using the same assay as above. Nested PCR performed on enriched broths enabled detection of <10 cfu g(-1) food. Variable results were obtained for food samples examined without prior enrichment and most results were negative. This rapid and simple assay provides a sensitive and specific means of screening drinking water or environmental water samples, as well as food samples, for the presence of Salmonella spp.

  6. Nested polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing analysis of the light-chain and heavy-chain variable regions in the influenza A H1N1 virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody gene.

    PubMed

    Li, H J; Guo, C Y; Sun, J Y; Sun, L J; Zhao, P H; Hu, L; Li, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-11

    The nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the amplification of the influenza A H1N1 virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody light-chain and heavy-chain genes. Sequence analysis of the obtained genes was then used to identify common cloning methods of the mouse immunoglobulin-kappa (Igκ) light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions. Twenty-two pairs of amplification primers for the mouse Igκ light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions were designed, and 6 mouse anti-human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions were cloned and sequenced. Comparative analysis was conducted between our results and the mouse Ig sequences published in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The nested PCR method effectively avoided cloning the pseudogenes of the monoclonal antibody, and the amino acid sequence obtained was consistent with the characteristics of the mouse Ig variable region. A general method of cloning the mouse Ig light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions was established, which provides a basis for further cloning of mouse monoclonal antibody variable gene regions. This study also provides data for further studies of H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin antibody binding sites.

  7. Bacterial kinesin light chain (Bklc) links the Btub cytoskeleton to membranes.

    PubMed

    Akendengue, Lurlène; Trépout, Sylvain; Graña, Martín; Voegele, Alexis; Janke, Carsten; Raynal, Bertrand; Chenal, Alexandre; Marco, Sergio; Wehenkel, Anne Marie

    2017-03-30

    Bacterial kinesin light chain is a TPR domain-containing protein encoded by the bklc gene, which co-localizes with the bacterial tubulin (btub) genes in a conserved operon in Prosthecobacter. Btub heterodimers show high structural homology with eukaryotic tubulin and assemble into head-to-tail protofilaments. Intriguingly, Bklc is homologous to the light chain of the microtubule motor kinesin and could thus represent an additional eukaryotic-like cytoskeletal element in bacteria. Using biochemical characterization as well as cryo-electron tomography we show here that Bklc interacts specifically with Btub protofilaments, as well as lipid vesicles and could thus play a role in anchoring the Btub filaments to the membrane protrusions in Prosthecobacter where they specifically localize in vivo. This work sheds new light into possible ways in which the microtubule cytoskeleton may have evolved linking precursors of microtubules to the membrane via the kinesin moiety that in today's eukaryotic cytoskeleton links vesicle-packaged cargo to microtubules.

  8. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  9. Chromophore-Assisted Light Inactivation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex II in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Wei, Alicia Y.; Sherman, Teresa A.; Foster, Thomas H.; Nehrke, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play critical roles in meeting cellular energy demand, in cell death, and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stress signaling. Most Caenorhabditis elegans loss-of-function (lf) mutants in nuclear-encoded components of the respiratory chain are non-viable, emphasizing the importance of respiratory function. Chromophore-Assisted Light Inactivation (CALI) using genetically-encoded photosensitizers provides an opportunity to determine how individual respiratory chain components contribute to physiology following acute lf. As proof-of-concept, we expressed the ‘singlet oxygen generator’ miniSOG as a fusion with the SDHC subunit of respiratory complex II, encoded by mev-1 in C. elegans, using Mos1-mediated Single Copy Insertion. The resulting mev-1::miniSOG transgene complemented mev-1 mutant phenotypes in kn1 missense and tm1081(lf) deletion mutants. Complex II activity was inactivated by blue light in mitochondria from strains expressing active miniSOG fusions, but not those from inactive fusions. Moreover, light-inducible phenotypes in vivo demonstrated that complex II activity is important under conditions of high energy demand, and that specific cell types are uniquely susceptible to loss of complex II. In conclusion, miniSOG-mediated CALI is a novel genetic platform for acute inactivation of respiratory chain components. Spatio-temporally controlled ROS generation will expand our understanding of how the respiratory chain and mitochondrial ROS influence whole organism physiology. PMID:27440050

  10. A light-induced spin crossover actuated single-chain magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Hui; Kang, Soonchul; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kanegawa, Shinji; Duan, Chunying

    2013-11-01

    Both spin-crossover complexes and molecular nanomagnets display bistable magnetic states, potentially behaving as elementary binary units for information storage. It is a challenge to introduce spin-crossover units into molecular nanomagnets to switch the bistable state of the nanomagnets through external stimuli-tuned spin crossover. Here we report an iron(II) spin-crossover unit and paramagnetic iron(III) ions that are incorporated into a well-isolated double-zigzag chain. The chain exhibits thermally induced reversible spin-crossover and light-induced excited spin-state trapping at the iron(II) sites. Single-chain magnet behaviour is actuated accompanying the synergy between light-induced excited spin-state trapping at the iron(II) sites and ferromagnetic interactions between the photoinduced high-spin iron(II) and low-spin iron(III) ions in the chain. The result provides a strategy to switch the bistable state of molecular nanomagnets using external stimuli such as light and heat, with the potential to erase and write information at a molecular level.

  11. Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in Remote Areas, Niger

    PubMed Central

    Sidikou, Fati; Djibo, Saacou; Taha, Muhamed Kheir; Alonso, Jean Michel; Djibo, Ali; Kairo, Kiari Kaka; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    To compensate for the lack of laboratories in remote areas, the national reference laboratory for meningitis in Niger used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to enhance the surveillance of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. PCR effectively documented the wide geographic spread of N. meningitidis serogroup W135. PMID:14718100

  12. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  13. A colorimetric assay for inorganic pyrophosphate that is also useful for measuring product accumulation in polymerase chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Tagiri-Endo, Misako

    2003-04-15

    A novel coupled enzyme assay for measuring inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) in biological samples is described. The total PP(i) is determined by a reaction with inosine 5'-monophosphate, catalyzed by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, yielding hypoxanthine and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate. The hypoxanthine is oxidized to uric acid by xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase and can be measured by formation of formazan when a tetrazolium salt is used as the oxidant. The method is also useful for detecting and quantifying PP(i) released from nucleotides during polymerase chain reactions. This rapid and simple method for detecting amplified nucleic acids permits low-cost monitoring by eye or spectrophotometer.

  14. An oligonucleotide-ligation assay for the differentiation between Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. polymerase chain reaction amplification products.

    PubMed

    Jinneman, K C; Wetherington, J H; Hill, W E; Omiescinski, C J; Adams, A M; Johnson, J M; Tenge, B J; Dang, N L; Wekell, M M

    1999-06-01

    An oligonucleotide-ligation assay (OLA) was developed and compared to a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) test for distinguishing between 294-bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification products of the 18S rRNA gene from Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. The PCR/OLA correctly distinguished between three Cyclospora, three E. tenella, and one E. mitis strains and the ratio of positive to negative spectrophotometric absorbance (A490) values for each strain ranged from 4.086 to 15.280 (median 9.5). PCR/OLA provides a rapid, reliable, spectrophotometric alternative to PCR/RFLP.

  15. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction assay for the authentication of the mackerel Scomber colias in commercial canned products.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Manchado, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    A multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for the authentication of the mackerel Scomber colias in commercial canned products. This novel method consists of an S. colias-specific fragment [159 base pairs (bp)] located in the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) sequence, and a Scomber genus-specific PCR product in the 5S rRNA gene (196-201 bp) as a positive amplification control. The system was assayed using 18 different canned products labeled as S. colias. A positive identification was made in all but one sample, revealing this methodology as a potential molecular tool for direct application in the authentication of S. colias canned products.

  16. A polymerase chain reaction assay for ascosporic inoculum of Sclerotinia species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PCR assay was developed which amplified a 170-bp fragment of the intergenic spacer region of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the cause of white mould. Sensitivity was 10 S. sclerotiorum ascospores per DNA extraction (0.2 ascospores per PCR reaction). The presence of soil did not affect sensitivity a...

  17. Deposition of kappa and lambda light chains in amyloid filaments of dialysis-related amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, D; Ghiggeri, G M; Braidotti, P; Garberi, A; Gallieni, M; Bellotti, V; Zoni, U; Gusmano, R; Coggi, G

    1995-10-01

    beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) is considered to be the amyloidogenic precursor in dialysis-related amyloidosis, although the implication of other relevant cofactors in the pathogenesis of this disease has also been hypothesized. It is conceivable that substances found in amyloid deposits might represent something more than simple codeposition, possibly playing a pathogenic role in amyloidogenesis. Along these lines, a detailed analysis of the protein composition of amyloid fibrils purified from synovial material surgically obtained from nine patients on long-term dialysis was carried out. By the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several other protein components, in addition to beta 2m, were found. These were characterized by NH2 amino-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting. In fibrils obtained by water extraction, which fulfill the electron microscopy criteria of highly pure amyloid material, polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains were detected with a concentration of 15 micrograms/mL in the water extraction material; the beta 2m concentration was 200 micrograms/mL. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry was performed on samples from five patients. Amyloid deposits reacted with anti-beta 2m, and anti-light (kappa, lambda), chain antibodies. The immunoreaction of amyloid filaments to anti-beta 2m, anti-lambda, and anti-kappa light chain antibodies was also tested by electron microscopy by use of the immunogold staining procedure. Amyloid filaments were labeled by the three antibodies and showed a different intensity of immunostaining apparently related to their different aggregation pattern. These observations demonstrate that polyclonal immunoglobulin light chains (kappa and lambda) are not contaminants but, together with beta 2m, represent a major constituent of amyloid deposits in dialysis-related osteoarticular amyloidosis, thus indicating their possible role in amyloidogenesis.

  18. Masticatory (;superfast') myosin heavy chain and embryonic/atrial myosin light chain 1 in rodent jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Chen, Qun; Zhu, Ling; Quan, Ning

    2009-08-01

    Masticatory myosin is widely expressed among several vertebrate classes. Generally, the expression of masticatory myosin has been associated with high bite force for a carnivorous feeding style (including capturing/restraining live prey), breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting in different species. Masticatory myosin expression in the largest mammalian order, Rodentia, has not been reported. Several members of Rodentia consume large numbers of tree nuts that are encased in very hard shells, presumably requiring large forces to access the nutmeat. We, therefore, tested whether some rodent species express masticatory myosin in jaw-closing muscles. Myosin isoform expression in six Sciuridae species was examined, using protein gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and RNA analysis. The results indicate that masticatory myosin is expressed in some Sciuridae species but not in other closely related species with similar diets but having different nut-opening strategies. We also discovered that the myosin light chain 1 isoform associated with masticatory myosin heavy chain, in the same four Sciuridae species, is the embryonic/atrial isoform. We conclude that rodent speciation did not completely eliminate masticatory myosin and that its persistent expression in some rodent species might be related to not only diet but also to feeding style.

  19. Clathrin self-assembly is regulated by three light-chain residues controlling the formation of critical salt bridges.

    PubMed

    Ybe, J A; Greene, B; Liu, S H; Pley, U; Parham, P; Brodsky, F M

    1998-08-10

    Clathrin self-assembly into a polyhedral lattice mediates membrane protein sorting during endocytosis and organelle biogenesis. Lattice formation occurs spontaneously in vitro at low pH and, intracellularly, is triggered by adaptors at physiological pH. To begin to understand the cellular regulation of clathrin polymerization, we analyzed molecular interactions during the spontaneous assembly of recombinant hub fragments of the clathrin heavy chain, which bind clathrin light-chain subunits and mimic the self-assembly of intact clathrin. Reconstitution of hubs using deletion and substitution mutants of the light-chain subunits revealed that the pH dependence of clathrin self-assembly is controlled by only three acidic residues in the clathrin light-chain subunits. Salt inhibition of hub assembly identified two classes of salt bridges which are involved and deletion analysis mapped the clathrin heavy-chain regions participating in their formation. These combined observations indicated that the negatively charged regulatory residues, identified in the light-chain subunits, inhibit the formation of high-affinity salt bridges which would otherwise induce clathrin heavy chains to assemble at physiological pH. In the presence of light chains, clathrin self-assembly depends on salt bridges that form only at low pH, but is exquisitely sensitive to regulation. We propose that cellular clathrin assembly is controlled via the simple biochemical mechanism of reversing the inhibitory effect of the light-chain regulatory sequence, thereby promoting high-affinity salt bridge formation.

  20. A Toxoplasma gondii class XIV myosin, expressed in Sf9 cells with a parasite co-chaperone, requires two light chains for fast motility.

    PubMed

    Bookwalter, Carol S; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M; Ward, Gary E; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2014-10-31

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ∼1.5 μm/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (∼3.4 μm/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors.

  1. Visualization of Fermi's golden rule through imaging of light emission from atomic silver chains.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi; Bobisch, C A; Ho, W

    2009-08-21

    Atomic-scale spatial imaging of one-dimensional chains of silver atoms allows Fermi's golden rule, a fundamental principle governing optical transitions, to be visualized. We used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to assemble a silver atom chain on a nickel-aluminum alloy surface. Photon emission was induced with electrons from the tip of the STM. The emission was spatially resolved with subnanometer resolution by changing the tip position along the chain. The number and positions of the emission maxima in the photon images match those of the nodes in the differential conductance images of particle-in-a-box states. This surprising correlation between the emission maxima and nodes in the density of states is a manifestation of Fermi's golden rule in real space for radiative transitions and provides an understanding of the mechanism of STM-induced light emission.

  2. Development of a real time polymerase chain reaction assay for equine encephalosis virus.

    PubMed

    Rathogwa, N M; Quan, M; Smit, J Q; Lourens, C; Guthrie, A J; van Vuuren, M

    2014-01-01

    Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) is the cause of equine encephalosis. The disease is similar to mild forms of African horse sickness (AHS) and the two diseases are easily confused. Laboratory identification and serotyping of EEV is based on viral isolation in BHK-21 cells and a viral plaque inhibition neutralisation test. These procedures are time-consuming and therefore a more rapid diagnostic assay for EEV that can distinguish EEV from African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infections was developed. The S7 (VP7) gene from 38 EEV isolates representing all seven serotypes was amplified and sequenced. A conserved region at the 5' end of the gene was identified and used to design group-specific EEV primers and a TaqMan(®) MGB™ hydrolysis probe. The efficiency of the EEV real-time RT-PCR assay was 81%. The assay was specific, as it did not detect any of the nine serotypes of AHSV, nor 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) and sensitive, with a 95% limit of detection of 10(2.9) TCID50/ml blood (95% confidence interval: 10(2.7) to 10(3.3)). The real-time format was selected because of its convenience, sensitivity and ability to produce results rapidly.

  3. Light-chain deposition disease of the kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Maiz, Hedi Ben

    2012-04-01

    A 41-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of nephrotic syndrome associated with microhematuria, hypertension, and moderate renal failure. In serum and urine samples, monoclonal IgG-lambda was detected. Bone marrow examination showed normal representation of all cell lines with normal range of plasma cells. Renal biopsy demonstrated diabetes-like nodular glomerulosclerosis. Immunofluorescence failed to demonstrate the presence of kappa or lambda light chains in the kidney. Electron microcopy showed granular electron-dense deposits along the glomerular basement membranes and in the mesangial nodules. The patient was diagnosed as having light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) without evidence of plasma cell dyscrasia. This report was designed to stress the significant challenges that remain in the diagnosis of LCDD-related glomerulopathy. The salient morphological features that help in making an accurate diagnosis are discussed.

  4. Surface supercharged human enteropeptidase light chain shows improved solubility and refolding yield.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Peter; Berger-Hoffmann, Renate; Hoffmann, Ralf; Sträter, Norbert; Zuchner, Thole

    2011-03-01

    Enteropeptidase is a serine protease used in different biotechnological applications. For many applications the smaller light chain can be used to avoid the expression of the rather large holoenzyme. Recombinant human enteropeptidase light chain (hEPL) shows high activity but low solubility and refolding yields, currently limiting its use in biotechnological applications. Here we describe several protein modifications that lead to improved solubility and refolding yield of human hEPL whilst retaining the enzyme activity. Specifically, protein surface supercharging (N6D, G21D, G22D, N141D, K209E) of the protein increased the solubility more than 100-fold. Replacement of a free cysteine residue with serine (C112S) improved the refolding yield by 50%. The heat stability of this C112S variant was also significantly improved by supercharging. This study shows that even mild protein surface supercharging can have pronounced effects on protein solubility and stability.

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate preferentially induces aggregation of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    Hora, Manuel; Carballo-Pacheco, Martin; Weber, Benedikt; Morris, Vanessa K.; Wittkopf, Antje; Buchner, Johannes; Strodel, Birgit; Reif, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Antibody light chain amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by fibril formation of secreted immunoglobulin light chains (LCs). The huge variety of antibody sequences puts a serious challenge to drug discovery. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is known to interfere with fibril formation in general. Here we present solution- and solid-state NMR studies as well as MD simulations to characterise the interaction of EGCG with LC variable domains. We identified two distinct EGCG binding sites, both of which include a proline as an important recognition element. The binding sites were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and solid-state NMR analysis. The EGCG-induced protein complexes are unstructured. We propose a general mechanistic model for EGCG binding to a conserved site in LCs. We find that EGCG reacts selectively with amyloidogenic mutants. This makes this compound a promising lead structure, that can handle the immense sequence variability of antibody LCs. PMID:28128355

  6. Five Sequential Evaluations of Renal Histology in a Patient with Light Chain Deposition Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Koichi; Hazue, Ryo; Mise, Koki; Sumida, Keiichi; Hayami, Noriko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Junichi; Sawa, Naoki; Arizono, Kenji; Hara, Shigeko; Takaichi, Kenmei; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our institution for an evaluation of nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed a marked expansion of the mesangial matrix and thickening of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in periodic acid-silver methenamine (PAM). Immunofluorescence (IF) revealed strong staining for the monoclonal kappa light chain. EM demonstrated massive subendothelial and mesangial dense deposits. As a result, light chain deposition disease (LCDD) was diagnosed. Melphalan and prednisolone (MP) therapy was started, which was continued for 10 years with minimal complications. Serial evaluations of renal histology revealed the resolution of nodular lesions and the glomeruli became nearly normal. MP therapy can therefore be an effective therapeutic option for LCDD if it is continued over the long term. PMID:27746438

  7. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  8. A Capsid Gene-Based Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of Marine Vesiviruses in the Caliciviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was developed for the identification of marine vesiviruses. The primers were designed to target a 176-nucleotide fragment within a highly conserved region of the San Miguel sea lion viruses (SMSVs) capsid gene. The assay de...

  9. Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of the outer membrane protein P2 gene for the detection of Haemophilus parasuis in clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Rebeccah; Slavic, Durda; MacInnes, Janet I.; Cai, Hugh Y.

    2014-01-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of the outer membrane protein (OMP) P2 gene was developed and used to test 97 putative Haemophilus parasuis pure cultures and 175 clinical tissue samples. With standard culture isolation as the gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were determined to be 83% and 80%, respectively. PMID:24688178

  10. A real time polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in catfish pond water and genetic homogeneity of diagnostic case isolates from Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus pond water using modifications to a published E. ictaluri–specific qPCR assay and previously established protocols for the molecula...

  11. Avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida): A comparative analysis of different polymerase chain reaction assays in detection of mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana; Murauskaitė, Dovilė; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-04-01

    Mixed infections of different species and genetic lineages of haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) predominate in wildlife, and such infections are particularly virulent. However, currently used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection methods often do not read mixed infections. Sensitivity of different PCR assays in detection of mixed infections has been insufficiently tested, but this knowledge is essential in studies addressing parasite diversity in wildlife. Here, we applied five different PCR assays, which are broadly used in wildlife avian haemosporidian research, and compared their sensitivity in detection of experimentally designed mixed infections of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. Three of these PCR assays use primer sets that amplify fragments of cytochrome b gene (cyt b), one of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and one target apicoplast genome. We collected blood from wild-caught birds and, using microscopic and PCR-based methods applied in parallel, identified single infections of ten haemosporidian species with similar parasitemia. Then, we prepared 15 experimental mixes of different haemosporidian parasites, which often are present simultaneously in wild birds. Similar concentration of total DNA was used in each parasite lineage during preparation of mixes. Positive amplifications were sequenced, and the presence of mixed infections was reported by visualising double-base calling in sequence electropherograms. This study shows that the use of each single PCR assay markedly underestimates biodiversity of haemosporidian parasites. The application of at least 3 PCR assays in parallel detected the majority, but still not all lineages present in mixed infections. We determined preferences of different primers in detection of parasites belonging to different genera of haemosporidians during mixed infections.

  12. Expression, purification, and characterization of Clostridium botulinum type B light chain.

    PubMed

    Gilsdorf, Janice; Gul, Nizamettin; Smith, Leonard A

    2006-04-01

    A full-length synthetic gene encoding the light chain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B, approximately 50 kDa (BoNT/B LC), has been cloned into a bacterial expression vector pET24a+. BoNT/B LC was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21.DE3.pLysS and isolated from the soluble fraction. The resultant protein was purified to homogeneity by cation chromatography and was determined to be >98% pure as assessed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel stained with SilverXpress and analyzed by densitometry. Mass spectroscopic analysis indicated the protein to be 50.8 kDa, which equaled the theoretically expected mass. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed the sequence corresponded to the known reported sequence. The recombinant BoNT/B light chain was found to be highly stable, catalytically active, and has been used to prepare antisera that neutralizes against BoNT/B challenge. Characterization of the protein including pH, temperature, and the stability of the protein in the presence or absence of zinc is described within. The influence of pH differences, buffer, and added zinc on secondary and tertiary structure of BoNT/B light chain was analyzed by circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence measurements. Optimal conditions for obtaining maximum metalloprotease activity and stabilizing the protein for long term storage were determined. We further analyzed the thermal denaturation of BoNT/B LC as a function of temperature to probe the pH and added zinc effects on light chain stability. The synthetic BoNT/B LC has been found to be highly active on its substrate (vesicle associated membrane protein-2) and, therefore, can serve as a useful reagent for BoNT/B research.

  13. High level expression of human enteropeptidase light chain in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Pepeliaev, Stanislav; Krahulec, Ján; Černý, Zbyněk; Jílková, Jana; Tlustá, Marcela; Dostálová, Jana

    2011-10-20

    Human enterokinase (enteropeptidase, rhEP), a serine protease expressed in the proximal part of the small intestine, converts the inactive form of trypsinogen to active trypsin by endoproteolytic cleavage. The high specificity of the target site makes enterokinase an ideal tool for cleaving fusion proteins at defined cleavage sites. The mature active enzyme is comprised of two disulfide-linked polypeptide chains. The heavy chain anchors the enzyme in the intestinal brush border membrane, whereas the light chain represents the catalytic enzyme subunit. The synthetic gene encoding human enteropeptidase light chain with His-tag added at the C-terminus to facilitate protein purification was cloned into Pichia pastoris expression plasmids under the control of an inducible AOX1 or constitutive promoters GAP and AAC. Cultivation media and conditions were optimized as well as isolation and purification of the target protein. Up to 4 mg/L of rhEP was obtained in shake-flask experiments and the expression level of about 60-70 mg/L was achieved when cultivating in lab-scale fermentors. The constitutively expressing strains proved more efficient and less labor-demanding than the inducible ones. The rhEP was immobilized on AV 100 sorbent (Iontosorb) to allow repeated use of enterokinase, showing specific activity of 4U/mL of wet matrix.

  14. Calcyon, a novel partner of clathrin light chain, stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiping; Dai, Rujuan; Negyessy, Laszlo; Bergson, Clare

    2006-06-02

    In the central nervous system, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is crucial for efficient synaptic transmission. Clathrin-coated vesicle assembly and disassembly is regulated by some 30 adaptor and accessory proteins, most of which interact with clathrin heavy chain. Using the calcyon cytosolic domain as bait, we isolated clathrin light chain in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The interaction domain was mapped to the heavy chain binding domain and C-terminal regions of light chain. Further, the addition of the calcyon C terminus stimulated clathrin self-assembly in a dose-dependent fashion. Calcyon, which is a single transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in brain, localized to vesicular compartments within pre- and postsynaptic structures. There was a high degree of overlap in the distribution of LC and calcyon in neuronal dendrites, spines, and cell bodies. Co-immunoprecipitation studies further suggested an association of calcyon with the clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery. Compared with controls, HEK293 cells overexpressing calcyon exhibited significantly enhanced transferrin uptake but equivalent levels of recycling. Conversely, transferrin uptake was largely abolished in neocortical neurons obtained from mice homozygous for a calcyon null allele, whereas recycling proceeded at wild type levels. Collectively, these data indicate a role for calcyon in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in brain.

  15. Spinon and bound-state excitation light cones in Heisenberg XXZ chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, A. L.; Bragança, H.; Pereira, R. G.; Drumond, R. C.; Aguiar, M. C. O.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics after a local quench that connects two spin-1/2 XXZ chains prepared in the ground state of the Hamiltonian in different phases, one in the ferromagnetic phase and the other in the critical phase. We analyze the time evolution of the on-site magnetization and bipartite entanglement entropy via adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group. In systems with short-range interactions, such as the one we consider, the velocity of information transfer is expected to be bounded, giving rise to a light-cone effect. Interestingly, our results show that, when the anisotropy parameter of the critical chain is sufficiently close to that of the isotropic ferromagnet, the light cone is determined by the velocity of spin-wave bound states that propagate faster than single-particle ("spinon") excitations. Furthermore, we investigate how the system approaches equilibrium in the inhomogeneous ground state of the connected system, in which the ferromagnetic chain induces a nonzero magnetization in the critical chain in the vicinity of the interface.

  16. Antioxidant capacity reduced in scallions grown under elevated CO 2 independent of assayed light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Paré, Paul W.

    2009-10-01

    Long-duration manned space missions mandate the development of a sustainable life support system and effective countermeasures against damaging space radiation. To mitigate the risk of inevitable exposure to space radiation, cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is an attractive alternative to pharmacological agents. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties of crops can be preserved or enhanced in a space environment where environmental conditions differ from that which plants have acclimated to on earth. Scallion ( Allium fistulosum) rich in antioxidant vitamins C and A, and flavonoids was used as a model plant to study the impact of a range of CO 2 concentrations and light intensities that are likely encountered in a space habitat on food quality traits. Scallions were hydroponically grown in controlled environmental chambers under a combination of 3 CO 2 concentrations of 400, 1200 and 4000 μmol mol -1 and 3 light intensity levels of 150, 300, 450 μmol m -2 s -1. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) of scallion extracts was determined using a radical cation scavenging assay. Both elevated CO 2 and increasing light intensity enhanced biomass accumulation, but effects on TAA (based on dry weight) differed. TAA was reduced for plants grown under elevated CO 2, but remained unchanged with increases in light intensity. Elevated CO 2 stimulated greater biomass production than antioxidants, while an increase in photosynthetic photo flux promoted the synthesis of antioxidant compounds at a rate similar to that of biomass. Consequently light is a more effective stimulus than CO 2 for antioxidant production.

  17. High-throughput sequencing of the paired human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain repertoire.

    PubMed

    DeKosky, Brandon J; Ippolito, Gregory C; Deschner, Ryan P; Lavinder, Jason J; Wine, Yariv; Rawlings, Brandon M; Varadarajan, Navin; Giesecke, Claudia; Dörner, Thomas; Andrews, Sarah F; Wilson, Patrick C; Hunicke-Smith, Scott P; Willson, C Grant; Ellington, Andrew D; Georgiou, George

    2013-02-01

    Each B-cell receptor consists of a pair of heavy and light chains. High-throughput sequencing can identify large numbers of heavy- and light-chain variable regions (V(H) and V(L)) in a given B-cell repertoire, but information about endogenous pairing of heavy and light chains is lost after bulk lysis of B-cell populations. Here we describe a way to retain this pairing information. In our approach, single B cells (>5 × 10(4) capacity per experiment) are deposited in a high-density microwell plate (125 pl/well) and lysed in situ. mRNA is then captured on magnetic beads, reverse transcribed and amplified by emulsion V(H):V(L) linkage PCR. The linked transcripts are analyzed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. We validated the fidelity of V(H):V(L) pairs identified by this approach and used the method to sequence the repertoire of three human cell subsets-peripheral blood IgG(+) B cells, peripheral plasmablasts isolated after tetanus toxoid immunization and memory B cells isolated after seasonal influenza vaccination.

  18. A novel monoclonal antibody against the constant region of goose immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongli; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Sheng, Qiaoling; Wang, Qian; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Junwei

    2014-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the antigenic determinant of the constant region of goose immunoglobulin light chain (GoIgCL) was produced and characterized for the first time here. Goose immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and the resulting protein was used as immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. At the same time, the GoIgCL gene was expressed and purified as the screening antigen for selecting MAb against GoIgCL. One hybridoma that produces antibodies against GoIgCL was selected by indirect ELISA. Then the characterization of the MAb was analyzed by ELISA, Western blot, and flow cytometry. It was found to be IgG1 with κ light chain; the MAB has high specificity to Ig in goose serum, bile, and B lymphocytes from peripheral blood, reacts only with the light chain of goose Ig, and can distinguish Ig from other birds. Therefore, the MAb generated in this study can be used as a specific reagent for detection of goose disease-specific antibodies and as a powerful tool for basic immunology research on geese.

  19. Apolipoprotein C-II Deposition Amyloidosis: A Potential Misdiagnosis as Light Chain Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schuiteman, Emily; Zarouk, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary amyloidoses are rare and pose a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of hereditary amyloidosis associated with apolipoprotein C-II deposition in a 61-year-old female presenting with renal failure and nephrotic syndrome misdiagnosed as light chain amyloidosis. Renal biopsy was consistent with amyloidosis on microscopy; however, immunofluorescence was inconclusive for the type of amyloid protein. Monoclonal gammopathy evaluation revealed kappa light chain. Bone marrow biopsy revealed minimal involvement with amyloidosis with kappa monotypic plasma cells on flow cytometry. She was started on chemotherapy for light chain amyloidosis. She was referred to the Mayo clinic where laser microdissection and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detected high levels of apolipoprotein C-II, making a definitive diagnosis. Apolipoprotein C-II is a component of very low-density lipoprotein and aggregates in lipid-free conditions to form amyloid fibrils. The identification of apolipoprotein C-II as the cause of amyloidosis cannot be solely made with routine microscopy or immunofluorescence. Further evaluation of biopsy specimens with laser microdissection and mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing of exons should be done routinely in patients with amyloidoses for definitive diagnosis. Our case highlights the importance of determining the subtype of amyloidosis that is critical for avoiding unnecessary therapy such as chemotherapy. PMID:27840752

  20. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-02-18

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies.

  1. Solid-state NMR chemical shift assignments for AL-09 VL immunoglobulin light chain fibrils.

    PubMed

    Piehl, Dennis W; Blancas-Mejía, Luis M; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Rienstra, Chad M

    2017-04-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterized by the formation of immunoglobulin light-chain fibrils in critical organs of the body. The light-chain protein AL-09 presents one severe case of cardiac AL amyloidosis, which contains seven mutations in the variable domain (VL) relative to its germline counterpart, κI O18/O8 VL. Three of these mutations are non-conservative-Y87H, N34I, and K42Q-and previous work has shown that they are responsible for significantly reducing the protein's thermodynamic stability, allowing fibril formation to occur with fast kinetics and across a wide-range of pH conditions. Currently, however, there is extremely limited structural information available which explicitly describes the residues that are involved in supporting the misfolded fibril structure. Here, we assign the site-specific (15)N and (13)C chemical shifts of the rigid residues of AL-09 VL fibrils by solid-state NMR, reporting on the regions of the protein involved in the fibril as well as the extent of secondary structure.

  2. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  3. A novel method of preparing the monoform structure of catalytic antibody light chain.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Itonaga, Shogo; Arakawa, Mitsue; Katayama, Yoshiki; Kato, Ryuichi; Uda, Taizo

    2016-02-01

    Along with the development of antibody drugs and catalytic antibodies, the structural diversity (heterogeneity) of antibodies has been given attention. For >20 yr, detailed studies on the subject have not been conducted, because the phenomenon presents many difficult and complex problems. Structural diversity provides some (or many) isoforms of an antibody distinguished by different charges, different molecular sizes, and modifications of amino acid residues. For practical use, the antibody and the subunits must have a defined structure. In recent work, we have found that the copper (Cu) ion plays a substantial role in solving the diversity problem. In the current study, we used several catalytic antibody light chains to examine the effect of the Cu ion. In all cases, the different electrical charges of the molecule converged to a single charge, giving 1 peak in cation-exchange chromatography, as well as a single spot in 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Cu-binding site was investigated by using mutagenesis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscope analysis, and molecular modeling, which suggested that histidine and cysteine residues close to the C-terminus are involved with the binding site. The constant region domain of the antibody light chain played an important role in the heterogeneity of the light chain. Our findings may be a significant tool for preparing a single defined, not multiple, isoform structure.

  4. Clearance of the heavy and light polypeptide chains of human tissue-type plasminogen activator in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rijken, D C; Emeis, J J

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess which part of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) molecule should be (genetically) modified to obtain more-slowly-clearing mutants, two-chain t-PA and its isolated heavy and light chains were radiolabelled and injected into rats. The vast majority of t-PA and the heavy chain disappeared from the blood circulation with half-lives of 2.3 and 1.0 min respectively. The clearance of the light chain was biphasic, owing to complex-formation with plasma proteinase inhibitors. The disappearance of di-isopropylphospho-light chain, which has a blocked active site, was nearly monophasic, with a half-life of 5.7 min. Organ distribution studies showed that hepatic clearance constituted the major pathway in all cases. These results strongly suggest that t-PA is recognized by the liver primarily through the heavy chain. PMID:3099771

  5. Free Light Chains and Intrathecal B Cells Activity in Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Passerini, Gabriella; Sangalli, Francesca; Moiola, Lucia; Colombo, Bruno; Locatelli, Massimo; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The presence of CSF oligoclonal bands (OBs) is an independent prognostic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but the difficulties in the standardization of the test and the interlaboratory variation in reporting have contributed to its limited use in the diagnosis of the disease. Standard nephelometric assays to measure free light chains (FLC) levels have been recently developed and the test may improve the detection of intrathecal B cells activity. Methods. The presence of OBs, kappa and lambda FLC levels, and standard indices of intrathecal inflammation were assessed in 100 consecutive patients, including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), other inflammatory diseases of the CNS, and other noninflammatory diseases. Results. Both KFLC and LFLC correlated strongly with the presence of OCBs and with all common tests for intrathecal inflammation (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). KFLC and LFLC were significantly different in patients with MS and CIS compared to the other groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, resp.) and had a better diagnostic accuracy than all the other tests (area under the curve 82.3 % for KFLC index and 79.3 % for LFLC index). Conclusion. Nephelometric assays for KFLC in CSF reliably detect intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis and discriminate MS patients. PMID:28116160

  6. Vincristine promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells through RhoA/ROCK/ Myosin light chain pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Liu, K; Jiao, B; Wang, X; Huang, S; Ren, W; Zhao, K

    2016-10-31

    Vincristine is an antitumor vinca alkaloid isolated from vinca rosea, and is a medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the impact of vincristine on oncogenic phenotypes of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. MTT assay demonstrated that vincristine showed a obviously inhibitory effect on cell growth compared to non-treated cells. However, Transwell assay showed that vincristine promoted migration and invasion of HCT116 cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.5 and 15 μM vincristine treatment, whereas cell growth showed no remarkable difference within the same concentration range. Additionally, Western blot analysis showed that vincristine significantly elevated RhoA activity and Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway in the vincristine-induced enhancement of cellular motility. Furthermore, we found that both the siRNA for RhoA and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 attenuated the phosphorylation of MLC, as well as vincristine-induced migration and invasion. These data indicate that vincristine enhanced migration and invasion of HCT116 cells possibly through stimulating RhoA/ROCK/MLC signaling pathway.

  7. Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed

    Kothlow, Sonja; Haüslaigner, Rafaela; Kaspers, Bernd; Grund, Christian

    2008-06-01

    In the present study a monoclonal antibody (mAb 14A3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. Western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum IgY light chain of different duck species: Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (Dafila acuta). Reactivity was also evident with IgY of two swan species--mute swan (Cygnus olor) and black-necked swan (Sthenelides melanocoryphus)--and two goose species--domestic goose (Anser anser var. domestica) and red-breasted goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis). Applying the mAb for Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 [APMV-1]) test systems, its functionality within indirect immunoassays was evaluated. Using APMV-1-positive sera of domestic geese and Muscovy ducks, mAb 14A3 facilitated specific staining of APMV-1-infected cells in an immunofluorescence test. In addition, it proved to be functional in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a western blot assay. Thus, the analysed mAb represents an attractive and versatile reagent that offers the opportunity to develop serological tests for waterfowl, allowing a high sample throughput using the ELISA technique or the fine analysis of humoral immune responses using the western blot.

  8. A quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based assay to detect carcinoma cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, W.; ten Poele, R.; Meersma, G. J.; Mulder, N. H.; de Vries, E. G.; de Leij, L.; Smit, E. F.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of tumour cells in the circulation may predict disease recurrence and metastasis. To improve on existing methods of cytological or immunocytological detection, we have developed a sensitive and quantitative technique for the detection of carcinoma cells in blood, using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identifying transcripts of the pancarcinoma-associated tumour marker EGP-2 (KSA or 17-1A antigen). The amount of EGP2 mRNA was quantified using an internal recombinant competitor RNA standard with known concentration and which is both reversely transcribed and co-amplified in the same reaction, allowing for a reliable assessment of the initial amount of EGP2 mRNA in the sample. Calibration studies, seeding blood with MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, showed that the assay can detect ten tumour cells among 1.0 x 10(6) leucocytes. The PCR assay revealed that normal bone marrow expresses low levels of EGP2 mRNA, although immunocytochemistry with the anti-EGP2 MAb MOC31 could not identify any positively stained cell. Analyses using this RT-PCR assay may prove to have applications to the assessment of circulating tumour cells in clinical samples. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9218728

  9. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  10. Sensitive electrochemical determination of miRNAs based on a sandwich assay onto magnetic microcarriers and hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    PubMed

    Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Campuzano, S; Montiel, V Ruiz-Valdepeñas; Montoya, J J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-12-15

    A novel electrochemical approach for determination of miRNAs involving a sandwich hybridization assay onto streptavidin-magnetic beads (Strep-MBs), hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification and amperometric detection at disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes is reported. Using miRNA-21 as the target analyte, a dynamic linear range from 0.2 to 5.0nM with a 60pM (1.5fmol in 25μL) detection limit was obtained. The achieved sensitivity is 24-fold higher than a non-HCR amplification approach involving conventional sandwich type assay onto MBs. Moreover, the whole assay time lasted 1h 45min which is remarkably shorter than other reported methodologies. The methodology exhibited full selectivity against other non-complementary miRNAs as well as an acceptable discrimination between homologous miRNA family members. The applicability of this novel approach was demonstrated by determining mature miRNA-21 in total RNA (RNAt) extracted from tumor cells and human tissues.

  11. Application of a real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay for the early diagnosis of human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Denipitiya, D T H; Chandrasekharan, N V; Abeyewickreme, W; Hartskeerl, C M; Hartskeerl, R A; Jiffrey, A M; Hapugoda, M D

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis has a major impact on health in Sri Lanka but is probably grossly under-recognized due to difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of diagnostic laboratory services. The objective of this study was to establish and evaluate a SYBR Green-based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) assay for early, rapid and definitive laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. The rt-PCR assay was established and analytical specificity and sensitivity were determined using reference DNA samples. Evaluation of the assay for diagnosis of clinical samples was performed using two panels of serum samples obtained from 111 clinically suspected adult patients. Patients were confirmed as leptospirosis (n = 65) and non-leptospirosis (n = 30) by the Patoc - MAT. Other 16 samples gave ambiguous results. The analytical sensitivity of the rt-PCR was approximately 60 genome copies and no cross-reactivity was observed with saprophytic Leptospira spp. and other pathogenic microorganisms. Based on confirmation with Patoc-MAT on paired samples this corresponds to a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 67.7% (44/65) and 90.0% (27/30), respectively. This study showed that rt-PCR has the potential to facilitate rapid and definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis during early phase of infection in Sri Lanka.

  12. Electrochemical Branched-DNA Assay for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Free Detection and Quantification of Oncogenes in Messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcript in the population of messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify targets signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-napthyl-phosphate. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection of target transcript in as little as 4.6 ng mRNA without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcript in total mRNA population. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and quantitative tool alternate to the RQ-PCR for early disease diagnosis.

  13. Development and use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in snakes.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Bunick, David; Dzhaman, Elena; Burrus, Lucienne; Maddox, Carol

    2015-03-01

    Fungal pathogens threatening the conservation of wildlife are becoming increasingly common. Since 2008, free-ranging snakes across North America have been experiencing a marked increase in the prevalence of snake fungal disease associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Diagnosis has historically relied on histology, microbiology, and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). More sensitive methods are needed to adequately characterize the epidemiology. The current study describes the development of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detecting a segment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region between the 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay was able to detect as few as 1.05 × 10(1) gene copies per reaction. An additional 4 positive cases were detected when comparing a conventional PCR (n = 3) and the qPCR (n = 7) when used on swab samples from 47 eastern massasauga rattlesnakes. The newly developed assay is a sensitive and specific tool for surveillance and monitoring in the conservation of free-ranging snakes.

  14. Yeast Reporter Assay to Identify Cellular Components of Ricin Toxin A Chain Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Schnöder, Tina; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    RTA, the catalytic A-subunit of the ribosome inactivating A/B toxin ricin, inhibits eukaryotic protein biosynthesis by depurination of 28S rRNA. Although cell surface binding of ricin holotoxin is mainly mediated through its B-subunit (RTB), sole application of RTA is also toxic, albeit to a significantly lower extent, suggesting alternative pathways for toxin uptake and transport. Since ricin toxin trafficking in mammalian cells is still not fully understood, we developed a GFP-based reporter assay in yeast that allows rapid identification of cellular components required for RTA uptake and subsequent transport through a target cell. We hereby show that Ypt6p, Sft2p and GARP-complex components play an important role in RTA transport, while neither the retromer complex nor COPIB vesicles are part of the transport machinery. Analyses of yeast knock-out mutants with chromosomal deletion in genes whose products regulate ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases (Arf-GTPases) and/or retrograde Golgi-to-ER (endoplasmic reticulum) transport identified Sso1p, Snc1p, Rer1p, Sec22p, Erv46p, Gea1p and Glo3p as novel components in RTA transport, suggesting the developed reporter assay as a powerful tool to dissect the multistep processes of host cell intoxication in yeast. PMID:27929418

  15. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning and analysis of recombinant DNase monoclonal κ light chain NGK-1.

    PubMed

    Kostrikina, Irina A; Odintsova, Elena S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2014-08-01

    Because DNase antibodies are cytotoxic, enter the nucleus and cause DNA fragmentation inducing cell death by apoptosis, they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune pathologies and especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The interesting goal of catalytic antibodies research is not only to study a possible biological role of such antibodies, but also to develop in future new human and animal therapies that use the advantages offered by abzymes. An immunoglobulin κ light chain library from SLE patients was cloned into a phagemid vector. Phage particles displaying recombinant monoclonal antibody light chains (MLChs) capable of binding DNA were isolated by affinity chromatography on DNA-cellulose. Sixteen of the 46 MLChs efficiently hydrolyzed DNA; one MLCh (approximately 27-28kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal chelating and gel filtration. MLCh NGK-1 was electrophoretically homogeneous and demonstrated a positive answer with mouse IgGs against light chains of human antibodies after western blotting. SDS-PAGE in a gel containing DNA demonstrated that the MLCh hydrolyzes DNA and is not contaminated by canonical DNases. The DNase MLCh was activated by several metal ions. The protein sequence of the DNase MLCh has homology with mammalian DNases I and shares with them several identical or similar (with the same side chain functionality) important amino acid residues, which are necessary for DNA hydrolysis and binding of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions. The affinity of DNA for this first example of a MLCh (K(M) = 0.3 microM) was 150- to 200-fold higher than for human DNase I.

  16. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  17. Gangliosides, Ab1 and Ab2 antibodies II. Light versus heavy chain: An idiotype-anti-idiotype case study.

    PubMed

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Mabel; de Acosta, Cristina Mateo; Moreno, Ernesto; Puchades, Yaquelin; González, Majela; Talavera, Ariel; Valle, Aisel; Hernández, Tays; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando

    2007-02-01

    The antibody heavy chain is generally more important than the light chain for the interaction with the antigen, although many reports demonstrate the influence of the light chain in the antibody binding properties. The heavy chains of anti-N-glycolyl-ganglioside P3 mAb and anti-idiotypic 1E10 mAb display complementary charged residues in their H-CDRs, particularly in H-CDR3. A basic residue in P3 mAb H-CDR1 was shown to be crucial for the interaction with the antigen and 1E10 mAb. The immunogenetic features of three other P3 mAb anti-idiotypic mAbs are now analyzed. One of them bears the same heavy chain as 1E10 mAb and a different light chain, but differs in its binding to P3 mAb mutants where H-CDR basic residues were replaced and in the binding to 1E10-specific phagotopes. Chimeric hybrid antibodies with P3 and 1E10 mAb heavy chains and unrelated light chains were obtained to further determine the importance of heavy chains in P3 and 1E10 mAb binding properties. One of the P3 heavy chain hybrid antibodies retained the specificity of P3 mAb with slight affinity differences. The heavy chains appear to play the main role in these mAb interactions, with the light chains modulating the affinity to their ligands.

  18. Clinical validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lobo, P; González-Galán, V; García-Quintanilla, M; Valencia, R; Cazalla, A; Martín, C; Alonso, I; Pérez-Romero, P; Cisneros, J M; Aznar, J; McConnell, M J

    2016-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches have not been assessed in terms of their ability to detect patients colonized by Acinetobacter baumannii during active surveillance. This prospective, double-blind study demonstrated that a real-time PCR assay had high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (91.2%) compared with conventional culture for detecting A. baumannii in 397 active surveillance samples, and provided results within 3h. Receiver-operator curve analyses demonstrated that the technique has diagnostic accuracy of 97.7% (95% confidence interval 96.0-99.3%). This method could facilitate the rapid implementation of infection control measures for preventing the transmission of A. baumannii.

  19. A simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of four environmentally relevant fungal contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dean, Timothy R; Roop, Barbara; Betancourt, Doris; Menetrez, Marc Y

    2005-04-01

    Historically, identification of filamentous fungal (mold) species has been based on morphological characteristics, both macroscopic and microscopic. These methods may often be time-consuming and inaccurate, necessitating the development of identification protocols that are rapid, sensitive, and precise. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has shown great promise in its ability to identify and quantify individual organisms from a mixed culture environment; however, the cost effectiveness of single organism PCR reactions is quickly becoming an issue. Our laboratory has developed a simple method to identify multiple fungal species, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium purpurogenum, and Cladosporium spp. by performing multiplex PCR and distinguishing the different reaction products by their mobility during agarose gel electrophoresis. The amplified genes include the beta-Tubulin gene from A. versicolor, the Tri5 gene from S. chartarum, and ribosomal sequences from both P. purpurogenum and Cladosporium spp. This method was found to be both rapid and easy to perform, while maintaining high sensitivity and specificity for characterizing isolates, even from a mixed culture.

  20. Phototoxicology. 2. Near-ultraviolet light enhancement of Microtox assays of trinitrotoluene and aminodinitrotoluenes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L R; Davenport, R; Balbach, H; Schaeffer, D J

    1994-02-01

    Coexposure of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A), or 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A) to near-ultraviolet (nuv) light (lambda max-354 nm) significantly enhanced their toxicity toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox bioassay) during 30 min but not 15 min. Based on the slopes of the dose-response lines, the nuv coexposure and dark toxic mechanisms of action for TNT, 2A, and 4A appeared to be similar. nuv coexposure of binary mixtures significantly enhanced (supraadditivity) the toxicity of these compounds to P. phosphoreum. Under normal laboratory lighting, the toxicity of TNT + 2A and 2A + 4A mixtures were supraadditive but the toxicity of TNT + 4A mixtures could be explained by simple addition. Supporting these conclusions, the response curves of alpha-terthienyl, a compound known not to require nuv for toxicity, were similar in the dark and with nuv coexposure. In contrast, angelicin and psoralen, compounds known to require nuv coexposure to damage DNA, gave response curves having different slopes in the dark and with nuv coexposure. The nuv coexposure Microtox assay was able to detect and quantify phototoxicity in psoralen, angelicin, alpha-terthienyl, anthracene, TNT, and aminodinitrotoluenes.

  1. A species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Colletotrichum capsici.

    PubMed

    Torres-Calzada, C; Tapia-Tussell, R; Quijano-Ramayo, A; Martin-Mex, R; Rojas-Herrera, R; Higuera-Ciapara, I; Perez-Brito, D

    2011-09-01

    Colletotrichum capsici is an important fungal species that causes anthracnose in many genera of plants causing severe economic losses worldwide. A primer set was designed based on the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions for use in a conventional PCR assay. The primer set (CcapF/CcapR) amplified a single product of 394 bp with DNA extracted from 20 Mexican isolates of C. capsici. The specificity of primers was confirmed by the absence of amplified product with DNA of four other Colletotrichum species and eleven different fungal genera. This primer set is capable of amplifying only C. capsici from different contaminated tissues or fungal structures, thereby facilitating rapid diagnoses as there is no need to isolate and cultivate the fungus in order to identify it. The sensitivity of detection with this PCR method was 10 pg of genomic DNA from the pathogen. This is the first report of a C. capsici-specific primer set. It allows rapid pathogen detection and provides growers with a powerful tool for a rational selection of fungicides to control anthracnose in different crops and in the post-harvest stage.

  2. Bacterial kinesin light chain (Bklc) links the Btub cytoskeleton to membranes

    PubMed Central

    Akendengue, Lurlène; Trépout, Sylvain; Graña, Martín; Voegele, Alexis; Janke, Carsten; Raynal, Bertrand; Chenal, Alexandre; Marco, Sergio; Wehenkel, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial kinesin light chain is a TPR domain-containing protein encoded by the bklc gene, which co-localizes with the bacterial tubulin (btub) genes in a conserved operon in Prosthecobacter. Btub heterodimers show high structural homology with eukaryotic tubulin and assemble into head-to-tail protofilaments. Intriguingly, Bklc is homologous to the light chain of the microtubule motor kinesin and could thus represent an additional eukaryotic-like cytoskeletal element in bacteria. Using biochemical characterization as well as cryo-electron tomography we show here that Bklc interacts specifically with Btub protofilaments, as well as lipid vesicles and could thus play a role in anchoring the Btub filaments to the membrane protrusions in Prosthecobacter where they specifically localize in vivo. This work sheds new light into possible ways in which the microtubule cytoskeleton may have evolved linking precursors of microtubules to the membrane via the kinesin moiety that in today’s eukaryotic cytoskeleton links vesicle-packaged cargo to microtubules. PMID:28358387

  3. Urinary monoclonal free light chains in primary Sjögren's syndrome: an aid to the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M T; Stevenson, F K; Herbert, A; Cawley, M I; Smith, J L

    1986-01-01

    Three patients, two with typical primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and the third with several features of SS, including abnormal sialography and reduced tear secretion, developed B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of parotid or lung, or both. Isoelectric focusing of concentrated urine specimens in agarose, followed by immunofixation, demonstrated the presence in each patient's urine of monoclonal free light chains of the same class as that shown on the tumour cells. In one patient the level of urinary free light chains was monitored and found to correlate with disease activity. Similar techniques showed no monoclonal light chains in the urine from a further 26 cases of SS with no clinical evidence of lymphoma. The detection of monoclonal urinary free light chains may provide an early diagnostic clue to the development of lymphoma in patients with SS and be a means of tumour monitoring. Images PMID:3082300

  4. Cryo-EM reveals the steric zipper structure of a light chain-derived amyloid fibril

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Andreas; Annamalai, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Matthias; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Fändrich, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are proteinaceous aggregates associated with diseases in humans and animals. The fibrils are defined by intermolecular interactions between the fibril-forming polypeptide chains, but it has so far remained difficult to reveal the assembly of the peptide subunits in a full-scale fibril. Using electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM), we present a reconstruction of a fibril formed from the pathogenic core of an amyloidogenic immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain. The fibril density shows a lattice-like assembly of face-to-face packed peptide dimers that corresponds to the structure of steric zippers in peptide crystals. Interpretation of the density map with a molecular model enabled us to identify the intermolecular interactions between the peptides and rationalize the hierarchical structure of the fibril based on simple chemical principles. PMID:27185936

  5. Differential diagnosis of Goatpox virus in Taiwan by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay and high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kun-Wei; Lee, Ming-Liang; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li; Ho, Chia-Fang; Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-03-01

    The A32L gene from a Goatpox virus (GTPV) strain isolated from a goat in Yunlin County (Taiwan) displays several substitutions compared with the sequence of the Kenyan GTPV vaccine strain SGP0240 and the Pellor GTPV strain. Samples from the skin lesions on 6 goats with GTPV infection or from goats with Orf virus (ORFV) infection were tested in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system that used primers GPF, GPR1, and GPR2 as well as previously published primers specific for ORFV. These primers were able to amplify either GTPV or ORFV without cross-reactivity. A high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) was carried out on amplified DNA from the skin lesions of 6 goats with GTPV infection and with the GTPV SGP0240 strain. The results indicated that the melting temperature profiles amplified from samples with Yunlin GTPV infection can be differentiated from the GTPV SGP0240 strain. The findings showed that a successful differential assay for these GTPVs had been developed. Accordingly, both methods can be used to detect and differentiate GTPV isolated from animals that may have either been vaccinated or been infected with a wild strain. The multiplex PCR and HRMA could be used on skin samples of suspected cases to serve as the front-line and confirmative assays, respectively, which will be beneficial to the eradication of GTPV.

  6. A chimera of green fluorescent protein with single chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenosides for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanizaki, Yusuke; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    A chimera of green fluorescent protein extracted from Aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP), a mutant that has been codon optimized for mammalian expression, with single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against ginsenoside Re (GRe-scFv), named fluobody, has been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to develop simple, speedy, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA). Two chimera proteins were constructed to contain GRe-scFv at the C-terminus of AcGFP (C-fluobody) and at the N-terminus of AcGFP (N-fluobody). These fluobodies were then purified by ion metal affinity chromatography and refolded by stepwise dialysis. The characterization of both fluobodies revealed that C-fluobody was found to be appropriate probe for FLISA as compare with N-fluobody. Furthermore, improvement of limit of detection (LOD) was observed in FLISA using C-fluobody (10 ng/mL) due to its strong fluorescence intensity of AcGFP compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using parental monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re (G-Re), MAb-4G10 (100 ng/mL). Since some steps required in ELISA can be avoided in this present FLISA, speedy and sensitive immunoassay also could be performed using fluobody instead of monoclonal antibody and scFv.

  7. Clathrin light chain B: gene structure and neuron-specific splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Dinsmore, J; Kaufmann, C A; Brosius, J; Helfman, D M

    1992-01-01

    The clathrin light chains are components of clathrin coated vesicles, structural constituents involved in endocytosis and membrane recycling. The clathrin light chain B (LCB) gene encodes two isoforms, termed LCB2 and LCB3, via an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. We have determined the structure of the rat clathrin light chain B gene. The gene consists of six exons that extend over 11.9 kb. The first four exons and the last exon are common to the LCB2 and LCB3 isoforms. The fifth exon, termed EN, is included in the mRNA in brain, giving rise to the brain specific form LCB2 but is excluded in other tissues, generating the LCB3 isoform. Primary rat neuronal cell cultures express predominantly the brain specific LCB2 isoform, whereas primary rat cultures of glia express only the LCB3 isoform, suggesting that expression of the brain-specific LCB2 form is limited to neurons. Further evidence for neuronal localization of the LCB2 form is provided using a teratocarcinoma cell line, P19, which can be induced by retinoic acid to express a neuronal phenotype, concomitant with the induction of the LCB2 form. In order to determine the sequences involved in alternative splice site selection, we constructed a minigene containing the alternative spliced exon EN and its flanking intron and exon sequences. This minigene reflects the splicing pattern of the endogenous gene upon transfection in HeLa cell and primary neuronal cell cultures, indicating that this region of the LCB gene contains all the necessary information for neuron-specific splicing. Images PMID:1408826

  8. Molecular characterization of the immunoglobulin light chain variable region repertoire of human autoantibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Victor, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular structures of the light chain variable regions encoding human autoantibodies have been studied in detail. The variable region repertoire among this group of antibodies is diverse. There is no evidence for preferential utilization of specific V[sub L] gene families or over-representation of certain V[sub L] gene segments in autoantibodies. Many autoreactive antibodies utilize direct copies of known germline gene segments with little evidence of somatic mutation, supporting the conclusion that at least some germline gene segments encode autoreactivity. Additionally, the structures of several autoantibodies are clearly the product of somatic mutation. Lastly, affinity maturation has been demonstrated in two clonally related IgM rheumatoid factors suggestive of an antigen driven response. The heterogeneity of the V[sub L] region repertoire in human autoantibodies challenges evidence in the literature suggesting that the majority of human autoantibodies utilize the same or closely related germline gene segments with no evidence of somatic mutation. In addition, this study has documented that variation in the length of the light chain is a common feature in human antibodies. Length variation is confined to the V[sub k]-J[sub k] joint of CDR3 and occurs in all V[sub k] gene families. Analysis of the structures of the V[sub k]-J[sub k] joints suggests that both germline derived and non-germline encoded nucleotides (N-segments), probably the result of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity, contribute to the junctional diversity of the immunoglobulin light chain variable region. Thus, length variation at the V[sub L]-J[sub L] joint is a frequent event having the potential to expand the diversity of the antibody molecule.

  9. Structural Characterization of the Partially Folded Intermediates of An Immunoglobulin Light Chain Leading to Amyloid Fibrillation And Amorphous Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Z.; Hu, D.; Zhu, M.; Fink, A.L.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2007-07-12

    Immunoglobulin light chain deposition diseases involve various types of extracellular deposition of light chain variable domains, including amyloid fibrils and amorphous deposits. The decreased thermodynamic stability of the light chain is believed to be the major factor leading to fibrillation. However, the differences in the nature of the deposits among the light chain deposition diseases raise the question of whether the mechanisms leading to fibrillar or amorphous aggregation is different. In this study, we generated two partially folded intermediates of the light chain variable domain SMA in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and characterized their conformations. The more unfolded intermediate formed fibrils most rapidly, while the more native-like intermediate predominantly led to amorphous deposits. The results also show that the monomeric, rather than the dimeric state, was critical for fibrillation. The data also indicate that fibril elongation involves addition of a partially unfolded intermediate, rather than the native state. We postulate that a more highly unfolded intermediate is more suited to undergo the topological rearrangements necessary to form amyloid fibrils than a more structured one and that this also correlates with increased destabilization. In the case of light chain aggregation, it appears that more native-like intermediate conformations are more prone to form amorphous deposits.

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of cholera toxin using gold nanoparticle-based simple colorimetric and dynamic light scattering assay.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadia Afrin; DeGrasse, Jeffrey A; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Croley, Timothy R

    2015-09-10

    Herein, a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle based colorimetric and dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay for the sensitive detection of cholera toxin has been developed. The developed assay is based on the distance dependent properties of gold nanoparticles which cause aggregation of antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in the presence of cholera toxin resulting discernible color change. This aggregation induced color change caused a red shift in the plasmon band of nanoparticles which was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, we employed DLS assay to monitor the extent of aggregation in the presence of different concentration of cholera toxin. Our assay can visually detect as low as 10 nM of cholera toxin which is lower than the previously reported colorimetric methods. The reported assay is very fast and showed an excellent specificity against other diarrhetic toxins. Moreover, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our method for cholera toxin detection in local lake water.

  11. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay.

  12. Sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding the heavy and light chain variable regions of a WSSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Karlo Dante T; Nomura, Nakao; Matsumura, Masatoshi

    2008-12-01

    Antibodies raised against individual viral envelope proteins have been used in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) neutralization assays. We report here the sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding the variable regions of a novel monoclonal antibody that binds to the viral envelope protein and neutralizes WSSV infection. The heavy and light variable chains are most homologous to VH7183 germline gene (AF120472) and IgVk RF germline gene (AJ235936), respectively. Database searches using the derived sequences predicted residues comprising CDR loops. The 12 amino acid residue of the heavy chain CDR3 is rich in negatively charged aspartic acid (25%) and did not show significant homology to any murine V gene available on the database. This study provides insights on the paratope-epitope interaction and can be used to identify compounds with comparable properties as the paratope leading to future development of drugs and vaccines for WSSV infection.

  13. ANNALS EXPRESS: Impact of light exposure on TSH results using the Siemens Advia Centaur TSH-3Ultra assay.

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane M; Giles, Diane; Lancaster, Ian; Brownbill, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Background TSH is used as the first line test of thyroid function. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics recommend that Siemens Centaur reagents must be protected from light in the assay information and on reagent packaging. We have compared the effect of light exposure on results using Siemens TSH-3Ultra and FSH reagents. The TSH reagent includes fluoroscein thiocyanate (FITC) whereas the FSH reagent does not. Methods Three levels of quality controls were analysed using SiemensTSH-3Ultra and FSH reagent packs that had been kept protected from light or exposed to light at 6 hour intervals for 48 hours and then at 96 hours. Results TSH results were significantly lower after exposure of TSH-3Ultra reagent packs to light. Results were >15% lower at all three levels of QC following 18 hours of light exposure and continued to decrease until 96 hours. There was no significant difference in FSH results whether reagents had been exposed to or protected from light. Conclusions TSH results but not FSH results are lowered after exposure of reagent packs to light. Laboratories must ensure that TSH-3Ultra reagents are not exposed to light and analyse quality control samples on every reagent pack to check that there has not been light exposure prior to delivery. The labelling on TSH-3Ultra reagent packs should reflect the significant effect of light exposure compared to the FSH reagent. We propose that the effect of light exposure on binding of FITC to the solid phase antibody is causing the falsely low results.

  14. Molecular mechanism of telokin-mediated disinhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase and cAMP/cGMP-induced relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Khromov, Alexander S; Momotani, Ko; Jin, Li; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V; Shannon, John; Eto, Masumi; Somlyo, Avril V

    2012-06-15

    Phospho-telokin is a target of elevated cyclic nucleotide concentrations that lead to relaxation of gastrointestinal and some vascular smooth muscles (SM). Here, we demonstrate that in telokin-null SM, both Ca(2+)-activated contraction and Ca(2+) sensitization of force induced by a GST-MYPT1(654-880) fragment inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase were antagonized by the addition of recombinant S13D telokin, without changing the inhibitory phosphorylation status of endogenous MYPT1 (the regulatory subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) at Thr-696/Thr-853 or activity of Rho kinase. Cyclic nucleotide-induced relaxation of force in telokin-null ileum muscle was reduced but not correlated with a change in MYPT1 phosphorylation. The 40% inhibited activity of phosphorylated MYPT1 in telokin-null ileum homogenates was restored to nonphosphorylated MYPT1 levels by addition of S13D telokin. Using the GST-MYPT1 fragment as a ligand and SM homogenates from WT and telokin KO mice as a source of endogenous proteins, we found that only in the presence of endogenous telokin, thiophospho-GST-MYPT1 co-precipitated with phospho-20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain 20 and PP1. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that S13D telokin bound to full-length phospho-MYPT1. Results of a protein ligation assay also supported interaction of endogenous phosphorylated MYPT1 with telokin in SM cells. We conclude that the mechanism of action of phospho-telokin is not through modulation of the MYPT1 phosphorylation status but rather it contributes to cyclic nucleotide-induced relaxation of SM by interacting with and activating the inhibited full-length phospho-MYPT1/PP1 through facilitating its binding to phosphomyosin and thus accelerating 20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain dephosphorylation.

  15. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of immunoglobulin light-chain immunoreactive amyloid in psammoma bodies of the human choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Stojanović, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the presence of amyloid and to quantify immunohistochemical reactions of kappa and lambda light chains of psammoma bodies of the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus tissue obtained from 14 right lateral ventricles postmortem was processed histologically and stained with Congo red, thioflavin T, and monoclonal antibodies for kappa and lambda light chains. Morphological analysis was performed with a light microscope at lens magnifications of 4×, 10×, 20×, 25×, and 40×. The morphometric characteristics of psammoma bodies that were kappa and lambda positive and negative were analyzed with ImageJ. Histological analysis showed that the psammoma bodies, stromal blood vessel walls, and some epithelial cells reacted positively with Congo red and thioflavin T. Psammoma bodies were predominantly positive for lambda light chains. Lambda positivity was detected inside some stromal blood vessels, which pointed to a probable systemic origin for these light chains. Morphometric analysis showed that the mean optical densities of lambda- and kappa-positive psammoma bodies were significantly higher than those that gave a negative reaction. The percentage of lambda-positive psammoma bodies was significantly higher than the percentage of lambda-negative psammoma bodies in 80% of the cases, while the reaction with kappa light chains was negative in the majority of the cases. Linear regression analysis showed a significant increase in the percentage of lambda-positive psammoma bodies and their mean optical density with age. Finally, it can be concluded that the positive reaction of psammoma bodies in the choroid plexus with respect to amyloid and lambda light chains may point to the presence of light-chain amyloid in their structures.

  16. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Tembusu Virus in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-11

    specific conventional and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting TMUV RNA in infected cell...fold 5 days after inoculation. These assays resulted in the detection of virus-specific RNA in the presence of copurified mosquito nucleic acids. The use...flaviviruses, TMUV is a linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with a genome size of approximately 11 kb. Its RNA encodes 10 proteins, including

  17. Inhibition of pathologic immunoglobulin free light chain production by small interfering RNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Jonathan E.; Kestler, Daniel P.; Foster, James S.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Donnell, Robert; Weiss, Deborah T.; Solomon, Alan; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Morbidity and mortality occurring in patients with multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, and light chain deposition disease can result from the pathologic deposition of monoclonal Ig light chains (LCs) in kidneys and other organs. To reduce synthesis of such components, therapy for these disorders typically has involved anti-plasma cell agents; however, this approach is not always effective and can have adverse consequences. We have investigated another means to achieve this objective; namely, RNA interference (RNAi). Materials and Methods SP2/O mouse myeloma cells were stably transfected with a construct encoding a λ6 LC (Wil) under control of the CMV promoter, while λ2-producing myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 was purchased from the ATCC. Both were treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed specifically to the V, J, or C portions of the molecules and then analyzed by ELISA, flow cytometry and real time PCR. Results Transfected cells were found to constitutively express detectable quantities of mRNA and protein Wil and, after exposure to siRNAs, an ~40% reduction in mRNA and LC production was evidenced at 48 hours. An even greater effect was seen with the 8226 cells. Conclusion Our results have shown that RNAi can markedly reduce LC synthesis and provide the basis for testing the therapeutic potential of this strategy using in vivo experimental models of multiple myeloma. PMID:20637260

  18. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  19. Unique Substrate Recognition Mechanism of the Botulinum Neurotoxin D Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiubiao; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent protein toxins in nature. Despite the potential to block neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction and cause human botulism, they are widely used in protein therapies. Among the seven botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, mechanisms of substrate recognition and specificity are known to a certain extent in the A, B, E, and F light chains, but not in the D light chain (LC/D). In this study, we addressed the unique substrate recognition mechanism of LC/D and showed that this serotype underwent hydrophobic interactions with VAMP-2 at its V1 motif. The LC/D B3, B4, and B5 binding sites specifically recognize the hydrophobic residues in the V1 motif of VAMP-2. Interestingly, we identified a novel dual recognition mechanism employed by LC/D in recognition of VAMP-2 sites at both the active site and distal binding sites, in which one site of VAMP-2 was recognized by two independent, but functionally similar LC/D sites that were complementary to each other. The dual recognition strategy increases the tolerance of LC/D to mutations and renders it a good candidate for engineering to improve its therapeutic properties. In conclusion, in this study, we identified a unique multistep substrate recognition mechanism by LC/D and provide insights for LC/D engineering and antitoxin development. PMID:23963459

  20. Effect of lysine modification on the stability and cellular binding of human amyloidogenic light chains.

    PubMed

    Davern, S; Murphy, C L; O'Neill, H; Wall, J S; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A

    2011-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is characterized by the pathologic deposition as fibrils of monoclonal light chains (i.e., Bence Jones proteins [BJPs]) in particular organs and tissues. This phenomenon has been attributed to the presence in amyloidogenic proteins of particular amino acids that cause these molecules to become unstable, as well as post-translational modifications and, in regard to the latter, we have investigated the effect of biotinylation of lysyl residues on cell binding. We utilized an experimental system designed to test if BJPs obtained from patients with AL amyloidosis or, as a control, multiple myeloma (MM), bound human fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells. As documented by fluorescence microscopy and ELISA, the amyloidogenic BJPs, as compared with MM components, bound preferentially and this reactivity increased significantly after chemical modification of their lysyl residues with sulfo-NHS-biotin. Further, based on tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism data, it was apparent that their conformation was altered, which we hypothesize exposed a binding site not accessible on the native protein. The results of our studies indicate that post-translational structural modifications of pathologic light chains can enhance their capacity for cellular interaction and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma.

  1. Planarian myosin essential light chain is involved in the formation of brain lateral branches during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuying; Chen, Xuhui; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhou, Luming; Pang, Qiuxiang; Mao, Bingyu; Zhao, Bosheng

    2015-08-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structure component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, however, the functions in the central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarian Dugesia japonica has revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. In this study, the cDNA DjElc, encoding a planarian essential light chain of myosin, was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It encodes a deduced protein with highly conserved functionally domains EF-Hand and Ca(2+) binding sites that shares significant similarity with other members of ELC. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that DjElc expressed in CNS during embryonic development and regeneration of adult planarians. Loss of function of DjElc by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits brain lateral branches regeneration completely. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DjElc is required for maintenance of neurons and neurite outgrowth, particularly for involving the brain later branch regeneration.

  2. Effect of Lysine Modification on the Stability and Cellular Binding of Human Amyloidogenic Light Chains

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Davern, Sandra M.; Murphy, Charles L.; Wall, Jonathan; Deborah, Weiss T.; Solomon, Alan

    2011-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is characterized by the pathologic deposition as fibrils of monoclonal light chains (i.e., Bence Jones proteins [BJPs]) in particular organs and tissues. This phenomenon has been attributed to the presence in amyloidogenic proteins of particular amino acids that cause these molecules to become unstable, as well as post-translational modifications and, in regard to the latter, we have investigated the effect of biotinylation of lysyl residues on cell binding. We utilized an experimental system designed to test if BJPs obtained from patients with AL amyloidosis or, as a control, multiple myeloma (MM), bound human fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells. As documented by fluorescent microscopy and ELISA, the amyloidogenic BJPs, as compared with MM components, bound preferentially and this reactivity increased significantly after chemical modification of their lysyl residues with sulfo-NHS-biotin. Further, based on tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichorism data, it was apparent that their conformation was altered, which we hypothesize exposed a binding site not accessible on the native protein. The results of our studies indicate that post-translational structural modifications of pathologic light chains can enhance their capacity for cellular interaction and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma.

  3. Regulatory light chain phosphorylation increases eccentric contraction-induced injury in skinned fast-twitch fibers.

    PubMed

    Childers, Martin K; McDonald, Kerry S

    2004-02-01

    During contraction, activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) results in phosphorylation of myosin's regulatory light chain (RLC), which potentiates force and increases speed of force development over a wide range of [Ca(2+)]. We tested the hypothesis that RLC phosphorylation by MLCK mediates the extent of eccentric contraction-induced injury as measured by force deficit in skinned fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. Results indicated that RLC phosphorylation in single skinned rat psoas fibers significantly increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of isometric force; isometric force from 50 +/- 16 to 59 +/- 18 kN/m(2) during maximal Ca(2+) activation; peak absolute power output from 38 +/- 15 to 48 +/- 14 nW during maximal Ca(2+) activation; and the magnitude of contraction-induced force deficit during maximal (pCa 4.5) activation from 26 +/- 9.8 to 35 +/- 9.6%. We conclude that RLC phosphorylation increases force deficits following eccentric contractions, perhaps by increasing the number of force-generating cross-bridges.

  4. Myosin light chain kinase and Src control membrane dynamics in volume recovery from cell swelling

    PubMed Central

    Barfod, Elisabeth T.; Moore, Ann L.; Van de Graaf, Benjamin G.; Lidofsky, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

     The expansion of the plasma membrane, which occurs during osmotic swelling of epithelia, must be retrieved for volume recovery, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we have identified myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) as a regulator of membrane internalization in response to osmotic swelling in a model liver cell line. On hypotonic exposure, we found that there was time-dependent phosphorylation of the MLCK substrate myosin II regulatory light chain. At the sides of the cell, MLCK and myosin II localized to swelling-induced membrane blebs with actin just before retraction, and MLCK inhibition led to persistent blebbing and attenuated cell volume recovery. At the base of the cell, MLCK also localized to dynamic actin-coated rings and patches upon swelling, which were associated with uptake of the membrane marker FM4-64X, consistent with sites of membrane internalization. Hypotonic exposure evoked increased biochemical association of the cell volume regulator Src with MLCK and with the endocytosis regulators cortactin and dynamin, which colocalized within these structures. Inhibition of either Src or MLCK led to altered patch and ring lifetimes, consistent with the concept that Src and MLCK form a swelling-induced protein complex that regulates volume recovery through membrane turnover and compensatory endocytosis under osmotic stress. PMID:21209319

  5. [Ontogenetic and phylogenetic analysis of myosin light chain proteins from skeletal muscles of loach Misgurnus fossilis].

    PubMed

    Miuge, N S; Tikhonov, A V; Ozerniuk, N D

    2005-01-01

    mRNAs of all three types of myosin light chain proteins are expressed in skeletal muscles of both larval and adult stages of loach Misgurnus fossilis (Cobitidae) and these proteins are encoded by different genes (mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3). No difference was revealed between transcripts from larval stage and adult fish for all three mlc proteins. Our approach (RT-PCR with fish-specific mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3 primers) failed to reveal the larval form of myosin light chain protein found previously by protein electrophoresis of loach fry muscle extract. Comparative analysis of the protein structure shows high homology of MLC1 and MLC3 proteins sharing a large EF-hand calcium-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of MLC1 from skeletal muscles of fish and other vertebrate species is concordant with the traditional phylogeny of the group. Within the Teleostei, loach MLC1 had the highest homology with other Cyprinidae, and least with Salmonidae fishes.

  6. Expression of heavy chain‐only antibodies can support B‐cell development in light chain knockout chickens

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Collarini, Ellen J.; Pedersen, Darlene; Yi, Henry; Ching, Kathryn; Izquierdo, Shelley; Thoma, Theresa; Lettmann, Sarah; Kaspers, Bernd; Etches, Robert J.; van de Lavoir, Marie‐Cecile; Harriman, William

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of antibody‐producing B cells in chickens six decades ago, chickens have been a model for B‐cell development in gut‐associated lymphoid tissue species. Here we describe targeting of the immunoglobulin light chain locus by homologous recombination in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and generation of VJCL knockout chickens. In contrast to immunoglobulin heavy chain knockout chickens, which completely lack mature B cells, homozygous light chain knockout (IgL−/−) chickens have a small population of B lineage cells that develop in the bursa and migrate to the periphery. This population of B cells expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain molecule on the cell surface. Soluble heavy‐chain‐only IgM and IgY proteins of reduced molecular weight were detectable in plasma in 4‐week‐old IgL−/− chickens, and antigen‐specific IgM and IgY heavy chain proteins were produced in response to immunization. Circulating heavy‐chain‐only IgM showed a deletion of the CH1 domain of the constant region enabling the immunoglobulin heavy chain to be secreted in the absence of the light chain. Our data suggest that the heavy chain by itself is enough to support all the important steps in B‐cell development in a gut‐associated lymphoid tissue species. PMID:27392810

  7. Catalytic antibody light chain capable of cleaving a chemokine receptor CCR-5 peptide with a high reaction rate constant.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Yukie; Hifumi, Emi; Tsuruhata, Kumi; Fujinami, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Uda, Taizo

    2004-04-20

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb), ECL2B-2, was obtained by immunizing a peptide possessing a part of a sequence of a chemokine receptor, CCR-5, which is present as a membrane protein on the macrophage surface, and which plays an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. From the DNA and the deduced amino acid sequences of the light and heavy chains of ECL2B-2 MAb, molecular modeling was conducted to calculate the steric conformation of the antibody. Modeling suggested that the structure of ECL2B-2 could possess one or two catalytic triad(s), composed of Asp(1), Ser(27a) (or Ser(27e)), and His(93) (or His(27d)), in the light chain of ECL2B-2. The three amino acid residues, Asp(1), Ser(27a), and His(93), are identical to those of catalytic antibody light chains such as VIPase and i41SL1-2. The light chain of ECL2B-2 MAb degraded the antigenic peptide CCR-5 within about 100 h. Surprisingly, the light chain had a very high catalytic reaction rate constant (k(cat)) of 2.23 min(-1), which is greater by factors of tens to hundreds than those of natural catalytic antibodies obtained previously. The heavy chain of ECL2B-2 MAb, which has no catalytic triad because of a lack of His residue, did not degrade the CCR-5 peptide.

  8. Light Chain Deposition Disease Diagnosed with Laser Micro-dissection, Liquid Chromatography, and Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Nodular Glomerular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kasagi, Tomomichi; Nobata, Hironobu; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miura, Naoto; Banno, Shogo; Takami, Akiyoshi; Yamashita, Taro; Ando, Yukio; Imai, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 42-year-old man developed nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive renal failure. Kidney biopsy demonstrated nodular glomerulosclerosis, negative Congo red staining, and no deposition of light or heavy chains. Laser micro-dissection and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry of nodular lesions revealed the presence of a kappa chain constant region and kappa III variable region, which signified light chain deposition disease. Dexamethasone and thalidomide were effective in decreasing the serum levels of free kappa light chain from 147.0 to 38.0 mg/L, eliminating proteinuria, and halting the worsening of the kidney dysfunction, with serum creatinine levels stable around 4.0 mg/dL for 3 years. PMID:28050001

  9. Rearrangement of immunoglobulin light chain genes in the chicken occurs prior to colonization of the embryonic bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed Central

    Mansikka, A; Sandberg, M; Lassila, O; Toivanen, P

    1990-01-01

    We have applied polymerase-chain-reaction-directed immunoglobulin gene analysis to study the embryonic differentiation of chicken B cells. Immunoglobulin light chain DNA segments in the rearranged configuration were amplified from cells of the intraembryonic mesenchyme as early as day 7 of incubation. We showed by sequencing that the rearranged variable region genes in these early B-cell progenitors were not different from the germ-line V lambda 1 gene (the single functional light chain variable region gene in chickens). In the bursal B lymphocytes, on the other hand, clear gene conversion events were first observed at day 15 of embryonic development. The present data indicate that rearrangement of light chain genes in the chicken occurs independently of the bursa of Fabricius and that diversification of the variable region begins only later, when the surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells are proliferating in the bursal follicles. Images PMID:2123557

  10. Site-specific photobiotinylation of antibodies, light chains, and immunoglobulin fragments.

    PubMed

    Pavlinkova, G; Lou, D; Kohler, H

    2000-09-01

    The high affinity of biotin for avidin has been exploited for many antibody-based assays. This requires that biotin is covalently conjugated to the antibody molecule. Several chemically reactive biotinylation reagents are commercially available. Except for the attachment via sulfhydryl groups in the immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, these reagents attach biotin randomly to various amino acid side chains. Although non-site-specific modification of antibodies does not interfere in most immunoassays, specific application and sensitive antibodies would benefit from site-specific biotinylation. Here we describe an affinity biotinylation technique based on a photoreactive biotin reagent. The design of this reaction was possible from the discovery of a conserved binding site in the variable Ig domain for nucleotides and nucleosides. The described photoaffinity biotinylation offers the advantages of ease, convenience, and production of a reproducible and defined biotinylated antibody preparation.

  11. Dynein light chain binding to a 3′-untranslated sequence mediates parathyroid hormone mRNA association with microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Eyal; Sela-Brown, Alin; Ringel, Israel; Kilav, Rachel; King, Stephen M.; Benashski, Sharon E.; Yisraeli, Joel K.; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2000-01-01

    The 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs binds proteins that determine mRNA stability and localization. The 3′-UTR of parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA specifically binds cytoplasmic proteins. We screened an expression library for proteins that bind the PTH mRNA 3′-UTR, and the sequence of 1 clone was identical to that of the dynein light chain LC8, a component of the dynein complexes that translocate cytoplasmic components along microtubules. Recombinant LC8 binds PTH mRNA 3′-UTR, as shown by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We showed that PTH mRNA colocalizes with microtubules in the parathyroid gland, as well as with a purified microtubule preparation from calf brain, and that this association was mediated by LC8. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dynein complex protein binding an mRNA. The dynein complex may be the motor that is responsible for transporting mRNAs to specific locations in the cytoplasm and for the consequent is asymmetric distribution of translated proteins in the cell. PMID:10683380

  12. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-01-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  13. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for a bacterial thiaminase I gene and the thiaminase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, C.A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, J.L.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The thiaminase I enzyme produced by the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from the viscera of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengus is currently the only defined source of the thiaminase activity linked to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the larvae of Great Lakes salmonines. Diets of alewife or isolated strains of P. thiaminolyticus mixed in a semipurified diet and fed to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been shown to produce EMS in fry. We utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to aid in studies of the sources of P. thiaminolyticus and thiaminase I. Quantitative PCR assays were established to detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus, the 16S rRNA gene from most species of bacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene specifically from P. thiaminolyticus and a few closely related taxa. The Q-PCR assays are linear over at least six orders of magnitude and can detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus from as few as 1,000 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample or the Paenibacillus 16S rRNA gene from as few as 100 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample. The initial results from alewife viscera samples with high thiaminase activity yielded unexpectedly low densities of P. thiaminolyticus cells; Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus was detectable in 2 of 6 alewife viscera tested at densities on the order of 100 cells/g out of 100,000,000 total bacterial cells/g. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected suggest that alewives contain additional non-P. thiaminolyticus sources of thiaminase activity.

  14. A cytometric bead assay for sensitive DNA detection based on enzyme-free signal amplification of hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Hongmei; Yang, Wenxia; Fan, Yunlong; Yang, Lang; Wang, Yucong; Liu, Chenghui; Li, Zhengping

    2013-11-15

    A versatile flow cytometric bead assay (CBA) is developed for sensitive DNA detection by integrating the advantages of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for enzyme-free signal amplification, flow cytometry for robust and rapid signal readout as well as magnetic beads (MBs) for facile separation. In this HCR-CBA, a biotinylated hairpin DNA (Bio-H1) is firstly immobilized on streptavidin-functionalized MBs. Upon the addition of target DNA, each target would hybridize with one Bio-H1 to open its hairpin structure and subsequently initiate a cascade of hybridization events between two species of fluorescent DNA hairpin probes (H1*/H2*) to form a nicked double helical DNA structure, resulting in amplified accumulation of numerous fluorophores on the MBs. Finally, the fluorescent MBs are directly analyzed by flow cytometry. This technique enables quantitative analysis of the HCR products anchored on the MBs as a function of target DNA concentration, and analysis of each sample can be completed within few minutes. Therefore, the HCR-CBA approach provides a practical DNA assay with greatly improved sensitivity. The detection limit of a model DNA target is 0.5 pM (3σ), which is about 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with traditional hybridization methods without HCR. Furthermore, the signal of complementary target can be clearly distinguished from that of single-base mismatched sequences, indicating the high specificity of the HCR-CBA. Moreover, this strategy is also successfully applied to the DNA analysis in complex biological samples, showing great potential in gene analysis and disease diagnosis in clinical samples.

  15. Typing of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from 2 years old Giemsa-stained dried blood spots using nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Dhiman, S; Rabha, B; Goswami, D; Yadav, K; Deka, M; Veer, V; Baruah, I

    2016-01-01

    A panel of 129 Giemsa-stained thick blood spots (TBS) confirmed for Plasmodium falciparum infection having different levels of parasite density were collected from a malaria endemic area. DNA was extracted and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed to amplify P. falciparum DNA. Nested PCR assay successfully amplified P. falciparum DNA at a very low parasitaemia of ~10 parasites/μl of blood. Current PCR assay is very simple and can be used retrospectively to monitor the invasion and prevalence of different Plasmodium species in endemic areas.

  16. Rapid detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 in the semen of infected bulls by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Masri, S A; Olson, W; Nguyen, P T; Prins, S; Deregt, D

    1996-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen and compared with the virus isolation method. When extended semen, commonly used in the bovine artificial insemination industry, was inoculated with BHV-1, the PCR assay detected BHV-1 DNA in semen inoculated at 0.25-2.5 TCID50 per 0.5 mL. In contrast, the lower limit of detection for virus isolation was 250 TCID50 of BHV-1 inoculated in 0.5 mL of extended semen. These methods were also used to detect BHV-1 in the semen of four bulls which were experimentally infected with BHV-1. All infected bulls demonstrated balanitis at 3 d post-inoculation (DPI) and severe balanoposthitis at 4 DPI. BHV-1 was detected in raw semen by virus isolation and PCR at 2 DPI, before balanitis was evident. For virus isolation, the last day that BHV-1 was detected during primary infection was 7 DPI for two bulls and 9 and 11 DPI for the other two bulls. In contrast, PCR detected BHV-1 in the bulls' semen until 14 or 18 DPI. For individual animals, PCR detected BHV-1 during primary infection for at least 1-10 d longer than virus isolation. Reactivation of BHV-1 from latency without the presence of visible lesions was promoted twice by two series of 5 d dexamethasone injections. For the first series of dexamethasone treatments, a positive virus isolation result was obtained on the 5th d of treatment for only one bull. In contrast, two bulls demonstrated evidence of viral reactivation on this day by PCR. All bulls shed BHV-1 in semen on d 4 after dexamethasone treatment, as evidenced by positive virus isolation and PCR results. One bull was still PCR positive 13 d later. For the second series of dexamethasone treatments, a small amount of virus was isolated from semen collected on d 3 or 4 after treatment for two bulls but not from the other two bulls. In contrast, semen samples from all bulls were PCR positive for either or both of these 2 d. In total, from 80 semen

  17. Discrimination of Culicoides midge larvae using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays based on DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene.

    PubMed

    Schwenkenbecher, Jan M; Mordue, A Jennifer; Switek, Krzysztof; Piertney, Stuart B

    2009-05-01

    The recent spread of Bluetongue disease in northwestern Europe has indicated the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides species to vector the disease. Because the different midge species vary in their ability to harbor and transmit the Bluetongue virus, quick and reliable identification is necessary to resolve the species composition of midge communities, both adult and larval, at any place at any given time point. Given that morphological identification of Culicoides species is problematic, we developed three multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that facilitate high-throughput analysis of midge specimens. One assay distinguishes between species of the so-called Culicoides obsoletus s.l. complex (including C. dewulfi), whereas two assays facilitate differentiation of species of the Culicoides pulicaris s.l. complex. These assays yield two PCR products: one species-specific and one generic band. We show the application of the assays in the analysis of Culicoides larvae from three different farms in northeast Scotland.

  18. Rapid Differentiation and Identification of Potential Severe Strains of Citrus tristeza Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex Taqman®-based real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect all strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and to identify potentially severe strains of the virus. A CTV TaqMan probe (CTV-CY5) based on the coat protein (CP) gene sequences...

  19. Human lambda light-chain constant region gene CMor lambda: the primary structure of lambda VI Bence Jones protein Mor.

    PubMed Central

    Frangione, B; Moloshok, T; Prelli, F; Solomon, A

    1985-01-01

    Serologic, structural, and genetic analyses have shown that the constant (C) region of human kappa light chains is encoded by a single gene, whereas that of lambda chains is encoded by multiple genes. We have determined the complete C region amino acid sequence of two monoclonal lambda VI light chains, Bence Jones proteins Sut and Mor. The C region of lambda chains Sut and Mor consists of 105 residues, as is characteristic for human lambda light chains, of which 102 are identical in sequence. Protein Sut has the C region sequence associated with the C lambda isotype Mcg-, Kern-, Oz+ and represents a product of the C lambda 3 (Kern-, Oz+) gene. Protein Mor has a C region sequence associated with Mcg-, Kern-, and Oz- proteins but differs from protein Sut by the presence of three amino acid interchanges at positions 168, 176, and 194. These substitutions distinguish protein Mor from lambda chains encoded by the C lambda 1 (Mcg+), C lambda 2 (Kern-, Oz-), and C lambda 3 (Kern-, Oz+) genes and provide further evidence for polymorphism of the human C lambda genome. The gene encoding the C region sequence of lambda chain Mor is designated CMor lambda. PMID:3923477

  20. Comprehensive polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of pathogenic DNA in lymphoproliferative disorders of the ocular adnexa

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Yoshihiko; Rao, Narsing A.; Takase, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Kinya; Umazume, Kazuhiko; Diaz-Aguilar, Daniel; Kezuka, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Goto, Hiroshi; Sugita, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents have been identified as a major cause of specific types of human cancers worldwide. Several microorganisms have been identified as potential aggravators of ocular adnexal neoplasms; however, given the rarity of these neoplasms, large epidemiological studies are difficult to coordinate. This study aimed to conduct an exhaustive search for pathogenic DNA in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of the ocular adnexa in a total of 70 patients who were diagnosed with LPD of the ocular adnexa between 2008 and 2013. Specimens were screened for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic DNA by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Among cases of conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, human herpes virus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, chlamydia, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA were detected. In cases of IgG4-related ocular disease, similar pathogens were detected but in a larger number of patients. Our PCR assays detected DNAs of various infectious agents in tumor specimens, especially HHV6, HHV7, and EBV, with different positive rates in various types of LPD. Chronic inflammatory stimulation or activation of oncogenes from these infectious agents might be involved in the pathogenesis of LPD of the ocular adnexa. PMID:27830722

  1. An unusual strain of Haemophilus parasuis that fails to react in a species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J

    2011-03-01

    A total of 30 nasal swabs from pigs preweaned and 11 nasal swabs from sick weaned pigs on a farm in Queensland, Australia, were cultured for the presence of Haemophilus parasuis. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) genotyping and indirect hemagglutination and gel diffusion serotyping were performed on the retrieved H. parasuis isolates. A total of 3 genotypes were recognized among the 42 isolates recovered, and 4 representative isolates of each genotype were found to be nontypeable in the Kielstein/Rapp-Gabrielson serotyping scheme. A total of 20 of the 22 isolates of genotype 1 did not amplify in the species-specific conventional PCR number 1 (cPCR1) based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene but did give the expected PCR amplicon in 2 other species-specific PCR assays, one of which is also based on the 16S rRNA gene. Nine selected isolates representing all genotypes, both positive and negative in the cPCR1, were sequenced, and all showed a 4-base mutation occurring at the forward primer annealing site. The quadruple base pair substitution from GTGG to TGTT near the 3' end of the forward primer sequence may explain the failure of amplification. Diagnostic laboratories should be aware that such failures can occur and should consider having an alternative PCR available to confirm negative results or, alternatively, use phenotypic characteristics for the identification of suspect H. parasuis isolates.

  2. Comparison between Culture and a Multiplex Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Detecting Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum

    PubMed Central

    Frølund, Maria; Björnelius, Eva; Lidbrink, Peter; Ahrens, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum was developed and compared with quantitative culture in Shepard's 10 C medium for ureaplasmas in urethral swabs from 129 men and 66 women, and cervical swabs from 61 women. Using culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the qPCR was 96% and 95% for female urethral and cervical swabs, respectively. In male urethral swabs the sensitivity was 89%. The corresponding specificities were 100%, 87% and 99%. The qPCR showed a linear increasing DNA copy number with increasing colour-changing units. Although slightly less sensitive than culture, this multiplex qPCR assay detecting U. urealyticum and U. parvum constitutes a simple and fast alternative to the traditional methods for identification of ureaplasmas and allows simultaneous species differentiation and quantitation in clinical samples. Furthermore, specimens overgrown by other bacteria using the culture method can be evaluated in the qPCR. PMID:25047036

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in secondary effluents using a most probable number-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Ryujiro; Loge, Frank J; Darby, Jeannie L

    2003-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in secondary effluent samples collected from activated-sludge facilities. Serial dilutions of the purified nucleic acid extracts from the samples were made and PCR was conducted to estimate the C. parvum oocyst concentration via a Poisson distribution-based most probable number (MPN). The degree of oocysts associated with wastewater particles was also evaluated. The sensitivity of the MPN-PCR assay was 20 oocysts/PCR unit. The detection limit of the concentration, extraction, and purification protocols in phosphate buffer saline spiked with a known concentration of oocysts ranged from 1.1 to 4.6 oocysts/L; the detection limit for the wastewater samples ranged from 11 to 4200 oocysts/L depending on the extent of inhibition in each sample. The recovery efficiency of the oocysts ranged from 48 to 59% in most samples. Oocysts were found in two out of seven samples with concentrations of 203 and 308 oocysts/L, as estimated by the MPN-PCR method. The oocysts were found only in the filtrate of the grab samples; particle-associated oocysts were not detected. Association of spiked C. parvum oocysts with particles in secondary effluent drawn from wastewater plants with varying operating conditions indicated a weak correlation between the degree of association and the mean cell residence time of the system.

  4. Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Bagaza virus.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Dolores; Rocha, Ana; Tena-Tomás, Cristina; Vigo, Marta; Agüero, Montserrat; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2012-09-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of disease in 2 wild bird species (red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) occurred in southern Spain. Bagaza virus (BAGV) was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak. BAGV had only been reported before in Western Africa (Central African Republic, Senegal) and in India. The first occurrence of BAGV in Spain stimulated a demand for rapid, reliable, and efficacious diagnostic methods to facilitate the surveillance of this disease in the field. This report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method based on a commercial 5'-Taq nuclease-3' minor groove binder DNA probe and primers targeting the Bagaza NS5 gene. The method allowed the detection of BAGV with a high sensitivity, whereas other closely related flaviviruses (Usutu virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus) were not detected. The assay was evaluated using field samples of red-legged partridges dead during the outbreak (n = 11), as well as samples collected from partridges during surveillance programs (n = 81). The results were compared to those obtained with a pan-flaviviral hemi-nested RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, which was employed originally to identify the virus involved in the outbreak. The results obtained with both techniques were 100% matching, indicating that the newly developed real-time RT-PCR is a valid technique for BAGV genome detection, useful in both diagnosis and surveillance studies.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction assay of ureaplasma strains isolated from high vaginal swabs of women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Adesina, O A; Adewole, I F

    2008-09-01

    Human ureaplasma previously had one species known as Ureaplasma urealyticum but was recently separated into 2 species, U. urealyticum and U. parvum. This study was carried out to separate the ureaplasma strains isolated from women attending a tertiary-care hospital in Nigeria. Thirty (30) Ureaplasma strains isolated from the vaginal tracts of 13 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant women were assayed. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed using two primer pairs: UMS-170/UMA-263 specific for U. urealyticum and UMS-57/UMA-222 specific for U. parvum. The positivity bands of the primer pairs were 476 bp and 326 bp for U. urealyticum and U. parvum respectively. All isolates were found to be U. urealyticumn (100%). Eleven (84.6%) of the 13 U. urealyticum from pregnant women were from asymptomatic women while from the non-pregnant women; 6 (35.3%) were from women with complaint of infertility problems; 5 (29.4%) from those who complained of vaginal discharge, one (5.9%) was asymptomatic while the remaining 5 (29.4%) had various other complaints. U. urealyticum is thus the prevalent species of Ureaplasma among pregnant and non-pregnant women in the study population and this to the best of our knowledge is a pioneer study to speciate human ureaplasmas in this country.

  6. Clinical responses with T lymphocytes targeting malignancy-associated κ light chains

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Carlos A.; Savoldo, Barbara; Torrano, Vicky; Ballard, Brandon; Zhang, Huimin; Dakhova, Olga; Liu, Enli; Carrum, George; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Gee, Adrian P.; Mei, Zhuyong; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Grilley, Bambi; Rooney, Cliona M.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Heslop, Helen E.; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Treatment of B cell malignancies with adoptive transfer of T cells with a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) shows remarkable clinical efficacy. However, long-term persistence of T cells targeting CD19, a pan–B cell marker, also depletes normal B cells and causes severe hypogammaglobulinemia. Here, we developed a strategy to target B cell malignancies more selectively by taking advantage of B cell light Ig chain restriction. We generated a CAR that is specific for the κ light chain (κ.CAR) and therefore recognizes κ-restricted cells and spares the normal B cells expressing the nontargeted λ light chain, thus potentially minimizing humoral immunity impairment. METHODS. We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial and treated 16 patients with relapsed or refractory κ+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) or multiple myeloma (MM) with autologous T cells genetically modified to express κ.CAR (κ.CARTs). Other treatments were discontinued in 11 of the 16 patients at least 4 weeks prior to T cell infusion. Six patients without lymphopenia received 12.5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide 4 days before κ.CART infusion (0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 κ.CARTs/m2). No other lymphodepletion was used. RESULTS. κ.CART expansion peaked 1–2 weeks after infusion, and cells remained detectable for more than 6 weeks. Of 9 patients with relapsed NHL or CLL, 2 entered complete remission after 2 and 3 infusions of κ.CARTs, and 1 had a partial response. Of 7 patients with MM, 4 had stable disease lasting 2–17 months. No toxicities attributable to κ.CARTs were observed. CONCLUSION. κ.CART infusion is feasible and safe and can lead to complete clinical responses. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00881920. FUNDING. National Cancer Institute (NCI) grants 3P50CA126752 and 5P30CA125123 and Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS) Specialized Centers of Research (SCOR) grant 7018. PMID:27270177

  7. Differences in potential for amino acid change after mutation reveals distinct strategies for kappa and lambda light-chain variation.

    PubMed

    Hershberg, Uri; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2006-10-24

    B cells generate varied yet functional clones under high rates of mutation of their V genes. It has been proposed that as a result of the opposing demands of diversification and preservation of integrity, the V genes of heavy and light chains have evolved to overexpress codons prone to amino acid change in their complementarity determining regions (CDR) compared with the framework (FW) regions. We have analyzed the germ-line V genes of heavy and light chains (both kappa and lambda), comparing codons of CDR and FW of the germ-line V regions both to each other and to control regions. We found that in both germ-line heavy chains and lambda chains, CDR codons are prone to replacement mutations, whereas in the FW, the opposite is true. Furthermore, the difference between CDR and FW in heavy chains and lambda chains is based on codons that are prone to nonconservative changes of amino acid. In contrast, in germ-line kappa chains, the codons in both CDR and FW are more prone to replacement mutations. We also demonstrated that negative selection during immune responses is more sensitive to nonconservative amino acid substitutions than overall amino acid change, demonstrating the applicability of our analysis to real-time process of selection in the immune system. The differences in germ-line kappa and lambda light chains' potential reaction to mutation suggests that via these two differently evolved light-chain types, the B cell repertoire encompasses two different strategies to balance diversity and stability in an immune response.

  8. Evaluation of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to assess PEDV transmission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura C; Crawford, Kimberly K; Lager, Kelly M; Kellner, Steven G; Brockmeier, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    In April 2013, a Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) epidemic began in the United States. As part of the response, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to detect PEDV were developed by several veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Our study evaluated RT-PCR PEDV assays that detect the N gene (gN) and S gene (gS) for their ability to detect PEDV infection and the transmission potential of pigs experimentally exposed to PEDV. Detection limits and quantification cycle (Cq) values of real-time RT-PCR were assayed for PEDV samples and positive controls for both gN and gS. The limit of detection for the gN assay was 10(-6) (mean Cq: 39.82 ± 0.30) and 10(-5) (mean Cq: 39.39 ± 0.72) for the gS assay with PEDV strain USA/Colorado/2013. Following recommended guidelines, rectal swabs (n = 1,064) were tested; 354 samples were positive by gN assay and 349 samples were positive by gS assay (Cq ≤ 34.99), 710 samples were negative by gN assay and 715 were negative by gS assay (Cq > 34.99) of which 355 and 344 were "undetermined" (i.e., undetected within a threshold of 40 RT-PCR cycles, by gN and gS assays, respectively). The coefficient of variation (intra-assay variation) ranged from 0.00% to 2.65% and interassay variation had an average of 2.75%. PEDV could be detected in rectal swabs from all pigs for ~2 weeks postinfection at which time the prevalence began to decrease until all pigs were RT-PCR negative by 5 weeks postinfection. Our study demonstrated that RT-PCR assays functioned well to detect PEDV and that the gN assay was slightly better.

  9. Prevalence and Risk of Progression of Light-Chain Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (LC-MGUS): A newly defined entity

    PubMed Central

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Larson, Dirk R.; Melton, L. Joseph; Colby, Colin L.; Therneau, Terry M.; Clark, Raynell; Kumar, Shaji K.; Bradwell, Arthur; Fonseca, Rafael; Jelinek, D. F.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a common premalignant plasma cell disorder defined by evidence of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH expression). MGUS is the precursor lesion for most cases of multiple myeloma (MM), but up to 20% of MM is characterized by complete lack of IgH expression; the prevalence of a corresponding precursor entity, light chain MGUS (LC-MGUS) is unknown. Methods We studied 18,357 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents age 50 years or older with the serum free light chain (FLC) assay. LC-MGUS was defined as an abnormal FLC-R with complete lack of IgH expression, plus elevation in the appropriate involved FLC. Findings An abnormal FLC-R was observed in 3.3% persons tested. Of these, 213 had IgH expression on immunofixation diagnostic of conventional MGUS, 57 of whom were previously undetected. Among the remaining 397 individuals, 146 had elevation of at least one FLC and met criteria for LC-MGUS. The prevalence of LC-MGUS was 0.8%, bringing the overall prevalence of MGUS+LC-MGUS to 4.2% among persons age 50-years and older. The risk of progression to MM among the LC-MGUS patients was 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 to 0.8%)/year. Twenty-three percent of LC-MGUS patients had renal disease either at the time of or subsequent to acquisition of the test sample. Interpretation LC-MGUS is prevalent in approximately 1% of a predominantly Caucasian, general population and poses a risk of progression to light-chain MM and related conditions comparable to that of low-risk MGUS. LC-MGUS was also associated with a risk for renal disease. PMID:20472173

  10. Interactions of a potent cyclic peptide inhibitor with the light chain of botulinum neurotoxin A: insights from x-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, D.; Adler, M.; Levit, M.; Krebs, M.; Sweeney, R.; Swaminathan, S.

    2015-10-17

    The seven antigenically distinct serotypes (A to G) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) are responsible for the deadly disease botulism. BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) exerts its lethal action by cleaving the SNARE protein SNAP-25, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release, flaccid paralysis and autonomic dysfunction. BoNTs are dichain proteins: the heavy chain is responsible for neurospecific binding, internalization and translocation, and the light chain is responsible for substrate cleavage. Because of their extreme toxicity and prior history of weaponization, the BoNTs are considered to be potential bioterrorism agents. No post-symptomatic therapeutic interventions are available for BoNT intoxication other than critical care; therefore it is imperative to develop specific antidotes against this neurotoxin. To this end, a cyclic peptide inhibitor (CPI-1) was synthesized and found to inhibit BoNT/A light chain (Balc) with high affinity. When tested in a cell-free Förster resonance excitation transfer (FRET) assay, CPI-1 was found to have a Ki of 13.9 nM using full-length Balc448 and 42.1 nM using a truncated crystallizable form of light chain (Balc424). Co-crystallization of CPI-1 with Balc424 revealed that in the Balc-CPI-1 complex, the inhibitor adopts a helical conformation, occupies a high percentage of the active site cavity and interacts in an amphipathic manner with critical active site residues. The data suggest that CPI-1 prevents SNAP-25 from accessing the Balc active site by blocking both the substrate binding path at the surface and the Zn2+ binding region involved in catalysis. This is in contrast to linear peptide inhibitors described to date which block only the latter

  11. Interactions of a potent cyclic peptide inhibitor with the light chain of botulinum neurotoxin A: insights from x-ray crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Kumaran, D.; Adler, M.; Levit, M.; ...

    2015-10-17

    The seven antigenically distinct serotypes (A to G) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) are responsible for the deadly disease botulism. BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) exerts its lethal action by cleaving the SNARE protein SNAP-25, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release, flaccid paralysis and autonomic dysfunction. BoNTs are dichain proteins: the heavy chain is responsible for neurospecific binding, internalization and translocation, and the light chain is responsible for substrate cleavage. Because of their extreme toxicity and prior history of weaponization, the BoNTs are considered to be potential bioterrorism agents. No post-symptomatic therapeutic interventions are available for BoNT intoxication other than critical care;more » therefore it is imperative to develop specific antidotes against this neurotoxin. To this end, a cyclic peptide inhibitor (CPI-1) was synthesized and found to inhibit BoNT/A light chain (Balc) with high affinity. When tested in a cell-free Förster resonance excitation transfer (FRET) assay, CPI-1 was found to have a Ki of 13.9 nM using full-length Balc448 and 42.1 nM using a truncated crystallizable form of light chain (Balc424). Co-crystallization of CPI-1 with Balc424 revealed that in the Balc-CPI-1 complex, the inhibitor adopts a helical conformation, occupies a high percentage of the active site cavity and interacts in an amphipathic manner with critical active site residues. The data suggest that CPI-1 prevents SNAP-25 from accessing the Balc active site by blocking both the substrate binding path at the surface and the Zn2+ binding region involved in catalysis. This is in contrast to linear peptide inhibitors described to date which block only the latter« less

  12. Four primordial immunoglobulin light chain isotypes, including lambda and kappa, identified in the most primitive living jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Flajnik, Martin F

    2007-10-01

    The discovery of a fourth immunoglobulin (Ig) light (L) chain isotype in sharks has revealed the origins and natural history of all vertebrate L chains. Phylogenetic comparisons have established orthology between this new shark L chain and the unique Xenopus L chain isotype sigma. More importantly, inclusion of this new L chain family in phylogenetic analyses showed that all vertebrate L chains can be categorized into four ancestral clans originating prior to the emergence of cartilaginous fish: one restricted to elasmobranchs (sigma-cart/type I), one found in all cold-blooded vertebrates (sigma/teleost type 2/elasmobranch type IV), one in all groups except bony fish (lambda/elasmobranch type II), and one in all groups except birds (kappa/elasmobranch type III/teleost type 1 and 3). All four of these primordial L chain isotypes (sigma, sigma-cart, lambda and kappa) have maintained separate V region identities since their emergence at least 450 million years ago, suggestive of an ancient physiological distinction of the L chains. We suggest that, based upon unique, discrete sizes of complementarity determining regions 1 and 2 and other features of the V region sequences, the different L chain isotypes arose to provide different functional conformations in the Ig binding site when they pair with heavy chains.

  13. Insulin-induced myosin light-chain phosphorylation during receptor capping in IM-9 human B-lymphoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, L Y

    1988-01-01

    We have examined further the interaction between insulin surface receptors and the cytoskeleton of IM-9 human lymphoblasts. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we determined that actin, myosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) are all accumulated directly underneath insulin-receptor caps. In addition, we have now established that the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ (as measured by fura-2 fluorescence) increases just before insulin-induced receptor capping. Most importantly, we found that the binding of insulin to its receptor induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain in vivo. Furthermore, a number of drugs known to abolish the activation properties of calmodulin, such as trifluoperazine (TFP) or W-7, strongly inhibit insulin-receptor capping and myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These data imply that an actomyosin cytoskeletal contraction, regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin and MLCK, is involved in insulin-receptor capping. Biochemical analysis in vitro has revealed that IM-9 insulin receptors are physically associated with actin and myosin; and most interestingly, the binding of insulin-receptor/cytoskeletal complex significantly enhances the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain. This insulin-induced phosphorylation is inhibited by calmodulin antagonists (e.g. TFP and W-7), suggesting that the phosphorylation is catalysed by MLCK. Together, these results strongly suggest that MLCK-mediated myosin light-chain phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the membrane-associated actomyosin contraction required for the collection of insulin receptors into caps. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3048249

  14. Two distinct myosin light chain structures are induced by specific variations within the bound IQ motifs—functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Terrak, Mohammed; Wu, Guanming; Stafford, Walter F.; Lu, Renne C.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The crystal structures of Mlc1p bound to IQ2 and IQ4 of Myo2p differ dramatically. When bound to IQ2, Mlc1p adopts a compact conformation in which both the N- and C-lobes interact with the IQ motif. However, in the complex with IQ4, the N-lobe no longer interacts with the IQ motif, resulting in an extended conformation of Mlc1p. The two light chain structures relate to two distinct subfamilies of IQ motifs, one of which does not interact with the N-lobes of calmodulin-like light chains. The correlation between light chain structure and IQ sequence is demonstrated further by sedimentation velocity analysis of complexes of Mlc1p with IQ motifs from Myo2p and Iqg1p. The resulting ‘free’ N-lobes of myosin light chains in the extended conformation could mediate the formation of ternary complexes during protein localization and/or partner recruitment. PMID:12554638

  15. Design and efficient production of bovine enterokinase light chain with higher specificity in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chun, Haarin; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Shin, Hang-Cheol

    2011-06-01

    Enterokinase light chain (EKL) is a serine protease that recognizes Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys (D(4)K) sequence and cleaves the C-terminal peptide bond of the lysine residue. The utility of EKL as a site-specific cleavage enzyme is hampered by sporadic cleavage at other sites than the canonical D(4)K recognition sequence. In order to produce more site-specific EKL, we have generated several EKL mutants in E. coli with substitutions at Tyr174 and Lys99 using PDI (protein disulfide isomerase) fusion system. Substitution of Tyr174 by basic residues confers higher specificity on EKL. The production of EKL with higher specificity could widen the utility of EKL as a site-specific cleavage enzyme to produce various recombinant proteins with therapeutic or industrial values.

  16. Crystal structure of a supercharged variant of the human enteropeptidase light chain.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Peter; Zahn, Michael; Sträter, Norbert; Zuchner, Thole

    2012-07-01

    The highly specific serine protease human enteropeptidase light chain cleaves the Asp4Lys recognition sequence and represents an interesting enzyme for biotechnological applications. The human enzyme shows 10 times faster kinetics compared to other animal sources but low solubility under low salt conditions, which hampers protein production and crystallization. Therefore, a supercharged variant (N6D/G21D/G22D/N142D/K210E/C112S) with increased solubility was used for crystallization. The structure (resolution, 1.9 Å) displays a typical α/β trypsin-like serine protease-fold. The mutations introduced for protein supercharging generate larger clusters of negative potential on both sites of the active cleft but do not affect the structural integrity of the protein.

  17. Dynein light intermediate chains maintain spindle bipolarity by functioning in centriole cohesion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura A; Villemant, Cécile; Starborg, Toby; Salter, Anna; Goddard, Georgina; Ruane, Peter; Woodman, Philip G; Papalopulu, Nancy; Woolner, Sarah; Allan, Victoria J

    2014-11-24

    Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein) is a minus end-directed microtubule motor protein with many cellular functions, including during cell division. The role of the light intermediate chains (LICs; DYNC1LI1 and 2) within the complex is poorly understood. In this paper, we have used small interfering RNAs or morpholino oligonucleotides to deplete the LICs in human cell lines and Xenopus laevis early embryos to dissect the LICs' role in cell division. We show that although dynein lacking LICs drives microtubule gliding at normal rates, the LICs are required for the formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle. Multipolar spindles with poles that contain single centrioles were formed in cells lacking LICs, indicating that they are needed for maintaining centrosome integrity. The formation of multipolar spindles via centrosome splitting after LIC depletion could be rescued by inhibiting Eg5. This suggests a novel role for the dynein complex, counteracted by Eg5, in the maintenance of centriole cohesion during mitosis.

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  19. Light chain crystalline kidney disease: diagnostic urine microscopy as the "liquid kidney biopsy".

    PubMed

    Luciano, Randy L; Castano, Ekaterina; Fogazzi, Giovanni B; Perazella, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder, which often causes parenchymal kidney disease. Light chain (LC) cast nephropathy represents the most common renal lesion. In some instances, LC crystals precipitate within renal tubular lumens and deposit within proximal tubular cell cytoplasms. Importantly, urine microscopy in such patients can provide insight into the underlying LC-related lesion. Here we present two patients with MM complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI) where LC crystalline casts were observed on urinary sediment analysis. Kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular injury with LC crystal casts within both tubular lumens and renal tubular epithelial cell cytoplasms. These findings suggest that the urinary sediment may be a non-invasive way to diagnose LC crystalline-induced AKI in patients with MM.

  20. [Light chain escape followed by leukemic transformation in a patient with IgD myeloma].

    PubMed

    Hatsuse, Mayumi; Fuchida, Shin-Ichi; Okano, Akira; Murakami, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old male with multiple myeloma (IgD-λ) received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) after induction of VAD in March 2008, and obtained a very good partial response. However, he required BOR/DEX and a second PBSCT for relapse, and in August 2012, treatment with LEN/DEX was started. After 4 cycles of LEN/DEX, IgD decreased but FLC-λ increased paradoxically, indicating a clonal change. In January 2013, an LCD regimen was started and after 4 cycles, IgD showed normalization, but his condition worsened as FLC-λ increased. This case showed a fulminant clinical course with light chain escape in this era of treating multiple myeloma with novel agents.

  1. Comparison of Microtox and Xenoassay Light as a Near Real Time River Monitoring Assay for Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Jirangon, Hussain; Johari, W. L. W.; Abdul Rachman, A. R.; Shukor, M. Y.; Syed, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescence-based assays for toxicants such as Microtox, ToxAlert, and Biotox have been used extensively worldwide. However, the use of these assays in near real time conditions is limited due to nonoptimal assay temperature for the tropical climate. An isolate that exhibits a high luminescence activity in a broad range of temperatures was successfully isolated from the mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta. This isolate was tentatively identified as Photobacterium sp. strain MIE, based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Optimum conditions that support high bioluminescence activity occurred between 24 and 30°C, with pH 5.5 to 7.5, 10 to 20 g/L of sodium chloride, 30 to 50 g/L of tryptone, and 4 g/L of glycerol as the carbon source. Assessment of near real time capability of this bacterial system, Xenoassay light to monitor heavy metals from a contaminated river running through the Juru River Basin shows near real time capability with assaying time of less than 30 minutes per samples. Samples returned to the lab were tested with a standard Microtox assay using Vibrio fishceri. Similar results were obtained to Xenoassay light that show temporal variation of copper concentration. Thus, this strain is suitable for near real time river monitoring of toxicants especially in the tropics. PMID:24977231

  2. Prevalence and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and light-chain MGUS in Germany.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Lewin; Dürig, Jan; Hüttmann, Andreas; Dührsen, Ulrich; Assert, Roland; Bokhof, Beate; Erbel, Raimund; Mann, Klaus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and light-chain MGUS (LCMGUS) in Germany utilizing the biobank of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study comprises 4,814 men and women aged 45-75 years. To detect monoclonal proteins, standard serum electrophoresis was combined with parallel screening immunofixation using pentavalent antisera. Additionally, free light chains (FLC) were measured in all samples. Definition of MGUS included M-protein concentration, laboratory results, and disease history. LCMGUS was defined as abnormal FLC ratio, increase in FLC causing the abnormal ratio, and lack of intact immunoglobulin. One hundred sixty-five MGUS cases were identified among 4,702 screened samples (prevalence 3.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-4.1; median age 63 years, range 47-75 years; 103 (62%) male; IgG 59%, IgA 17%, IgM 17%, biclonal 4.8%, kappa 56%, and lambda 44%). Five cases progressed (0.6%/year, 95% CI 0.2-1.4). An abnormal FLC ratio was detected in 220 samples. Thirty-nine of these showed intact immunoglobulin. Thirty-four of the remaining met LCMGUS criteria (prevalence 0.7%, 95% CI 0.5-1.0). None of the LCMGUS cases progressed. We demonstrate a MGUS prevalence of 3.5% and a LCMGUS prevalence of 0.7% in the general population aged 45-75 years in Germany using a sensitive screening approach.

  3. Serum levels of immunoglobulin free light chains in patients with chronic hepatitis C presenting cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabela S; Cabral, Milena S; Jesus, Larissa S; Paraná, Raymundo; Atta, Ajax M; Sousa Atta, Maria Luiza B

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects B-lymphocytes, provokes cellular dysfunction and causes lymphoproliferative diseases such as cryoglobulinemia and non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. In the present study, we investigated the serum levels of kappa and lambda free light chains (FLC) of immunoglobulins and the kappa/lambda FLC ratio in Brazilian patients with chronic HCV infection and cryoglobulinemia. We also analyzed the immunochemical composition of the cryoglobulins in these patients. Twenty-eight cryoglobulinemic HCV patients composed the target group, while 37 HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia were included as controls. The median levels of kappa and lambda FLC were higher in patients with cryoglobulinemia compared to controls (p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), but the kappa/lambda FLC ratio was similar in patients with and without cryoglobulinemia (p>0.05). The median FLC ratio was higher in HCV patients presenting with advanced fibrosis of the liver compared to HCV patients without fibrosis (p=0.004). Kappa and lambda FLC levels were strongly correlated with the IgA, IgG and IgM levels in the patients with cryoglobulinemia. In patients without cryoglobulinemia, the kappa FLC level was only correlated with the IgG level, whereas the lambda FLC were weakly correlated with the IgA, IgG and IgM levels. An immunochemical pattern of mixed cryoglobulins (MC), predominantly IgM, IgG, IgA and kappa light chain, was verified in these immune complexes. We concluded that HCV-infected patients presenting cryoglobulinemia have vigorous polyclonal B-lymphocyte activation due to chronic HCV infection and persistent immune stimulation.

  4. Novel Polymorphisms in the Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene Confer Risk for Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Grant, Audrey; Halder, Indrani; Brower, Roy; Sevransky, Jonathan; Maloney, James P.; Moss, Marc; Shanholtz, Carl; Yates, Charles R.; Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto; Shriver, Mark D.; Ingersoll, Roxann; Scott, Alan F.; Beaty, Terri H.; Moitra, Jaideep; Ma, Shwu Fan; Ye, Shui Q.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic basis of acute lung injury (ALI) is poorly understood. The myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) gene encodes the nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase isoform, a multifunctional protein involved in the inflammatory response (apoptosis, vascular permeability, leukocyte diapedesis). To examine MYLK as a novel candidate gene in sepsis-associated ALI, we sequenced exons, exon–intron boundaries, and 2 kb of 5′ UTR of the MYLK, which revealed 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Potential association of 28 MYLK SNPs with sepsis-associated ALI were evaluated in a case-control sample of 288 European American subjects (EAs) with sepsis alone, subjects with sepsis-associated ALI, or healthy control subjects, and a sample population of 158 African American subjects (AAs) with sepsis and ALI. Significant single locus associations in EAs were observed between four MYLK SNPs and the sepsis phenotype (P < 0.001), with an additional SNP associated with the ALI phenotype (P = 0.03). A significant association of a single SNP (identical to the SNP identified in EAs) was observed in AAs with sepsis (P = 0.002) and with ALI (P = 0.01). Three sepsis risk-conferring haplotypes in EAs were defined downstream of start codon of smooth muscle MYLK isoform, a region containing putative regulatory elements (P < 0.001). In contrast, multiple haplotypic analyses revealed an ALI-specific, risk-conferring haplotype at 5′ of the MYLK gene in both European and African Americans and an additional 3′ region haplotype only in African Americans. These data strongly implicate MYLK genetic variants to confer increased risk of sepsis and sepsis-associated ALI. PMID:16399953

  5. Light chain types of IgD in human bone marrow and serum.

    PubMed Central

    van Nieuwkoop, J A; Radl, J

    1985-01-01

    One of the unexplained features of human IgD is its preferential expression with either kappa or lambda light chains in different situations. While the membrane IgD on B lymphocytes shows a predominance of the kappa type, about 90% of all known IgD myeloma proteins and 87% of normal IgD producing plasma cells in spleens of healthy individuals were shown to belong to the lambda type. Very little is known of the kappa/lambda light chain distribution of normal polyclonal IgD in the serum and in the bone marrow plasma cells. In this study, the kappa/lambda representation of IgD in bone marrow plasma cells and in the serum of 25 adult persons (two healthy and 23 suffering from various nonmalignant diseases) was investigated. The kappa/lambda ratio of IgD+ bone marrow plasma cells showed a large variation among the individuals of this group, in 84% of the cases being below 1.0. While about 1/3 of the investigated subjects had 80% or more of IgD of the lambda type (kappa/lambda ratio below 0.2), most showed a kappa/lambda ratio of IgD higher than that, with four persons exhibiting a clear cut predominance of IgD of the kappa type. A positive correlation (Spearman's correlation co-efficient, P = 0.005) between the percentages of IgD+ plasma cells and their kappa/lambda ratio was found. Semiquantitative evaluation of the kappa/lambda composition within the serum IgD by immunoselection was in agreement with the kappa/lambda ratio of IgD+ plasma cells in all individual cases. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3926359

  6. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  7. Cytoplasmic free calcium, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and force in phasic and tonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The time course of [Ca2+]i, tension, and myosin light chain phosphorylation were determined during prolonged depolarization with high K+ in intact tonic (rabbit pulmonary artery) and phasic (longitudinal layer of guinea pig ileum) smooth muscles. [Ca2+]i was monitored with the 340 nm/380 nm signal ratio of the fluorescent indicator fura-2. The fluorescence ratio had a similar time course in both muscle types during depolarization with 109 mM [K+]o; after a transient peak, there was a decline to 70% of its peak value in tonic smooth muscle, and to 60% in phasic smooth muscle. Tension, however, continued to increase in the pulmonary artery, while in the ileum it declined in parallel with the [Ca2+]i. On changing [K+]o from 109 to 20 mM, tension and [Ca2+]i either remained unchanged or declined in parallel in the pulmonary artery. Phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain, measured during stimulation of muscle strips with 109 mM [K+]o in another set of experiments, increased from 3% to a peak of 50% in the intact pulmonary artery, and then declined to a steady state value of 23%. In the intact ileum, a very rapid, early transient phosphorylation (up to 50%) at 2-3 s was seen. This transient declined by 30 s to a value that was close to the resting level (7%), while tension remained at 55% of its peak force. A quick release during maintained stimulation induced no detectable change in the [Ca2+]i in either type of smooth muscle. We discuss the possibility that the slowly rising tonic tension in pulmonary artery could be due to cooperativity between phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated crossbridges. PMID:3216188

  8. Cardiac myosin light chain is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and -independent kinase activities

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Pravin; Knapp, Stefan; Barton, Hannah; Sweeney, H. Lee; Kamm, Kristine E.; Stull, James T.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known, muscle-specific smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) (smMLCK) and skeletal muscle MLCK (skMLCK) are dedicated protein kinases regulated by an autoregulatory segment C terminus of the catalytic core that blocks myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding and phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM). Although it is known that a more recently discovered cardiac MLCK (cMLCK) is necessary for normal RLC phosphorylation in vivo and physiological cardiac performance, information on cMLCK biochemical properties are limited. We find that a fourth uncharacterized MLCK, MLCK4, is also expressed in cardiac muscle with high catalytic domain sequence similarity with other MLCKs but lacking an autoinhibitory segment. Its crystal structure shows the catalytic domain in its active conformation with a short C-terminal “pseudoregulatory helix” that cannot inhibit catalysis as a result of missing linker regions. MLCK4 has only Ca2+/CaM-independent activity with comparable Vmax and Km values for different RLCs. In contrast, the Vmax value of cMLCK is orders of magnitude lower than those of the other three MLCK family members, whereas its Km (RLC and ATP) and KCaM values are similar. In contrast to smMLCK and skMLCK, which lack activity in the absence of Ca2+/CaM, cMLCK has constitutive activity that is stimulated by Ca2+/CaM. Potential contributions of autoregulatory segment to cMLCK activity were analyzed with chimeras of skMLCK and cMLCK. The constitutive, low activity of cMLCK appears to be intrinsic to its catalytic core structure rather than an autoinhibitory segment. Thus, RLC phosphorylation in cardiac muscle may be regulated by two different protein kinases with distinct biochemical regulatory properties. PMID:27325775

  9. An outer arm dynein light chain acts in a conformational switch for flagellar motility

    PubMed Central

    Patel-King, Ramila S.

    2009-01-01

    A system distinct from the central pair–radial spoke complex was proposed to control outer arm dynein function in response to alterations in the mechanical state of the flagellum. In this study, we examine the role of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii outer arm dynein light chain that associates with the motor domain of the γ heavy chain (HC). We demonstrate that expression of mutant forms of LC1 yield dominant-negative effects on swimming velocity, as the flagella continually beat out of phase and stall near or at the power/recovery stroke switchpoint. Furthermore, we observed that LC1 interacts directly with tubulin in a nucleotide-independent manner and tethers this motor unit to the A-tubule of the outer doublet microtubules within the axoneme. Therefore, this dynein HC is attached to the same microtubule by two sites: via both the N-terminal region and the motor domain. We propose that this γ HC–LC1–microtubule ternary complex functions as a conformational switch to control outer arm activity. PMID:19620633

  10. Structure and function of outer dynein arm intermediate and light chain complex

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Toshiyuki; Abe, Tatsuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    The outer dynein arm (ODA) is a molecular complex that drives the beating motion of cilia/flagella. Chlamydomonas ODA is composed of three heavy chains (HCs), two ICs, and 11 light chains (LCs). Although the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the whole ODA complex has been investigated, the 3D configurations of the ICs and LCs are largely unknown. Here we identified the 3D positions of the two ICs and three LCs using cryo–electron tomography and structural labeling. We found that these ICs and LCs were all localized at the root of the outer-inner dynein (OID) linker, designated the ODA-Beak complex. Of interest, the coiled-coil domain of IC2 extended from the ODA-Beak to the outer surface of ODA. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of how the OID linker transmits signals to the ODA-Beak, by manipulating the interaction within the OID linker using a chemically induced dimerization system. We showed that the cross-linking of the OID linker strongly suppresses flagellar motility in vivo. These results suggest that the ICs and LCs of the ODA form the ODA-Beak, which may be involved in mechanosignaling from the OID linker to the HCs. PMID:26864626

  11. DRIED BLOOD SPOT REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS TO SCREEN NEWBORNS FOR CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Boppana, Suresh B.; Ross, Shannon A.; Novak, Zdenek; Shimamura, Masako; Tolan, Robert W.; Palmer, April L.; Ahmed, Amina; Michaels, Marian G.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bernstein, David I.; Britt, William J.; Fowler, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Reliable methods to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are needed for identification of infants at increased risk for hearing loss. Since dried blood spots (DBS) are routinely collected for metabolic screening from all newborns in the United States, there has been interest in using DBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for newborn CMV screening. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DBS real-time PCR assays for newborn CMV screening Design, Setting, and Participants Between March 2007 and May 2008, infants born at seven medical centers in the U.S. were enrolled in the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study. Newborn saliva specimens were tested for the detection of early antigen fluorescent foci (DEAFF). Results of saliva DEAFF were compared with a single-primer (from 03/07 to 12/07) and a two-primer (from 01/08 to 05/08) DBS real-time PCR. Infants positive by screening DEAFF or PCR were enrolled in follow-up to confirm congenital infection by the reference standard method, DEAFF on saliva or urine. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of single-primer and two-primer DBS real-time PCR assays for identifying infants with confirmed congenital CMV infection. Results Congenital CMV infection was confirmed in 92 of 20,448 (0.45%; 95% CI, 0.36–0.55) infants. Ninety-one of 92 infants were saliva DEAFF positive on screening. Of the 11,422 infants screened using the single-primer DBS PCR, 17 of 60 (28%) infants were positive with this assay, whereas, among the 9,026 infants screened using the two-primer DBS PCR, 11 of 32 (34%) infants were positive. The single-primer DBS PCR identified congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 28.3% (95% CI, 17.4–41.4%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 803.7 (95% CI, 278.7–2317.9), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the

  12. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance with light-chain deposition disease diagnosed postrenal transplant: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Nambirajan, Aruna; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Singh, Geetika; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Patients with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) frequently do not meet criteria for myeloma. In such cases, despite low tumor burden, the circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins cause renal damage, are responsible for post-transplant recurrence, and are rightly categorized as monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) requiring chemotherapy. A 65-year male with uncharacterized nodular glomerulopathy presented with proteinuria 3 years postrenal transplant. His allograft biopsies were diagnostic of light-chain deposition disease (likely recurrent), and in the absence of myeloma, he was labeled as MGRS. Based on the limited literature available, he was treated with bortezomib which resulted in normalization of serum-free light-chain ratios and resolution of proteinuria. He, however, later succumbed to complications of chemotherapy. This case highlights the diagnostic difficulties in LCDD, the importance of an accurate pretransplant diagnosis, and treatment of the malignant clone, in the absence of which post-transplant management of recurrence is challenging with poor outcomes.

  13. Analysis of heavy and light chain sequences of conventional camelid antibodies from Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus species.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Laura M; Snowden, James R; Lawson, Alastair D G; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jorg; Baker, Terry S

    2014-03-01

    Camel antibodies have been widely investigated, but work has focused upon the unique heavy chain antibodies found across camelid species. These are homodimers, devoid of light chains and the first constant heavy chain domain. Camelid species also display conventional hetero-tetrameric antibodies with identical pairs of heavy and light chains; in Camelus dromedarius these constitute 25% of circulating antibodies. Few investigations have been made on this subset of antibodies and complete conventional camel IgG sequences have not been reported. Here we study the sequence diversity of functional variable and constant regions observed in 57 conventional heavy, 18 kappa and 35 lambda light chains of C. dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus. We detail sequences of the full kappa and lambda light chain, variable and CH1 region for IgG1a and IgG1b and the CH2 and CH3 region for IgG1a. The majority (60%) of IgG1 variable region sequences aligned with the human IgHV3 family (clan III) and had leader sequences beginning with MELG whereas the remaining sequences aligned with the IgHV4 (clan II) and had leader sequences beginning with MRLL. Distinct differences in CDR length were observed between the two; where CDR1 was typically 5 and 7 residues and CDR2 at 17 and 16 residues, respectively. CDR3 length of IgHV4 (range 11 to 20) was closer to that typical of VHH antibodies than that of IgHV3 (range 3 to 18 residues). Designed oligonucleotide primers have enabled identification of paired heavy and light chains of conventional camel antibodies from individual B cell clones.

  14. In vitro aggregation behavior of a non-amyloidogenic λ light chain dimer deriving from U266 multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Paolo; Owczarz, Marta; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Rognoni, Paola; Beeg, Marten; Wu, Hua; Salmona, Mario; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL) and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD). In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, and we investigate the effect of several physicochemical parameters on the in vitro stability of this protein. The dimer is stable in physiological conditions and aggregation is observed only when strong denaturating conditions are applied (acidic pH with salt at large concentration or heating at melting temperature T(m) at pH 7.4). The produced aggregates are spherical, amorphous oligomers. Despite the larger β-sheet content of such oligomers with respect to the native state, they do not bind Congo Red or ThT. The impossibility to obtain fibrils from the light chain dimer suggests that the occurrence of amyloidosis in patients requires the presence of the light chain fragment in the monomer form, while dimer can form only amorphous oligomers or amorphous deposits. No aggregation is observed after denaturant addition at pH 7.4 or at pH 2.0 with low salt concentration, indicating that not a generic unfolding but specific conformational changes are necessary to trigger aggregation. A specific anion effect in increasing the aggregation rate at pH 2.0 is observed according to the following order: SO(4)(-)≫Cl(-)>H(2)PO(4)(-), confirming the peculiar role of sulfate in promoting protein aggregation. It is found that, at least for the investigated case, the mechanism of the sulfate effect is related to protein secondary structure changes induced by anion binding.

  15. In Vitro Aggregation Behavior of a Non-Amyloidogenic λ Light Chain Dimer Deriving from U266 Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Paolo; Owczarz, Marta; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Rognoni, Paola; Beeg, Marten; Wu, Hua; Salmona, Mario; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL) and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD). In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, and we investigate the effect of several physicochemical parameters on the in vitro stability of this protein. The dimer is stable in physiological conditions and aggregation is observed only when strong denaturating conditions are applied (acidic pH with salt at large concentration or heating at melting temperature Tm at pH 7.4). The produced aggregates are spherical, amorphous oligomers. Despite the larger β-sheet content of such oligomers with respect to the native state, they do not bind Congo Red or ThT. The impossibility to obtain fibrils from the light chain dimer suggests that the occurrence of amyloidosis in patients requires the presence of the light chain fragment in the monomer form, while dimer can form only amorphous oligomers or amorphous deposits. No aggregation is observed after denaturant addition at pH 7.4 or at pH 2.0 with low salt concentration, indicating that not a generic unfolding but specific conformational changes are necessary to trigger aggregation. A specific anion effect in increasing the aggregation rate at pH 2.0 is observed according to the following order: SO4−≫Cl−>H2PO4−, confirming the peculiar role of sulfate in promoting protein aggregation. It is found that, at least for the investigated case, the mechanism of the sulfate effect is related to protein secondary structure changes induced by anion binding. PMID:22432016

  16. Influence of the germline sequence on the thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenicity of human lambda 6 light chains.

    PubMed

    del Pozo Yauner, Luis; Ortiz, Ernesto; Sánchez, Rosalba; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Güereca, Leopoldo; Murphy, Charles L; Allen, Amy; Wall, Jonathan S; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Solomon, Alan; Becerril, Baltazar

    2008-08-01

    Light chain-associated amyloidosis is a fatal disease characterized by the aggregation and pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chain-related fragments as amyloid fibrils in organs or tissues throughout the body. Notably, it has been observed that proteins encoded by the lambda variable light chain (V(L)) gene segment 6a are invariably associated with amyloid deposition; however, the contribution of the gene to this phenomenon has not been established. In this regard, we have determined the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of in vitro fibrillogenesis of a recombinant (r) V(L) protein, designated 6aJL2, which contains the predicted sequences encoded by the 6a and JL2 germline genes. Additionally, we studied a 6a mutant (6aJL2-Arg25Gly), that is present in approximately 25% of all amyloid-associated lambda6 light chains. Remarkably, the wild-type 6aJL2 protein was more stable than were all known amyloidogenic kappa and lambda light chains for which stability parameters are available; more importantly, it was even more so (and less fibrillogenic) than the only clinically proven nonamyloidogenic lambda6 protein, Jto. Conversely, the mutated 6aJL2-R25G molecule was considerably less stable and more fibrillogenic than was the native 6aJL2. Our data indicate that the propensity of lambda6 light chains to form amyloid can not be attributed to thermodynamic instability of the germline-encoded Vlambda6 domain, but rather, is dependent on sequence alterations that render such proteins amyloidogenic.

  17. Identification and partial characterization of a low affinity metal-binding site in the light chain of tetanus toxin.

    PubMed

    Wright, J F; Pernollet, M; Reboul, A; Aude, C; Colomb, M G

    1992-05-05

    Tetanus toxin was shown to contain a metal-binding site for zinc and copper. Equilibrium dialysis binding experiments using 65Zn indicated an association constant of 9-15 microM, with one zinc-binding site/toxin molecule. The zinc-binding site was localized to the toxin light chain as determined by binding of 65Zn to the light chain but not to the heavy chain after separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to Immobilon membranes. Copper was an efficient inhibitor of 65Zn binding to tetanus toxin and caused two peptide bond cleavages in the toxin light chain in the presence of ascorbate. These metal-catalyzed oxidative cleavages were inhibited by the presence of zinc. Partial characterization of metal-catalyzed oxidative modifications of a peptide based on a putative metal-binding site (HELIH) in the toxin light chain was used to map the metal-binding site in the protein.

  18. Chromosomal orientation of the lambda light chain locus: V lambda is proximal to C lambda in 22q11.

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, B S; Cannizzaro, L A; Magrath, I; Tsujimoto, Y; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the chromosomal breakpoint at 22q11 of a Burkitt lymphoma cell line (PA682) with an 8;22 translocation interrupts the variable region of the lambda light chain locus. In these cells, all of the C lambda and some V lambda sequences translocate to the 8q+ chromosome whereas some V lambda sequences remain on the 22q-. These results indicate that the lambda light chain locus on the long arm of chromosome 22 is oriented such that V lambda is proximal to C lambda. Images PMID:3923432

  19. Sequential cyclophosphamide-bortezomib-dexamethasone unmasks the harmful cardiac effect of dexamethasone in primary light-chain cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Fabien; Molinier-Frenkel, Valerie; Guellich, Aziz; Dupuis, Jehan; Belhadj, Karim; Guendouz, Soulef; Ayad, Karima; Colombat, Magali; Benhaiem, Nicole; Tissot, Claire Marie; Hulin, Anne; Jaccard, Arnaud; Damy, Thibaud

    2017-03-20

    Chemotherapy combining cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone is widely used in light-chain amyloidosis. The benefit is limited in patients with cardiac amyloidosis mainly because of adverse cardiac events. Retrospective analysis of our cohort showed that 39 patients died with 42% during the first month. A new escalation-sequential regimen was set to improve the outcomes. Nine newly-diagnosed patients were prospectively treated with close monitoring of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin-T and free light chains. The results show that corticoids may destabilise the heart through fluid retention. Thus, a sequential protocol may be a promising approach to treat these patients.

  20. Micro-light-pipe array with an excitation attenuation filter for lensless digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Hironari; Nagasaki, Mizuki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for detecting various biomarkers with hypersensitivity. We have been developing compact systems by replacing the fluorescence microscope with a CMOS image sensor. Here, we propose a micro-light-pipe array structure made of metal filled with dye-doped resin, which can be used as a fabrication substrate of the micro-reaction-chamber array of digital ELISA. The possibility that this structure enhances the coupling efficiency for fluorescence was simulated using a simple model. To realize the structure, we fabricated a 30-µm-thick micropipe array by copper electroplating around a thick photoresist pattern. The typical diameter of each fabricated micropipe was 10 µm. The pipes were filled with yellow-dye-doped epoxy resin. The transmittance ratio of fluorescence and excitation light could be controlled by adjusting the doping concentration. We confirmed that an angled excitation light incidence suppressed the leakage of excitation light.

  1. Rapid Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Detect Herpes Simplex Virus in the Genital Tract of Women in Labor

    PubMed Central

    Gardella, Carolyn; Huang, Meei-Li; Wald, Anna; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Morrow, Rhoda; Corey, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the genital secretions of women that may be used in labor. Methods Samples of genital secretions from women in labor, swabs of active genital lesions, and swabs of buffer solution were analyzed using a newly developed rapid HSV PCR assay to detect HSV glycoprotein B gene and quantitate virion copy number. A previously validated TaqMan PCR to detect HSV glycoprotein B gene was performed as the comparator gold standard. Positivity determination that optimized sensitivity and specificity was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The median time to result for rapid HSV PCR was 2 hours (range 1.5–3.5 hours). A positivity determination rule that required both wells of the rapid test to detect 150 copies or greater of HSV per ml maximized specificity (96.7%) without appreciable loss of sensitivity (99.6%). Among positive samples, the correlation between the rapid test and TaqMan for the quantity of HSV isolated was excellent (R=0.96, p<.001). The rapid test had a positive predictive value of 96.7% and a negative predictive value of 99.6% in a population with HSV shedding prevalence of 10.8%, based on the prevalence of genital HSV previously found among HSV-2 seropositive women in labor. Conclusion Rapid HSV PCR provides results with excellent sensitivity and specificity within a timeframe that could inform clinical decision making for identifying infants at risk of neonatal HSV infection. PMID:20502292

  2. Overcoming RNA inhibition in the fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay to enhance detection of bovine DNA in cattle feeds.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Mary; Rensen, Gabriel; Smith, Wayne; Yee, Melanie; Wong, Alice; Osburn, Bennie; Cullor, James

    2004-01-01

    The practice of incorporating mammalian protein in ruminant feeds was banned in the United States in 1997 as a measure to avoid transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). A sensitive means of identifying the banned additives in feeds would be by detection of species-specific DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, problems may arise in the PCR due to the presence of inhibitory substances. Using human DNA as an internal PCR control, inhibitory substances were evident in the DNA extraction products of cattle feeds. The results of heating experiments excluded enzymes as a cause of inhibition, and spectrophotometric calculations suggested the possibility of RNA contamination. Co-electrophoresis of untreated and RNAse digested extracts confirmed the presence of RNA in the undigested product. Seven cattle feeds were spiked with predetermined amounts of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM). The DNA extracted products were treated with RNAse and the bovine specific mitochondrial DNA (B-mtDNA) was amplified by PCR. The minimum level of detection of B-mtDNA was influenced by RNAse treatment and feed composition. RNAse treatment decreased false-negative results overall by 75%. False-negative results were decreased 100% in the higher BMBM concentrations and 50% in the lower BMBM concentrations. Also, each cattle feed was spiked to attain a 2% wt/wt concentration with each swine, fish, sheep, or poultry product, or cattle dried blood. Amplification of B-mtDNA occurred only with the cattle dried blood and only in three feeds in which B-mtDNA was detected at the only level tested (2%). A commercial immunochromotographic assay (Neogen) detected the spiked BMBM in only one of the seven feeds and only at the upper concentration (1%).

  3. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  4. The intraflagellar transport dynein complex of trypanosomes is made of a heterodimer of dynein heavy chains and of light and intermediate chains of distinct functions.

    PubMed

    Blisnick, Thierry; Buisson, Johanna; Absalon, Sabrina; Marie, Alexandra; Cayet, Nadège; Bastin, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Cilia and flagella are assembled by intraflagellar transport (IFT) of protein complexes that bring tubulin and other precursors to the incorporation site at their distal tip. Anterograde transport is driven by kinesin, whereas retrograde transport is ensured by a specific dynein. In the protist Trypanosoma brucei, two distinct genes encode fairly different dynein heavy chains (DHCs; ∼40% identity) termed DHC2.1 and DHC2.2, which form a heterodimer and are both essential for retrograde IFT. The stability of each heavy chain relies on the presence of a dynein light intermediate chain (DLI1; also known as XBX-1/D1bLIC). The presence of both heavy chains and of DLI1 at the base of the flagellum depends on the intermediate dynein chain DIC5 (FAP133/WDR34). In the IFT140(RNAi) mutant, an IFT-A protein essential for retrograde transport, the IFT dynein components are found at high concentration at the flagellar base but fail to penetrate the flagellar compartment. We propose a model by which the IFT dynein particle is assembled in the cytoplasm, reaches the base of the flagellum, and associates with the IFT machinery in a manner dependent on the IFT-A complex.

  5. Light-Addressable Potentiometric (LAP) Sensor Assay of Newcastle Disease Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    potentiometric (LAP) sensor, was employed to detect the presence of immobilized urease -conjugated antibodies. Lower limits of detection (LOD) of the assay were...is high, approximately 95% under the conditions of these assays (8), the number of the urease -containing antibody-antigen sandwiches immobilized will...produced un- der DND contract by the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB). Antibody from clone 25R5 was covalently linked to urease ; antibody from clone

  6. Antibody Development and Immunoligand Assay Testing of MS2 Bacteriophage on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    fluoresceinated immunocomplexes are immobilized followed by reaction with an anti-fluorescein urease - conjugated antibody. Analyte quantitation is...monoclonal 5A4-1 detector antibody ..... 11 Flgurm 7. ELISA sandwich assay using LAPS assay format with the ani-fluorescem urease antbody...accomplished by placing the urease -labeled immunocomplex into a reader containing a 100-mM solution of urea. Hydrolysis of the urea produces a

  7. A Rapid Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Sensitive and Specific Detection of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Ambagala, A; Pahari, S; Fisher, M; Lee, P-Y A; Pasick, J; Ostlund, E N; Johnson, D J; Lung, O

    2017-04-01

    Bluetongue is a non-contagious, haemorrhagic, Culicoides-borne disease of ruminants. The causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV), is a member of the Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family. So far, 26 BTV serotypes have been identified worldwide. The global distribution of bluetongue has been expanding, and rapid detection of BTV, preferably in the field, is critical for timely implementation of animal movement restrictions and vector control measures. To date, many laboratory-based, molecular assays for detection of BTV have been developed. These methods require the samples to be shipped to a central laboratory with sophisticated instruments and highly skilled technicians to perform the assays, conduct analyses and interpret the results. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a rapid, portable, user-friendly, pan-BTV reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay that can potentially be used in low-resource field conditions. The total length of the assay was <60 min, and at the end of the assay, the results were automatically displayed as '+' or '-' without the need for data interpretation. The RT-iiPCR assay detected 36 BTV isolates and two in vitro transcribed RNA samples representing all 26 BTV serotypes. The assay did not cross-react with other animal viruses tested, including two closely related orbiviruses. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was as low as nine copies of in vitro transcribed double-stranded BTV RNA. Analysis of BTV-infected whole blood samples showed that the BTV RT-iiPCR assay was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR. The assay can potentially be used for rapid screening of animals for BTV in routine diagnostics and for monitoring bluetongue outbreaks both in ruminants and in Culicoides vectors in the field and in the laboratory.

  8. Comparing domain interactions within antibody Fabs with kappa and lambda light chains

    PubMed Central

    Toughiri, Raheleh; Wu, Xiufeng; Ruiz, Diana; Huang, Flora; Crissman, John W.; Dickey, Mark; Froning, Karen; Conner, Elaine M.; Cujec, Thomas P.; Demarest, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT IgG antibodies are multi-domain proteins with complex inter-domain interactions. Human IgG heavy chains (HCs) associate with light chains (LCs) of the κ or λ isotype to form mature antibodies capable of binding antigen. The HC/LC interaction involves 4 domains: VH and CH1 from the HC and VL and CL from the LC. Human Fabs with κ LCs have been well characterized for their unfolding behaviors and demonstrate a significant level of cooperativity and stabilization when all 4 domains are intact. Very little is known regarding the thermodynamic properties of human Fabs with λ LCs. Here, we dissect the domain contributions to Fab stability for both κ and λ LC-containing Fabs. We find the cooperativity of unfolding between the constant domains, CH1/Cλ, and variable domains, VH/Vλ, within λ LC-containing Fabs is significantly weaker than that of κ LC-containing Fabs. The data suggests there may not be an evolutionary necessity for strong variable/constant domain cooperativity within λ LC-containing Fabs. After investigating the biophysical properties of Fabs with mismatched variable and constant domain subunits (e.g., VH/Vκ paired with CH1/Cλ or T cell receptor Cα/Cβ), the major role of the constant domains for both κ- and λ-containing Fabs may be to reduce the hydrophobic exposure at the VH/VL interface. Even though Fabs with these non-native pairings were thermodynamically less stable, they secreted well from mammalian cells as well behaved monodisperse proteins, which was in contrast to what was observed with the VH/Vκ and VH/Vλ scFvs that secreted as a mixture of monomer and aggregates. PMID:27454112

  9. Comparing domain interactions within antibody Fabs with kappa and lambda light chains.

    PubMed

    Toughiri, Raheleh; Wu, Xiufeng; Ruiz, Diana; Huang, Flora; Crissman, John W; Dickey, Mark; Froning, Karen; Conner, Elaine M; Cujec, Thomas P; Demarest, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    IgG antibodies are multi-domain proteins with complex inter-domain interactions. Human IgG heavy chains (HCs) associate with light chains (LCs) of the κ or λ isotype to form mature antibodies capable of binding antigen. The HC/LC interaction involves 4 domains: VH and CH1 from the HC and VL and CL from the LC. Human Fabs with κ LCs have been well characterized for their unfolding behaviors and demonstrate a significant level of cooperativity and stabilization when all 4 domains are intact. Very little is known regarding the thermodynamic properties of human Fabs with λ LCs. Here, we dissect the domain contributions to Fab stability for both κ and λ LC-containing Fabs. We find the cooperativity of unfolding between the constant domains, CH1/Cλ, and variable domains, VH/Vλ, within λ LC-containing Fabs is significantly weaker than that of κ LC-containing Fabs. The data suggests there may not be an evolutionary necessity for strong variable/constant domain cooperativity within λ LC-containing Fabs. After investigating the biophysical properties of Fabs with mismatched variable and constant domain subunits (e.g., VH/Vκ paired with CH1/Cλ or T cell receptor Cα/Cβ), the major role of the constant domains for both κ- and λ-containing Fabs may be to reduce the hydrophobic exposure at the VH/VL interface. Even though Fabs with these non-native pairings were thermodynamically less stable, they secreted well from mammalian cells as well behaved monodisperse proteins, which was in contrast to what was observed with the VH/Vκ and VH/Vλ scFvs that secreted as a mixture of monomer and aggregates.

  10. N-terminal or signal peptide sequence engineering prevents truncation of human monoclonal antibody light chains.

    PubMed

    Gibson, S J; Bond, N J; Milne, S; Lewis, A; Sheriff, A; Pettman, G; Pradhan, R; Higazi, D R; Hatton, D

    2017-03-28

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) contain short N-terminal signal peptides on each individual polypeptide that comprises the mature antibody, targeting them for export from the cell in which they are produced. The signal peptide is cleaved from each heavy chain (Hc) and light chain (Lc) polypeptide after translocation to the ER and prior to secretion. This process is generally highly efficient, producing a high proportion of correctly cleaved Hc and Lc polypeptides. However, mis-cleavage of the signal peptide can occur, resulting in truncation or elongation at the N-terminus of the Hc or Lc. This is undesirable for antibody manufacturing as it can impact efficacy and can result in product heterogeneity. Here, we describe a truncated variant of the Lc that was detected during a routine developability assessment of the recombinant human IgG1 MEDI8490 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We found that the truncation of the Lc was caused due to the use of the murine Hc signal peptide together with a lambda Lc containing an SYE amino acid motif at the N-terminus. This truncation was not caused by mis-processing of the mRNA encoding the Lc and was not dependent on expression platform (transient or stable), the scale of the fed-batch culture or clonal lineage. We further show that using alternative signal peptides or engineering the Lc SYE N-terminal motif prevented the truncation and that this strategy will improve Lc homogeneity of other SYE lambda Lc-containing mAbs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody light chain variable domains and their biophysically improved versions for human immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Young; To, Rebecca; Kandalaft, Hiba; Ding, Wen; van Faassen, Henk; Luo, Yan; Schrag, Joseph D; St-Amant, Nadereh; Hefford, Mary; Hirama, Tomoko; Kelly, John F; MacKenzie, Roger; Tanha, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    We set out to gain deeper insight into the potential of antibody light chain variable domains (VLs) as immunotherapeutics. To this end, we generated a naïve human VL phage display library and, by using a method previously shown to select for non-aggregating antibody heavy chain variable domains (VHs), we isolated a diversity of VL domains by panning the library against B cell super-antigen protein L. Eight domains representing different germline origins were shown to be non-aggregating at concentrations as high as 450 µM, indicating VL repertoires are a rich source of non-aggregating domains. In addition, the VLs demonstrated high expression yields in E. coli, protein L binding and high reversibility of thermal unfolding. A side-by-side comparison with a set of non-aggregating human VHs revealed that the VLs had similar overall profiles with respect to melting temperature (Tm), reversibility of thermal unfolding and resistance to gastrointestinal proteases. Successful engineering of a non-canonical disulfide linkage in the core of VLs did not compromise the non-aggregation state or protein L binding properties. Furthermore, the introduced disulfide bond significantly increased their Tms, by 5.5–17.5 °C, and pepsin resistance, although it somewhat reduced expression yields and subtly changed the structure of VLs. Human VLs and engineered versions may make suitable therapeutics due to their desirable biophysical features. The disulfide linkage-engineered VLs may be the preferred therapeutic format because of their higher stability, especially for oral therapy applications that necessitate high resistance to the stomach’s acidic pH and pepsin. PMID:24423624

  12. Phosphorylated Myosin Light Chain 2 (p-MLC2) as a Molecular Marker of Antemortem Coronary Artery Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liliang; Li, Yuhua; Lin, Junyi; Jiang, Jieqing; He, Meng; Sun, Daming; Zhao, Ziqin; Shen, Yiwen; Xue, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon that only mild coronary artery stenosis is grossly revealed after a system autopsy. While coronary artery spasm (CAS) is the suspected mechanism of these deaths, no specific biomarker has been identified to suggest antemortem CAS. Material/Methods To evaluate the potential of using phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC2) as a diagnostic marker of antemortem CAS, human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured and treated with common vasoconstrictors, including prostaglandins F2α (PGF2α), acetylcholine (ACh), and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT). The p-MLC2 level was examined in the cultured cells using Western blot analysis and in a rat model of spasm provocation tests using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Effects of increased p-MLC2 level on VSMCs contractile activities were assessed in vitro using confocal immunofluorescence assay. Four fatal cases with known antemortem CAS were collected and subject to p-MLC2 detection. Results The p-MLC2 was significantly increased in VSMCs after treatments with vasoconstrictors and in the spasm provocation tests. Myofilament was well-organized and densely stained in VSMCs with high p-MLC2 level, but disarrayed in VSMCs with low p-MLC2 level. Three of the 4 autopsied cases showed strongly positive staining of p-MLC2 at the stenosed coronary segment and the adjacent interstitial small arteries. The fourth case was autopsied at the 6th day after death and showed negative-to-mild positive staining of p-MLC2. Conclusions p-MLC2 might be a useful marker for diagnosis of antemortem CAS. Autopsy should be performed as soon as possible to collect coronary arteries for detection of p-MLC2. PMID:27643564

  13. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C.; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Hare, Joshua M.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-29

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 →Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. In this paper, we hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Finally, our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype.

  14. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  15. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; ...

    2015-06-29

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 →Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. In this paper, we hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In supportmore » of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Finally, our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype.« less

  16. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

  17. Characterization and ontogenetic expression analysis of the myosin light chains from the fast white muscle of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi.

    PubMed

    Chu, W Y; Chen, J; Zhou, R X; Zhao, F L; Meng, T; Chen, D X; Nong, X X; Liu, Z; Lu, S Q; Zhang, J S

    2011-04-01

    Three full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were isolated encoding the skeletal myosin light chain 1 (MLC1; 1237 bp), myosin light chain 2 (MLC2; 1206 bp) and myosin light chain 3 (MLC3; 1079 bp) from the fast white muscle cDNA library of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. The sequence analysis indicated that MLC1 and MLC3 were not produced from differentially spliced messenger RNAs (mRNA) as reported in birds and rodents but were encoded by different genes. The MLC2 encodes 170 amino acids, which include four EF-hand (helix-loop-helix) structures. The primary structures of the Ca(2+)-binding domain were well conserved among the MLC2s of seven other fish species. The ontogenetic expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that the three light-chain mRNAs were first detected in the gastrula stage, and their expression increased from the tail bud stage to the larval stage. All three MLC mRNAs showed longitudinal expression variation in the fast white muscle of S. chuatsi, especially MLC1 which was highly expressed at the posterior area. Taken together, the study provides a better understanding about the MLC gene structure and their expression pattern in muscle development of S. chuatsi.

  18. A small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii motility induces the posttranslational modification of myosin light chain-1 and inhibits myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Aoife T; Leung, Jacqueline M; Carey, Kimberly L; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M; Westwood, Nicholas J; Ballif, Bryan A; Ward, Gary E

    2010-01-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains.

  19. Lead discovery for mammalian elongation of long chain fatty acids family 6 using a combination of high-throughput fluorescent-based assay and RapidFire mass spectrometry assay.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Mari; Sakurai, Masaaki; Teranishi, Fumie; Ikeda, Tomoko; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Asai, Akira

    2016-11-25

    A high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry assay is described for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family 6 (Elovl6). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 may be a new therapeutic target for fat metabolism disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify new Elovl6 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput fluorescence screening assay in 1536-well format. However, a number of false positives caused by fluorescent interference have been identified. To pick up the real active compounds among the primary hits from the fluorescence assay, we developed a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a conventional radioisotope assay. These assays have the advantage of detecting the main products directly without using fluorescent-labeled substrates. As a result, 276 compounds (30%) of the primary hits (921 compounds) in a fluorescence ultra-high-throughput screening method were identified as common active compounds in these two assays. It is concluded that both methods are very effective to eliminate false positives. Compared with the radioisotope method using an expensive (14)C-labeled substrate, the RapidFire mass spectrometry method using unlabeled substrates is a high-accuracy, high-throughput method. In addition, some of the hit compounds selected from the screening inhibited cellular fatty acid elongation in HEK293 cells expressing Elovl6 transiently. This result suggests that these compounds may be promising lead candidates for therapeutic drugs. Ultra-high-throughput fluorescence screening followed by a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay was a suitable strategy for lead discovery against Elovl6.

  20. Subset of Kappa and Lambda Germline Sequences Result in Light Chains with a Higher Molecular Mass Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Barnidge, David R; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhang, Bo; Dasari, Surendra; Murray, David L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-04

    In our previous work, we showed that electrospray ionization of intact polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains isolated from normal serum generates two distinct, Gaussian-shaped, molecular mass distributions representing the light-chain repertoire. During the analysis of a large (>100) patient sample set, we noticed a low-intensity molecular mass distribution with a mean of approximately 24 250 Da, roughly 800 Da higher than the mean of the typical kappa molecular-mass distribution mean of 23 450 Da. We also observed distinct clones in this region that did not appear to contain any typical post-translational modifications that would account for such a large mass shift. To determine the origin of the high molecular mass clones, we performed de novo bottom-up mass spectrometry on a purified IgM monoclonal light chain that had a calculated molecular mass of 24 275.03 Da. The entire sequence of the monoclonal light chain was determined using multienzyme digestion and de novo sequence-alignment software and was found to belong to the germline allele IGKV2-30. The alignment of kappa germline sequences revealed ten IGKV2 and one IGKV4 sequences that contained additional amino acids in their CDR1 region, creating the high-molecular-mass phenotype. We also performed an alignment of lambda germline sequences, which showed additional amino acids in the CDR2 region, and the FR3 region of functional germline sequences that result in a high-molecular-mass phenotype. The work presented here illustrates the ability of mass spectrometry to provide information on the diversity of light-chain molecular mass phenotypes in circulation, which reflects the germline sequences selected by the immunoglobulin-secreting B-cell population.

  1. Myosin light chain kinase accelerates vesicle endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity triggers endocytosis at synaptic terminals to retrieve efficiently the exocytosed vesicle membrane, ensuring the membrane homeostasis of active zones and the continuous supply of releasable vesicles. The kinetics of endocytosis depends on Ca(2+) and calmodulin which, as a versatile signal pathway, can activate a broad spectrum of downstream targets, including myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK is known to regulate vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, but whether this kinase regulates vesicle endocytosis at synapses remains elusive. We investigated this issue at the rat calyx of Held synapse, where previous studies using whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement have characterized two common forms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent endocytosis, i.e., slow clathrin-dependent endocytosis and rapid endocytosis. Acute inhibition of MLCK with pharmacological agents was found to slow down the kinetics of both slow and rapid forms of endocytosis at calyces. Similar impairment of endocytosis occurred when blocking myosin II, a motor protein that can be phosphorylated upon MLCK activation. The inhibition of endocytosis was not accompanied by a change in Ca(2+) channel current. Combined inhibition of MLCK and calmodulin did not induce synergistic inhibition of endocytosis. Together, our results suggest that activation of MLCK accelerates both slow and rapid forms of vesicle endocytosis at nerve terminals, likely by functioning downstream of Ca(2+)/calmodulin.

  2. [Refolding of the fusion protein of recombinant enterokinase light chain rEKL].

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Xing

    2006-09-01

    The fusion protein of enterokinase light chain, DsbA-rEKL, was expressed mainly in inclusion body in E. coli. The recombinant bacteria was fermented to high density, with high expression of the fusion protein. After being washed with 0.5% Triton X-100 and 4mol/L urea, the inclusion body was dissolved in 6mol/L guanidine and 100mmol/L DTP, derivatized by cystine and refolded by pulse refolding. The strategy of pulse refolding involved the addition of 0.03mg/mL of fusion protein until its final concentration reached 0.3mg/mL. The refolded protein was autocleaved and the active EKL molecule was released after adding 2mmol/L CaCl2. Using the two-step purification processes of IDA-Sepharose chromatography and Q-Sepharose chromatography, the purity of rEKL was found to be above 95%, with a high activity to cleave the recombinant reteplase fusion protein Trx-rPA. The yield of purified rEKL was more than 60mg/L of cultures. As a result, the therapeutic proteins like rPA could be produced on a large-scale in a way such as expressed in the form of fusion proteins.

  3. Functional expression and purification of bovine enterokinase light chain in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ruan, Hong; Gu, Weiyan; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin; Fan, Limei

    2007-01-01

    Enterokinase (EC 3.4.21.9) is a serine proteinase of the intestinal brush border that exhibits specificity for the sequence (Asp)(4)-Lys and converts trypsinogen into its active form, trypsin. A codon optimized sequence coding light chain (catalytic subunit) of bovine enterokinase gene (sBEKLC) was synthesized, and it was fused with DsbA to construct the expression vector (pET39-sBEKLC). Then, the plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. Under optimal conditions, the volumetric productivity of fusion protein reached 151.2 mg L(-1), i.e., 80.6 mg sBEKLC L(-1). The cold osmotic shock technique was successfully used to extract sBEKLC from periplasmic space, and nickel affinity chromatography was employed to obtain mature sBEKLC. Finally, about 6.8 mg of bioactive sBEKLC was purified from 1 liter fermentation broth and could be used to cleave one tested fusion protein with an inter-domain enteropeptidase recognition site. This work will be helpful for large-scale production of this increasingly demanded enterokinase.

  4. Purification and refolding optimization of recombinant bovine enterokinase light chain overexpressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haidong; Wang, Jinxia; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2007-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence encoding bovine enterokinase light chain (EK) from Chinese northern yellow bovine was isolated. Two single-nucleotide mutations, namely, C245G and A528T were identified. The gene encoding the Pro82Arg/Glu176Asp variant of known bovine EK was fused with glutathione S-transferase and overexpressed mainly as an inclusion body in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), upon induction with IPTG and glucose. Effective fusion protein purification, refolding, auto-catalytic cleavage and mature EK recovery were described. The specific activity of the purified EK was determined as 110+/- 10 U/mg, which was comparable to a specific activity of > or =20 U/mg of the E. coli expressed EK sample provided by Sigma (Cat. No. E4906). This procedure produced approximately 53 mg of EK per 500 mL of cell culture, which was much higher than previous reports, thus providing a basis for large-scale production of EK and for further applications in biotechnology.

  5. High-level secretory production of recombinant bovine enterokinase light chain by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lisheng; Zhong, Xiaofen; Ou, Jingxing; Zheng, Suilan; Liao, Jian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Anlong

    2004-03-04

    Enterokinase (EC 3.4.21.9) is a serine proteinase with a specific digest sequence (Asp)4-Lys in the duodenum. Its high specificity for the recognition site makes enterokinase (EK) a useful tool for an in vitro cleavage of fusion proteins. In this work, an active bovine enterokinase light chain (EK(L)) was produced in secretory form by a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The influences of methanol utilization phenotype of the host strain, induction pH, and carbon source on the recombinant production were studied. The production of recombinant EK(L) by Mut(s) strain was much higher than that by Mut+ strain. When inducted at pH 6.0, on a glycerol/methanol medium, the concentration of recombinant EK(L) (rEK(L)) reached 350 mg l(-1), which was 20-fold higher than that reported previously. The recombinant EK(L) was purified in a simple procedure on the anion exchange chromatography and 15 mg pure active EK(L) were obtained from 100 ml culture broth supernatant. The specific activity of purified rEK(L) was approximately 9000 u mg(-1). To facilitate purification and removal of rEKL after cleavage of fusion protein, the C-terminal His-tagged EK(L) (EK(L)/His) was also expressed in P. pastoris, and this His-tagged EK(L) exhibited a similar enzymatic activity to the untagged EK(L).

  6. Dynein light intermediate chains maintain spindle bipolarity by functioning in centriole cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Laura A.; Villemant, Cécile; Starborg, Toby; Salter, Anna; Goddard, Georgina; Ruane, Peter; Woodman, Philip G.; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein) is a minus end–directed microtubule motor protein with many cellular functions, including during cell division. The role of the light intermediate chains (LICs; DYNC1LI1 and 2) within the complex is poorly understood. In this paper, we have used small interfering RNAs or morpholino oligonucleotides to deplete the LICs in human cell lines and Xenopus laevis early embryos to dissect the LICs’ role in cell division. We show that although dynein lacking LICs drives microtubule gliding at normal rates, the LICs are required for the formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle. Multipolar spindles with poles that contain single centrioles were formed in cells lacking LICs, indicating that they are needed for maintaining centrosome integrity. The formation of multipolar spindles via centrosome splitting after LIC depletion could be rescued by inhibiting Eg5. This suggests a novel role for the dynein complex, counteracted by Eg5, in the maintenance of centriole cohesion during mitosis. PMID:25422374

  7. Olanzapine May Inhibit Colonic Motility Associated with the 5-HT Receptor and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarui; Qiao, Ying; Le, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the effects of olanzapine on gastrointestinal motility is related to the serotonin antagonism and myosin light chain kinase. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Olanzapine gavage was performed for each treatment group during the course of 30 continuous days, while the same volume of saline was given to the rats in the control group. Defecation of the rats was observed on days 7 and 30 after olanzapine gavage. The effects of olanzapine on contraction of colonic smooth muscles were observed in ex vivo experiments. A Western blot was used to evaluate expression levels of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and MLCK in colon segments of the rats. Results ResultsaaCompared to the control group, 5-160 µ M of olanzapine could inhibit dose-dependently the contraction of colonic smooth muscle ex vivo experiments. The maximum smooth muscle contraction effects of 5-HT and acetylcholine significantly decreased after treatment with 40-160 µ M of olanzapine. Constipation was found in the olanzapine-treated rats on day 7 and have sustained day 30 after gavage. Expression of MLCK in olanzapine-treated rats was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of SERT significantly increased on the day 7, then significantly decreased on the day 30 after olanzapine gavage. Conclusion SERT and MLCK may involve in the inhibition of colonic contraction induced by olanzapine. PMID:27081386

  8. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, L M; Hidalgo, M J; Palmero, M; Ballesta, J J; Reig, J A; Garcia, A G; Viniegra, S

    1989-01-01

    The myosin-light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation accompanying catecholamine release in chromaffin cells was investigated with the objective of assessing the possible role of this contractile protein in catecholamine secretion. The electrophoretic characteristics of adrenomedullary MLC were determined by immunochemical techniques using two different specific antibodies. The identified 22 kDa phosphoprotein was mainly present in the cytosol, as demonstrated by ultracentrifugation and immunocytochemical analysis. A part of this protein was located on, or close to, the plasma membrane. Cell stimulation by secretagogues resulted in a Ca2(+)-dependent 32P incorporation into MLC, the time course of this process being related to catecholamine release. These findings were supported by a two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis by which means this protein was resolved into two acidic forms. A role for Ca2(+)-calmodulin and Ca2(+)-phospholipid kinases in adrenomedullary MLC phosphorylation is reported. The results obtained suggest a regulatory role for such a protein in the underlying exocytotic event. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2481449

  9. Circulating antibody free light chains and risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Engels, E A; Preiksaitis, J; Zingone, A; Landgren, O

    2012-05-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a major complication of solid-organ transplantation. With human immunodeficiency virus infection (an analogous immunosuppressive state), elevated kappa and lambda immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) in peripheral blood are associated with increased risk of lymphoma. To assess the role of B-cell dysfunction in PTLD, we measured circulating FLCs among Canadian transplant recipients, including 29 individuals with PTLD and 57 matched transplant recipients who were PTLD-free. Compared with controls, PTLD cases had higher kappa FLCs (median 1.53 vs. 1.07 times upper limit of normal) and lambda FLCs (1.03 vs. 0.68). Using samples obtained on average 3.5 months before PTLD diagnosis, cases were more likely to have polyclonal FLC elevations (i.e. elevated kappa and/or lambda with normal kappa/lambda ratio: odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95%CI 1.1-15) or monoclonal elevations (elevated kappa and/or lambda with abnormal ratio: OR 3.0, 95%CI 0.5-18). Strong FLC-PTLD associations were also observed at diagnosis/selection. Among recipients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA measured in blood, EBV DNAemia was associated with FLC abnormalities (ORs 6.2 and 3.2 for monoclonal and polyclonal elevations). FLC elevations are common in transplant recipients and associated with heightened PTLD risk. FLCs likely reflect B-cell dysfunction, perhaps related to EBV-driven lymphoproliferation.

  10. Free light chain monomer-dimer patterns in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Batia; Golderman, Sizilia; Yahalom, Gilad; Yeskaraev, Regina; Ziv, Tamar; Aizenbud, Boris M; Sela, Ben-Ami; Livneh, Avi

    2013-04-30

    In our search of new biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS), we aimed to characterize the immunoglobulin (Ig) free light chains (FLC) in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of FLC monomer-dimer patterns for MS. FLC were analyzed by Western blotting and mass spectroscopy. CSF and serum samples were examined for the presence of oligoclonal Ig bands by a conventional laboratory test for MS. Three distinct pathological FLC monomer-dimer patterns, typical of MS but not of other neurological diseases, were revealed. In 31 out 56 MS patients the highly increased CSF levels of κ monomers and dimers were demonstrated. In 18 MS patients, the increased κ-FLC levels were accompanied by highly elevated λ dimers. Five MS cases showed no significant elevation in κ-FLC, but they displayed abnormally high λ dimer levels. The intensity of the immunoreactive FLC bands was measured to account for κ and λ monomer and dimer levels and their ratios in the CSF and serum. Combined usage of different FLC parameters allowed the determination of the appropriate FLC threshold values to diagnose MS. The developed method showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 90%, respectively), as compared to those of the conventional OCB test (82% and 70%, respectively). Our study highlights the role of the differential analysis of monomeric and dimeric κ- and λ-FLC for the precise diagnosis of MS.

  11. Serum free light chains and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in patients with renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Rodrigo C; Rizzatti, Edgar G; Braga, Walter M T; Santos, Melina G; de Oliveira, Mariana B; Pestana, José O M; Baiocchi, Otavio C G; Colleoni, Gisele W B

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between serum free light chains (sFLC) quantification and the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), using serum samples from a nested case-control cohort of patients with renal transplant. Ten new cases of PTLD and 46 controls were enrolled. Additional comparison groups consisted of five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, five with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma and six normal individuals. Serum κ and λ FLC concentrations were measured by nephelometry and compared with reference ranges (normal and renal ranges). κ and/or λ were above the normal range in 90% of cases and in 65% of matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups, except for λ FLC concentrations between cases of PTLD and normal individuals (p = 0.016). The κ/λ sFLC ratios of cases and controls were within the renal range and normal range. Our results suggest that sFLC are not useful to predict PTLD development in renal transplant recipients.

  12. Interaction of the Rabies Virus P Protein with the LC8 Dynein Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Raux, Hélène; Flamand, Anne; Blondel, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    The rabies virus P protein is involved in viral transcription and replication but its precise function is not clear. We investigated the role of P (CVS strain) by searching for cellular partners by using a two-hybrid screening of a PC12 cDNA library. We isolated a cDNA encoding a 10-kDa dynein light chain (LC8). LC8 is a component of cytoplasmic dynein involved in the minus end-directed movement of organelles along microtubules. We confirmed that this molecule interacts with P by coimmunoprecipitation in infected cells and in cells transfected with a plasmid encoding P protein. LC8 was also detected in virus particles. Series of deletions from the N- and C-terminal ends of P protein were used to map the LC8-binding domain to the central part of P (residues 138 to 172). These results are relevant to speculate that dynein may be involved in the axonal transport of rabies virus along microtubules through neuron cells. PMID:11024151

  13. The role of the dynein light intermediate chain in retrograde IFT and flagellar function in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Reck, Jaimee; Schauer, Alexandria M; VanderWaal Mills, Kristyn; Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Perrone, Catherine A; Porter, Mary E

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT. Flagellar assembly, motility, gliding, and mating are altered in a dose-dependent manner. iTRAQ-based proteomics identifies a small subset of proteins that are significantly reduced or elevated in d1blic flagella. Transformation with D1bLIC-GFP rescues the mutant phenotypes, and D1bLIC-GFP assembles into the dynein 1b complex at wild-type levels. D1bLIC-GFP is transported with anterograde IFT particles to the flagellar tip, dissociates into smaller particles, and begins processive retrograde IFT in <2 s. These studies demonstrate the role of D1bLIC in facilitating the recycling of IFT subunits and other proteins, identify new components potentially involved in the regulation of IFT, flagellar assembly, and flagellar signaling, and provide insight into the role of D1bLIC and retrograde IFT in other organisms.

  14. Hsp70 and antifibrillogenic peptides promote degradation and inhibit intracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Dul, J. L.; Davis, D. P.; Williamson, E. K.; Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Univ. of Chicago

    2001-02-19

    In light chain (LC) amyloidosis an immunoglobulin LC assembles into fibrils that are deposited in various tissues. Little is known about how these fibrils form in vivo. We previously showed that a known amyloidogenic LC, SMA, can give rise to amyloid fibrils in vitro when a segment of one of its {beta} sheets undergoes a conformational change, exposing an Hsp70 binding site. To examine SMA aggregation in vivo, we expressed it and its wild-type counterpart, LEN, in COS cells. While LEN is rapidly oxidized and subsequently secreted, newly synthesized SMA remains in the reduced state. Most SMA molecules are dislocated out of the ER into the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinylated and degraded by proteasomes. A parallel pathway for molecules that are not degraded is condensation into perinuclear aggresomes that are surrounded by vimentin-containing intermediate filaments and are dependent upon intact microtubules. Inhibition of proteasome activity shifts the balance toward aggresome formation. Intracellular aggregation is decreased and targeting to proteasomes improved by overexpression of the cytosolic chaperone Hsp70. Importantly, transduction into the cell of an Hsp70 target peptide, derived from the LC sequence, also reduces aggresome formation and increases SMA degradation. These results demonstrate that an amyloidogenic LC can aggregate intracellularly despite the common presentation of extracellular aggregates, and that a similar molecular surface mediates both in vitro fibril formation and in vivo aggregation. Furthermore, rationally designed peptides can be used to suppress this aggregation and may provide a feasible therapeutic approach.

  15. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  16. New insights into the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Loredo, Ariadna Yolanda; López-Colomé, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in the function of the neural retina and the maintenance of vision. Most of the functions displayed by RPE require a dynamic organization of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Myosin II, a main cytoskeletal component in muscle and non-muscle cells, is directly involved in force generation required for organelle movement, selective molecule transport within cell compartments, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, and cell division, among others. Contractile processes are triggered by the phosphorylation of myosin II light chains (MLCs), which promotes actin-myosin interaction and the assembly of contractile fibers. Considerable evidence indicates that non-muscle myosin II activation is critically involved in various pathological states, increasing the interest in studying the signaling pathways controlling MLC phosphorylation. Particularly, recent findings suggest a role for non-muscle myosin II-induced contraction in RPE cell transformation involved in the establishment of numerous retinal diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding myosin function in RPE cells, as well as the signaling networks leading to MLC phosphorylation under pathological conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying RPE dysfunction would improve the development of new therapies for the treatment or prevention of different ocular disorders leading to blindness.

  17. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Light Chain - Serotype Divergence in Substrate Recognition†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Joseph W.; Yu, Wayne; Bi, Fay; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    The seven serotypes (A–G) of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) block neurotransmitter release through their specific proteolysis of one of the three proteins of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex. BoNTs have stringent substrate specificities that are unique for metalloprotease in that they require exceptionally long substrates (1). In order to understand the molecular reasons for the unique specificities of the BoNTs, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic light chain (LC) of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type G (BoNT/G-LC) at 2.35 Å resolution. The structure of BoNT/G-LC reveals a C-terminal β-sheet that is critical for LC oligomerization and is unlike that seen in the other LC structures. Its structural comparison with thermolysin and the available pool of LC structures reveals important serotype differences that are likely to be involved in substrate recognition of the P1’ residue. In addition, structural and sequence analysis have identified a potential exosite of BoNT/G-LC that recognizes a SNARE recognition motif of VAMP. PMID:16008342

  18. Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type G light chain: serotype divergence in substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Joseph W; Yu, Wayne; Bi, Fay; Stevens, Raymond C

    2005-07-19

    The seven serotypes (A-G) of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) block neurotransmitter release through their specific proteolysis of one of the three proteins of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex. BoNTs have stringent substrate specificities that are unique for metalloprotease in that they require exceptionally long substrates (1). To understand the molecular reasons for the unique specificities of the BoNTs, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic light chain (LC) of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type G (BoNT/G-LC) at 2.35 A resolution. The structure of BoNT/G-LC reveals a C-terminal beta-sheet that is critical for LC oligomerization and is unlike that seen in the other LC structures. Its structural comparison with thermolysin and the available pool of LC structures reveals important serotype differences that are likely to be involved in substrate recognition of the P1' residue. In addition, structural and sequence analyses have identified a potential exosite of BoNT/G-LC that recognizes a SNARE recognition motif of VAMP.

  19. Behavioural and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Gareth T.; Haas, Matilda A.; Line, Samantha; Shepherd, Hazel L.; AlQatari, Mona; Stewart, Sammy; Rishal, Ida; Philpott, Amelia; Kalmar, Bernadett; Kuta, Anna; Groves, Michael; Parkinson, Nicholas; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Brandner, Sebastian; Bannerman, David; Greensmith, Linda; Hafezparast, Majid; Koltzenburg, Martin; Deacon, Robert; Fainzilber, Mike; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein complex is fundamentally important to all eukaryotic cells for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within the cell. This complex also plays more specialised roles in neurons. The complex consists of 11 types of protein that interact with each other and with external adaptors, regulators and cargoes. Despite the importance of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, we know comparatively little of the roles of each component protein, and in mammals few mutants exist that allow us to explore the effects of defects in dynein controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here we have taken a genotype-driven approach in mouse (Mus musculus) to analyse the role of one subunit, the dynein light intermediate chain 1 (Dync1li1). We find that, surprisingly, an N235Y point mutation in this protein results in altered neuronal development, as shown from in vivo studies in the developing cortex, and analyses of electrophysiological function. Moreover, mutant mice display increased anxiety, thus linking dynein functions to a behavioural phenotype in mammals for the first time. These results demonstrate the important role that dynein controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system. PMID:21471385

  20. A comparison between mammalian and avian fast skeletal muscle alkali myosin light chain genes: regulatory implications.

    PubMed Central

    Daubas, P; Robert, B; Garner, I; Buckingham, M

    1985-01-01

    A single locus in the mouse, rat and chicken encodes both alkali myosin light chains, MLC1F and MLC3F. This gene has two distinct promoters and gives rise to two different primary transcripts, which are processed by alternative and different modes of splicing to form MLC1F and MLC3F mRNAs. The MLC1F/MLC3F gene is very similar between mouse, rat and chicken, in terms of its overall structure, the length and location of the introns, and the splice site consensus sequences. Nucleotide sequences of coding regions are very conserved but 3' and 5' non coding regions of the mRNAs have diverged. In the MLC1F promoter regions, several blocks of nucleotides are highly conserved (more than 70% homology), especially a sequence of about 70 nucleotides, located between positions -80 and -150 relative to the Cap site. Conserved blocks of homology are also found in the MLC3F promoter regions, although the common sequences are shorter. The presence of such highly conserved nucleotide sequences in the 5' flanking regions suggests that these sequences are functionally important in initiation of transcription and regulation of expression of this complex gene. Primer extension experiments indicate multiple cap sites for MLC3F mRNA. Images PMID:4022770

  1. The role of the dynein light intermediate chain in retrograde IFT and flagellar function in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Reck, Jaimee; Schauer, Alexandria M.; VanderWaal Mills, Kristyn; Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Perrone, Catherine A.; Porter, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT. Flagellar assembly, motility, gliding, and mating are altered in a dose-dependent manner. iTRAQ-based proteomics identifies a small subset of proteins that are significantly reduced or elevated in d1blic flagella. Transformation with D1bLIC-GFP rescues the mutant phenotypes, and D1bLIC-GFP assembles into the dynein 1b complex at wild-type levels. D1bLIC-GFP is transported with anterograde IFT particles to the flagellar tip, dissociates into smaller particles, and begins processive retrograde IFT in <2 s. These studies demonstrate the role of D1bLIC in facilitating the recycling of IFT subunits and other proteins, identify new components potentially involved in the regulation of IFT, flagellar assembly, and flagellar signaling, and provide insight into the role of D1bLIC and retrograde IFT in other organisms. PMID:27251063

  2. The prognostic value of diagnosing concurrent multiple myeloma in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dinner, Shira; Witteles, Wesley; Witteles, Ronald; Lam, Anthony; Arai, Sally; Lafayette, Richard; George, Tracy I; Schrier, Stanley L; Liedtke, Michaela

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence and prognostic value of a concomitant diagnosis of symptomatic or asymptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), as defined by the current International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria, in patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL), are unknown. We studied 46 consecutive patients with AL who underwent quantification of serum M-protein and clonal bone marrow plasma cells, as well as a comprehensive evaluation for end organ damage by MM. Using standard morphology and CD138 immunohistochemical staining, 57% and 80% of patients were found to have concomitant MM, respectively. Nine patients exhibited end organ damage consistent with a diagnosis of symptomatic MM. While overall survival was similar between AL patients with or without concurrent myeloma (1-year overall survival 68% vs. 87%; P = 0.27), a diagnosis of symptomatic myeloma was associated with inferior outcome (1-year overall survival 39% vs. 81%; P = 0.005). Quantification of bone marrow plasma cells by both standard morphology and CD138 immunohistochemistry identified a much higher prevalence of concurrent MM in patients with AL than previously reported. Evaluation of bone marrow plasma cell infiltration and presence of myeloma associated end organ damage could be clinically useful for prognostication of patients with AL.

  3. Evolutionary redefinition of immunoglobulin light chain isotypes in tetrapods using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Das, Sabyasachi; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Klein, Jan; Nei, Masatoshi

    2008-10-28

    The phylogenetic relationships of Ig light chain (IGL) genes are difficult to resolve, because these genes are short and evolve relatively fast. Here, we classify the IGL sequences from 12 tetrapod species into three distinct groups (kappa, lambda, and sigma isotypes) using conserved amino acid residues, recombination signal sequences, and genomic organization of IGL genes as cladistic markers. From the distribution of the markers we conclude that the earliest extant tetrapods, the amphibians, possess three IGL isotypes: kappa, lambda, and sigma. Of these, two (kappa and lambda) are also found in reptiles and some mammals. The lambda isotype is found in all tetrapods tested to date, whereas the kappa isotype seems to have been lost at least in some birds and in the microbat. Conservation of the cladistic molecular markers suggests that they are associated with functional specialization of the three IGL isotypes. The genomic maps of IGL loci reveal multiple gene rearrangements that occurred in the evolution of tetrapod species. These rearrangements have resulted in interspecific variation of the genomic lengths of the IGL loci and the number and order of IGL constituent genes, but the overall organization of the IGL loci has not changed.

  4. Clinical and prognostic differences among patients with light chain deposition disease, myeloma cast nephropathy and both.

    PubMed

    Zand, Ladan; Nasr, Samih H; Gertz, Morie A; Dispenzieri, Angela; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis K; Kumar, Shaji; Kyle, Robert A; Fervenza, Fernando C; Sethi, Sanjeev; Dingli, David; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kapoor, Prashant; McCurdy, Arleigh; Leung, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In some patients with light chain deposition disease (LCDD) there is also evidence of myeloma cast nephropathy (MCN) on renal biopsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renal and survival outcome of patients with concomitant diagnosis of MCN and LCDD to LCDD and MCN alone. Eighty seven patients were identified and divided into LCDD (n=45), MCN (n=29), and LCDD+ MCN (n=13). Patients with LCDD+ MCN had a worse overall survival (OS) compared to patients with LCDD (p=0.03), but similar to patients with MCN (p=0.4). Death-censored renal survival was no different amongst the groups. Presenting with acute renal failure at time of renal biopsy (HR 7.2, p=0.0002) was an independent poor renal prognostic factor while older age (HR 1.06, p=0.0002), presence of osteolytic lesions (HR 4.4, p<0.0001), and requirement for dialysis or creatinine≥5 mg/dL (HR 3.2, p=0.0006) at time of renal biopsy were independent poor prognostic factors for OS.

  5. Dynein light chain family genes in 15 plant species: Identification, evolution and expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Li, Xiangyang; Lv, Yueqing

    2017-01-01

    Dynein light chain (DLC) is one important component of the dynein complexes, which have been proved involving in a variety of cellular functions. However, higher plants lack all other components of the complexes except DLCs, suggesting that in plants, the DLC protein does not carry out the same function as it in animals. Therefore, the function of this family in plants is mysterious. In this study, we investigated the DLC gene family in 15 plant species and analyzed their expression profiles. In total, 128 DLC genes were identified from the 15 studied plant species and were divided into eight groups by their phylogenetic relation. Highly conserved gene structure and motif arrangement was discovered within each group, indicating their functional correlation. Genetic variation and recombination events were also detected in DLC genes. Through selection analyses, we also identified some significant site-specific constraints in most of the DLC paralogs. In addition, DLC genes presented various expression profiles in different development stages, or under different abiotic stresses or phytohormone treatments. This may be associated with a variety of cis-elements responding to stress and phytohormone in the upstream sequences of the DLC genes. Functional network analysis exhibited 123 physical or functional interactions. The results provide a foundation for exploring the characterization of the DLC genes in plants and offer insights for additional functional studies.

  6. Phase 2 trial of daily, oral epigallocatechin gallate in patients with light-chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Meshitsuka, Sohsuke; Shingaki, Sumito; Hotta, Masatoshi; Goto, Miku; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Wada, Yasuyo; Nojima, Masanori; Suzuki, Kenshi

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species may cause organ damage in patients with light-chain (AL) amyloidosis; however, this damage can be decreased by antioxidant-agent treatment. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major natural catechin in green tea, has potent antioxidant activity. Because EGCG has recently been reported to have a favorable toxicity profile for treating amyloidosis, we sought to examine the clinical efficacy and toxicity of EGCG in patients with AL amyloidosis. Fifty-seven patients were randomly assigned to the EGCG and observation groups and observed for six months. There were no increases in grade 3-5 adverse events and EGCG therapy was well tolerated. Although a decrease in the urinary albumin level was found in the EGCG group in patients with obvious albuminuria after treatment initiation, its antioxidant activity may not be sufficient to clarify the potential effect of EGCG in patients with AL amyloidosis. Because some of the biological markers responsible for organ damage were well correlated to the level of antioxidant potential in patients' plasma, the status of oxidative stress in the blood may indicate the extent of organ damage in clinical situations.

  7. Probing BoNT/A Protease Exosites: Implications for Inhibitor Design and Light Chain Longevity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is one of the most lethal toxins known. Its extreme toxicity is due to its light chain (LC), a zinc protease that cleaves SNAP-25, a synaptosome-associated protein, leading to the inhibition of neuronal activity. Studies on BoNT/A LC have revealed that two regions, termed exosites, can play an important role in BoNT catalytic activity. A clear understanding of how these exosites influence neurotoxin catalytic activity would provide a critical framework for deciphering the mechanism of SNAP-25 cleavage and the design of inhibitors. Herein, based on the crystallographic structure of BoNT/A LC complexed with its substrate, we designed an α-exosite binding probe. Experiments with this unique probe demonstrated that α-exosite binding enhanced both catalytic activity and stability of the LC. These data help delineate why α-exosite binding is needed for SNAP-25 cleavage and also provide new insights into the extended lifetime observed for BoNT/A LC in vivo. PMID:25295706

  8. Notes on individual sequence variation in humans: Immunoglobulin kappa light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, J.H. ); Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Little is known concerning the magnitude of variability in the nucleic acid sequence of DNA at the individual level. The authors have collected a large set of sequence data from the human immunoglobulin kappa light-chain-locus constant region (10,444 bp) and subgroup IV variable region (18,580 bp). For the constant region, absolute conservation of sequence was observed, even in intron and coding-region silent sites, with the exception of one previously defined polymorphic site. For the variable region, 12 heterozygous positions were identified, giving a heterozygosity of 6 x 10[sup [minus]4] per nucleotide site. The amount of nucleic acid sequence variation differs significantly ([chi][sup 2] = 4.88) between these two regions, and the observed variation is two orders of magnitude lower than that reported for two Drosophila melanogaster loci. These data suggest that, for at least some regions of the human genome, nucleic acid sequence may be less variable than previously estimated. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Effects of a Fluorescent Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Inhibitor on Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grindrod, Scott; Suy, Simeng; Fallen, Shannon; Eto, Masumi; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Brown, Milton L.

    2011-01-01

    Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) is an enzyme important to regulation of cell cycle and motility that is shown to be upregulated in aggressive prostate cancer cells and tissue. We developed a fluorescent small molecule inhibitor of MLCP using structure based design in recombinant protein phosphatase 1C. Several best fit compounds were synthesized and evaluated by their inhibition of MLCP/32P-MLC dephosphorylation, which resulted in the identification of novel MLCP inhibitors. Androgen dependent (AD) and castration resistant prostate cancer cell (CRPC) lines were treated with the lead inhibitor resulting in decreased growth rate, reduced DNA synthesis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, CRPC cell lines showed an increased sensitivity to drug treatment having GI50 values four times lower than the AD prostate cancer cell line. This was reinforced by reduced BrdU DNA incorporation into CRPC cells compared to AD cells. β-actin disruption was also seen at much lower drug concentrations in CR cells which caused a dose dependent reduction in cellular chemotaxis of PC-3 cells. Since there are currently few clinical therapeutics targeting CR prostate cancer, MLCP represents a new target for preclinical and clinical development of new potential therapeutics which inhibit this disease phenotype. PMID:22655237

  10. Evaluation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis in drinking water biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chern, Eunice C; King, Dawn; Haugland, Richard; Pfaller, Stacy

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium (MA), Mycobacterium intracellulare (MI), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are difficult to culture due to their slow growing nature. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the rapid detection of MA, MI, and MAP can be used to provide data supporting drinking water biofilms as potential sources of human exposure. The aim of this study was to characterize two qPCR assays targeting partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of MA and MI and use these assays, along with two previously reported MAP qPCR assays (IS900 and Target 251), to investigate Mycobacterium occurrence in kitchen faucet biofilms. MA and MI qPCR assays demonstrated 100% specificity and sensitivity when evaluated against 18 non-MA complex, 76 MA, and 17 MI isolates. Both assays detected approximately 1,000 cells from a diluted cell stock inoculated on a sampling swab 100% of the time. DNA analysis by qPCR indicated that 35.3, 56.9 and 11.8% of the 51 kitchen faucet biofilm samples collected contained MA, MI, and MAP, respectively. This study introduces novel qPCR assays designed to specifically detect MA and MI in biofilm. Results support the use of qPCR as an alternative to culture for detection and enumeration of MA, MI, and MAP in microbiologically complex samples.

  11. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Balne, P K; Basu, S; Rath, S; Barik, M R; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  12. Detection of cariogenic bacteria genes by a combination of allele-specific polymerase chain reactions and a novel bioluminescent pyrophosphate assay.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Karasawa, Koji; Igarashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shigeya; Goto, Nobuichi; Maeda, Masako

    2004-10-15

    We developed a novel bioluminescent assay for detection of pyrophosphate in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product. The principle of this method is as follows: pyrophosphate released by PCR is converted to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) by pyruvate phosphate dikinase in the presence of the substrate pyruvate phosphate and the coenzyme adenosine 5'-monophosphate; subsequently, ATP concentration is determined by firefly luciferase reaction. The detection limit of pyrophosphate is 1.56 x 10(-15)mol/assay. Additionally, luminescent intensity reached a maximum at approximately 100 s and remained elevated beyond 10 min. This approach is applicable to the detection of cariogenic bacteria in dental plaque. Thus, the allele-specific PCR products of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus developed in this study were measured via the proposed bioluminescent assay. This protocol, which does not require expensive equipment, can be utilized to rapidly monitor cariogenic bacteria in dental plaque.

  13. Detection of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus by a highly sensitive quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Mao, Guoliang; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Liu, Chengjing; Luo, Jun; Li, Xihan; Zen, Ke; Pang, Yanjun; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2013-02-01

    A quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been widely used successfully for detection and monitoring of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus. In this study, we report the design and characterization of a novel set of primers to be used in a qRT-PCR assay for detecting the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. The newly designed primers target three regions that are highly conserved among the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and are different from those targeted by the WHO-recommended primers. The qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers are highly specific, and as specific as the WHO-recommended primers for detecting pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and other influenza viruses including influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses of human, swine, and raccoon dog origin. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers appeared to be at least 10-fold more sensitive than those with the WHO-recommended primers as the detection limits of the assays with our primers and the WHO-recommended primers were 2.5 and 25 copies of target RNA per reaction, respectively. When tested with 83 clinical samples, 32 were detected to be positive using the qRT-PCR assays with our designed primers, while only 25 were positive by the assays with the WHO-recommended primers. These results suggest that the qRT-PCR system with the newly designed primers represent a highly sensitive assay for diagnosis of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus infection.

  14. Evaluation of a novel real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay for high-risk human papilloma virus DNA genotypes in cytological cervical screening

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, JIAOYING; BIAN, MEILU; CONG, XIAO; SUN, AIPING; LI, MIN; MA, LI; CHEN, YING; LIU, JUN

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) DNA is useful in cervical cancer (CC) screening. Recently, a new real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect HR HPV. This assay can synchronize nucleic acid amplification and testing using specific primers for 13 types of HR HPV genomes, combined with specific TaqMan fluorescent marker probe techniques through the fluorescence automatic PCR instrument. Furthermore, it uses TaqGold™ DNA polymerase, which minimizes the amount of non-specific amplification and increases the sensitivity of the assay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the real-time fluorescent PCR assay in CC screening, compared to the Qiagen Hybrid Capture® II High-Risk HPV DNA test® (HC II). In total, 1,252 cervical specimens were collected from women between 19 and 71 years of age. The specimens were examined with three different assays, real-time fluorescent PCR assay and HC II for HR HPV detection combined with liquid-based cytology. Women with cytological abnormalities or HR HPV-positive results underwent colposcopy and cervical biopsy. This study demonstrated good overall agreement between HC II and real-time fluorescent PCR assay (overall agreement, 92.25%; Cohen’s κ=0.814). For the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and CC, the sensitivity of HC II and real-time fluorescent PCR was 94.48 and 92.82%, respectively, and the negative predictive value was 98.85 and 98.54%, respectively. High HR HPV infection rate of the high-grade CIN and CC group was detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, real-time fluorescent PCR assay provides similar results compared to the HC II test for HR HPV detection and could be used in CC screening in clinic. PMID:24648936

  15. Dynamical light scattering for DNA-CTMA:DR1 chains: wormlike semi-flexible model, coil size and persistence length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitus, A. C.; Radosz, W.; Pawlik, G.; Lazar, C. A.; Kajzar, F.; Rau, I.

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies of the coil sizes of DNA-CTMA:Rh solutions have lead to numerical discrepancies with theoretical predictions amounting to one-two orders of magnitude.1 In this paper, which has partially character of a tutorial, we present the basic theoretical concepts underlying an analysis of the polymer coil sizes from DLS experiments. In particular, we discuss the limitations of those methods. We present a wormlike model of a polymer chain which is a promising candidate for inferring information about the spatial structure of the DNA chain from experimental data.

  16. Subunit Heterogeneity of Cytoplasmic Dynein: Differential Expression of 14 kDa Dynein Light Chains in Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jen-Zen; Milner, Teresa A.; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a multi-subunit protein complex in which each subunit is encoded by a few genes. How these subunit isoforms are assembled and regulated to mediate the diverse functions of cytoplasmic dynein is unknown. We previously have shown that two highly conserved 14 kDa dynein light chains, Tctex-1 and RP3, have different cargo-binding abilities. In this report, coimmunoprecipitation revealed that Tctex-1 and RP3 were present in mutually exclusive dynein complexes of brain. Two specific antibodies were used to examine the localization of these two dynein light chains in adult rat hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex. By light microscopy, Tctex-1 and RP3 immunoreactivities exhibited distinct and almost complementary distribution patterns in both brain regions. In hippocampal formation, Tctex-1 immunoreactivity was most enriched in somata of newly generated granule cells and scant in the mature granule and pyramidal cell somata. In contrast, RP3 immunoreactivity was abundant in pyramidal and granule cell somata. Ultrastructural analysis of the dentate gyrus revealed both dynein light chains were associated with various membranous organelles that often were affiliated with microtubules. In addition, Tctex-1 and RP3 immunoreactivities were preferentially and highly enriched on membranous organelles and/or vesicles of axon terminals and dendritic spines, respectively. These results suggest that dynein complexes with different subunit composition, and possibly function, are expressed differentially in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Furthermore, Tctex-1 and RP3 may play important roles in synaptic functions. PMID:11466421

  17. Myosin light chain kinase-regulated endothelial cell contraction: the relationship between isometric tension, actin polymerization, and myosin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to be essential and sufficient for initiation of endothelial cell retraction in saponin permeabilized monolayers (Wysolmerski, R. B. and D. Lagunoff. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:16-20). We now report the effects of thrombin stimulation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE) actin, myosin II and the functional correlate of the activated actomyosin based contractile system, isometric tension development. Using a newly designed isometric tension apparatus, we recorded quantitative changes in isometric tension from paired monolayers. Thrombin stimulation results in a rapid sustained isometric contraction that increases 2- to 2.5-fold within 5 min and remains elevated for at least 60 min. The phosphorylatable myosin light chains from HUVE were found to exist as two isoforms, differing in their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Resting isometric tension is associated with a basal phosphorylation of 0.54 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain. After thrombin treatment, phosphorylation rapidly increases to 1.61 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain within 60 s and remains elevated for the duration of the experiment. Myosin light chain phosphorylation precedes the development of isometric tension and maximal phosphorylation is maintained during the sustained phase of isometric contraction. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps from both control and thrombin-stimulated cultures resolve both monophosphorylated Ser-19 and diphosphorylated Ser-19/Thr-18 peptides indicative of MLCK activation. Changes in the polymerization of actin and association of myosin II correlate temporally with the phosphorylation of myosin II and development of isometric tension. Activation results in a 57% increase in F-actin content within 90 s and 90% of the soluble myosin II associates with the reorganizing F-actin. Furthermore, the disposition of actin and

  18. Serum neurofilament light chain protein is a measure of disease intensity in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Woollacott, Ione O.C.; Dick, Katrina M.; Brotherhood, Emilie; Gordon, Elizabeth; Fellows, Alexander; Toombs, Jamie; Druyeh, Ronald; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Norgren, Niklas; Mead, Simon; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Schott, Jonathan M.; Fox, Nick C.; Warren, Jason D.; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and to see whether they are associated with the severity of disease. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 74 participants (34 with behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD], 3 with FTD and motor neuron disease and 37 with primary progressive aphasia [PPA]) and 28 healthy controls. Twenty-four of the FTD participants carried a pathogenic mutation in C9orf72 (9), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT; 11), or progranulin (GRN; 4). Serum NfL concentrations were determined with the NF-Light kit transferred onto the single-molecule array platform and compared between FTD and healthy controls and between the FTD clinical and genetic subtypes. We also assessed the relationship between NfL concentrations and measures of cognition and brain volume. Results: Serum NfL concentrations were higher in patients with FTD overall (mean 77.9 pg/mL [SD 51.3 pg/mL]) than controls (19.6 pg/mL [SD 8.2 pg/mL]; p < 0.001). Concentrations were also significantly higher in bvFTD (57.8 pg/mL [SD 33.1 pg/mL]) and both the semantic and nonfluent variants of PPA (95.9 and 82.5 pg/mL [SD 33.0 and 33.8 pg/mL], respectively) compared with controls and in semantic variant PPA compared with logopenic variant PPA. Concentrations were significantly higher than controls in both the C9orf72 and MAPT subgroups (79.2 and 40.5 pg/mL [SD 48.2 and 20.9 pg/mL], respectively) with a trend to a higher level in the GRN subgroup (138.5 pg/mL [SD 103.3 pg/mL). However, there was variability within all groups. Serum concentrations correlated particularly with frontal lobe atrophy rate (r = 0.53, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Increased serum NfL concentrations are seen in FTD but show wide variability within each clinical and genetic group. Higher concentrations may reflect the intensity of the disease in FTD and are associated with more rapid atrophy of the frontal lobes. PMID:27581216

  19. Serum free-light chain removal by high cutoff hemodialysis: optimizing removal and supportive care.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Colin A; Harding, Stephen; Mead, Graham; Goehl, Hermann; Storr, Markus; Bradwell, Arthur; Cockwell, Paul

    2008-12-01

    In multiple myeloma the predominant cause of irreversible renal failure is cast nephropathy, secondary to excess kappa or lambda serum free light chains (FLCs). These molecules are efficiently cleared by hemodialysis (HD) using the Gambro HCO 1100 dialyzer. To optimize the removal of FLCs by this dialyzer we have studied the effect of dialyzers in series, dialyzer change, and hemodiafiltration in 14 patients with multiple myeloma and renal failure. The clearance rates of both kappa FLCs and lambda FLCs were significantly increased on two dialyzers from 19 (7.3-34)-15.3 (9-28) mL/min to 47 (17-79)-35.5 (20-57) mL/min, respectively. Clearance rates of both FLCs decreased over the course of the dialysis sessions (both P < 0.001). Changing the dialyzer during a HD session increased lambda FLC clearance rates (22.5 [6-41] to 37.6 [9-52] mL/min; P < 0.001) and decreased kappa FLC clearance rates (39.6 [9-72] to 19 [8-59] mL/min; P < 0.003). Ultrafiltration during HD increased the clearance rates of kappa FLCs (R 0.52, P < 0.01) but not lambda FLCs (R -0.25; P < 0.076). Hemodiafiltration increased the clearance rates of both kappa (19 [SD 6.8] to 32 [SD 9.8] mL/min) and lambda FLCs (15 [SD 7.8] to 20 [SD 7.7] mL/min). Albumin replacement requirements for 8 h of HD increased from 12 g for a single dialyzer to 45 g for two dialyzers in series (P < 0.001). Different protocols are required to optimize the removal of kappa and lambda FLCs in patients with myeloma and renal failure.

  20. T1 mapping and survival in systemic light-chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Banypersad, Sanjay M.; Fontana, Marianna; Maestrini, Viviana; Sado, Daniel M.; Captur, Gabriella; Petrie, Aviva; Piechnik, Stefan K.; Whelan, Carol J.; Herrey, Anna S.; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Moon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the prognostic value of myocardial pre-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) in systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping. Methods and results One hundred patients underwent CMR and T1 mapping pre- and post-contrast. Myocardial ECV was calculated at contrast equilibrium (ECVi) and 15 min post-bolus (ECVb). Fifty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 23 months and survival analyses were performed. Mean ECVi was raised in amyloid (0.44 ± 0.12) as was ECVb (mean 0.44 ± 0.12) compared with healthy volunteers (0.25 ± 0.02), P < 0.001. Native pre-contrast T1 was raised in amyloid (mean 1080 ± 87 ms vs. 954 ± 34 ms, P < 0.001). All three correlated with pre-test probability of cardiac involvement, cardiac biomarkers, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction. During follow-up, 25 deaths occurred. An ECVi of >0.45 carried a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 3.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53–9.61], P = 0.004 and pre-contrast T1 of >1044 ms = HR 5.39 (95% CI: 1.24–23.4), P = 0.02. Extracellular volume after primed infusion and ECVb performed similarly. Isolated post-contrast T1 was non-predictive. In Cox regression models, ECVi was independently predictive of mortality (HR = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.35–14.4) after adjusting for E:E′, ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction grade, and NT-proBNP. Conclusion Myocardial ECV (bolus or infusion technique) and pre-contrast T1 are biomarkers for cardiac AL amyloid and they predict mortality in systemic amyloidosis. PMID:25411195

  1. Disruption of the murine dynein light chain gene Tcte3-3 results in asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sajid; Grzmil, Pawel; Drenckhahn, Joerg-Detlef; Meinhardt, Andreas; Adham, Ibrahim; Engel, Wolfgang; Neesen, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the role of the mouse gene Tcte3 (Tctex2), which encodes a putative light chain of the outer dynein arm of cilia and sperm flagella, we have inactivated this gene in mice using targeted disruption. Breeding of heterozygous males and females resulted in normal litter size; however, we were not able to detect homozygous Tcte3-deficent mice using standard genotype techniques. In fact, our results indicate the presence of at least three highly similar copies of the Tcte3 gene (Tcte3-1, Tcte3-2, and Tcte3-3) in the murine genome. Therefore, quantitative real-time PCR was established to differentiate between mice having one or two targeted Tcte3-3 alleles. By this approach, Tcte3-3(-/-) animals were identified, which were viable and revealed no obvious malformation. Interestingly, some homozygous Tcte3-3-deficient male mice bred with wild-type female produced no offspring while other Tcte3-3-deficient males revealed decreased sperm motility but were fertile. In infertile Tcte3-3(-/-) males, spermatogenesis was affected and sperm motility was reduced, too, resulting in decreased ability of Tcte3-3-deficient spermatozoa to move from the uterus into the oviduct. Impaired flagellar motility is not correlated with any gross defects in the axonemal structure, since outer dynein arms are detectable in sperm of Tcte3-3(-/-) males. However, in infertile males, deficient Tcte3-3 function is correlated with increased apoptosis during male germ cell development, resulting in a reduction of sperm number. Moreover, multiple malformations in developing haploid germ cells are present. Our results support a role of Tcte3-3 in generation of sperm motility as well as in male germ cell differentiation.

  2. Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains Are Increased in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Groot Kormelink, Tom; Pardo, Annie; Knipping, Karen; Buendía-Roldán, Ivette; García-de-Alba, Carolina; Blokhuis, Bart R.; Selman, Moises; Redegeld, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating lung disorder of unknown aetiology, and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), a disease provoked by an immunopathologic reaction to inhaled antigens, are two common interstitial lung diseases with uncertain pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we have shown in other upper and lower airway diseases that immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) are increased and may be involved in initiating a local inflammation. In this study we explored if such a mechanism may also apply to HP and IPF. Methods In this study we examined the presence of FLC in serum and BAL fluid from 21 IPF and 22 HP patients and controls. IgG, IgE and tryptase concentrations were measured in BAL fluid only. The presence of FLCs, plasma cells, B cells and mast cells in lung tissue of 3 HP and 3 IPF patients and 1 control was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results FLC concentrations in serum and BAL fluid were increased in IPF and HP patients as compared to control subjects. IgG concentrations were only increased in HP patients, whereas IgE concentrations were comparable to controls in both patient groups. FLC-positive cells, B cells, plasma cells, and large numbers of activated mast cells were all detected in the lungs of HP and IPF patients, not in control lung. Conclusion These results show that FLC concentrations are increased in serum and BAL fluid of IPF and HP patients and that FLCs are present within affected lung tissue. This suggests that FLCs may be involved in mediating pathology in both diseases. PMID:21980441

  3. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  4. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  5. Regulatory light chain mutants linked to heart disease modify the cardiac myosin lever arm.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sikkink, Laura A

    2013-02-19

    Myosin is the chemomechanical energy transducer in striated heart muscle. The myosin cross-bridge applies impulsive force to actin while consuming ATP chemical energy to propel myosin thick filaments relative to actin thin filaments in the fiber. Transduction begins with ATP hydrolysis in the cross-bridge driving rotary movement of a lever arm converting torque into linear displacement. Myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binds to the lever arm and modifies its ability to translate actin. Gene sequencing implicated several RLC mutations in heart disease, and three of them are investigated here using photoactivatable GFP-tagged RLC (RLC-PAGFP) exchanged into permeabilized papillary muscle fibers. A single-lever arm probe orientation is detected in the crowded environment of the muscle fiber by using RLC-PAGFP with dipole orientation deduced from the three-spatial dimension fluorescence emission pattern of the single molecule. Symmetry and selection rules locate dipoles in their half-sarcomere, identify those at the minimal free energy, and specify active dipole contraction intermediates. Experiments were performed in a microfluidic chamber designed for isometric contraction, total internal reflection fluorescence detection, and two-photon excitation second harmonic generation to evaluate sarcomere length. The RLC-PAGFP reports apparently discretized lever arm orientation intermediates in active isometric fibers that on average produce the stall force. Disease-linked mutants introduced into RLC move intermediate occupancy further down the free energy gradient, implying lever arms rotate more to reach stall force because mutant RLC increases lever arm shear strain. A lower free energy intermediate occupancy involves a lower energy conversion efficiency in the fiber relating a specific myosin function modification to the disease-implicated mutant.

  6. Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, B.G.; Muse, S.V.; Hanczyc, M.

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific comparisons of intron sequences reveal conserved blocks of invariant nucleotides and several other departures from the strictly neutral model of molecular evolution. To distinguish the past action of evolutionary forces in introns known to have regulatory information, we examined nucleotide sequence variation at 991 sites in a random sample of 16 Drosophila melanogaster alleles of the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1). The Mlc1 gene of D. melanogaster encodes two Mlc1 isoforms via developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Analyses of these data reveal that introns 4 and 5, which flank the alternatively spliced exon 5, have reduced levels of both intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence relative to intron 3. No polymorphism was observed in any of the exons examined in D. melanogaster. A genealogical analysis clearly demonstrates the occurrence of intragenic recombination in the ancestral history of Mlc1. Recombination events are estimated to be 13 times more likely than mutation events over the span of the sequenced region. Although there is little evidence for pairwise linkage disequilibrium in the Mlc1 region, higher order disequilibrium. does seem to be present in the 5{prime} half of the portion of the gene that was examined. Predictions of the folding free energy of the pre-mRNA reveal that sampled alleles have a significantly higher (less stable) free energy than do randomly permuted sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that introns surrounding an alternatively spliced exon are subjected to additional constraints, perhaps due to specific aspects of secondary structure required for appropriate splicing of the pre-mRNA molecule. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Residual structure and dynamics in DMSO-d6 denatured dynein light chain protein.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Swagata; Mohan, P M Krishna; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2012-01-01

    Structural and motional features in the denatured state of a protein dictate the early folding events starting from that state and these features vary depending upon the nature of the denaturant used. Here, we have attempted to decipher the early events in the folding of Dynein Light Chain protein (DLC8), starting from DMSO-d6 denatured state. Multinuclear NMR experiments were used to obtain the full spectral assignment. The HSQC spectrum shows the presence of two sets of peaks for the residues Met 1, Ser 2, Arg 4, Ala 11, Met 17, Thr 26, Lys 44, Tyr 50, Asn 51, Trp 54, His 55, Val 58, Gly 59, Ser 64, Tyr 65, His 68, Phe 86, Lys 87 indicating the presence of slow conformational transition in the heterogeneous ensemble. Analysis of residual structural propensities with secondary (13)C chemical shifts, (3)J(H(N)(-)H(α)) coupling constants and (1)H-(1)H NOE revealed the presence of local preferences which encompass both native and non-native like structures. The spectral density calculations, as obtained from measured R(1), R(2) and (1)H-(15)N steady state NOE values provide insights into the backbone dynamics on the milli to picosecond timescale. The segment Ser 14 - His 55 exhibits slow motions on the milli- to microsecond timescale arising from conformational exchange. The presence of native like structural preference, as well as conformational exchange classifies the above segment as the nucleation site of folding. Based on the observations, we propose here, the probable hierarchy of folding of DLC8 on dilution of denaturant: the two helices are formed first followed by the formation of β2 and β5.

  8. Localization of dynein light chains 1 and 2 and their pro-apoptotic ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Day, Catherine L; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Skea, Gretchen; Strasser, Andreas; Barsukov, Igor; Lian, Lu-Yun; Huang, David C S; Hinds, Mark G

    2004-01-01

    The dynein and myosin V motor complexes are multi-protein structures that function to transport molecules and organelles within the cell. DLC (dynein light-chain) proteins, found as components of both dynein and myosin V motor complexes, connect the complexes to their cargoes. One of the roles of these motor complexes is to selectively sequester the pro-apoptotic 'BH3-only' (Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins, Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor), and so regulate their cell death-inducing function. In vivo DLC2 is found exclusively as a component of the myosin V motor complex and Bmf binds DLC2 selectively. On the other hand, Bim interacts with DLC1 (LC8), an integral component of the dynein motor complex. The two DLCs share 93% sequence identity yet show unambiguous in vivo specificity for their respective BH3-only ligands. To investigate this specificity the three-dimensional solution structure of DLC2 was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. In vitro structural and mutagenesis studies show that Bmf and Bim have identical binding characteristics to recombinant DLC2 or DLC1. Thus the selectivity shown by Bmf and Bim for binding DLC1 or DLC2, respectively, does not reside in their DLC-binding domains. Remarkably, mutational analysis of DLC1 and DLC2 indicates that a single surface residue (residue 41) determines the specific localization of DLCs with their respective motor complexes. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the specific compartmentalization of DLCs and their pro-apoptotic cargoes and implicate other protein(s) in defining the specificity between the cargoes and the DLC proteins. PMID:14561217

  9. Diagnosing infection levels of four human malaria parasite species by a polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere-based assay.

    PubMed

    McNamara, David T; Kasehagen, Laurin J; Grimberg, Brian T; Cole-Tobian, Jennifer; Collins, William E; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2006-03-01

    Improving strategies for diagnosing infection by the four human Plasmodium species parasites is important as field-based epidemiologic and clinical studies focused on malaria become more ambitious. Expectations for malaria diagnostic assays include rapid processing with minimal expertise, very high specificity and sensitivity, and quantitative evaluation of parasitemia to be delivered at a very low cost. Toward fulfilling many of these expectations, we have developed a post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay (LDR-FMA). This assay, which uses Luminex FlexMAP microspheres, provides simultaneous, semi-quantitative detection of infection by all four human malaria parasite species at a sensitivity and specificity equal to other PCR-based assays. In blinded studies using P. falciparum-infected blood from in vitro cultures, we identified infected and uninfected samples with 100% concordance. Additionally, in analyses of P. falciparum in vitro cultures and P. vivax-infected monkeys, comparisons between parasitemia and LDR-FMA signal intensity showed very strong positive correlations (r > 0.95). Application of this multiplex Plasmodium species LDR-FMA diagnostic assay will increase the speed, accuracy, and reliability of diagnosing human Plasmodium species infections in epidemiologic studies of complex malaria-endemic settings.

  10. Comprehensive panel of real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and absolute quantification of filoviruses, arenaviruses, and New World hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Adrienne R; Wachter, Leslie; Garrison, Jeffrey; Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Jahrling, Jordan; Hensley, Lisa E; Schoepp, Randal J; Norwood, David A; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N; Kulesh, David A

    2010-05-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever is caused by a diverse group of single-stranded, negative-sense or positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the families Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg), Arenaviridae (Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Guanarito), and Bunyaviridae (hantavirus). Disease characteristics in these families mark each with the potential to be used as a biological threat agent. Because other diseases have similar clinical symptoms, specific laboratory diagnostic tests are necessary to provide the differential diagnosis during outbreaks and for instituting acceptable quarantine procedures. We designed 48 TaqMan-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for specific and absolute quantitative detection of multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses. Forty-six assays were determined to be virus-specific, and two were designated as pan assays for Marburg virus. The limit of detection for the assays ranged from 10 to 0.001 plaque-forming units (PFU)/PCR. Although these real-time hemorrhagic fever virus assays are qualitative (presence of target), they are also quantitative (measure a single DNA/RNA target sequence in an unknown sample and express the final results as an absolute value (e.g., viral load, PFUs, or copies/mL) on the basis of concentration of standard samples and can be used in viral load, vaccine, and antiviral drug studies.

  11. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Tramuta, Clara; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Mariella; Dondo, Alessandro; Ferroglio, Ezio; Nebbia, Patrizia; Rosati, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; mPCR5). The protocol was tested on different tissue samples collected from 50 aborted bovine fetuses, and it showed that out of the 50 fetuses, 7 (14%, mPCR2) were PCR-positive for N. caninum, 4 (8%, mPCR5) were PCR-positive for BVDV, and 2 (4%, mPCR4) were PCR-positive for U. diversum. The results obtained by using each multiplex PCR were 100% concordant with those obtained by using the respective PCR assays targeting single genes on the same specimens. Moreover, all multiplex PCR assays on clinical samples were compared with reference methods, obtaining a perfect accordance in all samples and confirming the validity of the set of multiplex PCR assays. The proposed set of multiplex PCR assays is, therefore, suitable for the simultaneous detection of the main infectious agents responsible for bovine abortion.

  12. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary gel electrophoresis: a promising tool for GMO screening--assay for simultaneous detection of five genetically modified cotton events and species.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Anna; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay coupled to capillary gel electrophoresis for amplicon identification by size and color (multiplex PCR-CGE-SC) was developed for simultaneous detection of cotton species and 5 events of genetically modified (GM) cotton. Validated real-time-PCR reactions targeting Bollgard, Bollgard II, Roundup Ready, 3006-210-23, and 281-24-236 junction sequences, and the cotton reference gene acp1 were adapted to detect more than half of the European Union-approved individual or stacked GM cotton events in one reaction. The assay was fully specific (<1.7% of false classification rate), with limit of detection values of 0.1% for each event, which were also achieved with simulated mixtures at different relative percentages of targets. The assay was further combined with a second multiplex PCR-CGE-SC assay to allow simultaneous detection of 6 cotton and 5 maize targets (two endogenous genes and 9 GM events) in two multiplex PCRs and a single CGE, making the approach more economic. Besides allowing simultaneous detection of many targets with adequate specificity and sensitivity, the multiplex PCR-CGE-SC approach has high throughput and automation capabilities, while keeping a very simple protocol, e.g., amplification and labeling in one step. Thus, it is an easy and inexpensive tool for initial screening, to be complemented with quantitative assays if necessary.

  13. A Novel Semiquantitative Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Rapid Simultaneous Detection of Bacterial and Parasitic Pathogens from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Stabler, Katie; Ansari, Nasim A.; Kerby, Stephen; Riemenschneider, Jenny; Salotra, Poonam; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for the rapid simultaneous detection of category A select bacterial agents (Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis) and parasitic pathogens (Leishmania species) in blood using the Cepheid Smart Cycler platform. B. anthracis (Sterne) and Yersinia. pseudotuberculosis were used in the assay for optimization for B. anthracis and Y. pestis, respectively. The specificity of the target amplicons [protective antigen gene of B. anthracis and rRNA genes of other pathogens or human (internal control)] was evaluated by staining the amplicons with SYBR Green I and determining their individual melting temperatures (Tm). As a novel approach for pathogen semiquantitation, the Tm peak height of the amplicon was correlated with a known standard curve of pathogen-spiked samples. This assay was able to detect DNA in blood spiked with less than 50 target cells/ml for all of the pathogens. The sensitivity of this assay in blood was 100% for the detection of Leishmania donovani from leishmaniasis patients and B. anthracis (Sterne) from symptomatic mice. The time necessary for performing this assay including sample preparation was less than 1.5 hours, making this a potentially useful method for rapidly diagnosing and monitoring the efficacy of drugs or vaccines in infected individuals. PMID:15858151

  14. Development of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 and serovar 2.

    PubMed

    Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Lacouture, Sonia; Jacques, Mario; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Two real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 (highly related serovars with similar virulence potential) and serovar 2, respectively. The specificity of these assays was verified on a collection of 294 strains, which included all 16 reference A. pleuropneumoniae strains (including serovars 5a and 5b), 263 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains isolated between 1992 and 2009 in different countries, and 15 bacterial strains other than A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection levels of both qPCR tests were evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA from reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 2, and the detection limit for both assays was 50 fg per assay. The analytical sensitivities of the qPCR tests were also estimated by using pure cultures and tonsils experimentally spiked with A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection threshold was 2.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/ml and 2.9 × 10(5) CFU/0.1 g of tonsil, respectively, for both assays. These specific and sensitive tests can be used for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories to control porcine pleuropneumonia.

  15. Structure of the Single-lobe Myosin Light Chain C in Complex with the Light Chain-binding Domains of Myosin-1C Provides Insights into Divergent IQ Motif Recognition.

    PubMed

    Langelaan, David N; Liburd, Janine; Yang, Yidai; Miller, Emily; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W; Côté, Graham P; Smith, Steven P

    2016-09-09

    Myosin light chains are key regulators of class 1 myosins and typically comprise two domains, with calmodulin being the archetypal example. They bind IQ motifs within the myosin neck region and amplify conformational changes in the motor domain. A single lobe light chain, myosin light chain C (MlcC), was recently identified and shown to specifically bind to two sequentially divergent IQ motifs of the Dictyostelium myosin-1C. To provide a molecular basis of this interaction, the structures of apo-MlcC and a 2:1 MlcC·myosin-1C neck complex were determined. The two non-functional EF-hand motifs of MlcC pack together to form a globular four-helix bundle that opens up to expose a central hydrophobic groove, which interacts with the N-terminal portion of the divergent IQ1 and IQ2 motifs. The N- and C-terminal regions of MlcC make critical contacts that contribute to its specific interactions with the myosin-1C divergent IQ motifs, which are contacts that deviate from the traditional mode of calmodulin-IQ recognition.

  16. Performance of a Branch Chain RNA In Situ Hybridization Assay for the Detection of High-risk Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Darcy A; Arora, Kshitij S; Mahadevan, Krishnan K; Hornick, Jason L; Krane, Jeffrey F; Rivera, Miguel N; Ting, David T; Deshpande, Vikram; Faquin, William C

    2015-12-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a major etiologic agent in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), and its recognition has prognostic and predictive implications. The availability of a sensitive and specific test to assess HR-HPV status is limited. We evaluate an RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) method using branch chain technology to detect HR-HPV and compare its results with DNA ISH, p16 immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tissue sections from 54 patients were stained with a manual RNA ISH assay (ViewRNA), which detects 14 HR-HPV types, an automated DNA ISH assay, and p16 immunohistochemistry. Most cases (83%, n=45) were also tested on an automated platform for 14 HR-HPV types and 1 limited to HPV 16/18. PCR was performed in all cases and was successful in 93% (n=50). The RNA ISH assay produced results in 96% of the cases with strong signals and was easily interpreted. HR-HPV was detected in more cases (63%, n=34) by RNA ISH than by DNA ISH (39%, n=21). Compared with PCR, both ISH platforms were 94% specific. RNA ISH was more sensitive (91%) than DNA ISH (65%), and RNA ISH correlated more strongly with p16 immunostaining. HPV 16 represented 89% of HR-HPV detected. The cocktail HPV 16/18 platform was concordant with the pooled HR-HPV assay in all expected cases. The automated assay demonstrated high concordance (96%) with the manual version, showed decreased background, and should allow for easy implementation into the workflow of the diagnostic pathology laboratory.

  17. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based PCR-RFLP Assay for the Detection of Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) in the Food Chain and Traditional Chinese Medicines.

    PubMed

    Asing; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Hossain, M A Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Kader, Md Abdul; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-01-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing. To address this research gap, we developed, for the first time, a species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with a very short target length (120 bp) to detect MBT in the food chain; this authentication ensured better security and reliability through molecular fingerprints. The PCR-amplified product was digested with Bfa1 endonuclease, and distinctive restriction fingerprints (72, 43 and 5 bp) for MBT were found upon separation in a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system, which enhances the resolution of short oligos. The chances of any false negative identifications were eliminated through the use of a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes, and the limit of detection was 0.0001 ng DNA or 0.01% of the meat under admixed states. Finally, the optimized PCR-RFLP assay was validated for the screening of raw and processed commercial meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are very popular in most countries. The optimized PCR-RFLP assay was further used to screen MBT materials in 153 traditional Chinese medicines of 17 different brands and 62 of them were found MBT positive; wherein the ingredients were not declared in product labels. Overall, the novel assay demonstrated sufficient merit for use in any forensic and/or archaeological authentication of MBT, even under a state of decomposition.

  18. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based PCR-RFLP Assay for the Detection of Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) in the Food Chain and Traditional Chinese Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Asing; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Hossain, M. A. Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Kader, Md. Abdul; Zaidul, I. S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing. To address this research gap, we developed, for the first time, a species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with a very short target length (120 bp) to detect MBT in the food chain; this authentication ensured better security and reliability through molecular fingerprints. The PCR-amplified product was digested with Bfa1 endonuclease, and distinctive restriction fingerprints (72, 43 and 5 bp) for MBT were found upon separation in a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system, which enhances the resolution of short oligos. The chances of any false negative identifications were eliminated through the use of a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes, and the limit of detection was 0.0001 ng DNA or 0.01% of the meat under admixed states. Finally, the optimized PCR-RFLP assay was validated for the screening of raw and processed commercial meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are very popular in most countries. The optimized PCR-RFLP assay was further used to screen MBT materials in 153 traditional Chinese medicines of 17 different brands and 62 of them were found MBT positive; wherein the ingredients were not declared in product labels. Overall, the novel assay demonstrated sufficient merit for use in any forensic and/or archaeological authentication of MBT, even under a state of decomposition. PMID:27716792

  19. New Light Chain Amyloid Response Criteria Help Risk Stratification of Patients by Day 100 after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anita; Huang, Jiaxing; Hari, Parameswaran

    2016-04-01

    Hematologic response criteria in light chain (AL) amyloidosis were updated in 2012 to incorporate free light chain responses. These criteria have been validated in autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in AL at 6 and 12 months after transplantation. Using a transplantation registry, we assessed day 100 responses in AL amyloidosis. We validate the prognostic significance of the new criteria at this time point. Further, we show that patients who do not achieve at least a very good partial response by this time point have equally worse outcomes, regardless of depth of response (partial versus no response). Thus, we conclude that the new criteria help identify the poor responders by day 100 after transplantation and that this subset of patients should be studied for early evaluation in consolidation trials.

  20. Phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of lambda and kappa immunoglobulin light chain genes in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Wei, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Qinghong; Robert, Jacques; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2010-05-01

    The reptiles are the last major taxon of jawed vertebrates in which immunoglobulin light chain isotypes have not been well characterized. Using the recently released genome sequencing data, we show in this study that the reptile Anolis carolinensis expresses both lambda and kappa light chain genes. The genomic organization of both gene loci is structurally similar to their respective counterparts in mammals. The identified lambda locus contains three constant region genes each preceded by a joining gene segment, and a total of 37 variable gene segments. In contrast, the kappa locus contains only a single constant region gene, and two joining gene segments with a single family of 14 variable gene segments located upstream. Analysis of junctions of the recombined VJ transcripts reveals a paucity of N and P nucleotides in both expressed lambda and kappa sequences. These results help us to understand the generation of the immunoglobulin repertoire in reptiles and immunoglobulin evolution in vertebrates.

  1. The Coexistence of Multiple Myeloma-associated Amyloid Light-chain Amyloidosis and Fabry Disease in a Hemodialysis Patient.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kensei; Moriyama, Atsuo; Kodama, Goh; Nakayama, Yosuke; Fukami, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder caused by an X-linked α-galactosidase A deficiency. We report the case of a 50-year-old male FD patient on hemodialysis who presented with macroglossia-related speaking difficulty and gastrointestinal symptoms. An endoscopic analysis revealed multiple gastric ulcers, and a histological examination led to a diagnosis of amyloid light-chain amyloidosis. Serum free light-chain and bone marrow analyses detected multiple myeloma (MM). Treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone significantly improved the patient's symptoms. This is the first case to demonstrate a potential pathogenic relationship between FD and MM. The similar gastrointestinal manifestations might have contributed to the diagnostic difficulty.

  2. Homology of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of the heavy and light chains of human monoclonal lupus autoantibodies containing the dominant 16/6 idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, P M; Lampman, G W; Furie, B C; Naparstek, Y; Schwartz, R S; Stollar, B D; Furie, B

    1985-01-01

    The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences have been determined by automated Edman degradation for the heavy and light chains of five monoclonal IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies that were produced by human-human hybridomas derived from lymphocytes of two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Four of the antibodies were closely related to the idiotype system 16/6, whereas the fifth antibody was unrelated idiotypically. The light chains of the 16/6 idiotype-positive autoantibodies (HF2-1/13b, HF2-1/17, HF2-18/2, and HF3-16/6) had identical amino acid sequences from residues 1 to 40. Their framework structures were characteristic of VKI light chains. The light chain of the 16/6 idiotype-negative autoantibody HF6-21/28 was characteristic of the VKII subgroup. The heavy chains of the 16/6 idiotype-positive autoantibodies had nearly identical amino acid sequences from residues 1 to 40. The framework structures were characteristic of the VHIII subgroup. In contrast, the GM4672 fusion partner of the hybridoma produced small quantities of an IgG with a VHI heavy chain and a VKI light chain. The heavy chains of the lupus autoantibodies and the light chains of those autoantibodies that were idiotypically related to the 16/6 system had marked sequence homology with WEA, a Waldenstrom IgM that binds to Klebsiella polysaccharides and expresses the 16/6 idiotype. These results indicate a striking homology in the amino termini of the heavy and light chains of the lupus autoantibodies studied and suggest that the V regions of the heavy and light chains of the 16/6 idiotype-positive DNA-binding lupus auto-antibodies are each encoded by a single germ line gene. PMID:3921567

  3. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals regions implicated in the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Miryam I; Canul-Tec, Juan C; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rojas, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A; Becerril, Baltazar

    2015-01-30

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. λ3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this work, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) λ3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, the second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of λ3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40-60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double λ3r mutants was not significantly altered. This mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in λ3 AL.

  4. Site-directed Mutagenesis Reveals Regions Implicated in the Stability and Fiber Formation of Human λ3r Light Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Villalba, Miryam I.; Canul-Tec, Juan C.; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rojas, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A.; Becerril, Baltazar

    2014-12-11

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. λ3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this paper, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) λ3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, the second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of λ3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40–60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double λ3r mutants was not significantly altered. Finally, this mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in λ3 AL.

  5. Site-directed Mutagenesis Reveals Regions Implicated in the Stability and Fiber Formation of Human λ3r Light Chains

    DOE PAGES

    Villalba, Miryam I.; Canul-Tec, Juan C.; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; ...

    2014-12-11

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. λ3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this paper, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) λ3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, themore » second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of λ3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40–60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double λ3r mutants was not significantly altered. Finally, this mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in λ3 AL.« less

  6. Site-directed Mutagenesis Reveals Regions Implicated in the Stability and Fiber Formation of Human λ3r Light Chains*

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Miryam I.; Canul-Tec, Juan C.; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rojas, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A.; Becerril, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. λ3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this work, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) λ3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, the second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of λ3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40–60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double λ3r mutants was not significantly altered. This mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in λ3 AL. PMID:25505244

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning of several recombinant DNase monoclonal kappa light chains with different catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Botvinovskaya, Alina V; Kostrikina, Irina A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2013-10-01

    An immunoglobulin light chain phagemid library derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes of three patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was used. Phage particles displaying DNA binding light chains were isolated by affinity chromatography on DNA-cellulose, and the fraction eluted by an acidic buffer (pH 2.6) was used for preparation of individual monoclonal light chains (MLChs, 28 kDa). Thirty three of 687 individual colonies obtained were randomly chosen for study of MLCh DNase activity. Nineteen of 33 clones contained MLChs with DNase activity. Four preparations of MLChs were expressed in Escherichia coli in soluble form, purified by metal chelating chromatography followed by gel filtration, and studied in detail. Detection of DNase activity after SDS-PAGE in a gel containing DNA demonstrated that the four MLChs are not contaminated by canonical DNases. The MLChs demonstrated one or two pH optima. They were inactive after the dialysis against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid but could be activated by several externally added metal ions; the ratio of relative activity in the presence of Mg(2+) , Mn(2+) , Ni(2+) , Ca(2+) , Zn(2+) , and Co(2+) was individual for each MLCh preparation. K(+) and Na(+) inhibited the DNase activity of various MLChs at different concentrations. Hydrolysis of DNA by all four MLCh was saturable and consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These clones are the first examples of recombinant MLChs possessing high affinity for DNA (Km  = 3-9 nM) and demonstrating high kcat values (3.4-6.9 min(-1) ). These observations suggest that the systemic lupus erythematosus light chain repertoire can serve as a source of new types of DNases.

  8. Light conditions alter accumulation of long chain polyprenols in leaves of trees and shrubs throughout the vegetation season.

    PubMed

    Bajda, Agnieszka; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Hertel, Józefina; Swiezewska, Ewa; Wójcik, Jacek; Kaczkowska, Alicja; Marczewski, Andrzej; Bojarczuk, Tomasz; Karolewski, Piotr; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    In many plants belonging to angiosperms and gymnosperms the accumulation in leaves of long chain polyprenols and polyprenyl esters during growth in natural habitats depends on the light intensity. The amount of polyprenols in leaves is also positively correlated with the thickness of the leaf blade (SLA, specific leaf area). The polyprenol content of leaves shows seasonal changes with a maximum in autumn and a minimum in early summer with the difference between poorly and well illuminated plants persisting throughout the vegetation season.

  9. Strand-Specific Quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Measurement of Arenavirus Genomic and Antigenomic RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Kelsey; Ziegler, Christopher; Botten, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses are bi-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses that cause significant human disease. The manner in which they regulate the replication of their genome is not well-understood. This is partly due to the absence of a highly sensitive assay to measure individual species of arenavirus replicative RNAs. To overcome this obstacle, we designed a quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for selective quantitation of each of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) genomic or antigenomic RNAs. During the course of assay design, we identified a nonspecific priming phenomenon whereby, in the absence of an RT primer, cDNAs complementary to each of the LCMV replicative RNA species are generated during RT. We successfully circumvented this nonspecific priming event through the use of biotinylated primers in the RT reaction, which permitted affinity purification of primer-specific cDNAs using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. As proof of principle, we used the assay to map the dynamics of LCMV replication at acute and persistent time points and to determine the quantities of genomic and antigenomic RNAs that are incorporated into LCMV particles. This assay can be adapted to measure total S or L segment-derived viral RNAs and therefore represents a highly sensitive diagnostic platform to screen for LCMV infection in rodent and human tissue samples and can also be used to quantify virus-cell attachment. PMID:25978311

  10. Multiple detection of single nucleotide polymorphism by microarray-based resonance light scattering assay with enlarged gold nanoparticle probes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaxue; Ma, Lan; Lei, Zhen; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-03-07

    The mapping of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients' genome is a critical process for the development of personalized therapy. In this work, a DNA microarray-based resonance light scattering (RLS) assay has been developed for multiplexed detection of breast cancer related SNPs with high sensitivity and selectivity. After hybridization of the desired target single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) with the ssDNA probes on a microarray, the polyvalent ssDNA modified 13 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are employed to label the hybridization reaction through the formation of a three-stranded DNA system. The H2O2-mediated enlargement of GNPs is then used to enhance the RLS signal. The microarray-based RLS assay provides a detection limit of 10 pM (S/N = 3) for the target ssDNA and determines an allele frequency as low as 1.0% in the target ssDNA cocktail. Combined with an asymmetric PCR technique, the proposed assay shows good accuracy and sensitivity in profiling 4 SNPs related to breast cancer of three selected cell lines.

  11. A novel curcumin assay with the metal ion Cu (II) as a simple probe by resonance light scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhanguang; Zhu, Li; Song, Tianhe; Chen, Junhui; Guo, Zhiming

    2009-04-01

    A fantastic resonance light scattering (RLS) enhancement phenomenon was found when the interaction between the metal ion Cu (II) and a natural antioxidant curcumin (C 21H 20O 6) occurred in certain conditions. Based on this phenomenon, a novel and convenient assay of curcumin was developed and successfully applied on the determination of curcumin in human urine samples. This assay applied the RLS technique with a common metal ion Cu (II) as the spectral probe. In the pH range of 6.5-7.5, the interaction between Cu (II) and curcumin occurred and the weak RLS intensity of Cu (II) was greatly enhanced by curcumin. The maximum peak was located at 538.5 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced RLS intensity was proportional to the concentration of curcumin ranging from 0.4 to 60 μg ml -1 with the detection limit of 0.07 μg ml -1. The synthetic and human urine samples were determined satisfactorily. Good recoveries (98.8-102.5%) were obtained in the determination of urine samples, which proved that the assay proposed was reliable and applicable in the determination of curcumin in body fluid. In this work, the RLS and fluorescence spectral characteristics of the chemicals, the optimum conditions of the reaction and the influencing factors were investigated.

  12. [Ssp DnaB intein-mediated ligation of heavy and light chains of coagulation factor VIII in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Liu, Zelong; Qu, Huige; Xin, Xiaolin; Dong, Hongxin; Liu, Xiangqin

    2009-07-01

    We studied the ligation of coagulation factor VIII heavy and light chains in Escherichia coli by utilizing the intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. A B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII) gene was broken into two halves of heavy and light chains before Ser1657 which meets the splicing required conserved residue and then fused to 106 and 48 amino acid-containing N-part termed Int-N and C-part termed Int-C coding sequences of split mini Ssp DnaB intein respectively. These two fusion genes were constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. Through induction for expression of recombinant protein it displayed an obvious protein band as predicted size of BDD-FVIII protein on SDS-PAGE gel. Western blotting using factor VIII specific antibodies confirmed that this protein band is BDD-FVIII produced by protein trans-splicing. It demonstrated that the heavy and light chains of BDD-FVIII can be efficiently ligated with the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. These results provided evidence for encouraging our ongoing investigation with intein as a means in dual AAV vectors carrying the factor VIII gene to overcome the packaging size limitation of a single AAV vector in hemophilia A gene therapy.

  13. Cloning, high level expression, purification, and crystallization of the full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rakhi; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Kumaran, Desigan; Dunn, John J; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2004-03-01

    The catalytic activity of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are confined to their N-terminal light chains ( approximately 50kDa). A full-length light chain for the type E neurotoxin with a C-terminal 6x His-tag, BoNT/E-LC, has been cloned in a pET-9c vector and over-expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. BoNT/E-LC was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA agarose followed by exclusion chromatography using a Superdex-75 sizing column. The purified protein has very good solubility and can be stored stably at -20 degrees C; however, it seems to undergo auto-proteolysis when stored at temperature #10878;4-10 degrees C. BoNT/E-LC is active on its natural substrate, the synaptosomal associated 25kDa protein, SNAP-25, indicating that it retains a native-like conformation and therefore can be considered as a useful tool in studying the structure/function of the catalytic light chain. Recombinant BoNT/E-LC has been crystallized under five different conditions and at various pHs. Crystals diffract to better than 2.1A.

  14. Lambda light chain myeloma with co-migrating paraprotein at beta region on agarose gel electrophoresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Siti Sarah, M; Nor Aini, U; Nurismah, M I; Hafiza, A; Khalidah, M; Mokhtar, A B; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Paraproteinemia is one of the diagnostic features of multiple myeloma. A commonly used method is the detection of paraprotein by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) followed by by immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) to confirm monoclonality. Due to their smaller size, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and light chain only paraproteins may appear at the beta or even alpha 2 protein fractions. Here, we discuss a case report of a 47-year-old man who presented with pathological fracture of third thoracic (T3) vertebra. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) was initially reported as no paraprotein detected. However, a bone biopsy was reported to show plasma cell proliferation with light chain restriction. A repeat sample for protein electrophoresis together with IFE revealed lambda light chain paraprotein co-migrating at the beta region. The beta band plus paraprotein was quantitated as 4.3 g/L (7.0%), which was within normal limits of the beta protein fraction. Hence, it has to be remembered that if the SPE is negative, it does not necessarily mean that the paraprotein is absent in cases which are highly suspicious.

  15. Phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain is necessary for migration of HeLa cells but not for localization of myosin II at the leading edge.

    PubMed Central

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Uchimura, Takashi; Iwasaki, Takahiro; Ueda, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) in living cell migration, these mutant MRLCs were engineered and introduced into HeLa cells. The mutant MRLCs include an unphosphorylatable form, in which both Thr-18 and Ser-19 were substituted with Ala (AA-MRLC), and pseudophosphorylated forms, in which Thr-18 and Ser-19 were replaced with Ala and Asp, respectively (AD-MRLC), and both Thr-18 and Ser-19 were replaced with Asp (DD-MRLC). Mutant MRLC-expressing cell monolayers were mechanically stimulated by scratching, and the cells were forced to migrate in a given direction. In this wound-healing assay, the AA-MRLC-expressing cells migrated much more slowly than the wild-type MRLC-expressing cells. In the case of DD-MRLC- and AD-MRLC-expressing cells, no significant differences compared with wild-type MRLC-expressing cells were observed in their migration speed. Indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that the accumulation of endogenous diphosphorylated MRLC at the leading edge was not observed in AA-MRLC-expressing cells, although AA-MRLC was incorporated into myosin heavy chain and localized at the leading edge. In conclusion, we propose that the phosphorylation of MRLC is required to generate the driving force in the migration of the cells but not necessary for localization of myosin II at the leading edge. PMID:12429016

  16. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    PubMed

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  17. Chimeric Anti-Human Podoplanin Antibody NZ-12 of Lambda Light Chain Exerts Higher Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity Compared with NZ-8 of Kappa Light Chain.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mika K; Abe, Shinji; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Yamada, Shinji; Murata, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroaki; Tahara, Hideaki; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-02-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), a type I transmembrane 36-kDa glycoprotein, is expressed not only in normal cells, such as renal epithelial cells (podocytes), lymphatic endothelial cells, and pulmonary type I alveolar cells, but also in cancer cells, including brain tumors and lung squamous cell carcinomas. Podoplanin activates platelet aggregation by binding to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) on platelets, and the podoplanin/CLEC-2 interaction facilitates blood/lymphatic vessel separation. We previously produced neutralizing anti-human podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), clone NZ-1 (rat IgG2a, lambda), which neutralizes the podoplanin/CLEC-2 interaction and inhibits platelet aggregation and cancer metastasis. Human-rat chimeric antibody, NZ-8, was previously developed using variable regions of NZ-1 and human constant regions of heavy chain (IgG1) and light chain (kappa chain). Although NZ-8 showed high antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against human podoplanin-expressing cancer cells, the binding affinity of NZ-8 was lower than that of NZ-1. Herein, we produced a novel human-rat chimeric antibody, NZ-12, the constant regions of which consist of IgG1 heavy chain and lambda light chain. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the binding affinity of NZ-12 was much higher than that of NZ-8. Furthermore, ADCC and CDC activities of NZ-12 were significantly increased against glioblastoma cell lines (LN319 and D397) and lung cancer cell line (PC-10). These results suggested that NZ-12 could become a promising therapeutic antibody against podoplanin-expressing brain tumors and lung cancers.

  18. Magneto-optical biosensing platform based on light scattering from self-assembled chains of functionalized rotating magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Yoon; Handa, Hiroshi; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2010-02-10

    We describe a simple protocol for the rapid, highly sensitive, and quantitative measurement of the concentration of biomolecules in a solution by monitoring light scattered by self-assembled chains of functionalized superparamagnetic beads (SBs) rotating in the solution. A rotating external field (H(ex)) applied to an aqueous solution containing 250 nm diameter biotinylated SBs produced linear chains of SBs rotating in phase with Hex due to magnetically induced self-assembly. At constant Hex, the addition of avidin to the solution led to the formation of longer SB-chains than without the presence of avidin. The generation of longer SB-chains was revealed by increases in the amplitude of the oscillating optical transmittance signal of the magnetic colloid solution. Monitoring changes in the amplitude of the optical transmittance of the solution enabled quantitative determination of the concentration of avidin added to the solution with a sensitivity of 100 pM (6.7 ng/mL) and a dynamic range of at least 3 orders of magnitude. The rotating chains acted as biomolecule probes and micromagnetic mixers, enabling detection of biomolecular recognition in less than 30 s. This approach offers a rapid, highly sensitive, inexpensive, and homogeneous means for detecting biorecognition processes.

  19. Diagnostic value of clonality of surface immunoglobulin light and heavy chains in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Batata, A; Shen, B

    1993-08-01

    Cell suspensions from the peripheral blood of B-chronic lymphoid leukemias (B-CLL, n = 274) and reactive lymphocytosis (RLC, n = 132) and from solid tissue samples of B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL, n = 466) and reactive lymphadenopathy (RLA, n = 324) were analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of clonality of L- and H- chains in B-CLL and B-NHL. Cutoff levels for monoclonal L-chain (mono-L) and monoclonal H-chain (mono-H) were defined. In B-CLL, the association patterns of L- and H- chains were as follows: mono-L/mono-H, 245 cases (89.42%); mono-L/polyclonal H chain (poly-H), 4 (1.46%); polyclonal L chain (poly-L)/mono-H, 2 (0.73%); poly-L/poly-H, 2 (0.73%); undetected (und)-L/mono-H, 6 (2.19%); and und-L/und-H, 15 (5.47%). In B-NHL, the association patterns were mono-L/mono-H, 433 cases (92.92%); mono-L/poly-H, 4 (0.86%); poly-L/mono-H, 8 (1.72%); poly-L/poly-H, 2 (0.43%); und-L/mono-H, 4 (0.86%); and und-L/und-H, 15 (3.22%). Monoclonality of H chains are complementary to L-chain restriction, especially in the cases with poly-L or und-L, and should be considered as a positive criterion in determining surface immunoglobulin (SIg) clonality. Monoclonality of SIg assessed by both L and H chains is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of B-CLL and B-NHL, and their differentiation from RLC and RLA, since none of the cases of RLC and RLA showed monoclonal SIg.

  20. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    PubMed

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons <150 base pairs) of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, and an endogenous control primer pair that amplifies a 141-bp fragment of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene from eukaryotic DNA. Analysis of experimental raw and heat-treated binary mixtures as well as of commercial meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  1. [Accuracy of a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay for a quantitative estimation of genetically modified sources in food products].

    PubMed

    Abramov, D D; Trofimov, D Iu; Rebrikov, D V

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay for genetically modified sources in food products was determined using two official test systems (kits) of primers and samples. These kits were recommended by the Federal Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance (Russian Ministry of Health) and the European Commission. We used the following three models of thermocyclers: iCycler iQ (BioRad, United States), Rotor-Gene 3000 (Corbett Research, Australia), and DT-322 (DNA-Technology, Russia). Studies of samples that contained 1% genetically modified sources showed that the error of a quantitative assay for genetically modified sources in food products corresponds to 20-30% and does not depend on the kit type and the thermocycler model used.

  2. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.

  3. Serum immunoglobulin free light chain assessment in rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gottenberg, J‐E; Aucouturier, F; Goetz, J; Sordet, C; Jahn, I; Busson, M; Cayuela, J‐M; Sibilia, J; Mariette, X

    2007-01-01

    Background B cell activation may result in an increased secretion of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) in autoimmune diseases. Objective To analyse serum FLC levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in those with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Patients and methods Blood samples were collected from 80 healthy blood donors, 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 139 patients with pSS. Serum FLC level was measured using a new quantitative immunoassay. Results Mean (standard error (SE)) serum κ and λ FLC levels were significantly higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in those with pSS than in controls (κ : 18.9 (1.1) and 16.3 (1.4) v 10.5 (0.4) mg/l, p<0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively; λ: 16.7 (1.2) and 19.3 (1.5) v 11.6 (0.6) mg/l, p<0.001 for both). 18 (36%) patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 31 (22.3%) patients with pSS had abnormal serum FLC levels (increased κ or λ levels and abnormal ratio of κ:λ). Serum κ and λ levels were correlated with other B cell activation markers in both diseases. FLC levels increased with disease activity, because, unlike total gammaglobulin and immunoglobulin G levels, they were significantly correlated with Disease Activity Score 28 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.004 for κ, p = 0.05 for λ) and with extraglandular involvement in pSS (p = 0.01 for κ, p = 0.04 for λ). Conclusion FLC levels are increased and correlate with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in those with pSS, two diseases in which increased risk of lymphoma could result from persistent B cell activation and disease activity. Further studies are required to determine whether FLC assessment could represent a relevant biomarker for response to treatment (especially B cell depletion) and for the risk of lymphoma in autoimmune diseases. PMID:16569685

  4. Heart Failure Induced by Perinatal Ablation of Cardiac Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Islam, Yasmin F K; Joseph, Ryan; Chowdhury, Rajib R; Anderson, Robert H; Kasahara, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Germline knockout mice are invaluable in understanding the function of the targeted genes. Sometimes, however, unexpected phenotypes are encountered, due in part to the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Germline ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) causes mild cardiac dysfunction with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas ablation in adult hearts results in acute heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy. We hypothesized that compensation after ablation of cMLCK is dependent on developmental staging and perinatal-onset of cMLCK ablation will result in more evident heart failure than germline ablation, but less profound when compared to adult-onset ablation. Methods and Results: The floxed-Mylk3 gene was ablated at the beginning of the perinatal stage using a single intra-peritoneal tamoxifen injection of 50 mg/kg into pregnant mice on the 19th day of gestation, this being the final day of gestation. The level of cMLCK protein level could no longer be detected 3 days after the injection, with these mice hereafter denoted as the perinatal Mylk3-KO. At postnatal day 19, shortly before weaning age, these mice showed reduced cardiac contractility with a fractional shortening 22.8 ± 1.0% (n = 7) as opposed to 31.4 ± 1.0% (n = 11) in controls. The ratio of the heart weight relative to body weight was significantly increased at 6.68 ± 0.28 mg/g (n = 12) relative to the two control groups, 5.90 ± 0.16 (flox/flox, n = 11) and 5.81 ± 0.33 (wild/wild/Cre, n = 5), accompanied by reduced body weight. Furthermore, their cardiomyocytes were elongated without thickening, with a long-axis of 101.8 ± 2.4 μm (n = 320) as opposed to 87.1 ± 1.6 μm (n = 360) in the controls. Conclusion: Perinatal ablation of cMLCK produces an increase of heart weight/body weight ratio, a reduction of contractility, and an increase in the expression of fetal genes. The perinatal Mylk3-KO cardiomyocytes were elongated in the absence of thickening, differing from the

  5. Neurofilament light chain level is a weak risk factor for the development of MS

    PubMed Central

    Arrambide, Georgina; Eixarch, Herena; Villar, Luisa M.; Alvarez-Cermeño, José C.; Picón, Carmen; Kuhle, Jens; Disanto, Giulio; Kappos, Ludwig; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Pareto, Deborah; Simon, Eva; Comabella, Manuel; Río, Jordi; Nos, Carlos; Tur, Carmen; Castilló, Joaquín; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Galán, Ingrid; Arévalo, Maria J.; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prognostic value of selected biomarkers in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) for conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) and disability accrual. Methods: Data were acquired from 2 CIS cohorts. The screening phase evaluated patients developing clinically definite MS (CIS-CDMS) and patients who remained as CIS during a 2-year minimum follow-up (CIS-CIS). We determined levels of neurofascin, semaphorin 3A, fetuin A, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neurofilament light (NfL) and heavy chains in CSF (estimated mean [95% confidence interval; CI]). We evaluated associations between biomarker levels, conversion, disability, and magnetic resonance parameters. In the replication phase, we determined NfL levels (n = 155) using a 900 ng/L cutoff. Primary endpoints in uni- and multivariate analyses were CDMS and 2010 McDonald MS. Results: The only biomarker showing significant differences in the screening was NfL (CIS-CDMS 1,553.1 [1,208.7–1,897.5] ng/L and CIS-CIS 499.0 [168.8–829.2] ng/L, p < 0.0001). The strongest associations were with brain parenchymal fraction change (rs = −0.892) and percentage brain volume change (rs = −0.842) at 5 years. NfL did not correlate with disability. In the replication phase, more NfL-positive patients, according to the cutoff, evolved to MS. Every 100-ng/L increase in NfL predicted CDMS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.009, 95% CI 1.005–1.014) and McDonald MS (HR = 1.009, 95% CI 1.005–1.013), remaining significant for CDMS in the multivariate analysis (adjusted HR = 1.005, 95% CI 1.000–1.011). This risk was lower than the presence of oligoclonal bands or T2 lesions. Conclusions: NfL is a weak independent risk factor for MS. Its role as an axonal damage biomarker may be more relevant as suggested by its association with medium-term brain volume changes. PMID:27521440

  6. Redox reactivity of animal apoferritins and apoheteropolymers assembled from recombinant heavy and light human chain ferritins.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Norcross, D C; Arosio, P; Frankel, R B; Watt, G D

    1999-03-30

    The redox reactivities of air-oxidized apo horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and apo rat liver ferritin (RaF) were examined by microcoulometry and reductive optical titrations. Microcoulometry on several independent lots of commercial HoSF revealed two distinct types of redox activity: one requiring 3-4 electrons and one requiring 6-7 electrons for full reduction of the protein shell. ApoRaF required 8-9 electrons to fully reduce the oxidized form. Reductive optical titrations confirmed the microcoulometric reduction stoichiometry and, in addition, showed that the spectra of both oxidized and reduced apoHoSF were distinct and possessed absorbances tailing into the visible region. The redox reactivity of both apoRaF and apoHoSF correlated with their H-subunit composition. Identical microcoulometric and optical experiments were conducted with recombinant apo human liver heavy (rHuHF) and light (rHuLF) ferritins, but neither was redox-active. These results suggest that the redox reactivity of native ferritins is due to their heteropolymeric nature. This was confirmed by mixing various proportions of rHuHF and rHuLF, dissociating the 24-mers into individual subunits with guanidine hydrochloride at pH 3.5, and renaturing to form heteropolymeric 24-mers. Microcoulometric measurements of these apoheteropolymers reassembled in vitro showed that they were redox-active like their native apoheteropolymer counterparts. The redox activity of these apoheteropolymers increased with H-subunit composition, reached a maximum near 12 H- and 12 L-subunits, and then declined to zero with increasing L-subunit composition. The decline in redox reactivity at high L-subunit concentrations indicates that both H- and L-subunits are involved in forming the observed redox centers. Apoheteropolymers formed from rHuLF and W93F (an H-chain mutant) were redox-inactive, suggesting that the conserved tryptophan is necessary for redox center formation.

  7. An investigation into UV light exposure as an experimental model for artificial aging on tensile strength and force delivery of elastomeric chain.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Siti Waznah; Bister, Dirk; Sherriff, Martyn

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet type A light (UVA) exposure on the tensile properties of elastomeric chain. UVA light exposure was used as model for artificial aging, simulating prolonged storage of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength (n = 60) was measured after exposing Ormco, Forestadent and 3M chains to UVA light for 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Force decay was measured (n = 60) using chain exposed for 5, 10, and 14 days. The chains were subsequently stretched at a constant distance and the resulting forces measured at 0, 1, 24 hours and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. This test simulated a clinical scenario of pre-stretching and subsequent shortening of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength had statistically significant difference and was directly related to the duration of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Forestadent chain, which had the second highest value for the 'as received' product, showed the most consistent values over time with the lowest degradation. Ormco showed the lowest values for 'as received' as well as after UV exposure; 3M chain had the highest loss of tensile strength. Force decay was also significantly different. UV light exposure of 10 days or more appears to mark a 'watershed' between products: 3M had most survivors, Forestadent chain had some survivors, depending on the time the chain was stretched for. None of the Ormco product survived UV light exposure for more than 5 days. UVA light exposure may be used as a model for artificial aging as it reduces force delivery and tensile strength of exposed chains.

  8. Functional humanization of an anti-CD16 Fab fragment: obstacles of switching from murine {lambda} to human {lambda} or {kappa} light chains.

    PubMed

    Schlapschy, Martin; Fogarasi, Marton; Gruber, Helga; Gresch, Oliver; Schäfer, Claudia; Aguib, Yasmine; Skerra, Arne

    2009-03-01

    An alphaCD30xalphaCD16 bispecific monoclonal antibody (MAb) was previously shown to induce remission of Hodgkin's disease refractory to chemo- and radiotherapy through specific activation of natural killer (NK) cells, but the appearance of a human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response prevented its use for prolonged therapy. Here, we describe an effort to humanize the Fab arm directed against FcgammaRIII (CD16), which-in context with the previously humanized CD30 Fab fragment-provides the necessary component for the design of a clinically useful bispecific antibody. Thus, the CDRs of the anti-CD16 mouse IgG1/lambda MAb A9 were grafted onto human Ig sequences. In a first attempt, the murine V(lambda) domain was converted to a humanized lambda chain, which led, however, to complete loss of antigen-binding activity and extremely poor folding efficiency upon periplasmic expression in Escherichia coli. Hence, its CDRs were transplanted onto a human kappa light chain in a second attempt, which resulted in a functional recombinant Fab fragment, yet with 100-fold decreased antigen affinity. In the next step, an in vitro affinity maturation was performed, wherein random mutations were introduced into the humanized V(H) and V(kappa) domains through error-prone PCR, followed by a filter sandwich colony screening assay for increased binding activity towards the bacterially produced extracellular CD16 fragment. Finally, an optimized Fab fragment was obtained, which carries nine additional amino acid exchanges and exhibits an affinity that is within a factor of 2 identical to that of the original murine A9 Fab fragment. The resulting humanized Fab fragment was fully functional with respect to binding of the recombinant CD16 antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in cytofluorimetry with CD16-positive granulocytes, thus providing a promising starting point for the preparation of a fully human bispecific antibody that permits the therapeutic recruitment of NK cells.

  9. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1.

  10. Development and inter-laboratory transfer of a decaplex polymerase chain reaction assay combined with capillary electrophoresis for the simultaneous detection of ten food allergens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Jin; Pan, Aihu; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing; Kim, HaeYeong; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Yang, Litao

    2016-05-15

    Food allergies cause health risks to susceptible consumers and regulations on labeling of food allergen contents have been implemented in many countries and regions. To achieve timely and accurate food allergen labeling, the development of fast and effective allergen detection methods is very important. Herein, a decaplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with capillary electrophoresis was developed to detect simultaneously 10 common food allergens from hazelnut, pistachio, oat, sesame, peanut, cashew, barley, wheat, soybean and pecan. The absolute limit of detection (LODa) of this system is between 2 and 20 copies of haploid genome, and the relative LOD (LODr) is as low as 0.005% (w/w) in simulated food mixtures. The developed assay was subsequently applied to 20 commercial food products and verified the allergen ingredients stated on the labels. Furthermore, results using this decaplex PCR assay was successfully replicated in three other laboratories, demonstrating the repeatability and applicability of this assay in routine analysis of the 10 food allergens.

  11. Development of a diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Meyler, Kenneth L; Meehan, Mary; Bennett, Desiree; Cunney, Robert; Cafferkey, Mary

    2012-12-01

    Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, invasive H. influenzae disease has become dominated by nontypeable (NT) strains. Several widely used molecular diagnostic methods have been shown to lack sensitivity or specificity in the detection of some of these strains. Novel real-time assays targeting the fucK, licA, and ompP2 genes were developed and evaluated. The fucK assay detected all strains of H. influenzae tested (n = 116) and had an analytical sensitivity of 10 genome copies/polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This assay detected both serotype b and NT H. influenzae in 12 previously positive specimens (culture and/or bexA PCR) and also detected H. influenzae in a further 5 of 883 culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The fucK assay has excellent potential as a diagnostic test for detection of typeable and nontypeable strains of invasive H. influenzae in clinical samples of blood and CSF.

  12. Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycoplasma synoviae by an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction-based assay on a field-deployable device

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chen, Chiou-Lin; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ping, Jia-Fong; Lee, Chien-Hsien; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), causing respiratory diseases, arthritis, and eggshell apex abnormalities in avian species, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. Implementation of a biosecurity plan is important in MS infection management. Working on a field-deployable POCKIT™ device, an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay has a potential for timely MS detection on the farm. The MS iiPCR assay had limit of detection 95% of about 9 genome equivalents by testing serial dilutions of a standard DNA. The detection endpoint of the assay for detection of MS genomic DNA was comparable to a reference real-time PCR. The assay did not crossreact with other important avian pathogens, including avian reovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, and Salmonella Pullorum. When 92 synovial fluid and respiratory tract swab samples collected from chickens, turkeys, and geese suspected of MS infection were tested, the clinical performance of the MS iiPCR had 97.8% agreement (Cohen's kappa value, 0.95) with that of the reference real-time PCR. In conclusion, the MS iiPCR/POCKIT™ system, working with field-deployable manual or automatic nucleic acid extraction methods, has potential to serve as a rapid and sensitive on-site tool to facilitate timely detection of MS. PMID:27389062

  13. Validation of a high-throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of capripoxviral DNA.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Samuel; Oura, Chris A L; Henstock, Mark; Bowden, Timothy R; King, Donald P; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M

    2012-02-01

    Capripoxviruses, which are endemic in much of Africa and Asia, are the aetiological agents of economically devastating poxviral diseases in cattle, sheep and goats. The aim of this study was to validate a high-throughput real-time PCR assay for routine diagnostic use in a capripoxvirus reference laboratory. The performance of two previously published real-time PCR methods were compared using commercially available reagents including the amplification kits recommended in the original publication. Furthermore, both manual and robotic extraction methods used to prepare template nucleic acid were evaluated using samples collected from experimentally infected animals. The optimised assay had an analytical sensitivity of at least 63 target DNA copies per reaction, displayed a greater diagnostic sensitivity compared to conventional gel-based PCR, detected capripoxviruses isolated from outbreaks around the world and did not amplify DNA from related viruses in the genera Orthopoxvirus or Parapoxvirus. The high-throughput robotic DNA extraction procedure did not adversely affect the sensitivity of the assay compared to manual preparation of PCR templates. This laboratory-based assay provides a rapid and robust method to detect capripoxviruses following suspicion of disease in endemic or disease-free countries.

  14. Using the Assay Data Exchange standard with WFS to build a complete minerals exploration data-transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Woodcock, R.; Dent, A.; Girvan, S.; Atkinson, R.

    2005-12-01

    Assay data is a key information type used in the solid earth sciences, particularly for mineral exploration. As well as its conceptual importance it comprises a significant proportion of data transferred between organizations. In collaboration with both the commercial and regulatory sector, we have developed an XML encoding for assay data. The Assay Data Exchange (ADX) encoding is a GML Application Schema, based on the Observations and Measurements recommendation from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), extended with assay specific attributes. The model is normalized, distinguishing the observation event and result from the observation target (specimen) and procedure (instrument). ADX has been used in the deployment of standard web-service interfaces to the archives of agencies who are custodians of such data (geological surveys). The web-service interface is a profile of the standard http-based OGC Web Feature Service. Map-visualization and tabular-report web-clients have been deployed that access these services. In addition, a number of standard data processing and visualization software packages have been enhanced to act as clients to these sources. The immediate value of the standard format and interface is that it enables lossless transfer of assay data from laboratory to explorer, from explorer to regulator, and then from statutory custodian back to speculative explorer, using a common format. This represents the complete data transfer cycle relevant to the mineral exploration industry. However, the more general value of the project is that it demonstrates the efficiencies that can be gained by standardizing data access protocols, and the use of a consensus process within the appropriate community for design of technical standards constructed as profiles of more generic standards.

  15. [Seasonal changes in phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains and C-protein in myocardium of hibernating ground squirrel Citellus undulatus].

    PubMed

    Malyshev, S L; Osipova, D A; Vikhliantsev, I M; Podlubnaia, Z A

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study concerning the extent of phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains and C-protein from the left ventricle of hibernating ground squirrel Citellus undulatus during the periods of hibernation and activity was carried out. During hibernation, regulatory light chains of ground squirrel were found to be completely dephosphorylated. In active animals, the share of phosphorylated light chains averages 40-45% of their total amount. The extent of phosphorylation of the cardiac C-protein during hibernation is about two times higher than that in the active state. Seasonal differences in phosphorylation of the two proteins of ground squirrel myocardium are discussed in the context of adaptation to hibernation.

  16. Neutron collar calibration for assay of LWR (light-water reactor) fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Pieper, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar is used for the verification of the uranium content in light-water reactor fuel assemblies. An AmLi neutron source is used to give an active interrogation of the fuel assembly to measure the /sup 235/U content, and the /sup 238/U content is verified from a passive neutron-coincidence measurement. This report gives the collar calibration data of pressurized-water reactor and boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies. Calibration curves and correction factors are presented for neutron absorbers (burnable poisons) and different fuel assembly sizes. The data were collected at Exxon Nuclear, Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustibles, ASEA-Atom, and other nuclear fuel fabrication facilities.

  17. Clinical and imaging predictors of 1-year and long-term mortality in light chain (AL) amyloidosis: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Christenson, Richard; Hari, Parameswaran

    2014-11-01

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) involves multiorgan failure induced by amyloidogenic light chain proteins, and is associated with high mortality. We aimed to identify clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters that would predict 1-year and long-term AL mortality. Forty-four biopsy-proven AL patients (61.5 ± 12 years, 20 females) underwent clinical evaluation including laboratory assays, echocardiography, and contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR, n = 31) prior to chemotherapy. Patients were prospectively followed for median duration of 62.7 months (interquartile range 35.5 months). Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between 1-year survivors and nonsurvivors. Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival plots were calculated followed by stepwise logistic regression analysis to assess independent predictors of long-term survival. Eighteen (40.9 %) patients died within 1 year and an additional 10 subjects died during long-term follow-up. Patients who expired within 1 year presented with more advanced class of heart failure, higher alkaline phosphatase and uric acid, lower limb lead voltage on electrocardiography, shorter left ventricular ejection time (ET) on echocardiography, and a higher proportion of late gadolinium enhancement on CMR. On multivariable analysis, only ET ≤240 ms on echocardiography (hazard ratio (HR) 5.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.83-14.1, P = 0.002) and New York Heart Association functional class II-IV presentation (HR 1.0058, 95 % CI 1.0014-1.0103, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of AL mortality. In conclusion, AL amyloidosis is associated with high 1-year and long-term mortality. Among clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters tested, an echocardiographic finding of ET ≤240 ms has independent and additive prognostic value to clinical heart failure evaluation in determining long-term survival of AL patients. This result may be important in the early identification of patients at risk.

  18. Role of serum free light chains in predicting HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma and its correlation with antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Bibas, Michele; Trotta, Maria Paola; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Pinnetti, Carmela; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Angarano, Gioacchino; Caramello, Pietro; Sighinolfi, Laura; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Di Caro, Antonino; Di Giacomo, Cristina; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    A nested case-control study was performed within the Italian cohort of naïve to antiretroviral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients (ICONA) cohort to evaluate the role of serum free light chains (sFLC) in predicting non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in HIV-infected individuals. Of 6513 participants, 86 patients developed lymphoma and 46 of these (NHL, 30; HL, 16) were included in this analysis having stored prediagnostic blood. A total of 46 serum case samples matched 1:1 to lymphoma-free serum control samples were assayed for κ and λ sFLC levels and compared by using conditional logistic regression. Because the polyclonal nature of free light chains (FLCs) was the focus of our study, we introduced the k + λ sum as the measurement of choice and as the primary variable studied. κ + λ sFLC values were significantly higher in patient with lymphoma than in controls, especially when considering samples stored 0-2-year period before the lymphoma diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, the elevation of sFLC predicted the risk of lymphoma independently of CD4 count, (odd ratio of 16.85 for k + λ sFLC >2-fold upper normal limit (UNL) vs. normal value). A significant reduction in the risk of lymphoma (odd ratio of 0.07 in model with k + λ sFLC) was found in people with low sFLC and undetectable HIV viremia lasting more than 6 months. Our analysis indicates that an elevated polyclonal sFLC is a strong and sensitive predictor of the risk of developing lymphomas, and it is an easy to measure biomarker that merits consideration for introduction in routine clinical practice in people with HIV.

  19. TaqMan probe real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the quantification of canine DNA in chicken nugget.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Bhassu, Subha; Rashid, Nur Raifana Abdul; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Ali, Md Eaqub

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a short-amplicon-based TaqMan probe quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the quantitative detection of canine meat in chicken nuggets, which are very popular across the world, including Malaysia. The assay targeted a 100-bp fragment of canine cytb gene using a canine-specific primer and TaqMan probe. Specificity against 10 different animals and plants species demonstrated threshold cycles (Ct) of 16.13 ± 0.12 to 16.25 ± 0.23 for canine DNA and negative results for the others in a 40-cycle reaction. The assay was tested for the quantification of up to 0.01% canine meat in deliberately spiked chicken nuggets with 99.7% PCR efficiency and 0.995 correlation coefficient. The analysis of the actual and qPCR predicted values showed a high recovery rate (from 87% ± 28% to 112% ± 19%) with a linear regression close to unity (R(2) = 0.999). Finally, samples of three halal-branded commercial chicken nuggets collected from different Malaysian outlets were screened for canine meat, but no contamination was demonstrated.

  20. Comparison of nested and ELISA based polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women with preterm complications.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Chong, P P; Mokhtarudin, R; Lye, M S; Wan Hassan, W H

    2014-03-01

    Identification of pregnant women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis is essential to allow early antibiotic treatment in order to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) namely nested PCR (BioSewoom, Korea) and Amplicor CT/NG (Roche Diagnostic, USA) were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA in pregnant women with preterm complications. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two public hospitals in Southern Selangor, Malaysia. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to DNA amplification using nested PCR (BioSewoom, Korea) and Amplicor CT/NG (Roche Diagnostic, USA). A total of 83 endocervical swabs obtained from pregnant women of less than 37 weeks gestation and presented with preterm complications were subjected to chlamydial DNA detection using both assays. The study shows that Amplicor CT/NG assay is more effective in the detection of C. trachomatis DNA from endocervical swabs compared to Biosewoom nested PCR kit. Agreement between the two assays were poor (kappa=0.094) with nested PCR showing a low sensitivity of 10.81% and a 97.83% specificity when compared to Amplicor CT/NG. The results obtained indicated that BioSewoom nested PCR was less sensitive than Amplicor CT/ NG for detecting C. trachomatis in endocervical specimens and that another more reliable test is required for confirmatory result.

  1. Heavy chain (LvH) and light chain (LvL) of lipovitellin (Lv) of zebrafish can both bind to bacteria and enhance phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Hu, Yu; Feng, Shuoqi; Zhang, Shicui; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Lipovitellin (Lv) is an apoprotein in oviparous animals. Lv consists of a heavy chain (LvH) and a light chain (LvL) which are traditionally regarded as energy reserves for developing embryos. Recently, Lv has been shown to be involved in immune defense of developing embryos in fish. However, it remains unknown if each of LvH and LvL possesses immune activity; and if so, whether or not they function similarly. Here we clearly demonstrated that recombinant LvH (rLvH) and LvL (rLvL) from zebrafish vg1 gene bound to both the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Vibrio anguillarum and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus as well as the pathogen-associated molecular patterns LPS, LTA and PGN. In addition, both rLvH and rLvL were able to enhance the phagocytosis of bacteria E. coli and S. aureus by macrophages. All these data suggest that both LvH and LvL, in addition to being energy reserves, are also maternal immune-relevant factors capable of interacting with invading bacteria in zebrafish embryos/larvae.

  2. Follow-up of IgD-κ multiple myeloma by monitoring free light chains and total heavy chain IgD: A case report

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Elena; Masi, Serena; Cordone, Iole; Pisani, Francesco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Mattei, Fabrizio; Conti, Laura; Cigliana, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)D-κ multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare neoplastic disease characterized by an aggressive and rapidly progressing course, which constitutes only a very small proportion of all MM cases. In the present report, the clinical case of a 51-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with IgD-κ MM is described. The patient underwent different chemotherapeutic treatments subsequently to a single autologous stem cell transplantation. Despite the inherent difficulty of monitoring IgD levels and performing serum immunofixation electrophoresis, the clinical outcome of the patient was almost uniquely monitored by measuring the levels of κ and λ free light chains (FLCs) and total heavy chain IgD. The data suggest the non-invasive potential and usefulness of FLCs evaluation for early detection of stringent complete remission, follow-up and early detection of disease relapse. In addition, this diagnostic procedure has successfully been employed for the therapeutic monitoring of the present patient, and may represent a very helpful, non-invasive tool for the follow-up of IgD myeloma patients without the requirement of serial bone marrow aspirate. PMID:27588135

  3. Follow-up of IgD-κ multiple myeloma by monitoring free light chains and total heavy chain IgD: A case report.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Elena; Masi, Serena; Cordone, Iole; Pisani, Francesco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Mattei, Fabrizio; Conti, Laura; Cigliana, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)D-κ multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare neoplastic disease characterized by an aggressive and rapidly progressing course, which constitutes only a very small proportion of all MM cases. In the present report, the clinical case of a 51-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with IgD-κ MM is described. The patient underwent different chemotherapeutic treatments subsequently to a single autologous stem cell transplantation. Despite the inherent difficulty of monitoring IgD levels and performing serum immunofixation electrophoresis, the clinical outcome of the patient was almost uniquely monitored by measuring the levels of κ and λ free light chains (FLCs) and total heavy chain IgD. The data suggest the non-invasive potential and usefulness of FLCs evaluation for early detection of stringent complete remission, follow-up and early detection of disease relapse. In addition, this diagnostic procedure has successfully been employed for the therapeutic monitoring of the present patient, and may represent a very helpful, non-invasive tool for the follow-up of IgD myeloma patients without the requirement of serial bone marrow aspirate.

  4. Myosin‑II heavy chain and formin mediate the targeting of myosin essential light chain to the division site before and during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhonghui; Okada, Satoshi; Cai, Guoping; Zhou, Bing; Bi, Erfei

    2015-01-01

    MLC1 is a haploinsufficient gene encoding the essential light chain for Myo1, the sole myosin‑II heavy chain in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mlc1 defines an essential hub that coordinates actomyosin ring function, membrane trafficking, and septum formation during cytokinesis by binding to IQGAP, myosin‑II, and myosin‑V. However, the mechanism of how Mlc1 is targeted to the division site during the cell cycle remains unsolved. By constructing a GFP‑tagged MLC1 under its own promoter control and using quantitative live‑cell imaging coupled with yeast mutants, we found that septin ring and actin filaments mediate the targeting of Mlc1 to the division site before and during cytokinesis, respectively. Both mechanisms contribute to and are collectively required for the accumulation of Mlc1 at the division site during cytokinesis. We also found that Myo1 plays a major role in the septin‑dependent Mlc1 localization before cytokinesis, whereas the formin Bni1 plays a major role in the actin filament–dependent Mlc1 localization during cytokinesis. Such a two‑tiered mechanism for Mlc1 localization is presumably required for the ordered assembly and robustness of cytokinesis machinery and is likely conserved across species. PMID:25631819

  5. The identification of a nonclassical cadherin expressed during B cell development and its interaction with surrogate light chain.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, K; Shimizu, T; Karasuyama, H; Melchers, F

    2000-10-06

    A 130-kDa glycoprotein (p130) has been found to be associated with surrogate light chain on pro- and pre-B I cells. Using peptide sequences obtained from purified p130 we have cloned its gene. The gene encodes a typical cadherin type 1 membrane protein with six extracellular cadherin domains (one pseudo domain) but lacking the catenin-binding site in its cytoplasmic part. Even without this catenin-binding site, p130 mediates Ca(2+)-dependent homotypic adhesion of cells. The interaction of p130 with surrogate light chain is confirmed by co-transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The expression of p130 is biphasic during the B cell development. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analyses revealed that it is expressed on B220(+)c-Kit(+) pro-B and pre-B-I cells as well as on B220(+)CD25(-)IgM(+) immature and mature B cells but not on B220(+)CD25(+) pre-B-II cells. It is also expressed in fetal liver, at low levels in myeloid cells, and strongly in intestinal epithelial cells. In the spleen, p130-expressing cells are mainly localized in the marginal zone. We call this B lineage-, intestine-, liver- and leukocyte-expressed gene BILL-cadherin. The possible functions of BILL-cadherin in B cell development are discussed.

  6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of cauliflower mosaic virus to complement the 35S screening assay for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Katarina; Ravnikar, Maja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Toplak, Natasa

    2005-01-01

    Labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is now in place in many countries, including the European Union, in order to guarantee the consumer's choice between GM and non-GM products. Screening of samples is performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of regulatory sequences frequently introduced into genetically modified plants. Primers for the 35S promoter from Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) are those most frequently used. In virus-infected plants or in samples contaminated with plant material carrying the virus, false-positive results can consequently occur. A system for real-time PCR using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe was designed that allows recognition of virus coat protein in the sample, thus allowing differentiation between transgenic and virus-infected samples. We measured the efficiency of PCR amplification, limits of detection and quantification, range of linearity, and repeatability of the assay in order to assess the applicability of the assay for routine analysis. The specificity of the detection system was tested on various virus isolates and plant species. All 8 CaMV isolates were successfully amplified using the designed system. No cross-reactivity was detected with DNA from 3 isolates of the closely related Carnation etched ring virus. Primers do not amplify plant DNA from available genetically modified maize and soybean lines or from different species of Brassicaceae or Solanaceae that are natural hosts for CaMV. We evaluated the assay for different food matrixes by spiking CaMV DNA into DNA from food samples and have successfully amplified CaMV from all samples. The assay was tested on rapeseed samples from routine GMO testing that were positive in the 35S screening assay, and the presence of the virus was confirmed.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of three microbial source tracking quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays from fecal-source and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.

    2012-01-01

    During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.

  8. Somatic mutation in constant regions of mouse lambda 1 light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, N; Okada, H; Azuma, T

    1991-01-01

    To study the distribution of somatic mutation, we determined nucleotide sequences of rearranged lambda 1-chain genomic DNA from four hybridomas obtained from C57BL/6 mice that had been immunized with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-conjugated chicken gamma globulin. In total, 114 nucleotide substitutions were observed, with neither insertion nor deletion. Sixty-one mutations occurred in the variable-joining region genes (V lambda 1-J lambda 1) and 49 in joining-constant (J lambda 1-C lambda 1) introns. Although frequency decreased with distance from the V lambda 1-J lambda 1 coding region, somatic mutations occurred in the entire J lambda 1-C lambda 1 intron and even in the C lambda 1 region. We found four nucleotide substitutions in C lambda 1 genes, all of which were replacement mutations. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for somatic mutation is operative into the C lambda 1 exons. Nucleotide sequences of rearranged but inactive lambda 2-chain genes from two hybridomas were also examined and compared with those of lambda 1-chain genes. The clustering of replacement mutations in complementarity-determining regions in the inactive lambda 2-chain genes similar to the active lambda 1-chain genes suggested a mechanism that induces somatic mutation preferentially in this region even in the absence of antigenic selection. PMID:1910169

  9. A sensitive resveratrol assay with a simple probe methylene blue by resonance light scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Haiyan; Dai, Kaijin; Luo, Qizhi; Duan, Wenjun; Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel resonance light scattering (RLS) method was developed for the determination of resveratrol based on the interaction between resveratrol and methylene blue (MB). It was found that at pH 8.69, the weak RLS intensity of MB was remarkably enhanced by the addition of trace amount of resveratrol with the maximum peak located at 385.0 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship between the enhanced RLS intensities and the concentrations of resveratrol was obtained over the range of 2.0-14.0 μg ml -1 with the detection limit (3 σ) of 0.63 μg ml -1. The results of the analysis of resveratrol in synthetic samples and human urine are satisfactory, which showed it may provide a more sensitive, convenient, rapid and reproducible method for the detection of resveratrol, especially in biological and pharmaceutical field. In this work, the characteristics of RLS, absorption and fluorescence spectra of the resveratrol-MB system, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated.

  10. Prognostic Value of Serum Free Light Chains Measurements in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bermudo Guitarte, Carmen; Menéndez Valladares, Paloma; Rojas Noboa, Johanna Carolina; Kestler, Krysta; Duro Millán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background The outcome for patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM) is highly variable, therefore, the existence of robust and easy to determine prognostic markers is extremely important for an efficient management of these patients. Presently, there is a debate about the role of the serum free light chains (sFLC) in the prognosis of MM patients both at diagnosis and after treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate in a cohort of newly diagnosed MM patients from the Southern area of Spain, the prognostic value of sFLC both at baseline and after treatment. Materials and Methods 180 patients with a median age of 69 years were followed-up for a median time of 35 (18–61) months. The sFLC ratio (sFLCR) was calculated using the monoclonal sFLC as numerator. Patients were divided in two groups according to a sFLCR cut-off based on ROC analysis. The primary endpoints were the Overall Survival (OS) and the Progression-free Survival (PFS). Additionally, thirty-six MM patients treated with novel agents (Bortezomib/Dexamethasone) that achieved Complete Response (CR) or stringent CR (sCR) before autologous stem cell transplantation were studied to assess the impact of sCR in Disease Free Survival (DFS) and OS. Results During follow-up there were 72 disease-related deaths. The 5-years OS for the whole group was 51%. However, separate analysis of patients with sFLCR above (group “high”) or below (groups “low”) the cut-off value of 47 shows an OS of 23% and 73%, respectively (HR = 5.03, 95%CI 2.99–8.50, p<0.001). In addition, analysis by ISS stage, showed that the presence of high sFLCR was always significantly associated with a worse OS. Multivariate analysis identified sFLCR (HR = 4.42, 95%CI 2.57–7.60, p<0.001) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) (HR = 3.04, 95%IC 1.75–5.31, p<0.001) as independent risk factors for adverse outcome. A new risk stratification model based on sFLCR≥47 and B2M>3.5 mg/L provided a statistically more significant result for this cohort

  11. A comparison of two West Nile virus detection assays (TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and VecTest antigen assay) during three consecutive outbreaks in northern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lampman, Richard L; Krasavin, Nina M; Szyska, Michael; Novak, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    Mosquitoes identified as female Culex (Culex) species, primarily mixtures or uniform batches of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were collected daily from gravid traps by 2 mosquito abatement districts (MADs) in Cook County, Illinois. From 2002 through 2004, batches (pools) of mosquitoes were tested by the MADs for West Nile virus (WNV) by using VecTest WNV antigen assays and the same samples were retested, usually within 1-2 wk, for WNV RNA by the TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There were 952 TaqMan-positive pools out of 3,953 pools over the 3 years, and about one half of that number were VecTest-positive. The difference between the 2 detection assays varied between and within years. The VecTest assays detected about 57% and 69% of the TaqMan RT-PCR-positive pools from Des Plaines Valley MAD and Northwest MAD in 2002, but only about 40% and 46% in 2003, and 36% and 55% in 2004, respectively. Based on a subset of the 2004 data, a linear relationship was found between VecTest detection of WNV and TaqMan cycle threshold between 18 and 28 cycles. A temporal decrease in the difference between the 2 assays was observed in 2003 and 2004, which we conjecture is due, at least partially, to a seasonal decline in the proportion of recently infected mosquitoes. This trend was not observed in 2002 because infection rates indicated a high likelihood of more than 1 infected mosquito per pool at the peak of transmission. Unlike a previous study, the 95% confidence intervals of infection rates based on the 2 detection methods did not always overlap. The highest infection rates occurred in 2002 when mean monthly temperatures were above average.

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites.

  13. Interactions of Yeast Dynein with Dynein Light Chain and Dynactin: GENERAL IMPLICATIONS FOR INTRINSICALLY DISORDERED DUPLEX SCAFFOLDS IN MULTIPROTEIN ASSEMBLIES.

    PubMed

    Jie, Jing; Löhr, Frank; Barbar, Elisar

    2015-09-25

    Intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) duplexes composed of two IDP chains cross-linked by bivalent partner proteins form scaffolds for assembly of multiprotein complexes. The N-terminal domain of dynein intermediate chain (N-IC) is one such IDP that forms a bivalent scaffold with multiple dynein light chains including LC8, a hub protein that promotes duplex formation of diverse IDP partners. N-IC also binds a subunit of the dynein regulator, dynactin. Here we characterize interactions of a yeast ortholog of N-IC (N-Pac11) with yeast LC8 (Dyn2) or with the intermediate chain-binding subunit of yeast dynactin (Nip100). Residue level changes in Pac11 structure are monitored by NMR spectroscopy, and binding energetics are monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). N-Pac11 is monomeric and primarily disordered except for a single α-helix (SAH) at the N terminus and a short nascent helix, LH, flanked by the two Dyn2 recognition motifs. Upon binding Dyn2, the only Pac11 residues making direct protein-protein interactions are in and immediately flanking the recognition motifs. Dyn2 binding also orders LH residues of Pac11. Upon binding Nip100, only Pac11 SAH residues make direct protein-protein interactions, but LH residues at a distant sequence position and L1 residues in an adjacent linker are also ordered. The long distance, ligand-dependent ordering of residues reveals new elements of dynamic structure within IDP linker regions.

  14. Detection of Citrus leprosis virus C using specific primers and TaqMan probe in one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Wei, G; Govindarajulu, A; Roy, Avijit; Li, Wenbin; Picton, Deric D; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2015-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent of the leprosis disease in citrus, is mostly present in the South and Central America and spreading toward the North America. To enable better diagnosis and inhibit the further spread of this re-emerging virus a quantitative (q) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay is needed for early detection of CiLV-C when the virus is present in low titer in citrus leprosis samples. Using the genomic sequence of CiLV-C, specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized to amplify a 73 nt amplicon from the movement protein (MP) gene. A standard curve of the 73 nt amplicon MP gene was developed using known 10(10)-10(1) copies of in vitro synthesized RNA transcript to estimate the copy number of RNA transcript in the citrus leprosis samples. The one-step qRT-PCR detection assays for CiLV-C were determined to be 1000 times more sensitive when compared to the one-step conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) CiLV-C detection method. To evaluate the quality of the total RNA extracts, NADH dehydrogenase gene specific primers (nad5) and probe were included in reactions as an internal control. The one-step qRT-PCR specificity was successfully validated by testing for the presence of CiLV-C in the total RNA extracts of the citrus leprosis samples collected from Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Implementation of the one-step qRT-PCR assays for CiLV-C diagnosis should assist regulatory agencies in surveillance activities to monitor the distribution pattern of CiLV-C in countries where it is present and to prevent further dissemination into citrus growing countries where there is no report of CiLV-C presence.

  15. Short-term acclimation of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain to changing light: a mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Ebenhöh, Oliver; Fucile, Geoffrey; Finazzi, Giovanni; Rochaix, Jean-David; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic eukaryotes house two photosystems with distinct light absorption spectra. Natural fluctuations in light quality and quantity can lead to unbalanced or excess excitation, compromising photosynthetic efficiency and causing photodamage. Consequently, these organisms have acquired several distinct adaptive mechanisms, collectively referred to as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence, which modulates the organization and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. The ability to monitor NPQ processes fluorometrically has led to substantial progress in elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, the relative contribution of distinct NPQ mechanisms to variable light conditions in different photosynthetic eukaryotes remains unclear. Here, we present a mathematical model of the dynamic regulation of eukaryotic photosynthesis using ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate that, for Chlamydomonas, our model recapitulates the basic fluorescence features of short-term light acclimation known as state transitions and discuss how the model can be iteratively refined by comparison with physiological experiments to further our understanding of light acclimation in different species. PMID:24591710

  16. [A case of lambda-expressing pulmonary MALT lymphoma with dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene].

    PubMed

    Oh, Hye Ryong; Lee, Mi Ja; Park, Geon; Moon, Dae Soo; Park, Young Jin; Jang, Sook Jin

    2009-06-01

    A 70-yr-old woman was hospitalized with a history of dry cough. Bronchial endoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy were performed. However, the findings of histopathology and immunohistochemistry were not sufficient to decide whether the lesion was benign or malignant, because of the presence of crush artifacts in the biopsy specimens. We performed B-cell clonality studies using BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR (InVivoScribe Technologies, USA) to detect clonal rearrangements in the immunoglobulin gene. The results of multiplex PCR showed clonal rearrangements of both kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes. The findings of immunochemistry revealed that the lesion expressed lambda light chain, but not kappa light chain. Based on the clinical, pathologic, and molecular findings, this case was diagnosed as pulmonary MALT lymphoma. We report the first case in Korea of lambda-expressing MALT lymphoma that is shown to have dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene by multiplex PCR.

  17. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  18. Rapid and simple polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic assays for GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease) in Japanese domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad M; Shoubudani, Tomoaki; Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Hossain, Mohammad A; Yabuki, Akira; Mitani, Sawane; Higo, Takashi; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays combined with microchip electrophoresis were developed and evaluated for diagnosis and genotyping of GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease) in Japanese domestic cats. A preliminary genotyping survey was carried out in the population of Japanese domestic cats (1,015 cats in total) in southern Japan. Three kinds of assays including PCR primer-induced restriction analysis (PIRA) and mutagenically separated (MS)-PCR were carried out using blood-stained Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) as templates. The PCR products were analyzed by both agarose gel and microchip electrophoreses. All assays were sufficient to determine the genotypes of this disease, but MS-PCR offered the most rapid and simplest test, as it does not need the restriction enzyme step required in PCR-PIRA. The use of microchip electrophoresis in combination with FTA cards for sampling could shorten the time required for genotyping and simplify the procedure as well. The genotyping survey in the current study did not find any cats that possessed the mutant allele, suggesting that the prevalence of this allele is low (<0.1%) in southern Japan.

  19. Development of an Escherichia coli K12-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and DNA isolation suited to biofilms associated with iron drinking water pipe corrosion products.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Gerke, Tammie L; Buse, Helen Y; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (115 bp amplicon) specific to Escherichia coli K12 with an ABI(TM) internal control was developed based on sequence data encoding the rfb gene cluster. Assay specificity was evaluated using three E. coli K12 strains (ATCC W3110, MG1655 & DH1), 24 non-K12 E. coli and 23 bacterial genera. The biofilm detection limit was 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) E. coli K12 mL(-1), but required a modified protocol, which included a bio-blocker Pseudomonas aeruginosa with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffered to pH 5 prior to cell lysis/DNA extraction. The novel protocol yielded the same sensitivity for drinking water biofilms associated with Fe3O4 (magnetite)-coated SiO2 (quartz) grains and biofilm-surface iron corrosion products from a drinking water distribution system. The novel DNA extraction protocol and specific E. coli K12 assay are sensitive and robust enough for detection and quantification within iron drinking water pipe biofilms, and are particularly well suited for studying enteric bacterial interactions within biofilms.

  20. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2011-07-01

    Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.

  1. Novel real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection of recurrent fusion genes in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Sandra; Barragán, Eva; Fuster, Óscar; Llop, Marta; Cervera, José; Such, Esperanza; De Juan, Inmaculada; Palanca, Sarai; Murria, Rosa; Bolufer, Pascual; Luna, Irene; Gómez, Inés; López, María; Ibáñez, Mariam; Sanz, Miguel A

    2013-09-01

    The recent World Health Organization classification recognizes different subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the presence of several recurrent genetic abnormalities. Detection of these abnormalities and other molecular changes is of increasing interest because it contributes to a refined diagnosis and prognostic assessment in AML and enables monitoring of minimal residual disease. These genetic abnormalities can be detected using single RT-PCR, although the screening is still labor intensive and costly. We have developed a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to simultaneously detect 15 AML-associated rearrangements that is a simple and easily applicable method for use in clinical diagnostic laboratories. This method showed 100% specificity and sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 91% to 100% and 92% to 100%, respectively). The procedure was validated in a series of 105 patients with AML. The method confirmed all translocations detected using standard cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization and some additional undetected rearrangements. Two patients demonstrated two molecular rearrangements simultaneously, with BCR-ABL1 implicated in both, in addition to RUNX1-MECOM in one patient and PML-RARA in another. In conclusion, this novel real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of multiple AML-associated fusion genes is a versatile and sensitive method for reliable screening of recurrent rearrangements in AML.

  2. Surface invasive cleavage assay on a maskless light-directed diamond DNA microarray for genome-wide human SNP mapping.

    PubMed

    Nie, Bei; Yang, Min; Fu, Weiling; Liang, Zhiqing

    2015-07-07

    The surface invasive cleavage assay, because of its innate accuracy and ability for self-signal amplification, provides a potential route for the mapping of hundreds of thousands of human SNP sites. However, its performance on a high density DNA array has not yet been established, due to the unusual "hairpin" probe design on the microarray and the lack of chemical stability of commercially available substrates. Here we present an applicable method to implement a nanocrystalline diamond thin film as an alternative substrate for fabricating an addressable DNA array using maskless light-directed photochemistry, producing the most chemically stable and biocompatible system for genetic analysis and enzymatic reactions. The surface invasive cleavage reaction, followed by degenerated primer ligation and post-rolling circle amplification is consecutively performed on the addressable diamond DNA array, accurately mapping SNP sites from PCR-amplified human genomic target DNA. Furthermore, a specially-designed DNA array containing dual probes in the same pixel is fabricated by following a reverse light-directed DNA synthesis protocol. This essentially enables us to decipher thousands of SNP alleles in a single-pot reaction by the simple addition of enzyme, target and reaction buffers.

  3. Circulating advanced glycation peptides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: evidence for preferential modification of IgG light chains.

    PubMed

    Gugliucci, A; Menini, T

    1998-01-01

    As the glycation/glycoxidation hypothesis for the genesis of diabetic complications is achieving widespread acceptance, much attention is being paid to the role of low molecular weight advanced glycation (AGE) adducts, as second generation glycating agents. We set out a study with the objective of attesting the presence of increased amounts of AGE-peptides in the circulation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and to determine the nature of the plasma proteins which are main targets for advanced glycation. AGE (Ex 370/Em 440 nm) and pentosidine fluorescence (Ex 335/Em 385 nm) were significantly higher in plasma from diabetic rats after only one month of hyperglycemia as compared to controls (35 +/- 7 vs 25 +/- 2 AU, p< 0.05 and 54 +/- 14 vs 27 +/- 3 AU, p< 0.01 respectively). AGE-peptides (<10 kDa) were more than two-fold higher in diabetic animals. Immunoblots after SDS-PAGE of plasma proteins showed that AGE-IgG displayed a selective predominant increment in the same animals. When native rat IgG was incubated in the presence of AGE-peptides isolated from diabetic animals, AGE modification was already apparent after only 24 h of incubation, and was particularly important for light chains. AGE-immunoreactive light chains displayed an apparent increase in molecular weight. Aminoguanidine prevented, while copper enhanced AGE binding to IgG light chains. Our data validate the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat as a model reproducing the presence of circulating AGE-peptides, give evidence that IgG are preferential targets for advanced glycation in plasma and suggest that this modification, mediated by AGE-peptides, can be prevented by aminoguanidine.

  4. Robust Reference Intervals for Serum Kappa and Lambda Free Light Chains from a Multi Centre Study Population from Hyderabad, India: Myeloma Diagnostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Noorjahan; Chandran, Priscilla Abraham; Kandregula, Madhavi; Mattaparthi, Ratna Deepika; Gundeti, Sadasivudu; Volturi, Jyotsna; Darapuneni, Radhika; Raju, Sree Bhushan; Dattatreya, Palanki Satya

    2016-01-01

    The International Myeloma Working Group considers the serum free light chain (SFLC) assay to be an adjunct to traditional tests. Apart from the FLC ratio, the absolute values of individual free light chains also are gaining importance as they appear to be more relevant in certain clinical settings. Automated assays are available for their determination. As laboratories put new test systems into use catering to different disease populations, they are required by accreditation and certification bodies to verify or establish performance specifications, including reference intervals (RIs) representative of their population. Our aim was to establish local RIs for SFLC in a multicentre representative healthy population using a robust method. There was no significant relationship between SFLC levels and age, gender and creatinine levels. The 95% RI for κSFLC was 4.81 to 33.86mg/L, for ? SFLC was 5.19 to 23.67mg/L and for κ/?SFLC was 0.36 to 2.33, significantly higher than the values given by the manufacturer. The κ/? SFLC ratio at 2.23, covering 100% of the data, showed 72% sensitivity (95% CI=39.0 - 94.0), 100% specificity (95% CI=71.5 - 100.0), 100% PPV (95% CI=21.5 - 100.0), 95% NPV (95% CI=75.4 - 99.9), and 79% accuracy (95% CI=56.0 - 93.0). In the patient group, kit RI for κ /? SFLC ratio classified 45.5% (n=5) as positive vs 9.1% (n=1) positive by the study RI, while the kit RI for kappa FLC classified 90.9% (n=10) as positive vs 54.5% (n=6) , indicating increased probability of false positive test results with the kit RI when applied to our patient population. Appropriate and specific reference intervals and criteria values result in fewer false-positive and false-negative results which means fewer wrong or missed diagnoses.

  5. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for species identification of goose and mule duck in foie gras products.

    PubMed

    Rodrı X0301 Guez, Miguel A; Garcı X0301 A, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Mayoral, Belén; López-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; Martı X0301 N, Rosario

    2003-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a conserved region of the α-actin gene has been used for the specific identification of goose (Anser anser) and mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos×Cairina moschata) foie gras. Universal primers were used for the amplification of a DNA fragment containing three introns and four exons of the α-actin gene in goose and mule duck. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragments was necessary for the design of forward species-specific primers in the goose and mule duck α-actin genes. The use of species-specific forward primers, together with a reverse universal primer, produced amplicons of different length, allowing clear identification of goose and mule duck foie gras samples. Analysis of experimental mixtures demonstrated that 1% of duck can be easily detected in goose foie gras using the PCR method developed here. This genetic marker can be very useful for the accurate identification of these two species in foie gras products.

  6. Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of Citrus leprosis virus C in enzyme-linked immuno-assays and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Govindarajulu, A; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2014-09-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes damage in citrus production in the South and Central America. Since closely related types of citrus viruses have recently been described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for accurate and sensitive diagnosis of CiLV-C. In this study, MAbs to the expressed coat protein of CiLV-C were produced for serological detection of CiLV-C in crude extracts of infected tissues in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA), dot blot immunosorbent assays (DBIA) and immuonocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) procedures. Monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice to the purified expressed coat protein of CiLV-C. The published standard protocols of DAS-ELISA, DBIA and IC-RT-PCR were followed for the detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, designated G10 and C11, were identified from four potential candidates for the specific and sensitive detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude citrus extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues in DAS-ELISA, whereas G10 was also selected based on performance for use in the DBIA and IC-RT-PCR diagnostic assays. Sensitivity analysis comparing the three methods for detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C determined that IC-RT-PCR was more sensitive than DAS-ELISA and DBIA. The creation of MAbs to CiLV-C allows for the sensitive and accurate detection of the virus from CiLV-C infected citrus leaf tissues. Successful detection of the virus in three diagnostic assays formats provides flexibility to diagnosticians who can use either ELISA or DBIA for screening large numbers of samples, and IC-RT-PCR for rapid, sensitive confirmation testing.

  7. Longitudinal study of the detection of Bluetongue virus in bull semen and comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney J; Walsh, Susan J; Melville, Lorna F; Kirkland, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a significant impediment to the global movement of bovine semen. Repeat testing of blood from donor animals is specified in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Manual for the export of semen from regions where BTV may be present. Screening of blood or semen samples has usually been carried out by virus isolation (VI) either by inoculation of chicken embryos followed by passage onto insect and mammalian cell cultures or in vivo inoculation of sheep followed by serology to detect seroconversion. Direct testing of semen for BTV would enable earlier release of semen samples and avoid repeat testing of the donor, as well as provide an option for releasing batches of semen that were collected without certification of the donor. Quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays overcome most of the limitations of other methods and have the potential to provide higher sensitivity. The present study compared 5 qRT-PCR assays, including 2 commercially available kits, for the detection of BTV in semen serially collected from 8 bulls over a period of 90 days after experimental infection. The results of the study show that at least one of the qRT-PCR assays is extremely reproducible and has both very high sensitivity and specificity to reliably detect all available serotypes. The preferred qRT-PCR gave consistently superior results to VI, sheep inoculation, and conventional RT-PCR. Therefore, the assay can be recommended for the screening of bovine semen for freedom from BTV.

  8. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification and detection of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Urdaci, M C; Chakroun, C; Faure, D; Bernardet, J F

    1998-01-01

    A PCR-based method was developed to identify and detect Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of "cold-water disease" and "rainbow trout fry syndrome" in salmonid fish. Two oligonucleotide primers were designed by comparing the 16S rRNA sequence of all taxa in the genus Flavobacterium and of representative species in most related genera within rRNA superfamily V. Purified chromosomal DNAs from all these bacterial species, from 25 F. psychrophilum isolates and from several other fish-pathogenic bacteria were used to assess the specificity of the reaction. Amplification products were generated only with F. psychrophilum DNA. The detection level, equivalent to approximately 10 to 100 bacterial cells, was increased 10-fold by hybridization with a radioactive probe. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that this procedure can also be applied to samples of infected tissue. This PCR assay is therefore a rapid, specific, and sensitive alternative to conventional plate culture methods for the identification and detection of F. psychrophilum.

  9. Discordance between MTB/RIF and Real-Time Tuberculosis-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Bronchial Washing Specimen and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yong Suk; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied. The clinical risk factors for discordance and false positivity of assays were also studied. Among 130 patients who were clinically diagnosed with PTB, 64 patients showed positive acid-fast bacilli culture results, 56 patients showed positive results in molecular methods and clinician diagnosed PTB without results of microbiology in 10 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 80.0%, 98.95%, 98.1%, and 87.9%, respectively, for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.5%, 92.6%, 88.3%, and 88.0%, respectively, for TB/NTM PCR. The discordant proportion was 16.9% and was higher in culture-negative PTB compared to culture-confirmed PTB (24.3% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.024). However, there were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics, regardless of the discordance. The diagnostic yield increased with an additional assay (7.7% for Xpert MTB/RIF and 9.2% for TB/NTM PCR). False positivity was less common in patients tested with Xpert MTB/RIF (1.05% vs. 7.37%, p = 0.0035). No host-related risk factor for false positivity was identified. The Xpert MTB/RIF and TB/NTM PCR assay in bronchial washing specimens can improve the diagnostic yields for PTB, although there were considerable discordant results without any patient-related risk factors. PMID:27760181

  10. Discordance between MTB/RIF and Real-Time Tuberculosis-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Bronchial Washing Specimen and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Suk; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied. The clinical risk factors for discordance and false positivity of assays were also studied. Among 130 patients who were clinically diagnosed with PTB, 64 patients showed positive acid-fast bacilli culture results, 56 patients showed positive results in molecular methods and clinician diagnosed PTB without results of microbiology in 10 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 80.0%, 98.95%, 98.1%, and 87.9%, respectively, for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.5%, 92.6%, 88.3%, and 88.0%, respectively, for TB/NTM PCR. The discordant proportion was 16.9% and was higher in culture-negative PTB compared to culture-confirmed PTB (24.3% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.024). However, there were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics, regardless of the discordance. The diagnostic yield increased with an additional assay (7.7% for Xpert MTB/RIF and 9.2% for TB/NTM PCR). False positivity was less common in patients tested with Xpert MTB/RIF (1.05% vs. 7.37%, p = 0.0035). No host-related risk factor for false positivity was identified. The Xpert MTB/RIF and TB/NTM PCR assay in bronchial washing specimens can improve the diagnostic yields for PTB, although there were considerable discordant results without any patient-related risk factors.

  11. Multiple myeloma and multiple plasmacytomas associated with free gamma heavy chain, free kappa light chain and IgGk paraproteins: an unusual triple gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Deighan, William I; O'Kane, Maurice J; McNicholl, Feargal P; Keren, David F

    2016-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell dyscrasia that is becoming more prevalent in an increasingly ageing population. It is a complex disease with clinical phases ranging from the premalignant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to asymptomatic (smouldering) myeloma and then symptomatic myeloma; the latter occasionally terminating in the clonal proliferation of plasma cells outside the bone marrow. We present a patient whose clonally evolved disease from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma demonstrated the presence of an unusual combination of monoclonal immunoproteins. Capillary electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of three paraproteins in the gamma region (γ-region), two of which were additional to the IgGk paraprotein which migrated in the slow γ-region at initial diagnosis. Subsequent isotypic identification of the new paraproteins was not possible by immunotyping and initial immunofixation studies failed to definitively characterize the monoclonal proteins. After reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol, two paraproteins were detected by both capillary and gel electrophoresis. However, only immunofixation was able to resolve three distinct monoclonal bands, confirming the presence of free monoclonal kappa light chains in the mid-gamma region and free monoclonal heavy chains in the fast gamma region. Triple gammopathies in themselves are uncommon; this case presents a very unusual combination of paraproteins which required various electrophoretical and immunochemical techniques to identify and characterize them. The change of electrophoretic signature from the monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance phase to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma suggested that a number of genetically distinct subclones were present in the pretreatment clonal evolution of the disease.

  12. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi May; Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range.

  13. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from humans and dogs from Mexico using a beta-giardin nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Lalle, Marco; Jimenez-Cardosa, Enedina; Cacciò, Simone M; Pozio, Edoardo

    2005-02-01

    Cysts of Giardia duodenalis were collected in Mexico from symptomatic children (n = 9) and from pet dogs (n = 5), and they were directly characterized by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the beta-giardin gene. Eight isolates of human origin established as in vitro cultures and 2 reference strains, representing assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis, were also analyzed. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism showed that all isolates belonged to assemblage A. Sequence analyses indicated that the large majority of isolates were of the A1 genotype; interestingly, 2 human isolates displayed the A3 genotype, which has been previously identified in human isolates from Italy. The presence of cysts of the A1 and A3 genotypes in isolates from pet dogs is consistent with their role as reservoirs for human infection, although further studies are needed to confirm the occurrence of zoonotic transmission. Remarkably, cysts of assemblage B have not been found in any of the Mexican isolates studied to date.

  14. Selection of RNA Aptamers Against Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Light Chain Through a Non-Radioactive Approach.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzuu-Wang; Janardhanan, Pavithra; Mello, Charlene M; Singh, Bal Ram; Cai, Shuowei

    2016-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a category A agent, is the most toxic molecule known to mankind. The endopeptidase activity of light chain domain of BoNT is the cause for the inhibition of the neurotransmitter release and the flaccid paralysis that leads to lethality in botulism. Currently, antidotes are not available to reverse the flaccid paralysis caused by BoNT. In the present study, a non-radioactive-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process is developed by utilizing surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding enrichment. Two RNA aptamers have been identified as strong binders against light chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A. These two aptamers showed strong inhibition activity on LCA, with IC50 in nanomolar range. Inhibition kinetic studies reveal mid nanomolar KI and non-competitive nature of their inhibition, suggesting that they have strong potential as antidotes that can reverse the symptom caused by BoNT/A. More importantly, we observed that the 2'-fluorine-pyrimidine-modified RNA aptamers identified here do not change their binding and biological activities. This observation could lead to a cost-effective way for SELEX, by using regular nucleotide during SELEX, and 2'-fluorine-pyrimidine-modified nucleotide for final application to enhance their RNase-resistance.

  15. Histopathological analysis of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas without light chain restriction by using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, Akihiro; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanioka, Kensaku; Makita, Shinichi; Kitahara, Hideaki; Fukuhara, Suguru; Munakata, Wataru; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Dai; Kobayashi, Yukio; Tobinai, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin light chain restriction (LCR) by flow cytometry (FCM) is a useful tool for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) diagnosis. Here, we identified B-NHLs without LCR by FCM and investigated the pathological causes for lack of LCR. A total of 89/471 cases (19%) of B-NHL were LCR-negative. The incidence of lack of LCR was 30% both in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), and was 6% in follicular lymphoma (FL). In DLBCL cases, low expression of surface membrane light chain (33%), low proportion of lymphoma cells (11%), CD45 negativity (9%), and destruction or sampling error were suggested as reasons for lack of LCR. In MZL cases, the low proportion of lymphoma cells owing to admixture of many reactive germinal centres, and non-detection of plasmacytoid lymphoma cells by CD45 gating might be the reasons. Based on pathological subtypes, the frequency and reasons for lack of LCR by FCM varied.

  16. Surrogate light chain expression beyond the pre-B cell stage promotes tolerance in a dose-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Kil, Laurens P; Corneth, Odilia B J; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Asmawidjaja, Patrick S; Krause, Arndt; Lubberts, Erik; van Loo, Pieter Fokko; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2015-02-01

    While surrogate light chain (SLC) expression is normally terminated in differentiating pre-B cells, co-expression of SLC and conventional light chains has been reported in a small population of autoreactive peripheral human B cells that accumulate in arthritic joints. Despite this association with autoimmunity the contribution of SLC expressing mature B cells to disease development is still unknown. We studied the pathogenicity of SLC(+) B cells in a panel of mice that transgenically express the SLC components VpreB and λ5 throughout B cell development. Here we report that although VpreB or λ5 expression mildly activated mature B cells, only moderate VpreB expression levels - in the absence of λ5 - enhanced IgG plasma cell formation. However, no autoantibody production was detectable in VpreB or λ5 transgenic mice and VpreB expression could not accelerate autoimmunity. Instead, moderate VpreB expression partially protected mice from induced autoimmune arthritis. In support of a tolerogenic role of SLC-transgenic B cells, we observed that in a dose-dependent manner SLC expression beyond the pre-B cell stage enhanced clonal deletion among immature and transitional B cells and rendered mature B cells anergic. These findings suggest that SLC expression does not propagate autoimmunity, but instead may impose tolerance.

  17. In situ characterization of protein aggregates in human tissues affected by light chain amyloidosis: a FTIR microspectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Ami, Diletta; Lavatelli, Francesca; Rognoni, Paola; Palladini, Giovanni; Raimondi, Sara; Giorgetti, Sofia; Monti, Luca; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Natalello, Antonino; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis, caused by deposition of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chains (LCs), is the most common systemic form in industrialized countries. Still open questions, and premises for developing targeted therapies, concern the mechanisms of amyloid formation in vivo and the bases of organ targeting and dysfunction. Investigating amyloid material in its natural environment is crucial to obtain new insights on the molecular features of fibrillar deposits at individual level. To this aim, we used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy for studying in situ unfixed tissues (heart and subcutaneous abdominal fat) from patients affected by AL amyloidosis. We compared the infrared response of affected tissues with that of ex vivo and in vitro fibrils obtained from the pathogenic LC derived from one patient, as well as with that of non amyloid-affected tissues. We demonstrated that the IR marker band of intermolecular β-sheets, typical of protein aggregates, can be detected in situ in LC amyloid-affected tissues, and that FTIR microspectroscopy allows exploring the inter- and intra-sample heterogeneity. We extended the infrared analysis to the characterization of other biomolecules embedded within the amyloid deposits, finding an IR pattern that discloses a possible role of lipids, collagen and glycosaminoglycans in amyloid deposition in vivo. PMID:27373200

  18. Immunoglobulin Light Chains Form an Extensive and Highly Ordered Fibril Involving the N- and C-Termini

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Light-chain (AL)-associated amyloidosis is a systemic disorder involving the formation and deposition of immunoglobulin AL fibrils in various bodily organs. One severe instance of AL disease is exhibited by the patient-derived variable domain (VL) of the light chain AL-09, a 108 amino acid residue protein containing seven mutations relative to the corresponding germline protein, κI O18/O8 VL. Previous work has demonstrated that the thermodynamic stability of native AL-09 VL is greatly lowered by two of these mutations, Y87H and N34I, whereas a third mutation, K42Q, further increases the kinetics of fibril formation. However, detailed knowledge regarding the residues that are responsible for stabilizing the misfolded fibril structure is lacking. In this study, using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we show that the majority of the AL-09 VL sequence is immobilized in the fibrils and that the N- and C-terminal portions of the sequence are particularly well-structured. Thus, AL-09 VL forms an extensively ordered and β-strand-rich fibril structure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the predominant β-sheet secondary structure and rigidity observed for in vitro prepared AL-09 VL fibrils are qualitatively similar to those observed for AL fibrils extracted from postmortem human spleen tissue, suggesting that this conformation may be representative of a common feature of AL fibrils. PMID:28261692

  19. Bence Jones proteins and light chains of immunoglobulins. XI. A transient Bence Jones-related protein associated with corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, A; McLaughlin, C L; Capra, J D

    1975-01-01

    Urine specimens from patients with multiple myeloma and Bence Jones proteinuria frequently contain low molecular weight proteins which correspond either to the amino-terminal, variant half (VL) or to the carboxyl-terminal, constant half (CL) of the Bence Jones protein. Analyses of urine specimens from such patients who had received high doses of corticosteroids as part of their treatment regimen revealed that concomitantly with a decrease in Bence Jones protein excretion was the appearance of a low molecular weight protein related to the Bence Jones protein but not identical to the VL or to the CL. Analyses of daily urine specimens obtained from one such patient over an extended time period revealed that a reproducible chain of events occurred during a treatment regimen which included oral administration of 75 mg of prednisone daily for 7 consecutive days. The amount of Bence Jones protein excreted decreased progressively, and by the 5th day was usually less than 10% of the pretreatment value. The urine specimen obtained on the 6th day of treatment was virtually devoid of Bence Jones protein but contained a newly appearing protein whose electrophoretic mobility was distinct from that of the Bence Jones protein or its VL or CL. Cessation of corticosteroid therapy resulted in a prompt disappearance of the new protein and in a progressive increase in the amount of Bence Jones protein excreted. The new protein was isolated from the urine of this patient and was purified for comparative studies with Bence Jones protein and with the VL and CL prepared by specific enzymatic cleavage of the Bence Jones protein. These studies revealed that the new protein was most related antigenically to the CL, but could be distinguished immunochemically from the CL. This new protein, a component found in vivo related to the constant half of the light polypeptide chain, was designated CL, and was structurally 25 amino acid residues longer than the CL, that is, the amino-terminus of the

  20. New method of DNA isolation from two food additives suitable for authentication in polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Urdiaín, Mercedes; Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; Albertí, Sebastián; Benedí, V Javier; Rosselló, Josep A

    2005-05-04

    Locust bean gum and guar gum are galactomannans used as additives (E 410 and E 412, respectively) in the food industry as stabilizing agents. Analytical discrimination between the two additives in gums and foods is now feasible by molecular techniques. However, only complex and time-consuming DNA isolation protocols are available to date. We have developed simple improved protocols to obtain enough DNA suitable for PCR amplification from a few milligrams of commercial E 410 and E 412 additives (containing more than 75% polysaccharides). The suspension of additives in water or 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, efficiently recovers DNA suitable for authentication in PCR assays. However, the Tris method was much more efficient for the extraction of DNA from E 410 than for E 412 additives. Conversely, the water method was the most suitable for detecting DNA extracted from E 412 or from E 410/E 412 mixtures. Combined with the use of the two specific ribosomal primer pairs previously designed, our methods are well-suited for a fast and simple high-throughput sample treatment of commercial gums for molecular certification.

  1. [Inhibition by IFN-(Asp)4-Lys-HIV chimeric protein of hydrolysis of the low molecular substrate by the enteropeptidase light chain].

    PubMed

    Shibanova, E D; Grishina, Iu B; Rumsh, L D

    2002-01-01

    The full length enteropeptidase or it's light chain have often used for the limited proteolysis of recombinant chimeric proteins incorporating the linker-(Asp)4Lys- to obtain the target protein. Any chimeric proteins were not cleaved by the full length enteropeptidase efficiently. The resistant to the hydrolysis chimeric protein IFN-(Asp)4Lys-HIV earlier was shown to be the competitive inhibitor (Ki = 3,4 x 10(-6) M) in relation to the low molecular substrate. In present study we were determined this chimeric protein competitive inhibited the same substrate hydrolysis by enteropeptidase light chain (Ki = 2,7 x 10(-5) M). Comparison the Ki values for the substrate hydrolysis by full length enzyme and its light chain suggests that the enteropeptidase heavy chain may participate in chimeric protein binding.

  2. Surrogate or conventional light chains are required for membrane immunoglobulin mu to activate the precursor B cell transition [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1997 Jan 6;185(1):183

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To examine the role of light chains in early B cell development we combined RAG-1 and lambda 5 mutations to produce mice that expressed neither conventional nor surrogate light chains (RAG-1-/-, lambda 5-/- ). Unique heavy and light chain genes were then introduced into the double and single mutant backgrounds. Membrane immunoglobulin (Ig)mu (mIg mu) associated with Ig alpha-Ig beta but was unable to activate the pre-B cell transition in RAG-1-/-lambda 5-/- mice. Either lambda 5 or kappa light chains were sufficient to complement this deficiency. Therefore light chains are absolutely required for a functional Ig signaling module in early B cell development. Our data provide direct evidence for the existence of two pathways for induction of early B cell development: one which is activated through surrogate light chains and mIg mu, and an alternative pathway which uses conventional light chains and mIg mu. PMID:8920890

  3. Novel Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mutation in MYL2 Affects the Structure and Function of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L.; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M.; Hershberger, Ray E.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. In this report we describe a novel DCM mutation identified for the first time in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), replacing Aspartic Acid at position 94 with Alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To gain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we have cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A-mutant proteins and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-exchanged porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation was observed to induce a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The Ca2+-calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation of RLC was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair the binding of RLC to the MHC (myosin heavy chain), and its incorporation into the RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared to ATPase of WT. No changes in myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in WT- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle with no change in calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with WT. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule followed by its impaired interaction with the MHC may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. PMID:25825243

  4. A Single Mutation at the Sheet Switch Region Results in Conformational Changes Favoring 6 Light-Chain Fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Santoyo, A.; Del Pozo Yauner, L; Fuentes-Silva, D; Ortiz, E; Rudiño-Piñera, E; Sánchez-López, R; Horjales, E; Becerril, B; Rodríguez-Romero, A

    2010-01-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (LC) amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathological deposition of monoclonal LCs in tissue. All LC subtypes are capable of fibril formation although {lambda} chains, particularly those belonging to the {lambda}6 type, are overrepresented. Here, we report the thermodynamic and in vitro fibrillogenic properties of several mutants of the {lambda}6 protein 6aJL2 in which Pro7 and/or His8 was substituted by Ser or Pro. The H8P and H8S mutants were almost as stable as the wild-type protein and were poorly fibrillogenic. In contrast, the P7S mutation decreased the thermodynamic stability of 6aJL2 and greatly enhanced its capacity to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. The crystal structure of the P7S mutant showed that the substitution induced both local and long-distance effects, such as the rearrangement of the VL (variable region of the light chain)-VL interface. This mutant crystallized in two orthorhombic polymorphs, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}. In the latter, a monomer that was not arranged in the typical Bence-Jones dimer was observed for the first time. Crystal-packing analysis of the C222{sub 1} lattice showed the establishment of intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interactions that involved the N-terminus and {beta}-strand B and that these could be relevant in the mechanism of LC fibril formation. Our results strongly suggest that Pro7 is a key residue in the conformation of the N-terminal sheet switch motif and, through long-distance interactions, is also critically involved in the contacts that stabilized the VL interface in {lambda}6 LCs.

  5. Interaction of FUN14 domain containing 1, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, with kinesin light chain 1 via the tetratricopeptide repeat domain

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won Hee; Jeong, Young Joo; Choi, Sun Hee; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Seog, Dae-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Kinesin 1 is a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) of microtubule-dependent molecular motor proteins that transport organelles and protein complexes in cells. Kinesin 1 consists of a homo- or hetero-dimer of kinesin heavy chains (KHCs), often, although not always, associated with two kinesin light chains (KLCs). KLCs are non-motor proteins that associate with many different binding proteins and cargoes, but their binding partners have not yet been fully identified. In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that interact with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of KLC1. The results of the current study revealed an interaction between the TPR domain of KLC1 and FUN14 domain-containing protein 1 (FUNDC1), which is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein mediating hypoxia-induced mitophagy. FUNDC1 bound to the six TPR motif-containing regions of KLC1 and did not interact with KIF5B (a motor subunit of kinesin 1) and KIF3A (a motor subunit of kinesin 2) in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The cytoplasmic amino N-terminal domain of FUNDC1 is essential for interaction with KLC1. When co-expressed in HEK-293T cells, FUNDC1 co-localized with KLC1 and co-immunoprecipitated with KLC1, but not KIF5B. Collectively, these results indicate that KLC1 may potentially compete with LC3, a key component for autophagosome formation, to interact with FUNDC1. PMID:28123706

  6. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay methods for detection of RHD gene in amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Gunel, Tuba; Kalelıoglu, Ibrahim; Surmelı, Yusuf; Turken, Basak; Ermıs, Hayri; Aydınlı, Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn is the clinical condition in which Rh blood group antigens in couples are incompatible with each other and mother is negative for the antigen, whereas father is positive. Although RHD antigen encoded by RHD gene that is localized on chromosome 1 determines person's Rh genotyping, this incompatibility can lead to delivery as anemia, jaundiced, or dead in mother's uterus. In recent years, improvements have occurred in the prenatal diagnosis of Rh incompatibility. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) has been improved and determining rapidly, reliably, and sensitively has been possible. In this study, the determination of RHD genotyping was investigated using fetal DNA obtained from amniotic fluid and SYBR Green I and TaqMan probe methods were compared, and reliability in prenatal diagnosis of these methods was determined. We studied 35 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy. “SYBR Green I” and “TaqMan” probes results for RHD gene of genomic DNA extracted from total 35 different amniotic fluid samples acquired from 10 RHD (-) and 25 pregnant women randomly were analyzed. DNA extracted from amniotic fluid was analyzed for RHD gene with real-time PCR and the results were then compared with the RHD fetal genotype determined on RHD phenotype of the red blood cells of the infants at birth. The results of RHD TaqMan probes PCR analysis of amniotic fluid DNA were completely concordant with the fetal blood group analysis after birth. Real-time PCR using the TaqMan probes has proven to be more sensitive, accurate, and specific for RHD gene than SYBR Green I method. PMID:22346235

  7. Quantitation of viable Coxiella burnetii in milk using an integrated cell culture-polymerase chain reaction (ICC-PCR) assay.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Diana; Shieh, Y-Carol; Tortorello, Mary; Kukreja, Ankush; Shazer, Arlette; Schlesser, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii has long been considered the most heat resistant pathogen in raw milk, making it the reference pathogen for determining pasteurisation conditions for milk products. New milk formulations and novel non-thermal processes require validation of effectiveness which requires a more practical method for analysis than using the currently used animal model for assessing Coxiella survival. Also, there is an interest in better characterising thermal inactivation of Coxiella in various milk formulations. To avoid the use of the guinea pig model for evaluating Coxiella survival, an Integrated Cell Culture-PCR (ICC-PCR) method was developed for determining Coxiella viability in milk. Vero cell cultures were directly infected from Coxiella-contaminated milk in duplicate 24-well plates. Viability of the Coxiella in milk was shown by a ≥ 0.5 log genome equivalent (ge)/ml increase in the quantity of IS111a gene from the baseline post-infection (day 0) level after 9-11 d propagation. Coxiella in skim, 2%, and whole milk, and half and half successfully infected Vero cells and increased in number by at least 2 logs using a 48-h infection period followed by 9-d propagation time. As few as 125 Coxiella ge/ml in whole milk was shown to infect and propagate at least 2 logs in the optimised ICC-PCR assay, though variable confirmation of propagation was shown for as low as 25 Coxiella ge/ml. Applicability of the ICC-PCR method was further proven in an MPN format to quantitate the number of viable Coxiella remaining in whole milk after 60 °C thermal treatment at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min.

  8. Genetic characterization of hatchery populations of Korean spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-08-28

    The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  9. A chemotype that inhibits three unrelated pathogenic targets: the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain, P. falciparum malaria, and the Ebola filovirus

    PubMed Central

    Opsenica, Igor; Burnett, James C.; Gussio, Rick; Opsenica, Dejan; Todorović, Nina; Lanteri, Charlotte A.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Gettayacamin, Montip; Basilico, Nicoletta; Taramelli, Donatella; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Wanner, Laura; Panchal, Rekha G.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.; Bavari, Sina

    2011-01-01

    A 1,7-bis(alkylamino)diazachrysene-based small molecule was previously identified as an inhibitor of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain metalloprotease. Subsequently, a variety of derivatives of this chemotype were synthesized to develop structure-activity relationships, and all are inhibitors of the BoNT/A LC. Three-dimensional analyses indicated that half of the originally discovered 1,7-DAAC structure superimposed well with 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline-based antimalarial agents. This observation led to the discovery that several of the 1,7-DAAC derivatives are potent in vitro inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, and in general, are more efficacious against CQ-resistant strains than against CQ-susceptible strains. In addition, by inhibiting β-hematin formation, the most efficacious 1,7-DAAC-based antimalarials employ a mechanism of action analogous to that of 4,7-ACQ-based antimalarials, and are well tolerated by normal cells. One candidate was also effective when administered orally in a rodent-based malaria model. Finally, the 1,7-DAAC-based derivatives were examined for Ebola filovirus inhibition in an assay employing Vero76 cells, and three provided promising antiviral activities and acceptably low toxicities. PMID:21265542

  10. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang increases the protein expression of microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 in human colon cancer colo 205 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chin-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been prescribed as complementary medication for colon cancer in Taiwan. However, its molecular mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SJKJT on human colon cancer colo 205 cells in vitro. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in colo 205 cells was evaluated using the MTT assay, and the protein expression of microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (MAP-LC3-II) was measured using Western blot analysis. The results showed that SJKJT inhibited the survival rates of colo 205 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 concentration at 24 h of 590.34 µg/ml. In addition, SJKJT up-regulated the protein expression of MAP-LC3-II in colo 205 cells. These findings indicate that one of the molecular mechanisms by which SJKJT inhibits the proliferation of colo 205 cells in?vitro may be through the induction of the autophagic pathway. SJKJT may therefore have therapeutic potential for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  11. Patterns of monoclonal immunoglobulins and serum free light chains are significantly different in black compared to white monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brendan M; Minter, Alex; Abadie, Jude; Howard, Robin; Ascencao, Joao; Schechter, Geraldine P; Kuehl, Michael; Landgren, Ola

    2011-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor to multiple myeloma, is more common in blacks than whites. The serum free light chain (sFLC) assay is an important prognostic test in MGUS, but no study has evaluated sFLC levels and ratios in black MGUS patients. One-hundred and twenty-five black MGUS patients at two urban centers were compared to the white population of the Mayo Clinic. The median age for blacks was 73 years [41-94] and 75% were male. The M-protein isotype in blacks was 81% IgG, 13% IgA, 2% IgM, and 4% biclonal compared to 70%, 12%, 16%, and 2%, respectively, in whites, (P < 0.0005). The median M-protein concentration for blacks was 0.44 gm/dL (trace-2.33) compared to 1.2 gm/dl in whites. An abnormal sFLC ratio was present in 45% of black compared to 33% of white (P = 0.01) patients. Using the Mayo Clinic risk model, black patients had a significantly lower proportion of higher risk MGUS compared to whites: low 43%, low-intermediate 45%, high-intermediate 10%, and high 2% (P = 0.014). Black patients with MGUS have significantly different laboratory findings compared to whites. The biologic basis for these disparities and their effect on prognostic assessment is unknown. Prognostic models based on these biomarkers should be used cautiously in nonwhite populations.

  12. Development and evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting iap for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in select food matrices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Kumar, Nishant; Siddique, Nusrat

    2011-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen that has been associated with severe human illnesses. Various rapid detection methods have been developed for the specific detection of this pathogen. In the present study, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting iap, a gene encoding extracellular protein p60, was developed for L. monocytogenes. The PCR efficiency is above 85% and the limit of detection (LOD) is 30 copies of genome per reaction for all strains tested. The assay exhibited 100% inclusivity and exclusivity rates. The detection of L. monocytogenes in five food matrices, whole milk, soft cheese, turkey deli meat, smoked salmon, and alfalfa sprouts, was evaluated with and without enrichment. Without enrichment, the LOD for all food matrices were 4×10(3) CFU/mL food enrichment mix for whole milk and 4×10(4) CFU/mL for all other foods. With 24 h incubation in Buffered Listeria Enrichment Broth, the LOD was 3 CFU/25 g food for whole milk, turkey deli meat, and smoked salmon and 9 CFU/25 g food for soft cheese and alfalfa sprouts. With 48 h incubation, the LOD was 3 CFU/25 g food for all matrices. This quantitative PCR appears to be a promising alternative for rapid detection of L. monocytogenes in select foods.

  13. Description of Haemoproteus ciconiae sp. nov. (Haemoproteidae, Haemosporida) from the white stork Ciconia ciconia, with remarks on insensitivity of established polymerase chain reaction assays to detect this infection.

    PubMed

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Bukauskaitė, Dovilė; Iezhova, Tatjana A

    2016-07-01

    Haemoproteus ciconiae sp. nov. (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) was found in the white stork Ciconia ciconia (Ciconiiformes, Ciconiidae) after spring migration in Lithuania. This organism is illustrated and described based on the morphology of its blood stages. The ne