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Sample records for light cone

  1. Berkeley Lighting Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Lask, Kathleen; Gadgil, Ashok

    2016-10-24

    A lighting cone is a simple metal cone placed on the fuel bed of a stove during ignition to act as a chimney, increasing the draft through the fuel bed. Many stoves tend to be difficult to light due to poor draft through the fuel bed, so lighting cones are used in various parts of the world as an inexpensive accessory to help with ignition.

  2. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  3. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  4. Hadronic wavefunctions in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, T.

    1994-05-01

    The analysis of light-cone wavefunctions seems the most promising theoretical approach to a detailed understanding of the structure of relativistic bound states, particularly hadrons. However, there are numerous complications in this approach. Most importantly, the light-cone approach sacrifices manifest rotational invariance in exchange for the elimination of negative-energy states. The requirement of rotational invariance of the full theory places important constraints on proposed light-cone wavefunctions, whether they are modelled or extracted from some numerical procedure. A formulation of the consequences of the hidden rotational symmetry has been sought for some time; it is presented in Chapter 2. In lattice gauge theory or heavy-quark effective theory, much of the focus is on the extraction of numerical values of operators which are related to the hadronic wavefunction. These operators are to some extent interdependent, with relations induced by fundamental constraints on the underlying wavefunction. The consequences of the requirement of unitarity are explored in Chapter 3, and are found to have startling phenomenological relevance. To test model light-cone wavefunctions, experimental predictions must be made. The reliability of perturbative QCD as a tool for making such predictions has been questioned. In Chapter 4, the author presents a computation of the rates for nucleon-antinucleon annihilation, improving the reliability of the perturbative computation by taking into account the Sudakov suppression of exclusive processes at large transverse impact parameter. In Chapter 5, he develops the analysis of semiexclusive production. This work focuses on processes in which a single isolated meson is produced perturbatively and recoils against a wide hadronizing system. At energies above about 10 GeV, semiexclusive processes are shown to be the most sensitive experimental probes of hadronic structure.

  5. Light-cone quantization and hadron structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics.

  6. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Nugier, F.; Veneziano, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ``geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ``redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  7. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.; Nugier, F. E-mail: giovanni.marozzi@college-de-france.fr E-mail: gabriele.veneziano@cern.ch

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ''geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ''redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  8. Enhanced light trapping in periodically truncated cone silicon nanowire structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Qiu; Yuhua, Zuo; Tianwei, Zhou; Zhi, Liu; Jun, Zheng; Chuanbo, Li; Buwen, Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Light trapping plays an important role in improving the conversion efficiency of thin-film solar cells. The good wideband light trapping is achieved using our periodically truncated cone Si nanowire (NW) structures, and their inherent mechanism is analyzed and simulated by FDTD solution software. Ordered cylinder Si NW structure with initial size of 80 nm and length of 200 nm is grown by pattern transfer and selective epitaxial growth. Truncated cone Si NW array is then obtained by thermal oxidation treatment. Its mean reflection in the range of 300-900 nm is lowered to be 5% using 140 nm long truncated cone Si NW structure, compared with that of 20% using cylinder counterparts. It indicates that periodically truncated Si cone structures trap the light efficiently to enhance the light harvesting in a wide spectral range and have the potential application in highly efficient NW solar cells. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51072194, 61021003, 61036001, 61376057).

  9. Light-cone Wilson loop in classical lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, M.; Rothkopf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The transverse broadening of an energetic jet passing through a non-Abelian plasma is believed to be described by the thermal expectation value of a light-cone Wilson loop. In this exploratory study, we measure the light-cone Wilson loop with classical lattice gauge theory simulations. We observe, as suggested by previous studies, that there are strong interactions already at short transverse distances, which may lead to more efficient jet quenching than in leading-order perturbation theory. We also verify that the asymptotics of the Wilson loop do not change qualitatively when crossing the light cone, which supports arguments in the literature that infrared contributions to jet quenching can be studied with dimensionally reduced simulations in the space-like domain. Finally we speculate on possibilities for full four-dimensional lattice studies of the same observable, perhaps by employing shifted boundary conditions in order to simulate ensembles boosted by an imaginary velocity.

  10. String/flux tube duality on the light cone

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, Richard C.; Tan, C.-I; Thorn, Charles B.

    2006-06-15

    The equivalence of quantum field theory and string theory as exemplified by the AdS/CFT correspondence is explored from the point of view of light cone quantization. On the string side we discuss the light cone version of the static string connecting a heavy external quark source to a heavy external antiquark source, together with small oscillations about the static string configuration. On the field theory side we analyze the weak/strong coupling transition in a ladder diagram model of the quark-antiquark system, also from the point of view of the light cone. Our results are completely consistent with those obtained by more standard covariant methods in the limit of infinitely massive quarks.

  11. The one loop gluon emission light cone wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.; Paatelainen, R.

    2017-04-01

    Light cone perturbation theory has become an essential tool to calculate cross sections for various small- x dilute-dense processes such as deep inelastic scattering and forward proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. Here we set out to do one loop calculations in an explicit helicity basis in the four dimensional helicity scheme. As a first process we calculate light cone wave function for one gluon emission to one-loop order in Hamiltonian perturbation theory on the light front. We regulate ultraviolet divergences with transverse dimensional regularization and soft divergences using a cut-off on longitudinal momentum. We show that when all the renormalization constants are combined, the ultraviolet divergences can be absorbed into the standard QCD running coupling constant, and give an explicit expression for the remaining finite part.

  12. Light-cone fluctuations in the cosmic string spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, H. F.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bessa, C. H. G.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider light-cone fluctuations arising as a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the locally flat cosmic string spacetime. By setting the light-cone along the z -direction we are able to develop a full analysis to calculate the renormalized graviton two-point function, as well as the mean square fluctuation in the geodesic interval function and the time delay (or advance) in the propagation of a light pulse. We found that all these expressions depend upon the parameter characterizing the conical topology of the cosmic string spacetime and vanish in the absence of it. We also point out that at large distances from the cosmic string the mean square fluctuation in the geodesic interval function is extremely small while in the opposite limit it logarithmically increases.

  13. Reflection of a polarized light cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Jed; Weiss, Daniel; Berland, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a visually appealing experimental demonstration of Fresnel reflection. In this simple optical experiment, a polarized light beam travels through a high numerical-aperture microscope objective, reflects off a glass slide, and travels back through the same objective lens. The return beam is sampled with a polarizing beam splitter and produces a surprising geometric pattern on an observation screen. Understanding the origin of this pattern requires careful attention to geometry and an understanding of the Fresnel coefficients for S and P polarized light. We demonstrate that in addition to a relatively simple experimental implementation, the shape of the observed pattern can be computed both analytically and by using optical modeling software. The experience of working through complex mathematical computations and demonstrating their agreement with a surprising experimental observation makes this a highly educational experiment for undergraduate optics or advanced-lab courses. It also provides a straightforward yet non-trivial system for teaching students how to use optical modeling software.

  14. Structure of the Nucleon Spin on the Light Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, B.

    2008-10-13

    The spin structure of the nucleon is studied in a light-cone description of the nucleon where the Fock expansion is truncated to consider only valence quarks. Transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and transverse-spin densities, defined through the generalized parton distributions in the impact parameter space, are investigated as new tools to reveal the spin-spin and spin-orbit correlations for different quark and nucleon polarizations.

  15. Generalized heavy-to-light form factors in light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    We study the form factors for a heavy meson into the S-wave Kπ/ππ system with an invariant mass below 1 GeV. The mesonic final state interactions are described in terms of the scalar form factors, which are obtained from unitarized chiral perturbation theory. Employing generalized light-cone distribution amplitudes, we compute the heavy-to-light transition using light-cone sum rules. Our approach simultaneously respects constraints from analyticity and unitarity, and also takes advantage of the power expansion in the 1/mb and the strong coupling constant.

  16. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w0 and wa follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.

  17. Entanglement swapping, light cones and elements of reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Anne; Méthot, André Allan

    2007-05-01

    Recently, a number of two-participant all-versus-nothing Bell experiments have been proposed. Here, we give local realistic explanations for these experiments. More precisely, we examine the scenario where a participant swaps his entanglement with two other participants and then is removed from the experiment; we also examine the scenario where two particles are in the same light cone, i.e. belong to a single participant. Our conclusion is that, in both cases, the proposed experiments are not convincing proofs against local realism.

  18. Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offen, Nils

    2016-10-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.

  19. Light-cone M5 and multiple M2-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, Igor A.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2008-12-01

    We present the light-cone gauge fixed Lagrangian for the M5-brane; it has a residual 'exotic' gauge invariance with the group of 5-volume preserving diffeomorphisms, SDiff5, as gauge group. For an M5-brane of topology \\bb{R}^2\\times M_3 , for closed 3-manifold M3, we find an infinite tension limit that yields an SO(8)-invariant (1 + 2)-dimensional field theory with 'exotic' SDiff3 gauge invariance. We show that this field theory is the Carrollian limit of the Nambu bracket realization of the 'BLG' model for multiple M2-branes.

  20. Light-cone distribution amplitudes for heavy-quark hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Guido; Feldmann, Thorsten; Wang, Yu-Ming; Yip, Matthew W. Y.

    2013-11-01

    We construct parametrizations of light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) for B-mesons and Λ b -baryons that obey various theoretical constraints, and which are simple to use in factorization theorems relevant for phenomenological applications in heavy-flavour physics. In particular, we find the eigenfunctions of the Lange-Neubert renormalization kernel, which allow for a systematic implementation of renormalization-group evolution effects for both B-meson and Λ b -baryon decays. We also present a new strategy to construct LCDA models from momentum-space projectors, which can be used to implement Wandzura-Wilczek-like relations, and which allow for a comparison with theoretical approaches that go beyond the collinear limit for the light-quark momenta in energetic heavy-hadron decays.

  1. Geodesic-light-cone coordinates and the Bianchi I spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Pierre; Nugier, Fabien; Fanizza, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The geodesic-light-cone (GLC) coordinates are a useful tool to analyse light propagation and observations in cosmological models. In this article, we propose a detailed, pedagogical, and rigorous introduction to this coordinate system, explore its gauge degrees of freedom, and emphasize its interest when geometric optics is at stake. We then apply the GLC formalism to the homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi I cosmology. More than a simple illustration, this application (i) allows us to show that the Weinberg conjecture according to which gravitational lensing does not affect the proper area of constant-redshift surfaces is significantly violated in a globally anisotropic universe; and (ii) offers a glimpse into new ways to constrain cosmic isotropy from the Hubble diagram.

  2. Light-cone gauge for 1 + 1 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric

    1992-09-01

    Explicit construction of the light-cone gauge quantum theory of bosonic strings in 1 + 1 space-time dimensions reveals unexpected structures. One is the existence of a gauge choice that gives a free action at the price of propagating ghosts and a nontrivial BRST charge. Fixing this gauge leaves a U(1) Kac-Moody algebra of residual symmetry, generated by a conformal tensor of rank two and a conformal scalar. Another is that the BRST charge made from these currents is nilpotent when the action includes a linear dilaton background, independent of the particular value of the dilaton gradient. Space-time Lorentz invariance in this theory is still elusive, however, because of the linear dilaton background and the nature of the gauge symmetries.

  3. Worldsheet theory of light-cone gauge noncritical strings on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    It is possible to formulate light-cone gauge string field theory in noncritical dimensions. Such a theory corresponds to conformal gauge worldsheet theory with nonstandard longitudinal part. We study the longitudinal part of the worldsheet theory on higher genus Riemann surfaces. The results in this paper shall be used to study the dimensional regularization of light-cone gauge string field theory.

  4. Equivalence of light-cone and conformal gauges in two-dimensional quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, G.J.; Kim, W.T.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, K.Y. )

    1992-08-20

    In this paper, the authors show that the light-cone and conformal gauges are equivalent in the sense that the well known SL(2,R) current structure in the light-cone gauge is obtained from the results in the conformal one under a proper coordinate transformation. This result is due to the residual symmetry of the scalar field [Phi].

  5. The light-cone Fock state expansion and hadron physics phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The light-cone Fock expansion is defined in the following way: one first constructs the light-cone time evolution operator and the invariant mass operator in light-cone gauge from the QCD Lagrangian. The total longitudinal momentum and transverse momenta are conserved, i.e. are independent of the interactions. The matrix elements of the invariant mass operator on the complete orthonormal basis of the free theory can then be constructed. The matrix elements connect Fock states differing by 0, 1, or 2 quark or gluon quanta, and they include the instantaneous quark and gluon contributions imposed by eliminating dependent degrees of freedom in light-cone gauge. Applications of light-cone methods to QCD phenomenology are briefly described.

  6. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  7. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-07

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm(-1). For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm(-1). With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  8. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frédéric; Cooper, Howard M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Non-visual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and towards the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modelling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light. PMID:17329208

  9. Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Pirnay, B.; Manashov, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone wave functions (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x{>=}0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glueck-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.

  10. Revisiting the equivalence of light-front and covariant QED in the light-cone gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, Luca; Pasquini, Barbara; Xiong, Xiaonu; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the equivalence between light-front time-ordered-perturbation theory and covariant quantum field theory in light-front quantization, in the case of quantum electrodynamics at one-loop level. In particular, we review the one-loop calculation of the vertex correction, fermion self-energy and vacuum polarization. We apply the procedure of integration by residue over the light-front energy in the loop to show how the perturbative expansion in covariant terms can be reduced to a sum of propagating and instantaneous diagrams of light-front time-ordered perturbation theory. The detailed proof of equivalence between the two formulations of the theory resolves the controversial question on which form should be used for the gauge-field propagator in the light-cone gauge in the covariant approach.

  11. Off-shell spinor-helicity amplitudes from light-cone deformation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    We study the consistency conditions for interactions of massless fields of any spin in four-dimensional flat space using the light-cone approach. We show that they can be equivalently rewritten as the Ward identities for the off-shell light-cone amplitudes built from the light-cone Hamiltonian in the standard way. Then we find a general solution of these Ward identities. The solution admits a compact representation when written in the spinor-helicity form and is given by an arbitrary function of spinor products, satisfying wellknown homogeneity constraints. Thus, we show that the light-cone consistent deformation procedure inevitably leads to a certain off-shell version of the spinor-helicity approach. We discuss how the relation between the two approaches can be employed to facilitate the search of consistent interaction of massless higher-spin fields.

  12. The sine-Gordon model and the small. kappa. sup + region of light- cone perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k{sup +} = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative {beta}{sup 2} = 8{pi} critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman's variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k{sup +} = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all {beta}, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k{sup +} = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green's functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k {sup +} = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k {sup +} = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  13. Reionization on large scales. IV. Predictions for the 21 cm signal incorporating the light cone effect

    SciTech Connect

    La Plante, P.; Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present predictions for the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We discuss the implications of the 'light cone' effect, which incorporates evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and 21 cm brightness temperature along the line of sight. Using a novel method calibrated against radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the neutral hydrogen density field and 21 cm signal in large volumes (L = 2 Gpc h {sup –1}). The inclusion of the light cone effect leads to a relative decrease of about 50% in the 21 cm power spectrum on all scales. We also find that the effect is more prominent at the midpoint of reionization and later. The light cone effect can also introduce an anisotropy along the line of sight. By decomposing the 3D power spectrum into components perpendicular to and along the line of sight, we find that in our fiducial reionization model, there is no significant anisotropy. However, parallel modes can contribute up to 40% more power for shorter reionization scenarios. The scales on which the light cone effect is relevant are comparable to scales where one measures the baryon acoustic oscillation. We argue that due to its large comoving scale and introduction of anisotropy, the light cone effect is important when considering redshift space distortions and future application to the Alcock-Paczyński test for the determination of cosmological parameters.

  14. Optical imaging of human cone photoreceptors directly following the capture of light.

    PubMed

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Capture of light in the photoreceptor outer segment initiates a cascade of chemical events that inhibit neurotransmitter release, ultimately resulting in vision. The massed response of the photoreceptor population can be measured non-invasively by electrical recordings, but responses from individual cells cannot be measured without dissecting the retina. Here we used optical imaging to observe individual human cones in the living eye as they underwent bleaching of photopigment and associated phototransduction. The retina was simultaneously stimulated and observed with high intensity visible light at 1 kHz, using adaptive optics. There was marked variability between individual cones in both photosensitivity and pigment optical density, challenging the conventional assumption that photoreceptors act as identical subunits (coefficient of variation in rate of photoisomerization = 23%). There was also a pronounced inverse correlation between these two parameters (p<10(-7)); the temporal evolution of image statistics revealed this to be a dynamic relationship, with cone waveguiding efficiency beginning a dramatic increase within 3 ms of light onset. Beginning as early as 2 ms after light onset and including half of cells by ∼7 ms, cone intensity showed reversals characteristic of interference phenomena, with greater delays in reversal corresponding to cones with more photopigment (p<10(-3)). The timing of these changes is argued to best correspond with either the cessation of dark current, or to related events such as changes in intracellular cGMP. Cone intensity also showed fluctuations of high frequency (332±25 Hz) and low amplitude (3.0±0.85%). Other groups have shown similar fluctuations that were directly evoked by light; if this corresponds to the same phenomenon, we propose that the amplitude of fluctuation may be increased by the use of a bright flash followed by a brief pause, to allow recovery of cone circulating current.

  15. Discretized light-cone quantization: e sup + e minus (. gamma. ) model for positronium

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluza, M. Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, YU-62000 Maribor, Slovenia ); Pauli, H.C. )

    1992-04-15

    The method of discretized light-cone quantization is applied to gauge theory in 3+1 dimensions and tested by calculating the spectrum and the wave functions for positronium. Working in a Fock-space expansion, only the electron-positron and the electron-positron-photon states are included. The light-cone Hamiltonian matrix is constructed blockwise, and diagonalized using the Bauer-Rutishauser simultaneous iteration algorithm for sparse matrices. At the current level of accuracy of about 10%, the model reproduces the binding energy and the charge radius of the positronium ground state for the coupling constant of {alpha}=0.3. The distribution functions for fermions and photons are presented for the ground state. In addition the light-cone Schroedinger equation has been solved.

  16. Anomalous Light Cones and Valley Optical Selection Rules of Interlayer Excitons in Twisted Heterobilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongyi; Wang, Yong; Tong, Qingjun; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2015-10-01

    We show that, because of the inevitable twist and lattice mismatch in heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides, interlayer excitons have sixfold degenerate light cones anomalously located at finite velocities on the parabolic energy dispersion. The photon emissions at each light cone are elliptically polarized, with the major axis locked to the direction of exciton velocity, and helicity specified by the valley indices of the electron and the hole. These finite-velocity light cones allow unprecedented possibilities for optically injecting valley polarization and valley current, and the observation of both direct and inverse valley Hall effects, by exciting interlayer excitons. Our findings suggest potential excitonic circuits with valley functionalities, and unique opportunities to study exciton dynamics and condensation phenomena in semiconducting 2D heterostructures.

  17. Learned arbitrary responses to light in mice without rods or cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrosovsky, N.; Salmon, Peggy

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to discover whether mice lacking classical photoreceptors (rods and cones) can nevertheless be trained to respond to light. Mice with the coneless (cl) transgene have an attenuated diphtheria toxin fused to a cone opsin promotor. Mutant mice homozygous for the retinal degeneration (rd) gene undergo loss of their rods. By mating these two strains, mice lacking both cones and rods can be generated (Lucas et al. 1999). Such coneless-rodless mice were able to use light as a signal to make a behavioural response to avoid impending shock. Nevertheless, especially initially, they used the light as a cue less often than wildtype controls, indicating that normally the rods and cones are used for such responses. However, other photoreceptors are able to take over this role to some extent. When the lights were covered with opaque material, the performance of rodless-coneless mice dropped to chance level, indicating that they had been using the light as a cue for avoidance.

  18. Visual Arrestin 1 Contributes to Cone Photoreceptor Survival and Light Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bruce M.; Ramirez, Teresa; Rife, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate morphologic and functional contributions of Arrestin 1 (Arr1) and Arrestin 4 (Arr4) in cone photoreceptors, the authors examined the phenotypes of visual arrestin knockout mice (Arr1−/−, Arr4−/−, Arr1−/−Arr4−/− [Arr-DKO]) reared in darkness. Methods. Retinal rods and cones were evaluated in wild-type (WT), Arr1−/−, Arr4−/−, and Arr-DKO mice using quantitative morphologic analysis, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL, and electroretinographic (ERG) techniques. Results. Compared with either Arr4−/− or WT, Arr1−/− and Arr-DKO mice had increased apoptotic nuclei in their retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL) at postnatal day (P) 22. By P60, cone density was significantly diminished, but the ONL appeared normal. After 1 minute of background illumination, cone ERG b-wave amplitudes were similar in WT and all Arr KO mice. However, by 3 minutes and continuing through 15 minutes of light adaptation, the cone b-wave amplitudes of WT and Arr4−/− mice increased significantly over those of the Arr1−/− and Arr-DKO mice, which demonstrated no cone b-wave amplitude increase. In contrast, ERG flicker analysis after the 15-minute light adaptation period demonstrated no loss in amplitude for either Arr1−/− or Arr4−/− mice, whereas Arr-DKO had significantly lower amplitudes. When Arr1 expression was restored in Arr1−/− mice (+p48Arr1−/−), normal cone density and light-adapted ERG b-wave amplitudes were observed. Conclusions. In the adult dark-reared Arr1−/− and Arr-DKO mice, viable cones diminish over time. Arr1 expression is essential for cone photoreceptor survival and light adaptation, whereas either Arr1 or Arr4 is necessary for maintaining normal flicker responses. PMID:20019357

  19. Spin and orbital angular momenta of light reflected from a cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R.; Wright, Ewan M.

    2011-09-01

    We examine several retro-reflecting optical elements, each involving two reflections. In the case of a hollow metallic cone having an apex angle of 90°, a circularly polarized incident beam acquires, upon reflection, the opposite spin angular momentum. However, no angular momentum is transferred to the cone, because the reflected beam picks up an orbital angular momentum that is twice as large but opposite in direction to that of its spin. A 90° cone made of a transparent material in which the incident light suffers two total internal reflections before returning may be designed to endow the retro-reflected beam with different mixtures of orbital and spin angular momenta. Under no circumstances, however, is it possible to transfer angular momentum from the light beam to the cone without either allowing absorption or breaking the axial symmetry of the cone. A simple example of broken symmetry is provided by a wedge-shaped metallic reflector having an apex angle of 90°, which picks up angular momentum upon reflecting a circularly polarized incident beam.

  20. Speed, sensitivity, and stability of the light response in rod and cone photoreceptors: Facts and models

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, Juan I.

    2012-01-01

    The light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina are quantitatively different, yet extremely stable and reproducible because of the extraordinary regulation of the cascade of enzymatic reactions that link photon absorption and visual pigment excitation to the gating of cGMP-gated ion channels in the outer segment plasma membrane. While the molecular scheme of the phototransduction pathway is essentially the same in rods and cones, the enzymes and protein regulators that constitute the pathway are distinct. These enzymes and regulators can differ in the quantitative features of their functions or in concentration if their functions are similar or both can be true. The molecular identity and distinct function of the molecules of the transduction cascade in rods and cones are summarized. The functional significance of these molecular differences is examined with a mathematical model of the signal-transducing enzymatic cascade. Constrained by available electrophysiological, biochemical and biophysical data, the model simulates photocurrents that match well the electrical photoresponses measured in both rods and cones. Using simulation computed with the mathematical model, the time course of light-dependent changes in enzymatic activities and second messenger concentrations in non-mammalian rods and cones are compared side by side. PMID:22658984

  1. {kappa}K*{sup 0}{gamma}-vertex in light cone QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Sarac, Y.

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the {kappa}K*{sup 0}{gamma}-vertex in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. We estimate the coupling constant g{sub {kappa}}{sub K*{sup 0}}{sub {gamma}}, and compare our result with that used in the nonlinear chiral Lagrangian approach using the vector-meson dominance model in the SU(3) limit.

  2. Classical Yang-Mills Mechanics: Instant vs. Light-cone Form

    SciTech Connect

    Mladenov, D.

    2010-11-25

    Two different forms of relativistic dynamics, the instant and the light-cone form, for the pure SU(2) Yang-Mills field theory in 4-dimensional Minkowski space are examined under the supposition that the gauge fields depend on the time evolution parameter only. The obtained under that restriction of gauge potential space homogeneity mechanical matrix model, sometimes called Yang-Mills classical mechanics, is systematically studied in its instant and light-cone form of dynamics using the Dirac's generalized Hamiltonian approach. In the both cases the constraint content of the obtained mechanical systems is found. In contrast to its well-known instant-time counterpart the light-cone version of SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics has in addition to the constraints generating the SU(2) gauge transformations the new first and second class constraints also. On account of all of these constraints a complete reduction in number of the degrees of freedom is performed. In the instant form of dynamics it is shown that after elimination of the gauge degrees of freedom from the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills mechanics the resulting unconstrained system represents the ID{sub 3} Euler-Calogero-Moser model with a certain external fourth-order potential, whereas in the light-cone form it is argued that the classical evolution of the unconstrained degrees of freedom is equivalent to a free one-dimensional particle dynamics.

  3. Octet negative parity to octet positive parity electromagnetic transitions in light cone QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.

    2014-07-01

    Light cone QCD sum rules for the electromagnetic transition form factors among positive and negative parity octet baryons are derived. The unwanted contributions of the diagonal transitions among positive parity octet baryons are eliminated by combining the sum rules derived from different Lorentz structures. The Q2 dependence for the transversal and longitudinal helicity amplitudes are studied.

  4. The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakawaki, Y.; McCartor, G.

    1999-07-01

    We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of the gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore, to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge canonical formulation of the free electromagnetic field in auxiliary coordinates xμ=(x-, x+, x1, x2), where x- = x0 cos {θ}-x3 sin θ x+ = x0 sin θ +x3 cos θ and x- plays the role of time. In so doing we can quantize the fields canonically without any constraints, unambiguously introduce ``static ghost fields" as residual gauge degrees of freedom and construct the light-cone gauge solution in the light-cone representation by simply taking the light-cone limit (θ --> (π / 4) ). As a by product we find that, with a suitable choice of vacuum, the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt form of the propagator can be derived in the θ=0 case (the temporal gauge formulation in the equal-time representation).

  5. Multiloop amplitudes of light-cone gauge NSR string field theory in noncritical dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Feynman amplitudes of light-cone gauge superstring field theory are ill-defined because of various divergences. In a previous paper, one of the authors showed that taking the worldsheet theory to be the one in a linear dilaton background Φ = - iQX 1 with Feynman iɛ ( ɛ > 0) and Q 2 > 10 yields finite amplitudes. In this paper, we apply this worldsheet theory to dimensional regularization of the light-cone gauge NSR superstring field theory. We concentrate on the amplitudes for even spin structure with external lines in the (NS,NS) sector. We show that the multiloop amplitudes are indeed regularized in our scheme and that they coincide with the results in the first-quantized formalism through the analytic continuation Q → 0.

  6. The CST: Its Achievements and Its Connection to the Light Cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Franz

    2017-03-01

    I review the applications of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST) since its inception in 1969. Applications discussed here include calculations of NN scattering, 3N bound states, electromagnetic form factors of few-nucleon systems, and the recent successes in describing the dynamical generation of quark mass and the meson spectrum using a chirially invariant quark-antiquark interaction that includes confinement. The common origin of the Light Cone technique and the CST, which dates back to the 1970's, will be discussed.

  7. Free vector propagator in the light-cone gauge and the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetto, A. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova )

    1992-10-15

    We show that the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt causal prescription in the light-cone gauge leads to a free vector propagator which is a tempered distribution, at variance with the Cauchy principal-value prescription and other ones related to it by residual gauge transformations, which unavoidably entail infrared singularities already at the free level of the theory. In this respect the causal prescription seems to enjoy a privileged status.

  8. Black hole perturbation theory in a light cone gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Brent

    The metric of a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field is studied using black hole perturbation theory in a light crone coordinate system that penetrates the event horizon and possesses a clear geometrical meaning. The magnetic field, which is distorted due to the presence of the black hole, has strength B which is assumed to be small compared to the curvature of the spacetime which allows the perturbed metric to be calculated to order B 2 only. The coordinates allow for an easy identification of the event horizon and the properties of the perturbed black hole are studied. To interpret this perturbed metric, the advanced coordinates are decomposed into irreducible parts which yields the metric of a perturbed black hole in the limit r >> 2 M . Finally we compare our perturbed solution to an exact solution. We show that our perturbed solution is able to match the exact solution but has the freedom to describe a larger class of physically relevant solutions.

  9. Light-cone analysis of ungauged and topologically gauged BLG theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Bengt E. W.

    2009-09-01

    We consider three-dimensional maximally superconformal Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson (BLG) theory and its topologically gauged version (constructed recently in Gran and Nilsson (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP03(2009)074 (arXiv:0809.4478 [hep-th]))) in the light-cone gauge. After eliminating the entire Chern-Simons gauge field, the ungauged BLG light-cone theory looks more conventional and, apart from the order of the interaction terms, resembles \\mathcal N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. The light-cone superspace version of the BLG theory is given at the quadratic order together with a suggested form for the quartic terms. Some problems with constructing the sixth-order interaction terms are also discussed. In the topologically gauged case, we analyze the field equations related to the three Chern-Simons-type terms of \\mathcal N=8 conformal supergravity and discuss some of the special features of this theory and its couplings to BLG.

  10. The application of light-cone quantization to quantum chromodynamics in one-plus-one dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbostel, K.J.

    1988-12-01

    Formal and computational aspects of light cone quantization are studied by application to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in one spatial plus one temporal dimension. This quantization scheme, which has been extensively applied to perturbative calculations, is shown to provide an intuitively appealing and numerically tractable approach to non-perturbative computations as well. In the initial section, a light-cone quantization procedure is developed which incorporates fields on the boundaries. This allows for the consistent treatment of massless fermions and the construction of explicitly conserved momentum and charge operators. The next section, which comprises the majority of this work, focuses on the numerical solution of the light-cone Schrodinger equation for bound states. The state space is constructed and the Hamiltonian is evaluated and diagonalized by computer for arbitrary number of colors, baryon number and coupling constant strength. As a result, the full spectrum of mesons and baryons and their associated wavefunctions are determined. These results are compared with those which exist from other approaches to test the reliability of the method. The program also provides a preliminary test for the feasibility of, and an opportunity to develop approximation schemes for, an attack on three-plus-one dimensional QCD. Finally, analytic results are presented which include a discussion of integral equations for wavefunctions and their endpoint behavior. Solutions for hadronic masses and wavefunctions in the limits of both large and small quark mass are discussed. 49 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Gluon structure function of a color dipole in the light-cone limit of lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenewald, D.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Pirner, H. J.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the gluon structure function of a color dipole in near-light-cone SU(2) lattice QCD as a function of x{sub B}. The quark and antiquark are external nondynamical degrees of freedom which act as sources of the gluon string configuration defining the dipole. We compute the color dipole matrix element of transversal chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic field operators separated along a direction close to the light cone, the Fourier transform of which is the gluon structure function. As vacuum state in the pure glue sector, we use a variational ground state of the near-light-cone Hamiltonian. We derive a recursion relation for the gluon structure function on the lattice similar to the perturbative Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation. It depends on the number of transversal links assembling the Schwinger string of the dipole. Fixing the mean momentum fraction of the gluons to the 'experimental value' in a proton, we compare our gluon structure function for a dipole state with four links with the next-to-leading-order MRST 2002 and the CTEQ AB-0 parametrizations at Q{sup 2}=1.5 GeV{sup 2}. Within the systematic uncertainty we find rather good agreement. We also discuss the low x{sub B} behavior of the gluon structure function in our model calculation.

  12. Scattering of glue by glue on the light-cone worldsheet: Helicity nonconserving amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, D.; Qiu, J.; Thorn, C.B.

    2005-09-15

    We give the light-cone gauge calculation of the one-loop on-shell scattering amplitudes for gluon-gluon scattering which violate helicity conservation. We regulate infrared divergences by discretizing the p{sup +} integrations, omitting the terms with p{sup +}=0. Collinear divergences are absent diagram by diagram for the helicity nonconserving amplitudes. We also employ a novel ultraviolet regulator that is natural for the light-cone worldsheet description of planar Feynman diagrams. We show that these regulators give the known answers for the helicity nonconserving one-loop amplitudes, which do not suffer from the usual infrared vagaries of massless particle scattering. For the maximal helicity violating process we elucidate the physics of the remarkable fact that the loop momentum integrand for the on-shell Green function associated with this process, with a suitable momentum routing of the different contributing topologies, is identically zero. We enumerate the counterterms that must be included to give Lorentz covariant results to this order, and we show that they can be described locally in the light-cone worldsheet formulation of the sum of planar diagrams.

  13. 21 cm signal from cosmic dawn - II. Imprints of the light-cone effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghara, Raghunath; Datta, Kanan K.; Choudhury, T. Roy

    2015-11-01

    Details of various unknown physical processes during the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization can be extracted from observations of the redshifted 21 cm signal. These observations, however, will be affected by the evolution of the signal along the line of sight which is known as the `light-cone effect'. We model this effect by post-processing a dark matter N-body simulation with an 1D radiative transfer code. We find that the effect is much stronger and dramatic in presence of inhomogeneous heating and Ly α coupling compared to the case where these processes are not accounted for. One finds increase (decrease) in the spherically averaged power spectrum up to a factor of 3 (0.6) at large scales (k ˜ 0.05 Mpc- 1) when the light-cone effect is included, though these numbers are highly dependent on the source model. The effect is particularly significant near the peak and dip-like features seen in the power spectrum. The peaks and dips are suppressed and thus the power spectrum can be smoothed out to a large extent if the width of the frequency band used in the experiment is large. We argue that it is important to account for the light-cone effect for any 21-cm signal prediction during cosmic dawn.

  14. Approximate light cone effects in a nonrelativistic quantum field theory after a local quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    We study the spreading of correlations after a local quench in a nonrelativistic quantum field theory. We focus on noninteracting nonrelativistic fermions and study the time evolution after two identical systems in their ground states are suddenly joined together with a localized impurity at the junction. We find that, even if the quasiparticles of the system have unbounded dispersion, the correlations show light cone effects. We carry out a detailed study of these effects by developing an accurate asymptotic expansion of the two-point function and determining exactly the density of particles at any time after the quench. In particular, we find that the width of the light cone region is ∝t1 /2 . The structure of correlations, however, does not show a pure light cone form: "superluminal corrections" are much larger than in the bounded-dispersion case. These findings can be explained by inspecting the structure of excitations generated by the initial state. We show that a similar picture also emerges in the presence of a harmonic trapping potential and when more than two systems are suddenly joined at a single point.

  15. Automatic detection of cone photoreceptors in split detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images

    PubMed Central

    Cunefare, David; Cooper, Robert F.; Higgins, Brian; Katz, David F.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living retina is potentially useful for early diagnosis and prognosis of many ocular diseases. Non-confocal split detector based adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) imaging reveals the cone photoreceptor inner segment mosaics often not visualized on confocal AOSLO imaging. Despite recent advances in automated cone segmentation algorithms for confocal AOSLO imagery, quantitative analysis of split detector AOSLO images is currently a time-consuming manual process. In this paper, we present the fully automatic adaptive filtering and local detection (AFLD) method for detecting cones in split detector AOSLO images. We validated our algorithm on 80 images from 10 subjects, showing an overall mean Dice’s coefficient of 0.95 (standard deviation 0.03), when comparing our AFLD algorithm to an expert grader. This is comparable to the inter-observer Dice’s coefficient of 0.94 (standard deviation 0.04). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first validated, fully-automated segmentation method which has been applied to split detector AOSLO images. PMID:27231641

  16. Automatic detection of cone photoreceptors in split detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images.

    PubMed

    Cunefare, David; Cooper, Robert F; Higgins, Brian; Katz, David F; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living retina is potentially useful for early diagnosis and prognosis of many ocular diseases. Non-confocal split detector based adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) imaging reveals the cone photoreceptor inner segment mosaics often not visualized on confocal AOSLO imaging. Despite recent advances in automated cone segmentation algorithms for confocal AOSLO imagery, quantitative analysis of split detector AOSLO images is currently a time-consuming manual process. In this paper, we present the fully automatic adaptive filtering and local detection (AFLD) method for detecting cones in split detector AOSLO images. We validated our algorithm on 80 images from 10 subjects, showing an overall mean Dice's coefficient of 0.95 (standard deviation 0.03), when comparing our AFLD algorithm to an expert grader. This is comparable to the inter-observer Dice's coefficient of 0.94 (standard deviation 0.04). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first validated, fully-automated segmentation method which has been applied to split detector AOSLO images.

  17. B ---> pi and B ---> K transitions from QCD sum rules on the light cone

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, P.

    1998-09-01

    I calculate the form factors describing semileptonic and penguin-induced decays of B mesons into light pseudoscalar mesons. The form factors are calculated from QCD sum rules on the light-cone including contributions up to twist 4, radiative corrections to the leading twist contribution and SU(3)-breaking effects. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be \\sim 15%. The heavy-quark-limit relations between semileptonic and penguin form factors are found to be valid in the full accessible range of momentum transfer.

  18. The sine-Gordon model and the small {kappa}{sup +} region of light- cone perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k{sup +} = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative {beta}{sup 2} = 8{pi} critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman`s variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k{sup +} = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all {beta}, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k{sup +} = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green`s functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k {sup +} = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k {sup +} = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  19. Possible Roles of Glutamate Transporter EAAT5 in Mouse Cone Depolarizing Bipolar Cell Light Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Dennis Y.; Chung, Inyoung; Wu, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable feature of neuronal glutamate transporters (EAATs) is their dual functions of classical carriers and ligand-gated chloride (CI−) channels. CI− conductance is rapidly activated by glutamate in subtype EAAT5, which mediates light responses in depolarizing bipolar cells (DBC) in retinae of lower vertebrates. In this study, we examine whether EAAT5 also mediates the DBC light response in mouse. We took advantage of an infrared illuminated micro-injection system, and studied the effects of the EAAT blocker (TBOA) and a glutamate receptor agonist (LAP4) on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses. Our results showed that TBOA and LAP4 shared similar temporal patterns of inhibition: both inhibited the ERG b-wave shortly after injection and recovered with similar time courses. TBOA inhibited the b-wave completely at mesopic light intensity with an IC50 value about 1 log unit higher than that of LAP4. The inhibitory effects of TBOA and LAP4 were found to be additive in the photopic range. Furthermore, TBOA alone inhibited the b-wave in the cone operative range in knockout mice lacking DBCRs at a low concentration that did not alter synaptic glutamate clearance activity. It also produced a stronger inhibition than that of LAP4 on the cone-driven b-wave measured with a double flash method in wildtype mice. These electrophysiological data suggest a significant role for EAAT5 in mediating cone-driven DBC light responses. Our immunohistochemistry data indicated the presence of postsynaptic EAAT5 on some DBCCs and some DBCRs, providing an anatomical basis for EAAT5’s role in DBC light responses. PMID:24972005

  20. EML1 (CNG-Modulin) Controls Light Sensitivity in Darkness and under Continuous Illumination in Zebrafish Retinal Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Milap; Tserentsoodol, Nomingerel; Postlethwait, John H.; Rebrik, Tatiana I.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand sensitivity of cGMP-gated (CNG) ion channels in cone photoreceptors is modulated by CNG-modulin, a Ca2+-binding protein. We investigated the functional role of CNG-modulin in phototransduction in vivo in morpholino-mediated gene knockdown zebrafish. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified the orthologue gene of CNG-modulin in zebrafish, eml1, an ancient gene present in the genome of all vertebrates sequenced to date. We compare the photoresponses of wild-type cones with those of cones that do not express the EML1 protein. In the absence of EML1, dark-adapted cones are ∼5.3-fold more light sensitive than wild-type cones. Previous qualitative studies in several nonmammalian species have shown that immediately after the onset of continuous illumination, cones are less light sensitive than in darkness, but sensitivity then recovers over the following 15–20 s. We characterize light sensitivity recovery in continuously illuminated wild-type zebrafish cones and demonstrate that sensitivity recovery does not occur in the absence of EML1. PMID:24198367

  1. A distinct contribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones to light-evoked activity in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Allen, Annette E; Brown, Timothy M; Lucas, Robert J

    2011-11-16

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) combine inputs from outer-retinal rod/cone photoreceptors with their intrinsic phototransduction machinery to drive a wide range of so-called non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light. Defining the contribution of each photoreceptor class to evoked responses is vital for determining the degree to which our sensory capabilities depend on melanopsin and for optimizing NIF responses to benefit human health. We addressed this problem by recording electrophysiological responses in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus (PON) (a target of ipRGCs and origin of the pupil light reflex) to a range of gradual and abrupt changes in light intensity. Dim stimuli drove minimal changes in PON activity, suggesting that rods contribute little under these conditions. To separate cone from melanopsin influences, we compared responses to short (460 nm) and longer (600/655 nm) wavelengths in mice carrying a red shifted cone population (Opn1mw®) or lacking melanopsin (Opn4⁻/⁻). Our data reveal a surprising difference in the quality of information available from medium- and short-wavelength-sensitive cones. The majority cone population (responsive to 600/655 nm) supported only transient changes in firing and responses to relatively sudden changes in light intensity. In contrast, cones uniquely sensitive to the shorter wavelength (S-cones) were better able to drive responses to gradual changes in illuminance, contributed a distinct off inhibition, and at least partially recapitulated the ability of melanopsin to sustain responses under continuous illumination. These data reveal a new role for S-cones unrelated to color vision and suggest renewed consideration of cone contributions to NIF vision at shorter wavelengths.

  2. The Gauge-Field Propagator in Light-Cone Gauge: Which is the Correct One?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, L.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.; Xiong, X.

    2017-03-01

    In the literature one can find two different expressions for the gauge-field propagator in light-cone gauge, containing the sum of three rather than two terms. The question of which of the two is the correct one has been a subject of debate. We propose a solution to this question by evaluating one-loop level processes in QED, both in the covariant approach in the light-cone gauge and in the light-front time-ordered perturbation theory (TOPT) approach, proving the equivalence between the two formulations of the theory. The form of the propagator turns out to be crucial in the proof, in particular as concerns its relation with the diagrams containing instantaneously propagating photons and instantaneous interactions. We show that the diagrams in light-front TOPT with instantaneous photons can be recovered in the covariant approach starting from the propagators with only two terms. Our proof of the equivalence clarifies which form should be used for the gauge-field propagator in the covariant approach. This result naturally applies to the QCD case also.

  3. Tree level semileptonic {sigma}{sub b} to nucleon decay in light cone QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Bayar, M.; Sarac, Y.

    2009-08-01

    Using the most general form of the interpolating current of the heavy spin 1/2, {sigma}{sub b} baryon and distribution amplitudes of the nucleon, the transition form factors of the semileptonic {sigma}{sub b}{yields}Nl{nu} decay are calculated in the framework of light-cone QCD sum rules. It is obtained that the form factors satisfy the heavy quark effective theory relations. The obtained results for the related form factors are used to estimate the decay rate of this transition.

  4. {kappa}K{sup +{pi}-} vertex in light cone QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Baytemir, G.; Sarac, Y.; Yilmaz, O.

    2010-05-01

    In this work we study the {kappa}K{sup +{pi}-} vertex in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. We predict the coupling constant g{sub {kappa}K}{sup +}{sub {pi}}{sup -} to be g{sub {kappa}K}{sup +}{sub {pi}}{sup -}=(6.0{+-}1.0) GeV and estimate the scalar f{sub 0}-{sigma} mixing angle from the experimental ratio g{sup 2}({kappa}{yields}K{pi})/g{sup 2}({sigma}{yields}{pi}{pi}).

  5. Renormalization-group evolution of the B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude.

    PubMed

    Lange, Björn O; Neubert, Matthias

    2003-09-05

    An integro-differential equation governing the evolution of the leading-order B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude is derived. The anomalous dimension in this equation contains a logarithm of the renormalization scale, whose coefficient is identified with the cusp anomalous dimension of Wilson loops. The exact solution of the evolution equation is obtained, from which the asymptotic behavior of the distribution amplitude is derived. These results can be used to resum Sudakov logarithms entering the hard-scattering kernels in QCD factorization theorems for exclusive B decays.

  6. The geometry of the light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, David Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-11-15

    The moduli space of Riemann surfaces with at least two punctures can be decomposed into a cell complex by using a particular family of ribbon graphs called Nakamura graphs. We distinguish the moduli space with all punctures labelled from that with a single labelled puncture. In both cases, we describe a cell decomposition where the cells are parametrised by graphs or equivalence classes of finite sequences (tuples) of permutations. Each cell is a convex polytope defined by a system of linear equations and inequalities relating light-cone string parameters, quotiented by the automorphism group of the graph. We give explicit examples of the cell decomposition at low genus with few punctures.

  7. Light Cone Sum Rules for gamma*N ->Delta Transition Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    V.M. Braun; A. Lenz; G. Peters; A. Radyushkin

    2006-02-01

    A theoretical framework is suggested for the calculation of {gamma}* N {yields} {Delta} transition form factors using the light-cone sum rule approach. Leading-order sum rules are derived and compared with the existing experimental data. We find that the transition form factors in a several GeV region are dominated by the ''soft'' contributions that can be thought of as overlap integrals of the valence components of the hadron wave functions. The ''minus'' components of the quark fields contribute significantly to the result, which can be reinterpreted as large contributions of the quark orbital angular momentum.

  8. The CST: Its Achievements and Its Connection to the Light Cone

    DOE PAGES

    Gross, Franz

    2017-01-19

    since its inception in 1969, I have reviewed applications of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). The applications I discuss here include calculations of NN scattering, 3N bound states, electro- magnetic form factors of few-nucleon systems, and the recent successes in describing the dynamical generation of quark mass and the meson spectrum using a chirially invariant quark-antiquark interaction that includes confinement. Furthermore I will discuss the common origin of the Light Cone technique and the CST, which dates back to the 1970's.

  9. Flavor changing neutral current transition of B to a1 with light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, S.; Khosravi, R.; Falahati, F.

    2017-01-01

    The B →a1ℓ+ℓ- decays occur by the electroweak penguin and box diagrams, which can be performed through the flavor changing neutral current (FCNC). We calculate the form factors of the FCNC B →a1 transitions in the light-cone sum rules approach, up to twist-4 distribution amplitudes of the axial vector meson a1. Forward-backward asymmetry, as well as branching ratios of B →a1ℓ+ℓ-, and B →a1γ decays are considered. A comparison is also made between our results and the predictions of other methods.

  10. Improved Light Cone Model calculation of strangeness asymmetry in the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnik, Garrett; Fox, Jordan; Tuppan, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We expect strangeness in the proton from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which allows for the proton to split into a meson and a baryon, such as a K and a Λ. Our goal is to accurately model the momentum distributions of the strange quarks and anti-strange quarks in the proton. We choose the Light Cone Model because it is a natural explanation for strangeness and for s (x) ≠ s (x) . In the Light Cone Model of Cao and Signal, α is a single parameter in the meson-baryon fluctuation functions f (y) and in the s and s distributions of the mesons and baryons. These functions are exponentials in which α is related to the spatial extent of the particles. Because the s and s are in different environments, we explore an array of values for α which reflect the sizes of the particles and study this effect on our model. We compare our results to global pdfs and experimental data from NuTeV, HERMES and ATLAS. We expect strangeness in the proton from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which allows for the proton to split into a meson and a baryon, such as a K and a Λ. Our goal is to accurately model the momentum distributions of the strange quarks and anti-strange quarks in the proton. We choose the Light Cone Model because it is a natural explanation for strangeness and for s (x) ≠ s (x) . In the Light Cone Model of Cao and Signal, α is a single parameter in the meson-baryon fluctuation functions f (y) and in the s and s distributions of the mesons and baryons. These functions are exponentials in which α is related to the spatial extent of the particles. Because the s and s are in different environments, we explore an array of values for α which reflect the sizes of the particles and study this effect on our model. We compare our results to global pdfs and experimental data from NuTeV, HERMES and ATLAS. This research has been supported in part by the Research in Undergraduate Institutions program of the National Science Foundation, Grant No. 1205686.

  11. Strong coupling constant of negative parity octet baryons with light pseudoscalar mesons in light cone QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.

    2017-01-01

    The strong coupling constants of the π and K mesons with negative parity octet baryons are estimated within the light cone QCD sum rules. It is observed that all strong coupling constants, similarly to the case for the positive parity baryons, can be described in terms of three invariant functions, where two of them correspond to the well known F and D couplings in the SU(3)f symmetry, and the third function describes the SU(3)f symmetry violating effects. We compare our predictions on the strong coupling constants of pseudoscalar mesons of negative parity baryons with those corresponding to the strong coupling constants for the positive parity baryons.

  12. Thermalization and light cones in a model with weak integrability breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, Bruno; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Groha, Stefan; Robinson, Neil J.

    2016-12-09

    Here, we employ equation-of-motion techniques to study the nonequilibrium dynamics in a lattice model of weakly interacting spinless fermions. Our model provides a simple setting for analyzing the effects of weak integrability-breaking perturbations on the time evolution after a quantum quench. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparing results at short and intermediate times to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group computations. For sufficiently weak integrability-breaking interactions we always observe prethermalization plateaus, where local observables relax to nonthermal values at intermediate time scales. At later times a crossover towards thermal behavior sets in. We determine the associated time scale, which depends on the initial state, the band structure of the noninteracting theory, and the strength of the integrability-breaking perturbation. Our method allows us to analyze in some detail the spreading of correlations and in particular the structure of the associated light cones in our model. We find that the interior and exterior of the light cone are separated by an intermediate region, the temporal width of which appears to scale with a universal power law t1/3.

  13. Thermalization and light cones in a model with weak integrability breaking

    DOE PAGES

    Bertini, Bruno; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Groha, Stefan; ...

    2016-12-09

    Here, we employ equation-of-motion techniques to study the nonequilibrium dynamics in a lattice model of weakly interacting spinless fermions. Our model provides a simple setting for analyzing the effects of weak integrability-breaking perturbations on the time evolution after a quantum quench. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparing results at short and intermediate times to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group computations. For sufficiently weak integrability-breaking interactions we always observe prethermalization plateaus, where local observables relax to nonthermal values at intermediate time scales. At later times a crossover towards thermal behavior sets in. We determine the associated time scale,more » which depends on the initial state, the band structure of the noninteracting theory, and the strength of the integrability-breaking perturbation. Our method allows us to analyze in some detail the spreading of correlations and in particular the structure of the associated light cones in our model. We find that the interior and exterior of the light cone are separated by an intermediate region, the temporal width of which appears to scale with a universal power law t1/3.« less

  14. Spinon and bound-state excitation light cones in Heisenberg XXZ chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, A. L.; Bragança, H.; Pereira, R. G.; Drumond, R. C.; Aguiar, M. C. O.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics after a local quench that connects two spin-1/2 XXZ chains prepared in the ground state of the Hamiltonian in different phases, one in the ferromagnetic phase and the other in the critical phase. We analyze the time evolution of the on-site magnetization and bipartite entanglement entropy via adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group. In systems with short-range interactions, such as the one we consider, the velocity of information transfer is expected to be bounded, giving rise to a light-cone effect. Interestingly, our results show that, when the anisotropy parameter of the critical chain is sufficiently close to that of the isotropic ferromagnet, the light cone is determined by the velocity of spin-wave bound states that propagate faster than single-particle ("spinon") excitations. Furthermore, we investigate how the system approaches equilibrium in the inhomogeneous ground state of the connected system, in which the ferromagnetic chain induces a nonzero magnetization in the critical chain in the vicinity of the interface.

  15. Thermalization and light cones in a model with weak integrability breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Bruno; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Groha, Stefan; Robinson, Neil J.

    2016-12-01

    We employ equation-of-motion techniques to study the nonequilibrium dynamics in a lattice model of weakly interacting spinless fermions. Our model provides a simple setting for analyzing the effects of weak integrability-breaking perturbations on the time evolution after a quantum quench. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparing results at short and intermediate times to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group computations. For sufficiently weak integrability-breaking interactions we always observe prethermalization plateaus, where local observables relax to nonthermal values at intermediate time scales. At later times a crossover towards thermal behavior sets in. We determine the associated time scale, which depends on the initial state, the band structure of the noninteracting theory, and the strength of the integrability-breaking perturbation. Our method allows us to analyze in some detail the spreading of correlations and in particular the structure of the associated light cones in our model. We find that the interior and exterior of the light cone are separated by an intermediate region, the temporal width of which appears to scale with a universal power law t1 /3.

  16. Automated laser guidance of neuronal growth cones using a spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, David J; Cizmár, Tomás; Baumgartl, Jörg; Gunn-Moore, Frank J; Dholakia, Kishan

    2009-11-01

    The growth cone of a developing neuron can be guided using a focused infra-red (IR) laser beam [1]. In previous setups this process has required a significant amount of user intervention to adjust continuously the laser beam to guide the growing neuron. Previously, a system using an acousto-optical deflector (AOD) has been developed to steer the beam [2]. However, to enhance the controllability of this system, here we demonstrate the use of a computer controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) to steer and manipulate the shape of a laser beam for use in guided neuronal growth. This new experimental setup paves the way to enable a comprehensive investigation into beam shaping effects on neuronal growth and we show neuronal growth initiated by a Bessel light mode. This is a robust platform to explore the biochemistry of this novel phenomenon.

  17. Three-quark light-cone amplitudes of the proton and quark orbital-motion-dependent observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiangdong; Ma, Jian-Ping; Yuan, Feng

    2003-03-01

    We study the three-quark light-cone amplitudes of the proton including quarks' transverse momenta. We classify these amplitudes using a newly-developed method in which light-cone wave functions are constructed from a class of light-cone matrix elements. We derive the constraints on the amplitudes from parity and time-reversal symmetries. We use the amplitudes to calculate the physical observables which vanish when the quark orbital angular momentum is absent. These include transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions Δ qT( x, k⊥), qT( x, k⊥), δq( x, k⊥), and δqL( x, k⊥), twist-three parton distributions gT( x) and hL( x), helicity-flip generalized parton distributions E( x, ξ=0, Q2) and its associates, and the Pauli form factor F2( Q2).

  18. Light and electron microscopical visualization of anterogradely labelled corticospinal growth cones using a new combination of HRP staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Joosten, E A

    1991-05-01

    Up until now, the ultrastructural visualization of growth cones of developing long fibre tracts could only be achieved by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) application 'en route', resulting in axonal damage, which in turn may affect growth cone morphology. Besides, this technique results in labelling of passing fibres, thus hampering the identification of axon origin as well as the interpretation of growth cone configuration. In the present investigation a new combination of HRP staining and intensification techniques is presented which makes it possible to visualize anterogradely labelled corticospinal growth cones over long distances in developing rat spinal cord at the light as well as the electron microscopical level. HRP was applied to the originating cells of the corticospinal tract, located in the sensorimotor cortex, and after 24 h was visualized using a procedure which essentially consists of 3 subsequent steps: first a tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)/ammoniumheptamolybdate (AHM) reaction; second diaminobenzidine (DAB)/nickel (Ni) stabilization and finally glucose oxidase intensification. As was verified at the EM level, the staining procedure here described reveals a complete intense black staining of HRP-labelled growth cones of outgrowing corticospinal axons. Therefore, the method described here guarantees a correct analysis of growth cone morphology at the light microscopical and the ultrastructural level. The present procedure is especially valuable in studying the development of long central nervous fibre systems.

  19. Effects of Intraframe Distortion on Measures of Cone Mosaic Geometry from Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Robert F.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Chui, Toco Y.; Rosen, Richard B.; Michaelides, Michel; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effects of intraframe distortion due to involuntary eye motion on measures of cone mosaic geometry derived from adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images. Methods We acquired AOSLO image sequences from 20 subjects at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0° temporal from fixation. An expert grader manually selected 10 minimally distorted reference frames from each 150-frame sequence for subsequent registration. Cone mosaic geometry was measured in all registered images (n = 600) using multiple metrics, and the repeatability of these metrics was used to assess the impact of the distortions from each reference frame. In nine additional subjects, we compared AOSLO-derived measurements to those from adaptive optics (AO)-fundus images, which do not contain system-imposed intraframe distortions. Results We observed substantial variation across subjects in the repeatability of density (1.2%–8.7%), inter-cell distance (0.8%–4.6%), percentage of six-sided Voronoi cells (0.8%–10.6%), and Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR) (1.2%–13.2%). The average of all metrics extracted from AOSLO images (with the exception of VCAR) was not significantly different than those derived from AO-fundus images, though there was variability between individual images. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intraframe distortion found in AOSLO images can affect the accuracy and repeatability of cone mosaic metrics. It may be possible to use multiple images from the same retinal area to approximate a “distortionless” image, though more work is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. Translational Relevance Even in subjects with good fixation, images from AOSLOs contain intraframe distortions due to eye motion during scanning. The existence of these artifacts emphasizes the need for caution when interpreting results derived from scanning instruments. PMID:26933523

  20. Light cone in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model in time-dependent mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, J.; Blass, B.; Rieger, H.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of a local perturbation in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with a time-dependent application of the mean-field theory based on the BBGKY hierarchy. We show that the perturbation propagates through the system with a finite velocity and that there is a transition from Manhattan to Euclidian metric, resulting in a light cone with an almost circular shape at sufficiently large distances. The propagation velocity of the perturbation defining the front of the light cone is discussed with respect to the parameters of the Hamiltonian and compared to exact results for the transverse-field Ising model in one dimension.

  1. Scattering of glue by glue on the light-cone worldsheet. II. Helicityconserving amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, D.; Qiu, J.; Thorn, C. B.

    2006-08-15

    This is the second of a pair of articles on scattering of glue by glue,in which we give the light-cone gauge calculation of the one-loop on-shellhelicity conserving scattering amplitudes for gluon-gluon scattering (neglectingquark loops). The 1/p{sup +} factors in the gluon propagatorare regulated by replacing p{sup +} integrals with discretized sums omitting the p{sup +}=0 terms in each sum. We alsoemploy a novel ultraviolet regulator that is convenient for the light-coneworldsheet description of planar Feynman diagrams. The helicity conservingscattering amplitudes are divergent in the infrared. The infrared divergencesin the elastic one-loop amplitude are shown to cancel, in their contributionto cross sections, against ones in the cross section for unseen bremsstrahlunggluons. We include here the explicit calculation of the latter, because itassumes an unfamiliar form due to the peculiar way discretization of p{sup +} regulates infrared divergences. In resolving the infrareddivergences we employ a covariant definition of jets, which allows a transparentdemonstration of the Lorentz invariance of our final results. Because we usean explicit cutoff of the ultraviolet divergences in exactly four spacetimedimensions, we must introduce explicit counterterms to achieve this finalcovariant result. These counterterms are polynomials in the external momentaof the precise order dictated by power counting. We discuss the modificationsthey entail for the light-cone worldsheet action that reproduces the bareplanar diagrams of the gluonic sector of QCD. The simplest way to do thisis to interpret the QCD string as moving in six spacetime dimensions.

  2. Light-cone anisotropy in the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawada, Karolina; Semelin, Benoît; Vonlanthen, Patrick; Baek, Sunghye; Revaz, Yves

    2014-04-01

    Using a suite of detailed numerical simulations, we estimate the level of anisotropy generated by the time evolution along the light cone of the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations include the physics necessary to model the signal during both the late emission regime and the early absorption regime, namely X-ray and Lyman band 3D radiative transfer in addition to the usual dynamics and ionizing UV transfer. The signal is analysed using correlation functions perpendicular and parallel to the line of sight. We reproduce general findings from previous theoretical studies: the overall amplitude of the correlations and the fact that the light-cone anisotropy is visible only on large scales (100 comoving Mpc). However, the detailed behaviour is different. We find that, at three different epochs, the amplitudes of the correlations along and perpendicular to the line of sight differ from each other, indicating anisotropy. We show that these three epochs are associated with three events of the global reionization history: the overlap of ionized bubbles, the onset of mild heating by X-rays in regions around the sources, and the onset of efficient Lyman α coupling in regions around the sources. We find that a 20 × 20 deg2 survey area may be necessary to mitigate sample variance when we use the directional correlation functions. On a 100 Mpc (comoving) scale, we show that the light-cone anisotropy dominates over the anisotropy generated by peculiar velocity gradients computed in the linear regime. By modelling instrumental noise and limited resolution, we find that the anisotropy should be easily detectable by the Square Kilometre Array, assuming perfect foreground removal, the limiting factor being a large enough survey size. In the case of the Low-Frequency Array for radio astronomy, it is likely that only one anisotropy episode (ionized bubble overlap) will fall in the observing frequency range. This episode will be detectable only if sample

  3. On Quantization in Light-cone Variables Compatible with Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaisky, M. V.; Kaputkina, N. E.

    2016-06-01

    Canonical quantization of quantum field theory models is inherently related to the Lorentz invariant partition of classical fields into the positive and the negative frequency parts u( x) = u +( x) + u -( x), performed with the help of Fourier transform in Minkowski space. That is the commutation relations are being established between nonlocalized solutions of field equations. At the same time the construction of divergence free physical theory requires the separation of the contributions of different space-time scales. In present paper, using the light-cone variables, we propose a quantization procedure which is compatible with separation of scales using continuous wavelet transform, as described in our previous paper (Altaisky, M.V., Kaputkina, N.E.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 025015 2013).

  4. Stochastic light-cone CTMRG: a new DMRG approach to stochastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, A.; Gendiar, A.; Nishino, T.; Schadschneider, A.; Zittartz, J.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a new variant of the recently introduced stochastic transfer matrix DMRG which we call stochastic light-cone corner-transfer-matrix DMRG (LCTMRG). It is a numerical method to compute dynamic properties of one-dimensional stochastic processes. As suggested by its name, the LCTMRG is a modification of the corner-transfer-matrix DMRG, adjusted by an additional causality argument. As an example, two reaction-diffusion models, the diffusion-annihilation process and the branch-fusion process are studied and compared with exact data and Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the capability and accuracy of the new method. The number of possible Trotter steps of more than 105 shows a considerable improvement on the old stochastic TMRG algorithm.

  5. B → Vℓ+ℓ- in the Standard Model from light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharucha, Aoife; Straub, David M.; Zwicky, Roman

    2016-08-01

    We present B q → ρ, B q → ω, B q → K ∗, B s → K ∗ and B s → ϕ form factors from light-cone sum rules (LCSR) at {O}({α}_s) for twist-2 and 3 and {O}({α}_s^0) for twist-4 with updated hadronic input parameters. Three asymptotic light-cone distribution amplitudes of twist-4 (and 5) are determined, necessary for the form factors to obey the equations of motion. It is argued that the latter constrain the uncertainty of tensor-to-vector form factor ratios thereby improving the prediction of zeros of helicity amplitudes of major importance for B → K ∗ℓℓ angular observables. We provide easy-to-use fits to the LCSR results, including the full error correlation matrix, in all modes at low q 2 as well as combined fits to LCSR and lattice results covering the entire kinematic range for B q → K ∗, B s → K ∗ and B s → ϕ. The error correlation matrix avoids the problem of overestimating the uncertainty in phenomenological applications. Using the new form factors and recent computations of non-factorisable contributions we provide Standard Model predictions for B → K ∗γ as well as B → K ∗ℓ+ℓ- and B s → ϕμ + μ - at low dilepton invariant mass. Employing our B → ( ρ,ω) form factor results we extract the CKM element | V ub| from the semileptonic decays B → ( ρ, ω)ℓ ν and find good agreement with other exclusive determinations.

  6. An Automated Reference Frame Selection (ARFS) Algorithm for Cone Imaging with Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Alexander E.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an automated reference frame selection (ARFS) algorithm to replace the subjective approach of manually selecting reference frames for processing adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) videos of cone photoreceptors. Methods Relative distortion was measured within individual frames before conducting image-based motion tracking and sorting of frames into distinct spatial clusters. AOSLO images from nine healthy subjects were processed using ARFS and human-derived reference frames, then aligned to undistorted AO-flood images by nonlinear registration and the registration transformations were compared. The frequency at which humans selected reference frames that were rejected by ARFS was calculated in 35 datasets from healthy subjects, and subjects with achromatopsia, albinism, or retinitis pigmentosa. The level of distortion in this set of human-derived reference frames was assessed. Results The average transformation vector magnitude required for registration of AOSLO images to AO-flood images was significantly reduced from 3.33 ± 1.61 pixels when using manual reference frame selection to 2.75 ± 1.60 pixels (mean ± SD) when using ARFS (P = 0.0016). Between 5.16% and 39.22% of human-derived frames were rejected by ARFS. Only 2.71% to 7.73% of human-derived frames were ranked in the top 5% of least distorted frames. Conclusion ARFS outperforms expert observers in selecting minimally distorted reference frames in AOSLO image sequences. The low success rate in human frame choice illustrates the difficulty in subjectively assessing image distortion. Translational Relevance Manual reference frame selection represented a significant barrier to a fully automated image-processing pipeline (including montaging, cone identification, and metric extraction). The approach presented here will aid in the clinical translation of AOSLO imaging. PMID:28392976

  7. What has driven the evolution of multiple cone classes in visual systems: object contrast enhancement or light flicker elimination?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two competing theories have been advanced to explain the evolution of multiple cone classes in vertebrate eyes. These two theories have important, but different, implications for our understanding of the design and tuning of vertebrate visual systems. The ‘contrast theory’ proposes that multiple cone classes evolved in shallow-water fish to maximize the visual contrast of objects against diverse backgrounds. The competing ‘flicker theory’ states that multiple cone classes evolved to eliminate the light flicker inherent in shallow-water environments through antagonistic neural interactions, thereby enhancing object detection. However, the selective pressures that have driven the evolution of multiple cone classes remain largely obscure. Results We show that two critical assumptions of the flicker theory are violated. We found that the amplitude and temporal frequency of flicker vary over the visible spectrum, precluding its cancellation by simple antagonistic interactions between the output signals of cones. Moreover, we found that the temporal frequency of flicker matches the frequency where sensitivity is maximal in a wide range of fish taxa, suggesting that the flicker may actually enhance the detection of objects. Finally, using modeling of the chromatic contrast between fish pattern and background under flickering illumination, we found that the spectral sensitivity of cones in a cichlid focal species is optimally tuned to maximize the visual contrast between fish pattern and background, instead of to produce a flicker-free visual signal. Conclusions The violation of its two critical assumptions substantially undermines support for the flicker theory as originally formulated. While this alone does not support the contrast theory, comparison of the contrast and flicker theories revealed that the visual system of our focal species was tuned as predicted by the contrast theory rather than by the flicker theory (or by some combination of the two

  8. An exact Jacobi map in the geodesic light-cone gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Fanizza, G.; Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G. E-mail: Maurizio.Gasperini@ba.infn.it E-mail: Gabriele.Veneziano@cern.ch

    2013-11-01

    The remarkable properties of the recently proposed geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge allow to explicitly solve the geodesic-deviation equation, and thus to derive an exact expression for the Jacobi map J{sup A}{sub B}(s,o) connecting a generic source s to a geodesic observer o in a generic space time. In this gauge J{sup A}{sub B} factorizes into the product of a local quantity at s times one at o, implying similarly factorized expressions for the area and luminosity distance. In any other coordinate system J{sup A}{sub B} is simply given by expressing the GLC quantities in terms of the corresponding ones in the new coordinates. This is explicitly done, at first and second order, respectively, for the synchronous and Poisson gauge-fixing of a perturbed, spatially-flat cosmological background, and the consistency of the two outcomes is checked. Our results slightly amend previous calculations of the luminosity-redshift relation and suggest a possible non-perturbative way for computing the effects of inhomogeneities on observations based on light-like signals.

  9. Modulation of cone horizontal cell activity in the teleost fish retina. II. Role of interplexiform cells and dopamine in regulating light responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Yang, X L; Tornqvist, K; Dowling, J E

    1988-07-01

    Following the destruction of the terminals of the dopaminergic interplexiform cells by intraocular injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), cone horizontal cells exhibited high light responsiveness in prolonged darkness and their responses to moderate and bright full-field flashes were as large as 60 mV. Furthermore, the light responsiveness of these cells in the 6-OHDA-treated retinas was not enhanced by background illumination. The application of dopamine (50 microM) by superfusion to 6-OHDA-treated retinas resulted in a decrease in light responsiveness and changes in response waveform of the cone horizontal cells. Twenty minutes following dopamine application the responses of the cone horizontal cells closely resembled the response of cells recorded in prolonged dark-adapted retinas. Dopamine caused similar changes in cone horizontal cells recorded in light-exposed retinas, but had no obvious effects on rod horizontal cells. The selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, Sch 23390, enhanced cone horizontal cell responsiveness when applied to prolonged dark-adapted retinas, mimicking background illumination. The light responsiveness of cone horizontal cells recorded after application of Sch 23390 was less than that for cells in retinas that had been exposed to background lights, but light responsiveness could not be further enhanced by background illumination. Another dopamine antagonist, (+)-butaclamol, was found to have effects similar to Sch 23390 on cone horizontal cells, but (-)-butaclamol, the inactive enantiomer, did not enhance the light responsiveness of these cells. The results suggest that the dopaminergic interplexiform cells play a crucial role in the regulation of cone horizontal cell responsiveness by prolonged darkness and background illumination. These cells may release dopamine tonically in the dark, which suppresses cone horizontal cell responsiveness. Background illumination may decrease dopamine release and liberate cone horizontal cells

  10. Multi Dark Lens Simulations: weak lensing light-cones and data base presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Jullo, Eric; Metcalf, R. Benton; de la Torre, Sylvain; Yepes, Gustavo; Prada, Francisco; Comparat, Johan; Göttlober, Stefan; Kyplin, Anatoly; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Petkova, Margarita; Shan, Huan Yuan; Tessore, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a large data base of weak lensing light cones constructed using different snapshots from the Big MultiDark simulation (BigMDPL). The ray-tracing through different multiple plane has been performed with the GLAMER code accounting both for single source redshifts and for sources distributed along the cosmic time. This first paper presents weak lensing forecasts and results according to the geometry of the VIPERS-W1 and VIPERS-W4 field of view. Additional fields will be available on our data base and new ones can be run upon request. Our data base also contains some tools for lensing analysis. In this paper we present results for convergence power spectra, one point and high order weak lensing statistics useful for forecasts and for cosmological studies. Covariance matrices have also been computed for the different realizations of the W1 and W4 fields. In addition we compute also galaxy-shear and projected density contrasts for different halo masses at two lens redshift according to the CFHTLS source redshift distribution both using stacking and cross-correlation techniques, finding very good agreement.

  11. Intrinsic strange distributions in the nucleon from the light-cone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salajegheh, Maral

    2015-10-01

    Precise knowledge of the strange and antistrange quark distributions of the nucleon is a major step toward better understanding of the strong interaction and the nucleon structure. Moreover, the s -s ¯ asymmetry in the nucleon plays an important role in some physical processes involving hadrons. The goal of this paper is the study of intrinsic strange contribution to the strange sea of the nucleon. To this aim, we calculate the intrinsic strange distributions from the various light-cone models, including Brodsky, Hoyer, Peterson, and Sakai (BHPS); scalar five-quark; and meson-baryon models and then compare their results. These models can lead to the rather different distributions for the intrinsic strange that are dominated in different values of x . Furthermore, the meson-baryon model leads to the s -s ¯ asymmetry that can be comparable in some situations to the result obtained from the global analysis of PDFs. We also present a simple parametrization for each model prediction of intrinsic strange distribution.

  12. Perturbative corrections to Λ b → Λ form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long

    2016-02-01

    We compute radiative corrections to Λ b → Λ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with Λ b -baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-Λ b -baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in Λ /m b , with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to- B-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at {O}({α}_s) shift the Λ b → Λ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originates from the next-to-leading order jet function instead of the hard coefficient functions. Having at hand the sum rule predictions for the Λ b → Λ from factors we further investigate several decay observables in the electro-weak penguin Λ b → Λ ℓ + ℓ - transitions in the factorization limit (i.e., ignoring the "non-factorizable" hadronic effects which cannot be expressed in terms of the Λ b → Λ from factors), including the invariant mass distribution of the lepton pair, the forward-backward asymmetry in the dilepton system and the longitudinal polarization fraction of the leptonic sector.

  13. Radiative decays of negative parity heavy baryons in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agamaliev, A. K.; Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.

    2017-02-01

    The transition form factors responsible for the radiative ΣQ →ΛQ γ and ΞQ‧ →ΞQ γ decays of the negative parity baryons are examined within light cone QCD sum rules. The decay widths of the radiative transitions are calculated using the obtained results of the form factors. A comparison of our predictions on decay widths with the corresponding widths of positive parity baryons is given.

  14. Magnetic moment of the XQ state with JP C=1+± in light cone QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agamaliev, A. K.; Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic moments of the recently observed resonance Xb(5568 ) by D0 Collaboration and its partner with charm quark are calculated in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules, by assuming that these resonances are represented as tetraquark states with quantum numbers JP C=1+±. The magnetic moment can play a critical role in the determination of the quantum numbers, as well as give useful information about the inner structure of these mesons.

  15. Single-shot real-time video recording of a photonic Mach cone induced by a scattered light pulse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinyang; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Liren; Chen, Yujia; Gao, Liang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast video recording of spatiotemporal light distribution in a scattering medium has a significant impact in biomedicine. Although many simulation tools have been implemented to model light propagation in scattering media, existing experimental instruments still lack sufficient imaging speed to record transient light-scattering events in real time. We report single-shot ultrafast video recording of a light-induced photonic Mach cone propagating in an engineered scattering plate assembly. This dynamic light-scattering event was captured in a single camera exposure by lossless-encoding compressed ultrafast photography at 100 billion frames per second. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions by time-resolved Monte Carlo simulation. This technology holds great promise for next-generation biomedical imaging instrumentation. PMID:28116357

  16. Superparticle and superstring in AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} Ramond--Ramond background in the light-cone gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2001-07-01

    We discuss superparticle and superstring dynamics in AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} supported by R--R 3-form background using light-cone gauge approach. Starting with the superalgebra psu(1,1|2)(circle plus)psu (1,1|2) representing the basic symmetry of this background we find the light-cone superparticle Hamiltonian. We determine the harmonic decomposition of light-cone superfield describing fluctuations of type IIB supergravity fields expanded near AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background and thus the corresponding Kaluza--Klein spectrum. We fix the fermionic and bosonic light-cone gauges in the covariant Green--Schwarz AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} superstring action and find the corresponding light-cone string Hamiltonian. We also obtain a realization of the generators of psu(1,1|2)(circle plus)psu (1,1|2) in terms of the superstring 2-d fields in the light-cone gauge.

  17. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source.

    PubMed

    Granton, Patrick V; Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-07

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light's spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans.

  18. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granton, Patrick V.; Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light’s spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans.

  19. Use of a local cone model to predict essential CSF light adaptation behavior used in the design of luminance quantization nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Scott; Golestaneh, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The human visual system's luminance nonlinearity ranges continuously from square root behavior in the very dark, gamma-like behavior in dim ambient, cube-root in office lighting, and logarithmic for daylight ranges. Early display quantization nonlinearities have been developed based on luminance bipartite JND data. More advanced approaches considered spatial frequency behavior, and used the Barten light-adaptive Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) modelled across a range of light adaptation to determine the luminance nonlinearity (e.g., DICOM, referred to as a GSDF {grayscale display function}). A recent approach for a GSDF, also referred to as an electrical-to-optical transfer function (EOTF), using that light-adaptive CSF model improves on this by tracking the CSF for the most sensitive spatial frequency, which changes with adaptation level. We explored the cone photoreceptor's contribution to the behavior of this maximum sensitivity of the CSF as a function of light adaptation, despite the CSF's frequency variations and that the cone's nonlinearity is a point-process. We found that parameters of a local cone model could fit the max sensitivity of the CSF model, across all frequencies, and are within the ranges of parameters commonly accepted for psychophysicallytuned cone models. Thus, a linking of the spatial frequency and luminance dimensions has been made for a key neural component. This provides a better theoretical foundation for the recently designed visual signal format using the aforementioned EOTF.

  20. The leading twist light-cone distribution amplitudes for the S-wave and P-wave Bc mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji; Yang, Deshan

    2016-07-01

    The light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) serve as important nonperturbative inputs for the study of hard exclusive processes. In this paper, we calculate ten LCDAs at twist-2 for the S-wave and P-wave B c mesons up to the next-to-leading order (NLO) of the strong coupling α s and leading order of the velocity expansion. Each one of these ten LCDAs is expressed as a product of a perturbatively calculable distribution and a universal NRQCD matrix-element. By use of the spin symmetry, only two NRQCD matrix-elements will be involved. The reduction of the number of non-perturbative inputs will improve the predictive power of collinear factorization.

  1. The MICE Grand Challenge light-cone simulation - III. Galaxy lensing mocks from all-sky lensing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosalba, P.; Gaztañaga, E.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.

    2015-02-01

    In Paper I of this series, we presented a new N-body light-cone simulation from the MICE Collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 h-1 Gpc)3 comoving volume, from which we built halo and galaxy catalogues using a Halo Occupation Distribution and Halo Abundance Matching technique, as presented in the companion Paper II. Given its large volume and fine mass resolution, the MICE-GC simulation also allows an accurate modelling of the lensing observables from upcoming wide and deep galaxy surveys. In the last paper of this series (Paper III), we describe the construction of all-sky lensing maps, following the `Onion Universe' approach, and discuss their properties in the light-cone up to z = 1.4 with sub-arcminute spatial resolution. By comparing the convergence power spectrum in the MICE-GC to lower mass-resolution (i.e. particle mass ˜1011 h-1 M⊙) simulations, we find that resolution effects are at the 5 per cent level for multipoles ℓ ˜ 103 and 20 per cent for ℓ ˜ 104. Resolution effects have a much lower impact on our simulation, as shown by comparing the MICE-GC to recent numerical fits by Takahashi. We use the all-sky lensing maps to model galaxy lensing properties, such as the convergence, shear, and lensed magnitudes and positions, and validate them thoroughly using galaxy shear auto and cross-correlations in harmonic and configuration space. Our results show that the galaxy lensing mocks here presented can be used to accurately model lensing observables down to arcminute scales. Accompanying this series of papers, we make a first public data release of the MICE-GC galaxy mock, the MICECAT v1.0, through a dedicated web-portal for the MICE simulations, http://cosmohub.pic.es, to help developing and exploiting the new generation of astronomical surveys.

  2. Nano-cones for broadband light coupling to high index substrates

    PubMed Central

    Buencuerpo, J.; Torné, L.; Álvaro, R.; Llorens, J. M.; Dotor, M. L.; Ripalda, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The moth-eye structure has been proposed several times as an antireflective coating to replace the standard optical thin films. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a dielectric moth-eye structure as an antireflective coating for high-index substrates, like GaAs. The fabricated photonic crystal has Si3N4 cones in a square lattice, sitting on top of a TiO2 index matching layer. This structure attains 1.4% of reflectance power losses in the operation spectral range of GaAs solar cells (440–870 nm), a 12.5% relative reduction of reflection power losses in comparison with a standard bilayer. The work presented here considers a fabrication process based on laser interference lithography and dry etching, which are compatible with solar cell devices. The experimental results are consistent with scattering matrix simulations of the fabricated structures. In a broader spectral range (400–1800 nm), the simulation estimates that the nanostructure also significantly outperforms the standard bilayer coating (3.1% vs. 4.5% reflection losses), a result of interest for multijunction tandem solar cells. PMID:27924859

  3. Nano-cones for broadband light coupling to high index substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buencuerpo, J.; Torné, L.; Álvaro, R.; Llorens, J. M.; Dotor, M. L.; Ripalda, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The moth-eye structure has been proposed several times as an antireflective coating to replace the standard optical thin films. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a dielectric moth-eye structure as an antireflective coating for high-index substrates, like GaAs. The fabricated photonic crystal has Si3N4 cones in a square lattice, sitting on top of a TiO2 index matching layer. This structure attains 1.4% of reflectance power losses in the operation spectral range of GaAs solar cells (440–870 nm), a 12.5% relative reduction of reflection power losses in comparison with a standard bilayer. The work presented here considers a fabrication process based on laser interference lithography and dry etching, which are compatible with solar cell devices. The experimental results are consistent with scattering matrix simulations of the fabricated structures. In a broader spectral range (400–1800 nm), the simulation estimates that the nanostructure also significantly outperforms the standard bilayer coating (3.1% vs. 4.5% reflection losses), a result of interest for multijunction tandem solar cells.

  4. Exploring the evolution of reionization using a wavelet transform and the light cone effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Cathryn M.

    2016-09-01

    The Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization, during which collapsed structures produce the first ionizing photons and proceed to reionize the intergalactic medium, span a large range in redshift (z ˜ 30-6) and time (tage ˜ 0.1-1.0 Gyr). Exploration of these epochs using the redshifted 21 cm emission line from neutral hydrogen is currently limited to statistical detection and estimation metrics (e.g. the power spectrum) due to the weakness of the signal. Brightness temperature fluctuations in the line-of-sight dimension are probed by observing the emission line at different frequencies, and their structure is used as a primary discriminant between the cosmological signal and contaminating foreground extragalactic and Galactic continuum emission. Evolution of the signal over the observing bandwidth leads to the `line cone effect' whereby the H I structures at the start and end of the observing band are not statistically consistent, yielding a biased estimate of the signal power, and potential reduction in signal detectability. We implement a wavelet transform to wide bandwidth radio interferometry experiments to probe the local statistical properties of the signal. We show that use of the wavelet transform yields estimates with improved estimation performance, compared with the standard Fourier Transform over a fixed bandwidth. With the suite of current and future large bandwidth reionization experiments, such as with the 300 MHz instantaneous bandwidth of the Square Kilometre Array, a transform that retains local information will be important.

  5. Observation of trapped light induced by Dwarf Dirac-cone in out-of-plane condition for photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Subir; Biswas, Tushar; Bhadra, Shaymal K.

    2016-10-01

    Existence of out-of-plane conical dispersion for a triangular photonic crystal lattice is reported. It is observed that conical dispersion is maintained for a number of out-of-plane wave vectors (k z ). We study a case where Dirac like linear dispersion exists but the photonic density of states is not vanishing, called Dwarf Dirac cone (DDC) which does not support localized modes. We demonstrate the trapping of such modes by introducing defects in the crystal. Interestingly, we find by k-point sampling as well as by tuning trapped frequency that such a conical dispersion has an inherent light confining property and it is governed by neither of the known wave confining mechanisms like total internal reflection, band gap guidance. Our study reveals that such a conical dispersion in a non-vanishing photonic density of states induces unexpected intense trapping of light compared with those at other points in the continuum. Such studies provoke fabrication of new devices with exciting properties and new functionalities. Project supported by Director, CSIR-CGCRI, the DST, Government of India, and the CSIR 12th Plan Project (GLASSFIB), India.

  6. Design of an optical proximity sensor using multiple cones of light for measuring surface shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, M.; Kanade, T.

    1984-04-01

    A noncontact multi-light source optical proximity sensor which can measure the distance, orientation, and curvature of a surface has been developed. Beams of light are sequentially focused from the ends of fiber optic cables onto a target surface. An analog light-sensor- a planar PIN diode area sensor chip - measures the position of the spots of light on the surface, and the 3-D locations of the spots are computed by triangulation. By fitting a surface to a set of points, the distance, orientation and curvature of the target surface is calculated. The number of light sources, and their positions and orientations were chosen so that the uncertainty in the measurement of distance would be within 0.05 mm and the uncertainty in surface orientation would be within 1.0 deg. Since there are no moving parts and the spot position sensor chip outputs the position of the spot directly without scanning its field of view, fast operation of the proximity sensor can be realized. Earlier prototype versions of the sensor can give approximately 1000 measurements of distance and 1.5 degrees for surface orientation. This proximity sensor will be useful for such applications as tracing an object surface by a robot manipulator with a specified distance and orientation relative to the surface.

  7. Optical Proximity Sensor Using Multiple Cones Of Light For Measuring Surface Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, Michael; Kanade, Takeo

    1984-10-01

    A noncontact multilight source optical proximity sensor that can measure the distance, orientation, and curvature of a surface has been developed. Beams of light are sequentially focused from the ends of fiber optic cables onto a target surface. An analog light sensor a planar pin diode area sensor chip measures the position of the spots of light on the surface, and the 3-D locations of the spots are computed by triangulation. By fitting a surface to a set of points, the distance, orientation, and curvature of the target surface are calculated. The number of light sources and their positions and orientations were chosen so that the uncertainty in the measurement of distance would be within 0.05 mm and the uncertainty in surface orientation would be within 1.0 °. Since there are no moving parts and the spot position sensor chip outputs the position of the spot directly without scanning its field of view, fast opera-tion of the proximity sensor can be realized. Earlier prototype versions of the sensor can give approximately 1000 measurements of distance and orientation per second with precision of 0.07 mm for distance and 1.5 ° for surface orientation. This proximity sensor will be useful for such applications as tracing an object surface by a robot manipulator with a specified distance and orientation relative to the surface.

  8. Investigating strangeness in the proton by studying the effects of Light Cone parton distributions in the Meson Cloud Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuppan, Sam; Budnik, Garrett; Fox, Jordan

    2014-09-01

    The Meson Cloud Model (MCM) has proven to be a natural explanation for strangeness in the proton because of meson-baryon splitting into kaon-hyperon pairs. Total strangeness is predicted by integrated splitting functions, which represent the probability that the proton will fluctuate into a given meson-baryon pair. However, the momentum distributions s (x) and s (x) in the proton are determined from convolution integrals that depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) used for the mesons and baryons in the MCM. Theoretical calculations of these momentum distributions use many different forms for these PDFs. In our investigation, we calculate PDFs for K, K*, Λ, and Σ from two-body wave functions in a Light Cone Model (LCM) of the hadrons. We use these PDFs in conjunction with the MCM to create a hybrid model and compare our results to other theoretical calculations, experimental data from NuTeV, HERMES, ATLAS, and global parton distribution analyses. The Meson Cloud Model (MCM) has proven to be a natural explanation for strangeness in the proton because of meson-baryon splitting into kaon-hyperon pairs. Total strangeness is predicted by integrated splitting functions, which represent the probability that the proton will fluctuate into a given meson-baryon pair. However, the momentum distributions s (x) and s (x) in the proton are determined from convolution integrals that depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) used for the mesons and baryons in the MCM. Theoretical calculations of these momentum distributions use many different forms for these PDFs. In our investigation, we calculate PDFs for K, K*, Λ, and Σ from two-body wave functions in a Light Cone Model (LCM) of the hadrons. We use these PDFs in conjunction with the MCM to create a hybrid model and compare our results to other theoretical calculations, experimental data from NuTeV, HERMES, ATLAS, and global parton distribution analyses. This research has been supported in part by the

  9. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  10. Lensing in the geodesic light-cone coordinates and its (exact) illustration to an off-center observer in Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi models

    SciTech Connect

    Fanizza, G.; Nugier, F. E-mail: fabienjean.nugier@unibo.it

    2015-02-01

    We present in this paper a new application of the geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge for weak lensing calculations. Using interesting properties of this gauge, we derive an exact expression of the amplification matrix—involving convergence, magnification and shear—and of the deformation matrix—involving the optical scalars. These expressions are simple and non-perturbative as long as no caustics are created on the past light-cone and are, by construction, free from the thin lens approximation. We apply these general expressions on the example of an Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model with an off-center observer and obtain explicit forms for the lensing quantities as a direct consequence of the non-perturbative transformation between GLC and LTB coordinates. We show their evolution in redshift after a numerical integration, for underdense and overdense LTB models, and interpret their respective variations in the simple non-curvature case.

  11. Massive Degeneracy and Goldstone Bosons: A Challenge for the Light Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Marvin; /SLAC

    2010-10-27

    Wherein it is argued that the light front formalism has problems dealing with Goldstone symmetries. It is further argued that the notion that in hadron condensates can explain Goldstone phenomena is false. This talk can be summarized as follows: (1) Exact symmetries can be realized in Wigner or Goldstone mode. (2) When a symmetry is realized in Wigner mode the states of the theory form degenerate irreducible representations of the symmetry group and the lowest energy state is unique. (3) When a symmetry is realized in Goldstone mode the lowest energy state of the theory is infinitely degenerate, the states of the theory do not form irreducible representations of the symmetry group and there are massless particles coupled by the conserved currents to any one of the possible ground states. (4) In finite volume the signal of a Goldstone realization of a symmetry is that the number of nearly degenerate states grows rapidly with increasing volume and the gap between these states shrinks exponentially with the volume. (5) The existence of a condensate such as the magnetization, for a ferromagnet, or the staggered magnetization for an anti-ferromagnet, signals a Goldstone symmetry. This is because this condensate transforms non-trivially under the symmetry transformations and so its existence implies the ground state isn't unique. (6) PCAC means that the pion, kaon and eta are would be Goldstone bosons of the theory where the quark masses are set to zero. This interpretation is overwhelmingly supported by experimental data. This means that these particles are really the wiggling of the order parameter or condensate. (7) Finally, in order for the Goldstone particle to exist there has to be something to wiggle every place where the particle can exist. This means that the condensate that is the order parameter for this Goldstone symmetry cannot be confined to the interior of hadrons. Thus, to reiterate, the challenge for the Light Front is to show how the formalism gives

  12. Mimicking acceleration in the constant-bang-time Lemaître-Tolman model: Shell crossings, density distributions, and light cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    The Lemaître-Tolman model with Λ=0 and constant bang time that imitates the luminosity distance-redshift relation of the ΛCDM model using the energy function E alone contains shell crossings. In this paper, the location in spacetime and the consequences of existence of the shell-crossing set (SCS) are investigated. The SCS would come into view of the central observer only at t ≈1064T to the future from now, where T is the present age of the Universe, but would not leave any recognizable trace in her observations. Light rays emitted near to the SCS are blueshifted at the initial points, but the blueshift is finite, and is overcompensated by later-induced redshifts if the observer is sufficiently far. The local blueshifts cause that z along a light ray is not a monotonic function of the comoving radial coordinate r. As a consequence, the angular diameter distance DA and the luminosity distance DL from the central observer fail to be functions of z; the relations DA(z) and DL(z) are multiple-valued in a vicinity of the SCS. The following quantities are calculated and displayed: (1) The distribution of mass density on a few characteristic hypersurfaces of constant time; some of them intersect the SCS. (2) The distribution of density along the past light cone of the present central observer. (3) A few light cones intersecting the SCS at characteristic instants. (4) The redshift profiles along several light cones. (5) The extremum-redshift hypersurface. (6) The DA(z) and DL(z) relations. (7) The last scattering time and its comparison with the ΛCDM last scattering epoch.

  13. g{sub {Sigma}{sub Q{Sigma}{sub Q{pi}}}}coupling constant via light cone QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, K.; Bayar, M.; Ozpineci, A.; Sarac, Y.

    2010-10-01

    Using the most general form of the interpolating currents, the coupling constants g{sub {Sigma}{sub b{Sigma}{sub b{pi}}}}and g{sub {Sigma}{sub c{Sigma}{sub c{pi}}}}are calculated within the light cone QCD sum rules approach. It is found that g{sub {Sigma}{sub c{Sigma}{sub c{pi}=}}}-8.0{+-}1.7 and g{sub {Sigma}{sub b{Sigma}{sub b{pi}=}}}-11.0{+-}2.1.

  14. Directional imaging of the retinal cone mosaic.

    PubMed

    Vohnsen, Brian; Iglesias, Ignacio; Artal, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    We describe a near-IR scanning laser ophthalmoscope that allows the retinal cone mosaic to be imaged in the human eye in vivo without the use of wave-front correction techniques. The method takes advantage of the highly directional quality of cone photoreceptors that permits efficient coupling of light to individual cones and subsequent detection of most directional components of the backscattered light produced by the light-guiding effect of the cones. We discuss details of the system and describe cone-mosaic images obtained under different conditions.

  15. On the problem of mass dependence of the two-point function of the real scalar free massive field on the light cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Peter; Werner, Ernst

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the generally assumed inconsistency in light cone quantum field theory that the restriction of a massive, real scalar free field to the nullplane Σ = {x0 + x3 = 0} is independent of mass (Leutwyler, Klauder and Streit 1970 Nuovo Cimento A 66 536), but the restriction of the two-point function is mass dependent (see, e.g., Nakanishi and Yamawaki 1977 Nucl. Phys. B 122 15; Yamawaki K 1997 Proc. Int. Workshop New Nonperturbative Methods and Quantization on the Light Cone (Les Houches, France) Preprint hep-th/9707141). We resolve this inconsistency by showing that the two-point function has no canonical restriction to Σ in the sense of distribution theory. Only the so-called tame restriction of the two-point function, which we have introduced in (Ullrich P 2004 Uniqueness in the characteristic Cauchy problem of the Klein-Gordon equation and tame restrictions of generalized functions Preprint math-ph/0408022 (submitted)) exists. Furthermore, we show that this tame restriction is indeed independent of the mass. Hence the inconsistency is induced by the erroneous assumption that the two-point function has a (canonical) restriction to Σ.

  16. The inhibitor of phagocytosis, O-phospho-L-serine, suppresses Müller glia proliferation and cone cell regeneration in the light-damaged zebrafish retina.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Travis J; Fossum, Sara L; Fimbel, Shane M; Montgomery, Jacob E; Hyde, David R

    2010-11-01

    The damaged zebrafish retina replaces lost neurons through a regenerative response that initiates with the asymmetric cell division of Müller glia to produce neuronal progenitor cells that proliferate and migrate to the damaged retinal layer, where they differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Because Müller glia are known to phagocytose apoptotic retinal cells during development, we tested if Müller glia engulfed apoptotic rod cell bodies in light-damaged retinas. After 24h of constant intense light, damaged retinas revealed both a strong nuclear TUNEL signal in photoreceptors and a weak cytoplasmic TUNEL signal in Müller glia, although Müller glial apoptosis is not observed in the light-damaged retina. Light damage of a rod-specific transgenic reporter line, Tg(XlRho:EGFP)(fl1), resulted in some Müller glia containing both TUNEL signal and EGFP, which indicated that this subset of Müller glia engulfed apoptotic photoreceptor cell bodies. To determine if phagocytosis induced the Müller glial proliferative response in the light-damaged retina, we utilized O-phospho-l-serine (L-SOP), a molecule that mimics the phosphatidylserine head group and partially blocks microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Intravitreal injection of L-SOP immediately prior to beginning constant intense light treatment: i) did not significantly reduce light-induced photoreceptor cell death, ii) significantly reduced the number of PCNA-positive Müller glia, and iii) significantly reduced the number of cone photoreceptors in the regenerated retina relative to control retinas. Because L-SOP is also a specific group III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist, we also tested if the more potent specific group III agonist, L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4), the specific group III antagonist (RS)-α-Methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP) or the specific group I antagonist, L-2-amino-3-phophonopropanoic acid (L-AP3) affected Müller glial proliferation. We found no changes

  17. Phytochemical and morphological characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones over five developmental stages using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection, and light microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Kavalier, Adam R; Litt, Amy; Ma, Chunhui; Pitra, Nicholi J; Coles, Mark C; Kennelly, Edward J; Matthews, Paul D

    2011-05-11

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) inflorescences, commonly known as "hop cones", are prized for their terpenophenolic contents, used in beer production and, more recently, in biomedical applications. In this study we investigated morphological and phytochemical characteristics of hop cones over five developmental stages, using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (UHPLC-PDA) methods to quantitate 21 polyphenolics and seven terpenophenolics. Additionally, we used light microscopy to correlate phytochemical quantities with changes in the morphology of the cones. Significant increases in terpenophenolics, concomitant with glandular trichome development and associated gross morphological changes, were mapped over development to fluctuations in contents of polyphenolic constituents and their metabolic precursor compounds. The methods reported here can be used for targeted metabolic profiling of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenophenolics in hops, and are applicable to quantitation in other crops.

  18. Effect of light source instability on uniformity of 3D reconstructions from a cone beam optical CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Begg, J; Taylor, M L; Holloway, L; Kron, T; Franich, R D

    2014-12-01

    Temporally varying light intensity during acquisition of projection images in an optical CT scanner can potentially be misinterpreted as physical properties of the sample. This work investigated the impact of LED light source intensity instability on measured attenuation coefficients. Different scenarios were investigated by conducting one or both of the reference and data scans in a 'cold' scanner, where the light source intensity had not yet stabilised. Uniform samples were scanned to assess the impact on measured uniformity. The orange (590 nm) light source decreased in intensity by 29 % over the first 2 h, while the red (633 nm) decreased by 9 %. The rates of change of intensity at 2 h were 0.1 and 0.03 % respectively over a 5 min period-corresponding to the scan duration. The normalisation function of the reconstruction software does not fully account for the intensity differences and discrepancies remain. Attenuation coefficient inaccuracies of up to 8 % were observed for data reconstructed from projection images acquired with a cold scanner. Increased noise was observed for most cases where one or both of the scans was acquired without sufficient warm-up. The decrease in accuracy and increase in noise were most apparent for data reconstructed from reference and data scans acquired with a cold scanner on different days.

  19. Short-time universal scaling and light-cone dynamics after a quench in an isolated quantum system in d spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiocchetta, Alessio; Tavora, Marco; Gambassi, Andrea; Mitra, Aditi

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effects of fluctuations on the dynamics of an isolated quantum system represented by a (ϕ2)2 field theory with O (N ) symmetry after a quench in d >2 spatial dimensions. A perturbative renormalization-group approach involving a dimensional expansion in ɛ =4 -d is employed in order to study the evolution within a prethermal regime controlled by elastic dephasing. In particular, we focus on a quench from a disordered initial state to the critical point, which introduces an effective temporal boundary in the evolution. At this boundary, the relevant fields acquire an anomalous scaling dimension, while the evolution of both the order parameter and its correlation and response functions display universal aging. Since the relevant excitations propagate ballistically, a light cone in real space emerges. At longer times, the onset of inelastic scattering appears as secularly growing self-generated dissipation in the effective Keldysh field theory, with the strength of the dissipative vertices providing an estimate for the time needed to leave the prethermal regime.

  20. Pion-photon transition form factor using light-cone sum rules: theoretical results, expectations, and a global-data fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulev, A. P.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2011-10-01

    A global fit to the data from different collaborations (CELLO, CLEO, BaBar) on the pion-photon transition form factor is carried out using light-cone sum rules. The analysis includes the next-to-leading QCD radiative corrections and the twist-four contributions, while the main next-to-next-to-leading term and the twist-six contribution are taken into account in the form of theoretical uncertainties. We use the information extracted from the data to investigate the pivotal characteristics of the pion distribution amplitude. This is done by dividing the data into two sets: one containing all data up to 9 GeV 2, whereas the other incorporates also the high- Q tail of the BaBar data. We find that it is not possible to accommodate into the fit these BaBar data points with the same accuracy and conclude that it is difficult to explain these data in the standard scheme of OCD.

  1. Systematic estimation of theoretical uncertainties in the calculation of the pion-photon transition form factor using light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the calculation of the pion-photon transition form factor Fγ*γπ0(Q2) within light-cone sum rules focusing attention to the low-mid region of momenta. The central aim is to estimate the theoretical uncertainties which originate from a wide variety of sources related to (i) the relevance of next-to-next-to-leading order radiative corrections (ii) the influence of the twist-four and the twist-six term (iii) the sensitivity of the results on auxiliary parameters, like the Borel scale M2, (iv) the role of the phenomenological description of resonances, and (v) the significance of a small but finite virtuality of the quasireal photon. Predictions for Fγ*γπ0(Q2) are presented which include all these uncertainties and found to comply within the margin of experimental error with the existing data in the Q2 range between 1 and 5 GeV2 , thus justifying the reliability of the applied calculational scheme. This provides a solid basis for confronting theoretical predictions with forthcoming data bearing small statistical errors.

  2. GENERALIZED CONVEXITY CONES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Introduction The dual cone of C (psi sub 1,..., psi sub n) Extreme rays The cone dual to an intersection of generalized convexity cones... Generalized difference quotients and multivariate convexity Miscellaneous applications of generalized convexity.

  3. Low Activation and Fast Inactivation of Transducin in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yonetsu, Shin-Ichi; Fukaya, Satoshi; Koshitani, Yuki; Kawamura, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors show lower light sensitivity and briefer light responses than rod photoreceptors. The light detection signal in these cells is amplified through a phototransduction cascade. The first step of amplification in the cascade is the activation of a GTP-binding protein, transducin (Tr), by light-activated visual pigment (R*). We quantified transducin activation by measuring the binding of GTPγS in purified carp rod and cone membrane preparations with the use of a rapid quench apparatus and found that transducin activation by an R* molecule is ∼5 times less efficient in cones than in rods. Transducin activation terminated in less than 1 s in cones, more quickly than in rods. The rate of GTP hydrolysis in Tr*, and thus the rate of Tr* inactivation, was ∼25 times higher in cones than in rods. This faster inactivation of Tr* ensures briefer light responses in cones. The expression level of RGS9 was found to be ∼20 times higher in cones than in rods, which explains higher GTP hydrolytic activity and, thus, faster Tr* inactivation in cones than in rods. Although carp rods and cones express rod- or cone-versions of visual pigment and transducin, these molecules themselves do not seem to induce the differences significantly in the transducin activation and Tr* inactivation in rods and cones. Instead, the differences seem to be brought about in a rod or cone cell-type specific manner. PMID:23045532

  4. Fast electron generation in cones with ultraintense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Van Woerkom, L.; Chowdhury, E.; Link, A.; Offermann, D.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Schumacher, D. W.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; King, J. A.; Ma, T.; Chen, C. D.; Freeman, R. R.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; MacKinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.

    2008-05-15

    Experimental results from copper cones irradiated with ultraintense laser light are presented. Spatial images and total yields of Cu K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence were measured as a function of the laser focusing properties. The fluorescence emission extends into the cone approximately 300 {mu}m from the cone tip and cannot be explained by ray tracing including cone wall absorption. In addition, the total fluorescence yield from cones is an order of magnitude higher than for equivalent mass foil targets. Indications are that the physics of the laser-cone interaction is dominated by preplasma created from the long duration, low-energy prepulse from the laser.

  5. Loss of cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel leads to alterations in light response modulating system and cellular stress response pathways: a gene expression profiling study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongwei; Thapa, Arjun; Morris, Lynsie M.; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Frank, Mark Barton; Bebak, Melissa; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2013-01-01

    The cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is essential for central and color vision and visual acuity. Mutations in the channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with achromatopsia and cone dystrophy. We investigated the gene expression profiles in mouse retina with CNG channel deficiency using whole genome expression microarrays. As cones comprise only 2 to 3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, the mouse lines with CNG channel deficiency on a cone-dominant background, i.e. Cnga3−/−/Nrl−/− and Cngb3−/−/Nrl−/− mice, were used in our study. Comparative data analysis revealed a total of 105 genes altered in Cnga3−/−/Nrl−/− and 92 in Cngb3−/−/Nrl−/− retinas, relative to Nrl−/− retinas, with 27 genes changed in both genotypes. The differentially expressed genes primarily encode proteins associated with cell signaling, cellular function maintenance and gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 26 and 9 canonical pathways in Cnga3−/−/Nrl−/− and Cngb3−/−/Nrl−/− retinas, respectively, with 6 pathways being shared. The shared pathways include phototransduction, cAMP/PKA-mediated signaling, endothelin signaling, and EIF2/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, whereas the IL-1, CREB, and purine metabolism signaling were found to specifically associate with Cnga3 deficiency. Thus, CNG channel deficiency differentially regulates genes that affect cell processes such as phototransduction, cellular survival and gene expression, and such regulations play a crucial role(s) in the retinal adaptation to impaired cone phototransduction. Though lack of Cnga3 and Cngb3 shares many common pathways, deficiency of Cnga3 causes more significant alterations in gene expression. This work provides insights into how cones respond to impaired phototransduction at the gene expression levels. PMID:23740940

  6. Recoverin depletion accelerates cone photoresponse recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Jingjing; Keim, Jennifer; Kastenhuber, Edda; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal Ca2+-binding protein Recoverin has been shown to regulate phototransduction termination in mammalian rods. Here we identify four recoverin genes in the zebrafish genome, rcv1a, rcv1b, rcv2a and rcv2b, and investigate their role in modulating the cone phototransduction cascade. While Recoverin-1b is only found in the adult retina, the other Recoverins are expressed throughout development in all four cone types, except Recoverin-1a, which is expressed only in rods and UV cones. Applying a double flash electroretinogram (ERG) paradigm, downregulation of Recoverin-2a or 2b accelerates cone photoresponse recovery, albeit at different light intensities. Exclusive recording from UV cones via spectral ERG reveals that knockdown of Recoverin-1a alone has no effect, but Recoverin-1a/2a double-knockdowns showed an even shorter recovery time than Recoverin-2a-deficient larvae. We also showed that UV cone photoresponse kinetics depend on Recoverin-2a function via cone-specific kinase Grk7a. This is the first in vivo study demonstrating that cone opsin deactivation kinetics determine overall photoresponse shut off kinetics. PMID:26246494

  7. The Cone-specific Visual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Shan; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2010-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors mediate our daytime vision and function under bright and rapidly-changing light conditions. As their visual pigment is destroyed in the process of photoactivation, the continuous function of cones imposes the need for rapid recycling of their chromophore and regeneration of their pigment. The canonical retinoid visual cycle through the retinal pigment epithelium cells recycles chromophore and supplies it to both rods and cones. However, shortcomings of this pathway, including its slow rate and competition with rods for chromophore, have led to the suggestion that cones might use a separate mechanism for recycling of chromophore. In the past four decades biochemical studies have identified enzymatic activities consistent with recycling chromophore in the retinas of cone-dominant animals, such as chicken and ground squirrel. These studies have led to the hypothesis of a cone-specific retina visual cycle. The physiological relevance of these studies was controversial for a long time and evidence for the function of this visual cycle emerged only in very recent studies and will be the focus of this review. The retina visual cycle supplies chromophore and promotes pigment regeneration only in cones but not in rods. This pathway is independent of the pigment epithelium and instead involves the Müller cells in the retina, where chromophore is recycled and supplied selectively to cones. The rapid supply of chromophore through the retina visual cycle is critical for extending the dynamic range of cones to bright light and for their rapid dark adaptation following exposure to light. The importance of the retina visual cycle is emphasized also by its preservation through evolution as its function has now been demonstrated in species ranging from salamander to zebrafish, mouse, primate, and human. PMID:21111842

  8. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm2). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain. PMID:27375437

  9. Transformation of light double cones in the human retina: the origin of trichromatism, of 4D-spatiotemporal vision, and of patchwise 4D Fourier transformation in Talbot imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1997-09-01

    The interpretation of the 'inverted' retina of primates as an 'optoretina' (a light cones transforming diffractive cellular 3D-phase grating) integrates the functional, structural, and oscillatory aspects of a cortical layer. It is therefore relevant to consider prenatal developments as a basis of the macro- and micro-geometry of the inner eye. This geometry becomes relevant for the postnatal trichromatic synchrony organization (TSO) as well as the adaptive levels of human vision. It is shown that the functional performances, the trichromatism in photopic vision, the monocular spatiotemporal 3D- and 4D-motion detection, as well as the Fourier optical image transformation with extraction of invariances all become possible. To transform light cones into reciprocal gratings especially the spectral phase conditions in the eikonal of the geometrical optical imaging before the retinal 3D-grating become relevant first, then in the von Laue resp. reciprocal von Laue equation for 3D-grating optics inside the grating and finally in the periodicity of Talbot-2/Fresnel-planes in the near-field behind the grating. It is becoming possible to technically realize -- at least in some specific aspects -- such a cortical optoretina sensor element with its typical hexagonal-concentric structure which leads to these visual functions.

  10. Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Miller, Donald T.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of experimental and theoretical investigations have established that photoreceptors capture light based on the principles of optical waveguiding. Yet considerable uncertainty remains, even for the most basic prediction as to whether photoreceptors support more than a single waveguide mode. To test for modal behavior in human cone photoreceptors in the near infrared, we took advantage of adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT, λc = 785 nm) to noninvasively image in three dimensions the reflectance profile of cones. Modal content of reflections generated at the cone inner segment and outer segment junction (IS/OS) and cone outer segment tip (COST) was examined over a range of cone diameters in 1,802 cones from 0.6° to 10° retinal eccentricity. Second moment analysis in conjunction with theoretical predictions indicate cone IS and OS have optical properties consistent of waveguides, which depend on segment diameter and refractive index. Cone IS was found to support a single mode near the fovea (≤3°) and multiple modes further away (>4°). In contrast, no evidence of multiple modes was found in the cone OSs. The IS/OS and COST reflections share a common optical aperture, are most circular near the fovea, show no orientation preference, and are temporally stable. We tested mode predictions of a conventional step-index fiber model and found that in order to fit our AO-OCT results required a lower estimate of the IS refractive index and introduction of an IS focusing/tapering effect. PMID:26417509

  11. Salamander Blue-sensitive Cones Lost During Metamorphosis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Znoiko, Sergey; DeGrip, Willem J.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ma, Jian-xing

    2009-01-01

    The tiger salamander lives in shallow water with bright light in the aquatic phase, and in dim tunnels or caves in the terrestrial phase. In the aquatic phase, there are five types of photoreceptors—two types of rods and three types of cones. Our previous studies showed that the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same visual pigment and have the same absorbance spectra; however, the green rods have a larger photon-catch area and thus have higher light sensitivity than the blue-sensitive cones. Here we show that after metamorphosis, the terrestrial salamander looses the blue-sensitive cones, while the density of the green rods increases. Moreover, the size of the green rod outer segments is increased in the terrestrial phase, compared to that in the aquatic phase. This switch from the blue-sensitive cones to the green rods may represent an adaptation to the dim light environment of the terrestrial phase. PMID:18331398

  12. Rapid Measurement of Individual Cone Photoreceptor Pointing using Focus Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh J.; Codona, Johanan L.; Blanco, Leonardo; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A novel method is presented to rapidly measure the pointing direction of individual human cone photoreceptors using adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging. For a fixed entrance pupil position, the focal plane is rapidly modulated to image the guided light in various axial planes. For cones with different pointing directions, this focus diversity will cause a shift in their apparent position, allowing for their relative pointing to be determined. For four normal human subjects, retinal images were acquired, registered and the positions of individual cones tracked throughout the dataset. Variation in cone tilt was 0.02 radians, agreeing with other objective measurements on the same subjects at the same retinal locations. PMID:26368692

  13. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks—the rays and chimaeras—are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λmax 484-518 nm) and cone (λmax 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  14. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks-the rays and chimaeras-are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λ(max) 484-518 nm) and cone (λ(max) 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  15. Design of a Trichromatic Cone Array

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jennifer M.; Sterling, Peter; Brainard, David H.; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    Cones with peak sensitivity to light at long (L), medium (M) and short (S) wavelengths are unequal in number on the human retina: S cones are rare (<10%) while increasing in fraction from center to periphery, and the L/M cone proportions are highly variable between individuals. What optical properties of the eye, and statistical properties of natural scenes, might drive this organization? We found that the spatial-chromatic structure of natural scenes was largely symmetric between the L, M and S sensitivity bands. Given this symmetry, short wavelength attenuation by ocular media gave L/M cones a modest signal-to-noise advantage, which was amplified, especially in the denser central retina, by long-wavelength accommodation of the lens. Meanwhile, total information represented by the cone mosaic remained relatively insensitive to L/M proportions. Thus, the observed cone array design along with a long-wavelength accommodated lens provides a selective advantage: it is maximally informative. PMID:20168996

  16. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yunlu; Shen, Susan Q.; Jui, Jonathan; Rupp, Alan C.; Byrne, Leah C.; Hattar, Samer; Flannery, John G.; Corbo, Joseph C.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde–binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by RLBP1) can lead to severe cone photoreceptor–mediated vision loss in patients. It is not known how CRALBP supports cone function or how altered CRALBP leads to cone dysfunction. Here, we determined that deletion of Rlbp1 in mice impairs the retinal visual cycle. Mice lacking CRALBP exhibited M-opsin mislocalization, M-cone loss, and impaired cone-driven visual behavior and light responses. Additionally, M-cone dark adaptation was largely suppressed in CRALBP-deficient animals. While rearing CRALBP-deficient mice in the dark prevented the deterioration of cone function, it did not rescue cone dark adaptation. Adeno-associated virus–mediated restoration of CRALBP expression specifically in Müller cells, but not retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, rescued the retinal visual cycle and M-cone sensitivity in knockout mice. Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone–driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation. PMID:25607845

  17. Rod-cone interactions and analysis of retinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Arden, G B; Hogg, C R

    1985-01-01

    Cone flicker threshold rises as the rods dark adapt, though the cone threshold to continuous light remains constant. The rise is normally about 1 log unit, but in certain patients who complain of night blindness it may be as great as 2.5 log units. In these persons the kinetics of the rod-cone interaction are those of the recovery of rod sensitivity. The rods impose a low-pass filter on the cones. This effect is absent in congenital nyctalopia and X-linked retinoschisis. We suggest that cone flicker is maintained through a feedback system involving horizontal cells, and when the rod dark current returns in dark adaptation this feedback is altered. Rod cone interaction thus tests rod dark current, and cases of abnormal interaction in patients with retinitis pigmentosa occur, which indicate that the transduction mechanism and the membrane dark current may be differentially affected. Images PMID:3873959

  18. Fast Electron Generation in Cones with Ultra-Intense Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; VanWoerkom, L; Akli, K; Bartal, T; Beg, F; Chawla, S; Chen, C; Chowdhury, E; Freeman, R; Hey, D; Key, M; King, J; Link, A; MacPhee, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Schumacher, D; Stephens, R; Tsui, Y; Ma, T

    2007-12-07

    Experimental results from copper cones irradiated with ultra-intense laser light are presented. Spatial images and total yields of Cu K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence were measured as a function of the laser focusing properties. The fluorescence emission extends into the cone approximately 300 {micro}m from the cone tip and cannot be explained by ray tracing including cone wall absorption. In addition the total fluorescence yield from cones is an order of magnitude higher than for equivalent mass foil targets. Indications are that the physics of the laser cone interaction is dominated by preplasma created from the long duration, low energy pre-pulse from the laser.

  19. Restoration of cone vision in the CNGA3-/- mouse model of congenital complete lack of cone photoreceptor function.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Stylianos; Mühlfriedel, Regine; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Krishnamoorthy, Vidhyasankar; Koch, Susanne; Fischer, M Dominik; Becirovic, Elvir; Bai, Lin; Huber, Gesine; Beck, Susanne C; Fahl, Edda; Büning, Hildegard; Paquet-Durand, François; Zong, Xiangang; Gollisch, Tim; Biel, Martin; Seeliger, Mathias W

    2010-12-01

    Congenital absence of cone photoreceptor function is associated with strongly impaired daylight vision and loss of color discrimination in human achromatopsia. Here, we introduce viral gene replacement therapy as a potential treatment for this disease in the CNGA3(-/-) mouse model. We show that such therapy can restore cone-specific visual processing in the central nervous system even if cone photoreceptors had been nonfunctional from birth. The restoration of cone vision was assessed at different stages along the visual pathway. Treated CNGA3(-/-) mice were able to generate cone photoreceptor responses and to transfer these signals to bipolar cells. In support, we found morphologically that treated cones expressed regular cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel complexes and opsins in outer segments, which previously they did not. Moreover, expression of CNGA3 normalized cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in cones, delayed cone cell death and reduced the inflammatory response of Müller glia cells that is typical of retinal degenerations. Furthermore, ganglion cells from treated, but not from untreated, CNGA3(-/-) mice displayed cone-driven, light-evoked, spiking activity, indicating that signals generated in the outer retina are transmitted to the brain. Finally, we demonstrate that this newly acquired sensory information was translated into cone-mediated, vision-guided behavior.

  20. Residual Foveal Cone Structure in CNGB3-Associated Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Langlo, Christopher S.; Patterson, Emily J.; Higgins, Brian P.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Razeen, Moataz M.; Erker, Laura R.; Parker, Maria; Collison, Frederick T.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Kay, Christine N.; Zhang, Jing; Weleber, Richard G.; Yang, Paul; Wilson, David J.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Lam, Byron L.; Chiang, John; Chulay, Jeffrey D.; Dubra, Alfredo; Hauswirth, William W.; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Congenital achromatopsia (ACHM) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which cone function is absent or severely reduced. Gene therapy in animal models of ACHM have shown restoration of cone function, though translation of these results to humans relies, in part, on the presence of viable cone photoreceptors at the time of treatment. Here, we characterized residual cone structure in subjects with CNGB3-associated ACHM. Methods High-resolution imaging (optical coherence tomography [OCT] and adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy [AOSLO]) was performed in 51 subjects with CNGB3-associated ACHM. Peak cone density and inter-cone spacing at the fovea was measured using split-detection AOSLO. Foveal outer nuclear layer thickness was measured in OCT images, and the integrity of the photoreceptor layer was assessed using a previously published OCT grading scheme. Results Analyzable images of the foveal cones were obtained in 26 of 51 subjects, with nystagmus representing the major obstacle to obtaining high-quality images. Peak foveal cone density ranged from 7,273 to 53,554 cones/mm2, significantly lower than normal (range, 84,733–234,391 cones/mm2), with the remnant cones being either contiguously or sparsely arranged. Peak cone density was correlated with OCT integrity grade; however, there was overlap of the density ranges between OCT grades. Conclusions The degree of residual foveal cone structure varies greatly among subjects with CNGB3-associated ACHM. Such measurements may be useful in estimating the therapeutic potential of a given retina, providing affected individuals and physicians with valuable information to more accurately assess the risk-benefit ratio as they consider enrolling in experimental gene therapy trials. (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01846052.) PMID:27479814

  1. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  2. 2017 Eclipse Shadow Cones

    NASA Video Gallery

    A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow falls on the Earth. The shadow comprises two concentric cones called the umbra and the penumbra. Within the smaller, central umbra, the Sun is complete...

  3. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4 (FATP4) Prevents Light-Induced Degeneration of Cone and Rod Photoreceptors by Inhibiting RPE65 Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songhua; Lee, Jungsoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gordon, William C.; Hill, James M.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Jin, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While Rhodopsin is essential for sensing light for vision, it also mediates light-induced apoptosis of photoreceptors in mouse. RPE65, which catalyzes isomerization of all-trans retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis retinol (11cROL) in the visual cycle, controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate and photoreceptor susceptibility to light-induced degeneration. Mutations in RPE65 have been linked to blindness in affected children. Despite such importance, the mechanism that regulates RPE65 function remains unclear. Through unbiased expression screening of a bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cDNA library, we have identified elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 1 (ELOVL1) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), which each have very long-chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCFA-ACS) activity, as negative regulators of RPE65. We found that the VLCFA derivative lignoceroyl (C24:0)-CoA inhibited synthesis of 11cROL, whereas palmitoyl (C16:0)-CoA promoted synthesis of 11cROL. We further found that competition of FATP4 with RPE65 for the substrate of RPE65 was also involved in the mechanisms by which FATP4 inhibits synthesis of 11cROL. FATP4 was predominantly expressed in RPE, and the FATP4-deficient RPE showed significantly higher isomerase activity. Consistent with these results, the regeneration rate of 11-cis retinaldehyde and the recovery rate for rod light sensitivity were faster in FATP4-deficient mice than wild-type mice. Moreover, FATP4-deficient mice displayed increased accumulation of the cytotoxic all-trans retinaldehyde and hyper susceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Our findings demonstrate that ELOVL1, FATP4, and their products comprise the regulatory elements of RPE65 and play important roles in protecting photoreceptors from degeneration induced by light damage. PMID:23407971

  4. HSURIA Cone Centration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    laser. b. Interferometer configuration. This configuration (Fig. 4) uses a Twyman -Green interferometer to measure the cone centration for comparison...autocollimator. The interferometer mode, as was explained in Section Ill-l, gave very little information about the alignment of the cone. c. Physical...the camera turning flat (5) must be removed and the centration sensor laser is used. The interferometer laser is turned off. For the interferometer

  5. Hurricane track forecast cones from fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Meuel, T; Prado, G; Seychelles, F; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2012-01-01

    Trajectories of tropical cyclones may show large deviations from predicted tracks leading to uncertainty as to their landfall location for example. Prediction schemes usually render this uncertainty by showing track forecast cones representing the most probable region for the location of a cyclone during a period of time. By using the statistical properties of these deviations, we propose a simple method to predict possible corridors for the future trajectory of a cyclone. Examples of this scheme are implemented for hurricane Ike and hurricane Jimena. The corridors include the future trajectory up to at least 50 h before landfall. The cones proposed here shed new light on known track forecast cones as they link them directly to the statistics of these deviations.

  6. Neuroprotectin D1 is synthesized in the cone photoreceptor cell line 661W and elicits protection against light-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Kanan, Y; Gordon, W C; Mukherjee, P K; Bazan, N G; Al-Ubaidi, M R

    2015-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid family member, is obtained by diet or synthesized from dietary essential omega-3 linolenic acid and delivered systemically to the choriocapillaris, from where it is taken up by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). DHA is then transported to the inner segments of photoreceptors, where it is incorporated in phospholipids during the biogenesis of outer segment disk and plasma membranes. As apical photoreceptor disks are gradually shed and phagocytized by the RPE, DHA is retrieved and recycled back to photoreceptor inner segments for reassembly into new disks. Under uncompensated oxidative stress, the docosanoid neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a potent mediator derived from DHA, is formed by the RPE and displays its bioactivity in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether photoreceptors have the ability to synthesize NPD1, and whether or not this lipid mediator exerts bioactivity on these cells. For this purpose, 661W cells (mouse-derived photoreceptor cells) were used. First we asked whether these cells have the ability to form NPD1 by incubating cells with deuterium (d4)-labeled DHA exposed to dark and bright light treatments, followed by LC-MS/MS-based lipidomic analysis to identify and quantify d4-NPD1. The second question pertains to the potential bioactivity of these lipids. Therefore, cells were incubated with 9-cis-retinal in the presence of bright light that triggers cell damage and death. Following 9-cis-retinal loading, DHA, NPD1, or vehicle were added to the media and the 661W cells maintained either in darkness or under bright light. DHA and NPD1 were then quantified in cells and media. Regardless of lighting conditions, 661W cells acquired DHA from the media and synthesized 4-9 times as much d4-NPD1 under bright light treatment in the absence and presence of 9-cis-retinal compared to cells in darkness. Viability assays of 9-cis-retinal-treated cells demonstrated that

  7. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  8. Ideal illuminants for rod/L-cone color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Humans see multicolor complex images with illuminants that have very low amounts of 400 to 580nm light when there is enough long-wave light greater than 590nm. Interactions between rods and long-wave (L) cones generate these colors. They are observed when there is insufficient light for a threshold response from M- and S-cones. This paper measures the spectral emission of a wood fire and a wax candle and it compares these low-color temperature spectral radiant exitances with the sensitivities of rods and long-wave cones. The paper reviews some of the literature on the evolution of human cone pigments and the early use of fire by hominids.

  9. Rod-cone interactions and the temporal impulse response of the cone pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zele, Andrew J.; Cao, Dingcai; Pokorny, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Dark-adapted rods suppress cone-mediated flicker detection. This study evaluates the effect that rod activity has on cone temporal processing by investigating whether rod mediated suppression changes the cone pathway impulse response function, regardless of the form of the temporal signal. Stimuli were generated with a 2-channel photostimulator that has four primaries for the central field and four primaries for the surround. Cone pathway temporal impulse response functions were derived from temporal contrast sensitivity data with periodic stimuli, and from two-pulse discrimination data in which pairs of briefly pulsed stimuli were presented successively at a series of stimulus onset asynchronies. Dark-adapted rods altered the amplitude and timing of cone pathway temporal impulse response functions, irrespective of whether they were derived from measurements with temporally periodic stimuli or in a brief presentation temporal resolution task with pulsed stimuli. Rod-cone interactions are a fundamental operation in visual temporal processing under mesopic light levels, acting to decrease the temporal bandwidth of the visual system. PMID:18486960

  10. The cone dysfunction syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Aboshiha, Jonathan; Dubis, Adam M; Hardcastle, Alison J; Michaelides, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The cone dysfunction syndromes are a heterogeneous group of inherited, predominantly stationary retinal disorders characterised by reduced central vision and varying degrees of colour vision abnormalities, nystagmus and photophobia. This review details the following conditions: complete and incomplete achromatopsia, blue-cone monochromatism, oligocone trichromacy, bradyopsia and Bornholm eye disease. We describe the clinical, psychophysical, electrophysiological and imaging findings that are characteristic to each condition in order to aid their accurate diagnosis, as well as highlight some classically held notions about these diseases that have come to be challenged over the recent years. The latest data regarding the genetic aetiology and pathological changes observed in the cone dysfunction syndromes are discussed, and, where relevant, translational avenues of research, including completed and anticipated interventional clinical trials, for some of the diseases described herein will be presented. Finally, we briefly review the current management of these disorders. PMID:25770143

  11. Ultra-short pulses to signal neuronal growth cone machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Manoj; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Andres, Rosa; Cormack, Iain G.; Artigas, David; Soriano, Eduardo; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2007-02-01

    Measurable change in the sensory motor machinery of growth cones are induced by non contact femtosecond laser. The focused laser beam with an average power of 3 mW was positioned at some distance away from the closest fillopodia of cortical neurons from primary cell cultures (mice E15). By identifying a set of preliminary parameters we were able to statistically analyze the phenomenological behavior of the fillopodia and classify the effects different conditions of laser light has on the growth cone. Results show that fillopodia become significantly biased towards the focused femtosecond laser light. The same experiment performed with continuous wave (CW) produced results which were indistinguishable from the case where there is no laser light present (placebo condition) indicating no clear effects of the CW laser light on the fillopodia at a distance. These findings show the potential for ultrashort pulsed light to become a new type of pathfinding cue for neuronal growth cones.

  12. The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollon, J. D.; Bowmaker, J. K.

    1992-12-01

    THE retinae of Old World primates contain three classes of light-sensitive cone, which exhibit peak absorption in different spectral regions1-4. But how are the different types of cone arranged in the hexagonal mosaic of the fovea? This question has often been answered with artists' impressions5-7, but never with direct measurements. Staining for antibodies specific to the short-wave photopigment has revealed a sparse, semiregular array of cones8; but nothing is known about the arrangement of the more numerous long- and middle-wave cones. Are they randomly distributed, with chance aggregations of one type, as Hartridge postulated in these columns nearly 50 years ago9,10? Or do they exhibit a regular alternation, recalling the systematic mosaics seen in some non-mammalian species6,11? Or, conversely, is there positive clumping of particular cone types, as might be expected if local patches of cones were descended from a single precursor cell? We have made direct microspectrophotometric measurements of patches of foveal retina from Old World monkeys, and report here that the distribu tion of long- and middle-wave cones is locally random. These two cone types are present in almost equal numbers, and not in the ratio of 2:1 that has been postulated for the human fovea.

  13. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B.; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones. PMID:26423439

  14. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-10-06

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones.

  15. Combination of rod and cone inputs in parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Lee, Barry B.; Sun, Hao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how rod and cone inputs are combined in the magnocellular (MC) pathway in the mesopic luminance range, when both rods and cones are active. Responses of parafoveal MC ganglion cells from macaque retina were measured as a function of temporal frequency (0.62–20 Hz) or contrast (0.05–0.55) at mesopic light levels (0.2, 2, 20, and 200 td). Stimuli were of three modulation types: (1) isolated rod stimuli (only rod signals were modulated), (2) isolated cone stimuli (only cone luminance signals from long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones were modulated), and (3) combined rod and cone stimuli (both rod and cone luminance signals were modulated in phase, as with conventional stimuli). The results showed that under mesopic conditions, the relative rod and cone inputs to the MC cells varied with light level and they are combined linearly prior to saturation. Further, rod contrast gain is relatively stable over the mesopic range while cone contrast gain increased with light level. Finally, the measured rod and cone inputs are consistent with the measured human temporal contrast sensitivity functions under comparable stimulation conditions. PMID:20884499

  16. Directionality of Individual Cone Photoreceptors in the Parafoveal Region

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh J.; Blanco, Leonardo; Codona, Johanan L.; Li, Simone; Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The pointing direction of cone photoreceptors can be inferred from the Stiles-Crawford Effect of the First Kind (SCE-I) measurement. Healthy retinas have tightly packed cones with a SCE-I function peak either centered in the pupil or with a slight nasal bias. Various retinal pathologies can change the profile of the SCE-I function implying that the arrangement or the light capturing properties of the cone photoreceptors are affected. Measuring the SCE-I may reveal early signs of photoreceptor change before actual cell apoptosis occurs. In vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics (AO) was used to measure the pointing direction of individual cones at eight retinal locations in four control human subjects. Retinal images were acquired by translating an aperture in the light delivery arm through 19 different locations across a subject’s entrance pupil. Angular tuning properties of individual cones were calculated by fitting a Gaussian to the reflected intensity profile of each cone projected onto the pupil. Results were compared to those from an accepted psychophysical SCE-I measurement technique. The maximal difference in cone directionality of an ensemble of cones, ρ̄, between the major and minor axes of the Gaussian fit was 0.05 versus 0.29 mm−2 in one subject. All four subjects were found to have a mean nasal bias of 0.81 mm with a standard deviation of ±0.30 mm in the peak position at all retinal locations with mean ρ̄ value decreasing by 23% with increasing retinal eccentricity. Results show that cones in the parafoveal region converge towards the center of the pupillary aperture, confirming the anterior pointing alignment hypothesis. PMID:26494187

  17. Effect of rod–cone interactions on mesopic visual performance mediated by chromatic and luminance pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zele, Andrew J.; Maynard, Michelle L.; Joyce, Daniel S.; Cao, Dingcai

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effect of rod–cone interactions on mesopic visual reaction time (RT). Rod and cone photoreceptor excitations were independently controlled using a four-primary photostimulator. It was observed that (1) lateral rod–cone interactions increase the cone-mediated RTs; (2) the rod–cone interactions are strongest when rod sensitivity is maximal in a dark surround, but weaker with increased rod activity in a light surround; and (3) the presence of a dark surround nonselectively increased the mean and variability of chromatic (+L−M, S-cone) and luminance (L + M + S) RTs independent of the level of rod activity. The results demonstrate that lateral rod–cone interactions must be considered when deriving mesopic luminous efficiency using RT. PMID:24695205

  18. Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, C. G.

    2016-09-01

    Preface; 1. Historical; 2. Waves and wave-motion; 3. The behaviour of ripples; 4. The behaviour of light; 5. Refraction through glass blocks and prisms; 6. The imprinting of curvatures; 7. Simple mathematical treatment; 8. More advanced mathematical treatment; 9. The velocity of light; 10. The spectrum and colour; 11. Geometrical optics; 12. The eye and optical instruments; 13. Sources of light; 14. Interference, diffraction and polarisation; 15. Suggestions for class experiments; Index.

  19. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  20. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  1. Radon Transform and Light-Cone Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The relevance of Radon transform for generalized and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions is discussed. The new application for conditional (fracture) parton distributions and dihadron fragmentation functions is suggested.

  2. The uniqueness of the solution of cone-like inversion models for halo CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. P.

    2006-12-01

    Most of elliptic halo CMEs are believed to be formed by the Thompson scattering of the photospheric light by the 3-D cone-like shell of the CME plasma. To obtain the real propagation direction and angular width of the halo CMEs, such cone-like inversion models as the circular cone, the elliptic cone and the ice-cream cone models have been suggested recently. Because the number of given parameters that are used to characterize 2-D elliptic halo CMEs observed by one spacecraft are less than the number of unknown parameters that are used to characterize the 3-D elliptic cone model, the solution of the elliptic cone model is not unique. Since it is difficult to determine whether or not an observed halo CME is formed by an circular cone or elliptic cone shell, the solution of circular cone model may often be not unique too. To fix the problem of the uniqueness of the solution of various 3-D cone-like inversion models, this work tries to develop the algorithm for using the data from multi-spacecraft, such as the STEREO A and B, and the Solar Sentinels.

  3. Purification of cone outer segment for proteomic analysis on its membrane proteins in carp retina

    PubMed Central

    Fukagawa, Takashi; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Tachibanaki, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Rods and cones are both photoreceptors in the retina, but they are different in many aspects including the light response characteristics and, for example, cell morphology and metabolism. These differences would be caused by differences in proteins expressed in rods and cones. To understand the molecular bases of these differences between rods and cones, one of the ways is to compare proteins expressed in rods and cones, and to find those expressed specifically or dominantly. In the present study, we are interested in proteins in the outer segment (OS), the site responsible for generation of rod- or cone-characteristic light responses and also the site showing different morphology between rods and cones. For this, we established a method to purify the OS and the inner segment (IS) of rods and also of cones from purified carp rods and cones, respectively, using sucrose density gradient. In particular, we were interested in proteins tightly bound to the membranes of cone OS. To identify these proteins, we analyzed proteins in some selected regions of an SDS-gel of washed membranes of the OS and the IS obtained from both rods and cones, with Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using a protein database constructed from carp retina. By comparing the lists of the proteins found in the OS and the IS of both rods and cones, we found some proteins present in cone OS membranes specifically or dominantly, in addition to the proteins already known to be present specifically in cone OS. PMID:28291804

  4. Retinal bipolar cells: temporal filtering of signals from cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Dwight A; Fahey, Patrick K; Sikora, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of the response of neurons in the outer retina were investigated by intracellular recording from cones, bipolar, and horizontal cells in the intact, light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), with special emphasis on comparing the two major classes of bipolars cells, the ON depolarizing bipolars (Bd) and the OFF hyperpolarizing bipolars (Bh). Transfer functions were computed from impulse responses evoked by a brief light flash on a steady background of 20 cd/m(2). Phase delays ranged from about 89 ms for cones to 170 ms for Bd cells, yielding delays relative to that of cones of about 49 ms for Bh cells and 81 ms for Bd cells. The difference between Bd and Bh cells, which may be due to a delay introduced by the second messenger G-protein pathway unique to Bd cells, was further quantified by latency measurements and responses to white noise. The amplitude transfer functions of the outer retinal neurons varied with light adaptation in qualitative agreement with results for other vertebrates and human vision. The transfer functions at 20 cd/m(2) were predominantly low pass with 10-fold attenuation at about 13, 14, 9.1, and 7.7 Hz for cones, horizontal, Bh, and Bd cells, respectively. The transfer function from the cone voltage to the bipolar voltage response, as computed from the above measurements, was low pass and approximated by a cascade of three low pass RC filters ("leaky integrators"). These results for cone-->bipolar transmission are surprisingly similar to recent results for rod-->bipolar transmission in salamander slice preparations. These and other findings suggest that the rate of vesicle replenishment rather than the rate of release may be a common factor shaping synaptic signal transmission from rods and cones to bipolar cells.

  5. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  6. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    DOE PAGES

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; ...

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less

  7. Kinematics of Cone-In-Cone Growth, with Implications for Timing and Formation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, J. N.; Cartwright, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Cone-in-cone is an enigmatic structure. Similar to many fibrous calcite veins, cone-in-cone is generally formed of calcite and present in bedding-parallel vein-like accumulations within fine-grained rocks. Unlike most fibrous veins, cone-in-cone contains conical inclusions of host-rock material, creating nested, parallel cones throughout. A long-debated aspect of cone-in-cone structures is whether the calcite precipitated with its conical form (primary cone-in-cone), or whether the cones formed afterwards (secondary cone-in-cone). Trace dolomite within a calcite cone-in-cone structure from the Cretaceous of Jordan supports the primary hypothesis. The host sediment is a siliceous mud containing abundant rhombohedral dolomite grains. Dolomite rhombohedra are also distributed throughout the cone-in-cone. The rhombohedra within the cones are randomly oriented yet locally have dolomite overgrowths having boundaries that are aligned with calcite fibers. Evidence that dolomite co-precipitated with calcite, and did not replace calcite, includes (i) preferential downward extension of dolomite overgrowths, in the presumed growth-direction of the cone-in-cone, and (ii) planar, vertical borders between dolomite crystals and calcite fibers. Because dolomite overgrows host-sediment rhombohedra and forms fibers within the cones, it follows that the host-sediment was included within the growing cone-in-cone as the calcite precipitated, and not afterward. The host-sediment was not injected into the cone-in-cone along fractures, as the secondary-origin hypothesis suggests. This finding implies that cone-in-cone in general does not form over multiple stages, and thus has greater potential to preserve the chemical signature of its original precipitation. Because cone-in-cone likely forms before complete lithification of the host, and because the calcite displaces the host material against gravity, this chemical signature can preserve information about early overpressures in fine

  8. Making An Impact: Shatter Cones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Lisa M.; Plautz, Michael R.; Crews, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, a group of geologists discovered a large number of shatter cones in southwestern Montana. Shatter cones are a type of metamorphosed rock often found in impact structures (the remains of a crater after a meteor impact and years of Earth activity). Scientists have discovered only 168 impact craters around the world. If rocks could talk,…

  9. Color vision, cones, and color-coding in the cortex.

    PubMed

    Conway, Bevil R

    2009-06-01

    Color processing begins with the absorption of light by cone photoreceptors, and progresses through a series of hierarchical stages: Retinal signals carrying color information are transmitted through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN) up to the primary visual cortex (V1). From V1, the signals are processed by the second visual area (V2); then by cells located in subcompartments ("globs") within the posterior inferior temporal (PIT) cortex, a brain region that encompasses area V4 and brain regions immediately anterior to V4. Color signals are then processed by regions deep within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex including area TE. As a heuristic, one can consider each of these stages to be involved in constructing a distinct aspect of the color percept. The three cone types are the basis for trichromacy; retinal ganglion cells that respond in an opponent fashion to activation of different cone classes are the basis for color opponency (these "cone-opponent" cells increase their firing rate above baseline to activation of one cone class and decrease their firing rate below baseline to activation of a different cone class); double-opponent neurons in the V1 generate local color contrast and are the building blocks for color constancy; glob cells elaborate the perception of hue; and IT integrates color perception in the context of behavior. Finally, though nothing is known, these signals presumably interface with motor programs and emotional centers of the brain to mediate the widely acknowledged emotional salience of color.

  10. Laser range profile of cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhen; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-10-01

    technology. Laser one-dimensional range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser about cone is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser one-dimensional range profile of cone based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cones are given. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of different pulse width of cone is given in this paper. The influences of surface material, pulse width, attitude on the one-dimensional range are analyzed. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. The two-dimensional range profile of roughness target can provide range resolved information. An analytical model of two-dimensional laser range profile of cone is proposed. The simulations of two-dimensional laser range profiles of some cones are given. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. The influence of pulse width, surface material on laser two-dimensional range profile is analyzed. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called as laser

  11. Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients with Congenital Achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Abozaid, Mortada A; Langlo, Christopher S; Dubis, Adam M; Michaelides, Michel; Tarima, Sergey; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) allows non-invasive assessment of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. Confocal AOSLO imaging of patients with achromatopsia (ACHM) reveals an altered reflectivity of the remaining cone structure, making identification of the cells more challenging than in normal retinas. Recently, a "split-detector" AOSLO imaging method was shown to enable direct visualization of cone inner segments in patients with ACHM. Several studies have demonstrated gene replacement therapy effective in restoring cone function in animal models of ACHM and human trials have on the horizon, making the ability to reliably assess cone structure increasingly important. Here we sought to examine whether absolute estimates of cone density obtained from split-detector and confocal AOSLO images differed from one another and whether the inter- and intra-observer reliability is significantly different between these modes. These findings provide an important foundation for evaluating the role of these images as tools to assess the efficacy of future gene therapy trials.

  12. Accommodation with and without short-wavelength-sensitive cones and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Philip B; Rucker, Frances J; Hu, Caitlin; Rutman, Hadassa; Schmidt, Nathan W; Roditis, Vasilios

    2005-05-01

    Accommodation was monitored while observers (23) viewed a square-wave grating (2.2 cycles/deg; 0.53 contrast) in a Badal optometer. The grating moved sinusoidally (0.2 Hz) to provide a stimulus between -1.00 D and -3.00 D during trials lasting 40.96 s. There were three illumination conditions: 1. Monochromatic 550 nm light to stimulate long-wavelength-sensitive cones (L-cones) and medium-wavelength-sensitive cones (M-cones) without chromatic aberration; 2. Monochromatic 550 nm light+420 nm light to stimulate long-, medium- and short-wavelength-sensitive cones (S-cones) with longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA); 3. Monochromatic 550 nm light+420 nm light to stimulate L-, M- and S-cones viewed through an achromatizing lens. In the presence of LCA mean dynamic gain decreased (p=0.0003; ANOVA) and mean accommodation level was reduced (p=0.001; ANOVA). The reduction in gain and increased lag of accommodation in the presence of LCA could result from a blue-yellow chromatic signal or from a larger depth-of-focus.

  13. Rapid Recovery of Visual Function Associated with Blue Cone Ablation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hagerman, Gordon F.; Noel, Nicole C. L.; Cao, Sylvia Y.; DuVal, Michèle G.; Oel, A. Phillip; Allison, W. Ted

    2016-01-01

    Hurdles in the treatment of retinal degeneration include managing the functional rewiring of surviving photoreceptors and integration of any newly added cells into the remaining second-order retinal neurons. Zebrafish are the premier genetic model for such questions, and we present two new transgenic lines allowing us to contrast vision loss and recovery following conditional ablation of specific cone types: UV or blue cones. The ablation of each cone type proved to be thorough (killing 80% of cells in each intended cone class), specific, and cell-autonomous. We assessed the loss and recovery of vision in larvae via the optomotor behavioural response (OMR). This visually mediated behaviour decreased to about 5% or 20% of control levels following ablation of UV or blue cones, respectively (P<0.05). We further assessed ocular photoreception by measuring the effects of UV light on body pigmentation, and observed that photoreceptor deficits and recovery occurred (p<0.01) with a timeline coincident to the OMR results. This corroborated and extended previous conclusions that UV cones are required photoreceptors for modulating body pigmentation, addressing assumptions that were unavoidable in previous experiments. Functional vision recovery following UV cone ablation was robust, as measured by both assays, returning to control levels within four days. In contrast, robust functional recovery following blue cone ablation was unexpectedly rapid, returning to normal levels within 24 hours after ablation. Ablation of cones led to increased proliferation in the retina, though the rapid recovery of vision following blue cone ablation was demonstrated to not be mediated by blue cone regeneration. Thus rapid visual recovery occurs following ablation of some, but not all, cone subtypes, suggesting an opportunity to contrast and dissect the sources and mechanisms of outer retinal recovery during cone photoreceptor death and regeneration. PMID:27893779

  14. Circadian regulation of teleost retinal cone movements in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In the retinas of many species of lower vertebrates, retinal photoreceptors and pigment epithelium pigment granules undergo daily movements in response to both diurnal, and in the case of teleost cone photoreceptors, endogenous circadian signals. Typically, these cone movements take place at dawn and at dusk when teleosts are maintained on a cyclic light (LD) regime, and at expected dawn and expected dusk when animals are maintained in continuous darkness (DD). Because these movements are so strictly controlled, they provide an overt indicator of the stage of the underlying clock mechanism. In this study we report that both light-induced and circadian-driven cone myoid movements in the Midas cichlid (Cichlasoma citrinellum), occur normally in vitro. Many of the features of retinomotor movements found in vivo also occur in our culture conditions, including responses to light and circadian stimuli and dopamine. Circadian induced predawn contraction and maintenance of expected day position in response to circadian modulation, are also normal. Our studies suggest that circadian regulation of cone myoid movement in vitro is mediated locally by dopamine, acting via a D2 receptor. Cone myoid contraction can be induced at midnight and expected mid-day by dark culture with dopamine or the D2 receptor agonist LY171555. Further, circadian induced predawn contraction can be increased with either dopamine or LY171555, or may be reversed with the dopamine D2 antagonist, sulpiride. Sulpiride will also induce cone myoid elongation in retinal cultures at expected mid- day, but will not induce cone myoid elongation at dusk. In contrast, circadian cone myoid movements in vitro were unaffected by the D1 receptor agonist SCH23390, or the D1 receptor antagonist SKF38393. Our short-term culture experiments indicate that circadian regulation of immediate cone myoid movement does not require humoral control but is regulated locally within the retina. The inclusion of dopamine, or dopamine

  15. Ejecta evolution during cone impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2013-11-01

    We present results from an experimental study of the impact of conical shaped bodies into a pool of liquid. By varying the cone angle, impact speed and liquid physical properties, we examine a broad parameter space and seek to find conditions when self-similarity can be observed during this phenomena. We use high-speed imaging to capture the early-time motion of the liquid ejecta which emanates from the tip of the cone and travels up along the cone surface. Surprisingly, we find that the detachment of the ejecta can be simply described by air entrainment relationships derived from coating experiments.

  16. Transonic Flow Past Cone Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, George E

    1955-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for transonic flow post cone-cylinder, axially symmetric bodies. The drag coefficient and surface Mach number are studied as the free-stream Mach number is varied and, wherever possible, the experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions. Interferometric results for several typical flow configurations are shown and an example of shock-free supersonic-to-subsonic compression is experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical problem of transonic flow past finite cones is discussed briefly and an approximate solution of the axially symmetric transonic equations, valid for a semi-infinite cone, is presented.

  17. Feedback-induced glutamate spillover enhances negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones

    PubMed Central

    Vroman, Rozan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Key points In the retina, horizontal cells feed back negatively to cone photoreceptors. Glutamate released from cones can spill over to neighbouring cones. Here we show that cone glutamate release induced by negative feedback can also spill over to neighbouring cones. This glutamate activates the glutamate transporter-associated chloride current in these neighbouring cones, which leads to a change in their membrane potential and thus modulates their output. In this way, feedback-induced glutamate spillover enhances negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones, thus forming an additional feedback pathway. This effect will be particularly prominent in cones that are strongly hyperpolarized by light. Abstract Inhibition in the outer retina functions via an unusual mechanism. When horizontal cells hyperpolarize the activation potential of the Ca2+ current of cones shifts to more negative potentials. The underlying mechanism consists of an ephaptic component and a Panx1/ATP-mediated component. Here we identified a third feedback component, which remains active outside the operating range of the Ca2+ current. We show that the glutamate transporters of cones can be activated by glutamate released from their neighbours. This pathway can be triggered by negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones, thus providing an additional feedback pathway. This additional pathway is mediated by a Cl− current, can be blocked by either removing the gradient of K+ or by adding the glutamate transporter blocker TBOA, or low concentrations of Zn2+. These features point to a glutamate transporter-associated Cl− current. The pathway has a delay of 4.7 ± 1.7 ms. The effectiveness of this pathway in modulating the cone output depends on the equilibrium potential of Cl− (ECl) and the membrane potential of the cone. Because estimates of ECl show that it is around the dark resting membrane potential of cones, the activation of the glutamate transporter-associated Cl− current

  18. A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod-cone opponency.

    PubMed

    Joesch, Maximilian; Meister, Markus

    2016-04-14

    In bright light, cone-photoreceptors are active and colour vision derives from a comparison of signals in cones with different visual pigments. This comparison begins in the retina, where certain retinal ganglion cells have 'colour-opponent' visual responses-excited by light of one colour and suppressed by another colour. In dim light, rod-photoreceptors are active, but colour vision is impossible because they all use the same visual pigment. Instead, the rod signals are thought to splice into retinal circuits at various points, in synergy with the cone signals. Here we report a new circuit for colour vision that challenges these expectations. A genetically identified type of mouse retinal ganglion cell called JAMB (J-RGC), was found to have colour-opponent responses, OFF to ultraviolet (UV) light and ON to green light. Although the mouse retina contains a green-sensitive cone, the ON response instead originates in rods. Rods and cones both contribute to the response over several decades of light intensity. Remarkably, the rod signal in this circuit is antagonistic to that from cones. For rodents, this UV-green channel may play a role in social communication, as suggested by spectral measurements from the environment. In the human retina, all of the components for this circuit exist as well, and its function can explain certain experiences of colour in dim lights, such as a 'blue shift' in twilight. The discovery of this genetically defined pathway will enable new targeted studies of colour processing in the brain.

  19. Rod and cone signals in the horizontal cells of the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, M; Vallerga, S

    1980-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings of horizontal cell responses to monochromatic lights of various wave-lengths and intensities were made in the retina of the larval tiger salamander in order to determine the contributions of rod and cone activities to horizontal cell responses. 2. Under conditions of extensive dark adaptation, and with dim light stimulation, the horizontal cell responses reflected mainly rod activity. In the light-adapted state or at high light intensities the cone contribution was dominant. 3. Bright adapting flashes selectively suppressed the rod component of horizontal cell responses. 4. Intracellular recordings from rods and cones showed that interactions between the two receptor types are very small and cannot account for the large rod--cone mixed input observed in horizontal cells. It is concluded that this input is mediated by direct connexions between receptors and horizontal cells. PMID:7359420

  20. Functional significance of the taper of vertebrate cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are commonly distinguished based on the shape of their outer segments: those of cones taper, whereas the ones from rods do not. The functional advantages of cone taper, a common occurrence in vertebrate retinas, remain elusive. In this study, we investigate this topic using theoretical analyses aimed at revealing structure–function relationships in photoreceptors. Geometrical optics combined with spectrophotometric and morphological data are used to support the analyses and to test predictions. Three functions are considered for correlations between taper and functionality. The first function proposes that outer segment taper serves to compensate for self-screening of the visual pigment contained within. The second function links outer segment taper to compensation for a signal-to-noise ratio decline along the longitudinal dimension. Both functions are supported by the data: real cones taper more than required for these compensatory roles. The third function relates outer segment taper to the optical properties of the inner compartment whereby the primary determinant is the inner segment’s ability to concentrate light via its ellipsoid. In support of this idea, the rod/cone ratios of primarily diurnal animals are predicted based on a principle of equal light flux gathering between photoreceptors. In addition, ellipsoid concentration factor, a measure of ellipsoid ability to concentrate light onto the outer segment, correlates positively with outer segment taper expressed as a ratio of characteristic lengths, where critical taper is the yardstick. Depending on a light-funneling property and the presence of focusing organelles such as oil droplets, cone outer segments can be reduced in size to various degrees. We conclude that outer segment taper is but one component of a miniaturization process that reduces metabolic costs while improving signal detection. Compromise solutions in the various retinas and retinal regions occur between

  1. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  2. Embryonic markers of cone differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Helen M.; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Sokolov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor cells are born in two distinct phases of vertebrate retinogenesis. In the mouse retina, cones are born primarily during embryogenesis, while rod formation occurs later in embryogenesis and early postnatal ages. Despite this dichotomy in photoreceptor birthdates, the visual pigments and phototransduction machinery are not reactive to visual stimulus in either type of photoreceptor cell until the second postnatal week. Several markers of early cone formation have been identified, including Otx2, Crx, Blimp1, NeuroD, Trβ2, Rorβ, and Rxrγ, and all are thought to be involved in cellular determination. However, little is known about the expression of proteins involved in cone visual transduction during early retinogenesis. Therefore, we sought to characterize visual transduction proteins that are expressed specifically in photoreceptors during mouse embryogenesis. Methods Eye tissue was collected from control and phosducin-null mice at embryonic and early postnatal ages. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qPCR) were used to measure the spatial and temporal expression patterns of phosducin (Pdc) and cone transducin γ (Gngt2) proteins and transcripts in the embryonic and early postnatal mouse retina. Results We identified the embryonic expression of phosducin (Pdc) and cone transducin γ (Gngt2) that coincides temporally and spatially with the earliest stages of cone histogenesis. Using immunohistochemistry, the phosducin protein was first detected in the retina at embryonic day (E)12.5, and cone transducin γ was observed at E13.5. The phosducin and cone transducin γ proteins were seen only in the outer neuroblastic layer, consistent with their expression in photoreceptors. At the embryonic ages, phosducin was coexpressed with Rxrγ, a known cone marker, and with Otx2, a marker of photoreceptors. Pdc and Gngt2 mRNAs were detected as early as E10.5 with qPCR, although at low levels. Conclusions Visual transduction

  3. Visual Pigments of Goldfish Cones

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.; MacNichol, Edward F.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly isolated retinal photoreceptors of goldfish were studied microspectrophotometrically. Absolute absorptance spectra obtained from dark-adapted cone outer segments reaffirm the existence of three spectrally distinct cone types with absorption maxima at 455 ± 3,530 ± 3, and 625 ± 5 nm. These types were found often recognizable by gross cellular morphology. Side-illuminated cone outer segments were dichroic. The measured dichroic ratio for the main absorption band of each type was 2–3:1. Rapidly bleached cells revealed spectral and dichroic transitions in regions near 400–410, 435–455, and 350–360 nm. These photoproducts decay about fivefold as fast as the intermediates in frog rods. The spectral maxima of photoproducts, combined with other evidence, indicate that retinene2 is the chromophore of all three cone pigments. The average specific optical density for goldfish cone outer segments was found to be 0.0124 ± 0.0015/µm. The spectra of the blue-, and green-absorbing cones appeared to match porphyropsin standards with half-band width Δν = 4,832 ± 100 cm–1. The red-absorbing spectrum was found narrower, having Δν = 3,625 ± 100 cm–1. The results are consistent with the notion that visual pigment concentration within the outer segments is about the same for frog rods and goldfish cones, but that the blue-, and green-absorbing pigments possess molar extinctions of 30,000 liter/mol cm. The red-absorbing pigment was found to have extinction of 40,000 liter/mol cm, assuming invariance of oscillator strength among the three cone spectra. PMID:4817352

  4. Differential encoding of spatial information among retinal on cone bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Purgert, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The retina is the first stage of visual processing. It encodes elemental features of visual scenes. Distinct cone bipolar cells provide the substrate for this to occur. They encode visual information, such as color and luminance, a principle known as parallel processing. Few studies have directly examined whether different forms of spatial information are processed in parallel among cone bipolar cells. To address this issue, we examined the spatial information encoded by mouse ON cone bipolar cells, the subpopulation excited by increments in illumination. Two types of spatial processing were identified. We found that ON cone bipolar cells with axons ramifying in the central inner plexiform layer were tuned to preferentially encode small stimuli. By contrast, ON cone bipolar cells with axons ramifying in the proximal inner plexiform layer, nearest the ganglion cell layer, were tuned to encode both small and large stimuli. This dichotomy in spatial tuning is attributable to amacrine cells providing stronger inhibition to central ON cone bipolar cells compared with proximal ON cone bipolar cells. Furthermore, background illumination altered this difference in spatial tuning. It became less pronounced in bright light, as amacrine cell-driven inhibition became pervasive among all ON cone bipolar cells. These results suggest that differential amacrine cell input determined the distinct spatial encoding properties among ON cone bipolar cells. These findings enhance the known parallel processing capacity of the retina. PMID:26203104

  5. The Repeatability of In Vivo Parafoveal Cone Density and Spacing Measurementsa

    PubMed Central

    Garrioch, Robert; Langlo, Christopher; Dubis, Adam M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubra, Alf; Carroll, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the repeatability and measurement error associated with cone density and nearest neighbor distance (NND) estimates in images of the parafoveal cone mosaic obtained with an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Methods Twenty-one participants with no known ocular pathology were recruited. Four retinal locations, approximately 0.65° eccentricity from the center of fixation were imaged 10 times in randomized order with an AOSLO. Cone coordinates in each image were identified using an automated algorithm (with or without manual correction), from which cone density and NND were calculated. Owing to naturally occurring fixational instability, the 10 images recorded from a given location did not overlap entirely. We thus analyzed each image set both before and after alignment. Results Automated estimates of cone density on the unaligned image sets showed a coefficient of repeatability of 11,769 cones/mm2 (17.1%). The primary reason for this variability appears to be fixational instability, as aligning the 10 images to include the exact same retinal area, results in an improved repeatability of 4,358 cones/mm2 (6.4%) using completely automated cone identification software. Repeatability improved further by manually identifying cones missed by the automated algorithm, with a coefficient of repeatability of 1,967 cones/mm2 (2.7%). NND showed improved repeatability, and was generally insensitive to the undersampling by the automated algorithm. Conclusions As our data were collected in a young, healthy population, this likely represents a best-case estimate for corresponding measurements in patients with retinal disease. Similar studies need to be carried out on other imaging systems (including those using different imaging modalities, wavefront correction technology, and/or cone identification software), as repeatability would be expected to be highly sensitive to initial image quality and the performance of cone identification algorithms

  6. Cone Photoreceptor Structure in Patients With X-Linked Cone Dysfunction and Red-Green Color Vision Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily J.; Wilk, Melissa; Langlo, Christopher S.; Kasilian, Melissa; Ring, Michael; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Dubis, Adam M.; Tee, James J.; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Gardner, Jessica C.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Sisk, Robert A.; Larsen, Michael; Sjoberg, Stacy; Connor, Thomas B.; Dubra, Alfredo; Neitz, Jay; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Neitz, Maureen; Michaelides, Michel; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the coding sequence of the L and M opsin genes are often associated with X-linked cone dysfunction (such as Bornholm Eye Disease, BED), though the exact color vision phenotype associated with these disorders is variable. We examined individuals with L/M opsin gene mutations to clarify the link between color vision deficiency and cone dysfunction. Methods We recruited 17 males for imaging. The thickness and integrity of the photoreceptor layers were evaluated using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Cone density was measured using high-resolution images of the cone mosaic obtained with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. The L/M opsin gene array was characterized in 16 subjects, including at least one subject from each family. Results There were six subjects with the LVAVA haplotype encoded by exon 3, seven with LIAVA, two with the Cys203Arg mutation encoded by exon 4, and two with a novel insertion in exon 2. Foveal cone structure and retinal thickness was disrupted to a variable degree, even among related individuals with the same L/M array. Conclusions Our findings provide a direct link between disruption of the cone mosaic and L/M opsin variants. We hypothesize that, in addition to large phenotypic differences between different L/M opsin variants, the ratio of expression of first versus downstream genes in the L/M array contributes to phenotypic diversity. While the L/M opsin mutations underlie the cone dysfunction in all of the subjects tested, the color vision defect can be caused either by the same mutation or a gene rearrangement at the same locus. PMID:27447086

  7. Optical influence of oil droplets on cone photoreceptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wilby, David; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2017-03-17

    Oil droplets are spherical organelles found in the cone photoreceptors of vertebrates. They are generally assumed to focus incident light into the outer segment, and thereby improve light catch because of the droplets' spherical lens-like shape. However, using full-wave optical simulations of physiologically realistic cone photoreceptors from birds, frogs and turtles we find that pigmented oil droplets actually drastically reduce the transmission of light into the outer segment integrated across the full visible wavelength range of each species. Only transparent oil droplets improve light catch into the outer segments, and any enhancement is critically dependent on the refractive index, diameter of the oil droplet, and diameter and length of the outer segment. Furthermore, oil droplets are not the only optical elements found in cone inner segments. The ellipsoid, a dense aggregation of mitochondria situated immediately prior to the oil droplet, mitigates the loss of light at oil droplet surface. We describe a framework for integrating these optical phenomena into simple models of receptor sensitivity and the relevance of these observations to evolutionary appearance and loss of oil droplets is discussed.

  8. Non-dissipative electromagnetic media with two Lorentz null cones

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Matias F.

    2013-03-15

    We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is modeled by an antisymmetric (2/2 )-tensor with 21 real coefficients. In this setting the Fresnel surface is a fourth-order polynomial surface that describes the dynamical response of the medium in the geometric optics limit. For example, in an isotropic medium the Fresnel surface is a Lorentz null cone. The contribution of this paper is the pointwise description of all electromagnetic medium tensors {kappa} with real coefficients that satisfy the following three conditions: (i)medium {kappa} is invertible, (ii)medium {kappa} is skewon-free, or non-dissipative, (iii)the Fresnel surface of {kappa} is the union of two distinct Lorentz null cones. We show that there are only three classes of media with these properties and give explicit expressions in local coordinates for each class. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find two new electromagnetic media classes for which the Fresnel surface decomposes into two light cones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In a suitable setting we classify all electromagnetic media where this is the case. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find an electromagnetic medium tensor with three different signal speeds in one direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The work is related to [5], which classifies all media with one light cone (in a suitable setting).

  9. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed Central

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and “double” cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship Dsc = 0.4 Da, where Dsc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and Da is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact. PMID:27532050

  10. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed

    Osinski, Gordon R; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and "double" cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship D sc = 0.4 D a, where D sc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and D a is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact.

  11. Evaluating outer segment length as a surrogate measure of peak foveal cone density.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Melissa A; Wilk, Brandon M; Langlo, Christopher S; Cooper, Robert F; Carroll, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) imaging tools enable direct visualization of the cone photoreceptor mosaic, which facilitates quantitative measurements such as cone density. However, in many individuals, low image quality or excessive eye movements precludes making such measures. As foveal cone specialization is associated with both increased density and outer segment (OS) elongation, we sought to examine whether OS length could be used as a surrogate measure of foveal cone density. The retinas of 43 subjects (23 normal and 20 albinism; aged 6-67years) were examined. Peak foveal cone density was measured using confocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and OS length was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and longitudinal reflectivity profile-based approach. Peak cone density ranged from 29,200 to 214,000cones/mm(2) (111,700±46,300cones/mm(2)); OS length ranged from 26.3 to 54.5μm (40.5±7.7μm). Density was significantly correlated with OS length in albinism (p<0.0001), but not normals (p=0.99). A cubic model of density as a function of OS length was created based on histology and optimized to fit the albinism data. The model includes triangular cone packing, a cylindrical OS with a fixed volume of 136.6μm(3), and a ratio of OS to inner segment width that increased linearly with increasing OS length (R(2)=0.72). Normal subjects showed no apparent relationship between cone density and OS length. In the absence of adequate AOSLO imagery, OS length may be used to estimate cone density in patients with albinism. Whether this relationship exists in other patient populations with foveal hypoplasia (e.g., premature birth, aniridia, isolated foveal hypoplasia) remains to be seen.

  12. Selective Stimulation of Penumbral Cones Reveals Perception in the Shadow of Retinal Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven. PMID:25897842

  13. Selective stimulation of penumbral cones reveals perception in the shadow of retinal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Brainard, David H

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven.

  14. Cone outer segment shedding in the goldfish retina characterized with the /sup 3/H-fucose technique

    SciTech Connect

    Balkema, G.W. Jr.; Bunt-Milam, A.H.

    1982-09-01

    After an intravitreal injection of /sup 3/H-fucose, red- and blue-sensitive cone outer segments (OSs) in the goldfish retina became heavily labeled, green-sensitive cone OSs showed light labeling, and rod OSs showed virtually no labeling. Fish were maintained in white light (light/dark: 12 hr/12 hr; 6 to 10 weeks) and were injected with /sup 3/H-fucose 24 hr before sacrifice. After light onset, only phagosomes with no label were found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); after light offset, phagosomes with heavy, light, or no label were found in the RPE. A broad peak of cone OS shedding derived from all cone types was found beginning 2 hr after light offset and returning to baseline levels after 12 hr, with a maximum at 4 to 6 hr. When the white light was replaced with red light during the final 24 hr (irradiance matched to the white light at 625 nm), the green cones showed a reduction in shedding by 62%, the rods showed a 48% reduction in shedding, and the number of heavily labeled phagosomes was reduced by 24% (a value that may reflect normal and red cone shedding and a reduction in blue cone shedding). The results suggest that chromatic stimulation during the light period may influence the shedding response of a given class of cone OS. Finally, the /sup 3/H-fucose technique is useful for determination of the photoreceptor OS from which a given phagosome in the RPE originates in this species.

  15. In Vivo Two-Photon Fluorescence Kinetics of Primate Rods and Cones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Robin; Schwarz, Christina; Williams, David R.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The retinoid cycle maintains vision by regenerating bleached visual pigment through metabolic events, the kinetics of which have been difficult to characterize in vivo. Two-photon fluorescence excitation has been used previously to track autofluorescence directly from retinoids and pyridines in the visual cycle in mouse and frog retinas, but the mechanisms of the retinoid cycle are not well understood in primates. Methods We developed a two-photon fluorescence adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope dedicated to in vivo imaging in anesthetized macaques. Using pulsed light at 730 nm, two-photon fluorescence was captured from rods and cones during light and dark adaptation through the eye's pupil. Results The fluorescence from rods and cones increased with light exposure but at different rates. During dark adaptation, autofluorescence declined, with cone autofluorescence decreasing approximately 4 times faster than from rods. Rates of autofluorescence decrease in rods and cones were approximately 4 times faster than their respective rates of photopigment regeneration. Also, subsets of sparsely distributed cones were less fluorescent than their neighbors immediately following bleach at 565 nm and they were comparable with the S cone mosaic in density and distribution. Conclusions Although other molecules could be contributing, we posit that these fluorescence changes are mediated by products of the retinoid cycle. In vivo two-photon ophthalmoscopy provides a way to monitor noninvasively stages of the retinoid cycle that were previously inaccessible in the living primate eye. This can be used to assess objectively photoreceptor function in normal and diseased retinas. PMID:26903225

  16. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of expression of virally delivered transgenes in gerbil cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Matthew C.; Mancuso, Katherine; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Connor, Thomas B.; Hauswirth, William W.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of foreign opsin genes to cone photoreceptors using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a potential tool for studying the basic mechanisms underlying cone based vision and for treating vision disorders. We used an in vivo retinal imaging system to monitor, over time, expression of virally-delivered genes targeted to cone photoreceptors in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Gerbils have a well-developed photopic visual system, with 11-14% of their photoreceptors being cones. We used replication deficient serotype 5 rAAV to deliver a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). In an effort to direct expression of the gene specifically to either S or M cones, the transgene was under the control of either the human X-chromosome opsin gene regulatory elements, i.e., an enhancer termed the Locus Control Region (LCR) and L promoter, or the human S-opsin promoter. Longitudinal fluorescence images reveal that gene expression is first detectable about 14 days post-injection, reaches a peak after about 3 months, and is observed more than a year post-injection if the initial viral concentration is sufficiently high. The regulatory elements are able to direct expression to a subpopulation of cones while excluding expression in rods and non-photoreceptor retinal cells. When the same viral constructs are used to deliver a human long-wavelength opsin gene to gerbil cones, stimulation of the introduced human photopigment with long-wavelength light produces robust cone responses. PMID:18598398

  18. The current state of knowledge about shatter cones: Introduction to the special issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, David; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are a fracture phenomenon that is exclusively associated with shock metamorphism and has also been produced in the laboratory in several shock experiments. The occurrence of shatter cones is the only accepted meso- to macroscopic recognition criterion for impact structures. Shatter cones exhibit a number of geometric characteristics (orientation, apical angles, striation angles, sizes) that can be best described as varied, from case to case. Possible links between geometric properties with impact or crater parameters have remained controversial and the lack of understanding of the mechanism of formation of shatter cones does not offer a physical framework to discuss or understand them. A database of shatter cone occurrences has been produced for this introduction paper to the special issue of Meteoritics and Planetary Science on shatter cones. Distribution of shatter cones with respect to crater size and lithology suggests that shatter cones do not occur in impact craters less than a few kilometers in diameter, with a few, currently questionable exceptions. All pertinent hypotheses of formation are presented and discussed. Several may be discarded in light of the most recent observations. The branching fracture mechanism and the interference models proposed, respectively, by Sagy et al. (2002) and Baratoux and Melosh (2003) require further evaluation. New observations, experiments, or theoretical considerations presented in this special issue promise an important step forward, based on a renewed effort to resolve the enigmatic origin of these important features.

  19. Evolutionary transformation of rod photoreceptors in the all-cone retina of a diurnal garter snake.

    PubMed

    Schott, Ryan K; Müller, Johannes; Yang, Clement G Y; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Chan, Natalie; Xu, Mengshu; Morrow, James M; Ghenu, Ana-Hermina; Loew, Ellis R; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-01-12

    Vertebrate retinas are generally composed of rod (dim-light) and cone (bright-light) photoreceptors with distinct morphologies that evolved as adaptations to nocturnal/crepuscular and diurnal light environments. Over 70 years ago, the "transmutation" theory was proposed to explain some of the rare exceptions in which a photoreceptor type is missing, suggesting that photoreceptors could evolutionarily transition between cell types. Although studies have shown support for this theory in nocturnal geckos, the origins of all-cone retinas, such as those found in diurnal colubrid snakes, remain a mystery. Here we investigate the evolutionary fate of the rods in a diurnal garter snake and test two competing hypotheses: (i) that the rods, and their corresponding molecular machinery, were lost or (ii) that the rods were evolutionarily modified to resemble, and function, as cones. Using multiple approaches, we find evidence for a functional and unusually blue-shifted rhodopsin that is expressed in small single "cones." Moreover, these cones express rod transducin and have rod ultrastructural features, providing strong support for the hypothesis that they are not true cones, as previously thought, but rather are modified rods. Several intriguing features of garter snake rhodopsin are suggestive of a more cone-like function. We propose that these cone-like rods may have evolved to regain spectral sensitivity and chromatic discrimination as a result of ancestral losses of middle-wavelength cone opsins in early snake evolution. This study illustrates how sensory evolution can be shaped not only by environmental constraints but also by historical contingency in forming new cell types with convergent functionality.

  20. Evolutionary transformation of rod photoreceptors in the all-cone retina of a diurnal garter snake

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Ryan K.; Müller, Johannes; Yang, Clement G. Y.; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Chan, Natalie; Xu, Mengshu; Morrow, James M.; Ghenu, Ana-Hermina; Loew, Ellis R.; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate retinas are generally composed of rod (dim-light) and cone (bright-light) photoreceptors with distinct morphologies that evolved as adaptations to nocturnal/crepuscular and diurnal light environments. Over 70 years ago, the “transmutation” theory was proposed to explain some of the rare exceptions in which a photoreceptor type is missing, suggesting that photoreceptors could evolutionarily transition between cell types. Although studies have shown support for this theory in nocturnal geckos, the origins of all-cone retinas, such as those found in diurnal colubrid snakes, remain a mystery. Here we investigate the evolutionary fate of the rods in a diurnal garter snake and test two competing hypotheses: (i) that the rods, and their corresponding molecular machinery, were lost or (ii) that the rods were evolutionarily modified to resemble, and function, as cones. Using multiple approaches, we find evidence for a functional and unusually blue-shifted rhodopsin that is expressed in small single “cones.” Moreover, these cones express rod transducin and have rod ultrastructural features, providing strong support for the hypothesis that they are not true cones, as previously thought, but rather are modified rods. Several intriguing features of garter snake rhodopsin are suggestive of a more cone-like function. We propose that these cone-like rods may have evolved to regain spectral sensitivity and chromatic discrimination as a result of ancestral losses of middle-wavelength cone opsins in early snake evolution. This study illustrates how sensory evolution can be shaped not only by environmental constraints but also by historical contingency in forming new cell types with convergent functionality. PMID:26715746

  1. Direct rod input to cone BCs and direct cone input to rod BCs challenge the traditional view of mammalian BC circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Lem, Janis; Bramblett, Debra E.; Paul, David L.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar cells are the central neurons of the retina that transmit visual signals from rod and cone photoreceptors to third-order neurons in the inner retina and the brain. A dogma set forth by early anatomical studies is that bipolar cells in mammalian retinas receive segregated rod/cone synaptic inputs (either from rods or from cones), and here, we present evidence that challenges this traditional view. By analyzing light-evoked cation currents from morphologically identified depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) in the wild-type and three pathway-specific knockout mice (rod transducin knockout [Trα−/−], connexin36 knockout [Cx36−/−], and transcription factor beta4 knockout [Bhlhb4−/−]), we show that a subpopulation of rod DBCs (DBCR2s) receives substantial input directly from cones and a subpopulation of cone DBCs (DBCC1s) receives substantial input directly from rods. These results provide evidence of the existence of functional rod-DBCC and cone-DBCR synaptic pathways in the mouse retina as well as the previously proposed rod hyperpolarizing bipolar-cells pathway. This is grounds for revising the mammalian rod/cone bipolar cell dogma. PMID:20018684

  2. Cone positioning device for oral radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahanna, G K; Ivanhoe, J R; Attanasio, R A

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the fabrication and modification of a peroral cone-positioning device. The modification provides added cone stability and prevents tongue intrusion into the radiation field. This device provides a repeatable accurate cone/lesion relationship and the fabrication technique is simplified, accurate, and minimizes patient discomfort.

  3. Small Molecules in the Cone Snail Arsenal.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L B; Lin, Zhenjian; Imperial, Julita S; Antunes, Agostinho; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Olivera, Baldomero M; Schmidt, Eric W

    2015-10-16

    Cone snails are renowned for producing peptide-based venom, containing conopeptides and conotoxins, to capture their prey. A novel small-molecule guanine derivative with unprecedented features, genuanine, was isolated from the venom of two cone snail species. Genuanine causes paralysis in mice, indicating that small molecules and not just polypeptides may contribute to the activity of cone snail venom.

  4. Autonomous regulation of growth cone filopodia.

    PubMed

    Rehder, V; Cheng, S

    1998-02-05

    The fan-shaped array of filopodia is the first site of contact of a neuronal growth cone with molecules encountered during neuronal pathfinding. Filopodia are highly dynamic structures, and the "action radius" of a growth cone is strongly determined by the length and number of its filopodia. Since interactions of filopodia with instructive cues in the vicinity of the growth cone can have effects on growth cone morphology within minutes, it has to be assumed that a large part of the signaling underlying such morphological changes resides locally within the growth cone proper. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that two important growth cone parameters-namely, the length and number of its filopodia-are regulated autonomously in the growth cone. We previously demonstrated in identified neurons from the snail Helisoma trivolvis that filopodial length and number are regulated by intracellular calcium. Here, we investigated filopodial dynamics and their regulation by the second-messenger calcium in growth cones which were physically isolated from their parent neuron by neurite transection. Our results show that isolated growth cones have longer but fewer filopodia than growth cones attached to their parent cell. These isolated growth cones, however, are fully capable of undergoing calcium-induced cytoskeletal changes, suggesting that the machinery necessary to perform changes in filopodial length and number is fully intrinsic to the growth cone proper.

  5. Cone selectivity derived from the responses of the retinal cone mosaic to natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Wachtler, Thomas; Doi, Eizaburo; Lee, Te- Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2007-06-18

    To achieve color vision, the brain has to process signals of the cones in the retinal photoreceptor mosaic in a cone-type-specific way. We investigated the possibility that cone-type-specific wiring is an adaptation to the statistics of the cone signals. We analyzed estimates of cone responses to natural scenes and found that there is sufficient information in the higher order statistics of L- and M-cone responses to distinguish between cones of different types, enabling unsupervised learning of cone-type specificity. This was not the case for a fourth cone type with spectral sensitivity between L and M cones, suggesting an explanation for the lack of strong tetrachromacy in heterozygous carriers of color deficiencies.

  6. Cone selectivity derived from the responses of the retinal cone mosaic to natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Eizaburo; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    To achieve color vision, the brain has to process signals of the cones in the retinal photoreceptor mosaic in a cone-type-specific way. We investigated the possibility that cone-type-specific wiring is an adaptation to the statistics of the cone signals. We analyzed estimates of cone responses to natural scenes and found that there is sufficient information in the higher order statistics of L- and M-cone responses to distinguish between cones of different types, enabling unsupervised learning of cone-type specificity. This was not the case for a fourth cone type with spectral sensitivity between L and M cones, suggesting an explanation for the lack of strong tetrachromacy in heterozygous carriers of color deficiencies. PMID:17685813

  7. DOS cones along atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  8. Achromatic vector vortex beams from a glass cone

    PubMed Central

    Radwell, N.; Hawley, R. D.; Götte, J. B.; Franke-Arnold, S.

    2016-01-01

    The reflection of light is governed by the laws first described by Augustin-Jean Fresnel: on internal reflection, light acquires a phase shift, which depends on its polarization direction with respect to the plane of incidence. For a conical reflector, the cylindrical symmetry is echoed in an angular variation of this phase shift, allowing us to create light modes with phase and polarization singularities. Here we observe the phase and polarization profiles of light that is back reflected from a solid glass cone and, in the case of circular input light, discover that not only does the beam contain orbital angular momentum but can trivially be converted to a radially polarized beam. Importantly, the Fresnel coefficients are reasonably stable across the visible spectrum, which we demonstrate by measuring white light polarization profiles. This discovery provides a highly cost-effective technique for the generation of broadband orbital angular momentum and radially polarized beams. PMID:26861191

  9. The phosphorylation state of neuronal processes determines growth cone formation after neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Geddis, Matthew S; Rehder, Vincent

    2003-10-15

    Growth cones are essential for neuronal pathfinding during embryonic development and again after injury, when they aid in neuronal regeneration. This study was aimed at investigating the role of kinases in the earliest events in neuronal regeneration, namely, the formation of new growth cones from injured neuronal processes. Neurites of identified snail neurons grown in vitro were severed, and the formation of growth cones was observed from the ends of such transected processes. Under control conditions, all neurites formed a new growth cone within 45 min of transection. In contrast, growth cone formation in the presence of a general kinase inhibitor, K252a, was significantly inhibited. Moreover, decreasing the phosphorylation state of neurites by activating protein phosphatases with C2-ceramide also reduced growth cone formation. Pharmacological analysis with specific kinase inhibitors suggested that targets of protein kinase C (PKC) and tyrosine kinase (PTK) phosphorylation control growth cone formation. Inhibition of PKC with calphostin C and cerebroside completely blocked growth cone formation, whereas the inhibition of PTK with erbstatin analog significantly reduced growth cone formation. In contrast, inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase G, CaM-kinase II, myosin light-chain kinase, Rho kinase, and PI-3 kinase had little or no effect 45 min after transection. These results suggest that the transformation underlying the formation of a growth cone from an injured (transected) neurite stump is highly sensitive to the phosphorylation state of key target proteins. Therefore, injury-induced signaling events will determine the outcome of neuronal regeneration through their action on kinase and phosphatase activities.

  10. Journey of water in pine cones

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system. PMID:25944117

  11. Journey of water in pine cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-05-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system.

  12. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, Robert . E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

    2005-10-15

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

  13. Missile and Spacecraft Coning Instabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    181-192. "Mingori, D. L., and Yam, T., " Nutational Stability of a Spinning Space- craft with Internal Mass Motion and Axial Thrust," AIAA Paper 86...Nomenclature 1 Introduction 1 Equations of Motion 2 Yaw Moment Damping or Undamping 2 Spacecraft Precession Damper 3 Vehicle Coning with Axial ...with Axial Thrust and Variable Mass The variable mass accompanying thrust from a spin-stabilized rocket motor or PAM produces a destabilizing effect

  14. Bursting the Taylor cone bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    A soap bubble fixed on a surface and placed in an electric field will take on the shape of a cone rather than constant curvature (dome) when the electrical field is not present. The phenomenon was introduced by J. Zeleny (1917) and studied extensively by C.T. Wilson & G.I. Taylor (1925). We revisit the Taylor cone problem by studying the deformation and bursting of soap bubbles in a point charge electric field. A single bubble takes on the shape of a cone in the electric field and a high-speed camera equipped with a micro-lens is used to observe the unsteady dynamics at the tip. Rupture occurs as a very small piece of the tip is torn away from the bubble toward the point charge. Based on experiments, a theoretical model is developed that predicts when rupture should occur. This study may help in the design of foam-removal techniques in engineering and provide a better understanding of an electrified air-liquid interface.

  15. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation.

  16. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation. PMID:27446708

  17. Cone pigments in a North American marsupial, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Williams, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    Only two of the four cone opsin gene families found in vertebrates are represented in contemporary eutherian and marsupial species. Recent genetic studies of two species of South American marsupial detected the presence of representatives from two of the classes of cone opsin genes and the structures of these genes predicted cone pigments with respective peaks in the ultraviolet and long-wavelength portions of the spectrum. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a profoundly nocturnal animal, is the only marsupial species found in North America. The prospects for cone-based vision in this species were examined through recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG), a commonly examined retinal response to photic stimulation. Recorded under flickering-light conditions that elicit signals from cone photoreceptors, the spectral sensitivity of the opossum eye is well accounted for by contributions from the presence of a single cone pigment having peak absorption at 561-562 nm. A series of additional experiments that employed various chromatic adaptation paradigms were conducted in a search for possible contributions from a second (short-wavelength sensitive) cone pigment. We found no evidence that such a mechanism contributes to the ERG in this marsupial.

  18. The effects of collapsing factors on F-actin content and microtubule distribution of Helisoma growth cones.

    PubMed

    Torreano, Paul J; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Cohan, Christopher S

    2005-03-01

    Growth cone collapsing factors induce growth cone collapse or repulsive growth cone turning by interacting with membrane receptors that induce alterations in the growth cone cytoskeleton. A common change induced by collapsing factors in the cytoskeleton of the peripheral domain, the thin lamellopodial area of growth cones, is a decline in the number of radially aligned F-actin bundles that form the core of filopodia. The present study examined whether ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, serotonin, a neurotransmitter and TPA, an activator of protein kinase C, which induce growth cone collapse of Helisoma growth cones, depolymerized or debundled F-actin. We report that these collapsing factors had different effects. ML-7 induced F-actin reorganization consistent with debundling whereas serotonin and TPA predominately depolymerized and possibly debundled F-actin. Additionally, these collapsing factors induced the formation of a dense actin-ring around the central domain, the thicker proximal area of growth cones [Zhou and Cohan, 2001: J. Cell Biol. 153:1071-1083]. The formation of the actin-ring occurred subsequent to the loss of actin bundles. The ML-7-induced actin-ring was found to inhibit microtubule extension into the P-domain. Thus, ML-7, serotonin, and TPA induce growth cone collapse associated with a decline in radially aligned F-actin bundles through at least two mechanisms involving debundling of actin filaments and/or actin depolymerization.

  19. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Specialization and Pit Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Patitucci, Teresa N.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Costakos, Deborah M.; Connor, Thomas B.; Wirostko, William J.; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. Methods. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. Results. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Conclusions. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. PMID:24845642

  20. Calcium regulates vesicle replenishment at the cone ribbon synapse.

    PubMed

    Babai, Norbert; Bartoletti, Theodore M; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2010-11-24

    Cones release glutamate-filled vesicles continuously in darkness, and changing illumination modulates this release. Because sustained release in darkness is governed by vesicle replenishment rates, we analyzed how cone membrane potential regulates replenishment. Synaptic release from cones was measured by recording postsynaptic currents in Ambystoma tigrinum horizontal or OFF bipolar cells evoked by depolarization of simultaneously voltage-clamped cones. We measured replenishment after attaining a steady state between vesicle release and replenishment using trains of test pulses. Increasing Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) by changing the test step from -30 to -10 mV increased replenishment. Lengthening -30 mV test pulses to match the Ca(2+) influx during 25 ms test pulses to -10 mV produced similar replenishment rates. Reducing Ca(2+) driving force by using test steps to +30 mV slowed replenishment. Using UV flashes to reverse inhibition of I(Ca) by nifedipine accelerated replenishment. Increasing [Ca(2+)](i) by flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+) also accelerated replenishment. Replenishment, but not the initial burst of release, was enhanced by using an intracellular Ca(2+) buffer of 0.5 mm EGTA rather than 5 mm EGTA, and diminished by 1 mm BAPTA. This suggests that although release and replenishment exhibited similar Ca(2+) dependencies, release sites are <200 nm from Ca(2+) channels but replenishment sites are >200 nm away. Membrane potential thus regulates replenishment by controlling Ca(2+) influx, principally by effects on replenishment mechanisms but also by altering releasable pool size. This in turn provides a mechanism for converting changes in light intensity into changes in sustained release at the cone ribbon synapse.

  1. Dirac cones and Dirac saddle points of bright excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyi; Liu, Gui-Bin; Gong, Pu; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-05-12

    In monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, tightly bound excitons have been discovered with a valley pseudospin optically addressable through polarization selection rules. Here, we show that this valley pseudospin is strongly coupled to the exciton centre-of-mass motion through electron-hole exchange. This coupling realizes a massless Dirac cone with chirality index I = 2 for excitons inside the light cone, that is, bright excitons. Under moderate strain, the I = 2 Dirac cone splits into two degenerate I = 1 Dirac cones, and saddle points with a linear Dirac spectrum emerge. After binding an extra electron, the charged exciton becomes a massive Dirac particle associated with a large valley Hall effect protected from intervalley scattering. Our results point to unique opportunities to study Dirac physics, with exciton's optical addressability at specifiable momentum, energy and pseudospin. The strain-tunable valley-orbit coupling also implies new structures of exciton condensates, new functionalities of excitonic circuits and mechanical control of valley pseudospin.

  2. Cone Penetrometer Off-Surface Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, T.R.; French, p.J.; Huffman, R.K.; Hebert, P.S.

    1999-10-20

    Cone penetrometer technology accounts for approximately 50 percent of the subsurface drilling done at the Savannah River Site. This technology provides a means of collecting data for use in the characterization of the subsurface. The cone penetrometer consists of a steel cone attached to a pipe column that is hydraulically inserted into the ground. To allow researchers to accurately measure subsurface properties, without the inherent problems of cone penetrometer equipment, the Savannah River Technology Center has developed the Cone Penetrometer Off-Surface Sensor (CPOSS). The CPOSS design consists of a knife-blade mechanism mounted along the surface of a module capable of attaching to existing cone penetrometer equipment and being deployed at depths of up to 200 feet. CPOSS development is the subject of this report.

  3. Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    to program human stem cells directly into cones. Using RNA -seq, we identified several genes that are upregulated in advance of the earliest...reverse vision loss. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cone photoreceptor, retina, retinal stem cell, Otx2, Onecut1, Blimp1, RNA -seq., transcription factors, and...1 Keywords: 1. Cone photoreceptor 2. Retina 3. Retinal stem cell 4. Otx2 5. Onecut1 6. Blimp1 7. RNA -seq. 8. Transcription factors 9

  4. Cone opsins, colour blindness and cone dystrophy: Genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J C; Michaelides, M; Hardcastle, A J

    2016-05-25

    X-linked cone photoreceptor disorders caused by mutations in the OPN1LW (L) and OPN1MW (M) cone opsin genes on chromosome Xq28 include a range of conditions from mild stable red-green colour vision deficiencies to severe cone dystrophies causing progressive loss of vision and blindness. Advances in molecular genotyping and functional analyses of causative variants, combined with deep retinal phenotyping, are unravelling genetic mechanisms underlying the variability of cone opsin disorders.

  5. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1991-05-28

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form an output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated. 6 figures.

  6. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  7. An ADAM9 mutation in canine cone-rod dystrophy 3 establishes homology with human cone-rod dystrophy 9

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Anguish, Lynne J.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation in a canine cone-rod dystrophy (crd3) that segregates as an adult onset disorder in the Glen of Imaal Terrier breed of dog. Methods Glen of Imaal Terriers were ascertained for crd3 phenotype by clinical ophthalmoscopic examination, and in selected cases by electroretinography. Blood samples from affected cases and non-affected controls were collected and used, after DNA extraction, to undertake a genome-wide association study using Affymetrix Version 2 Canine single nucleotide polymorphism chips and 250K Sty Assay protocol. Positional candidate gene analysis was undertaken for genes identified within the peak-association signal region. Retinal morphology of selected crd3-affected dogs was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results A peak association signal exceeding genome-wide significance was identified on canine chromosome 16. Evaluation of genes in this region suggested A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain, family member 9 (ADAM9), identified concurrently elsewhere as the cause of human cone-rod dystrophy 9 (CORD9), as a strong positional candidate for canine crd3. Sequence analysis identified a large genomic deletion (over 20 kb) that removed exons 15 and 16 from the ADAM9 transcript, introduced a premature stop, and would remove critical domains from the encoded protein. Light and electron microscopy established that, as in ADAM9 knockout mice, the primary lesion in crd3 appears to be a failure of the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium to appropriately invest photoreceptor outer segments. By electroretinography, retinal function appears normal in very young crd3-affected dogs, but by 15 months of age, cone dysfunction is present. Subsequently, both rod and cone function degenerate. Conclusions Identification of this ADAM9 deletion in crd3-affected dogs establishes this canine disease as orthologous to CORD9 in humans, and offers opportunities for further characterization of the disease

  8. Possible Tuff Cones In Isidis Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, A. M.; Rothery, D. A.; Bridges, J. C.; Wright, I. P.

    The Beagle 2 lander of the ESA Mars Express mission will touch down on the martian surface in December 2003 to conduct a primarily exobiological mission. The landing site will be within Isidis Planitia, an 1100 km diameter impact basin. Isidis contains many sub-kilometre-sized cones. These can be found singly, in clusters, and in straight or arcuate chains extending many kilometres. In some areas of the basin these cones can occupy over 10% of the surface, with the most densely populated areas being in the older western half of the basin. There are few cones around the basin rim. There is also variation in the erosional state of the cones both across the basin, and within smaller areas, implying a range in time of formation for the cones. We currently favour a tuff cone origin as an explanation for these features. Tuff cones on Earth are rooted volcanic features formed at vents by the interaction between magma or magmatic heat and surface or near-surface water. Lava flows likely to be associated with at least some of the cones if they had a cinder cone (rooted eruptions at vents in a dry environment) origin are absent. This suggests the involvement of suffi- cient volatiles both to explosively fragment the erupting magma, and to cool the ejecta enough to prevent the formation of clastogenic flows. If our tuff cone interpretation is correct, this has implications for the presence, abundance and long-term persistence of sub-surface volatiles (water or carbon dioxide) on Mars. An understanding of the mechanism of formation of the Isidis cones will assist the characterisation of the basin in preparation for the landing of Beagle 2, by providing information about the history of volatiles and volcanism in the basin, and the processes that resulted in the surface we see today.

  9. Rainbow Enhancers Regulate Restrictive Transcription in Teleost Green, Red, and Blue Cones.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Guo, Chuanyu; Wei, Xiangyun

    2017-03-15

    Photoreceptor-specific transcription of individual genes collectively constitutes the transcriptional profile that orchestrates the structural and functional characteristics of each photoreceptor type. It is challenging, however, to study the transcriptional specificity of individual photoreceptor genes because each gene's distinct spatiotemporal transcription patterns are determined by the unique interactions between a specific set of transcription factors and the gene's own cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which remain unknown for most of the genes. For example, it is unknown what CREs underlie the zebrafish mpp5b(ponli) (ponli) and crumbs2b (crb2b) apical polarity genes' restrictive transcription in the red, green, and blue (RGB) cones in the retina, but not in other retinal cell types. Here we show that the intronic enhancers of both the ponli and crb2b genes are conserved among teleost species and that they share sequence motifs that are critical for RGB cone-specific transcription. Given their similarities in sequences and functions, we name the ponli and crb2b enhancers collectively rainbow enhancers. Rainbow enhancers may represent a cis-regulatory mechanism to turn on a group of genes that are commonly and restrictively expressed in RGB cones, which largely define the beginning of the color vision pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dim-light achromatic vision and bright-light color vision are initiated in rod and several types of cone photoreceptors, respectively; these photoreceptors are structurally distinct from each other. In zebrafish, although quite different from rods and UV cones, RGB cones (red, green, and blue cones) are structurally similar and unite into mirror-symmetric pentamers (G-R-B-R-G) by adhesion. This structural commonality and unity suggest that a set of genes is commonly expressed only in RGB cones but not in other cells. Here, we report that the rainbow enhancers activate RGB cone-specific transcription of the ponli and crb2b genes. This

  10. Panoramic cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Jenghwa; Zhou Lili; Wang Song; Clifford Chao, K. S.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the main imaging tool for image-guided radiotherapy but its functionality is limited by a small imaging volume and restricted image position (imaged at the central instead of the treatment position for peripheral lesions to avoid collisions). In this paper, the authors present the concept of ''panoramic CBCT,'' which can image patients at the treatment position with an imaging volume as large as practically needed. Methods: In this novel panoramic CBCT technique, the target is scanned sequentially from multiple view angles. For each view angle, a half scan (180 deg. + {theta}{sub cone} where {theta}{sub cone} is the cone angle) is performed with the imaging panel positioned in any location along the beam path. The panoramic projection images of all views for the same gantry angle are then stitched together with the direct image stitching method (i.e., according to the reported imaging position) and full-fan, half-scan CBCT reconstruction is performed using the stitched projection images. To validate this imaging technique, the authors simulated cone-beam projection images of the Mathematical Cardiac Torso (MCAT) thorax phantom for three panoramic views. Gaps, repeated/missing columns, and different exposure levels were introduced between adjacent views to simulate imperfect image stitching due to uncertainties in imaging position or output fluctuation. A modified simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (modified SART) was developed to reconstruct CBCT images directly from the stitched projection images. As a gold standard, full-fan, full-scan (360 deg. gantry rotation) CBCT reconstructions were also performed using projection images of one imaging panel large enough to encompass the target. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and geometric distortion were evaluated to quantify the quality of reconstructed images. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of scattering on the image quality and

  11. Cone penetrometer demonstration standard startup review checklist

    SciTech Connect

    KRIEG, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    Startup readiness for the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm will be verified through the application of a Standard Startup Review Checklist. This is a listing of those items essential to demonstrating readiness to start the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm.

  12. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  13. Morphology of pyroclastic cones and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldi, Alessandro

    1995-12-01

    The relationships between morphology and spatial distribution of 1315 Quaternary pyroclastic cones and coeval faulting of the volcanic substrate are analyzed in the following regions with different structural settings: Tepic Rift (Mexico), Ethiopian Rift, Mexican Volcanic Belt, Canary Archipelago, and Mount Etna. Field data and analog experiments of tephra cone emplacement and collapse enable the definition of a number of parameters which can be used to infer the geometry of the fracture feeding the magma to a pyroclastic cone. The strike of the feeding plane is directly related to: (1) the elongation of cone base and crater, (2) the location of depressions on the crater rim, and (3) the alignment of pyroclastic cones in relation to a given vent spacing. In addition, the strike and dip of faults affect the direction of cone breaching. These relationships are valid for volcanic substrate topographic surfaces with an inclination of less than 9° and are especially sensitive to fault escarpment and cone height, lava and cone density, and fault orientation with respect to the dip of the volcanic substrate topography. Relations 1 and 2 become more pronounced for regions undergoing extensional tectonics, where edifices also have a larger dimension. Whereas breaching in the direction of the fault dip is more widespread in regions under extension, breaching along the fault strike as well as the coincidence between fault strike and vent alignment are more frequent in regions with transcurrent or transtensional tectonics.

  14. Targeting gene expression to cones with human cone opsin promoters in recombinant AAV.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, A M; Alexander, J J; Cooper, A E; Chiodo, V A; Glushakova, L G; Acland, G M; Hauswirth, W W; Aguirre, G D

    2008-07-01

    Specific cone-directed therapy is of high priority in the treatment of human hereditary retinal diseases. However, not much information exists about the specific targeting of photoreceptor subclasses. Three versions of the human red cone opsin promoter (PR0.5, 3LCR-PR0.5 and PR2.1), and the human blue cone opsin promoter HB569, were evaluated for their specificity and robustness in targeting green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression to subclasses of cones in the canine retina when used in recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 5. The vectors were administered by subretinal injection. The promoter PR2.1 led to most effective and specific expression of GFP in the long- and medium-wavelength-absorbing cones (L/M cones) of normal and diseased retinas. The PR0.5 promoter was not effective. Adding three copies of the 35-bp LCR in front of PR0.5 lead to weak GFP expression in L/M cones. The HB569 promoter was not specific, and GFP was expressed in a few L/M cones, some rods and the retinal pigment epithelium. These results suggest that L/M cones, the predominant class of cone photoreceptors in the retinas of dogs and most mammalian species can be successfully targeted using the human red cone opsin promoter.

  15. Mechanochemical regulation of growth cone motility

    PubMed Central

    Kerstein, Patrick C.; Nichol, Robert H.; Gomez, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal growth cones are exquisite sensory-motor machines capable of transducing features contacted in their local extracellular environment into guided process extension during development. Extensive research has shown that chemical ligands activate cell surface receptors on growth cones leading to intracellular signals that direct cytoskeletal changes. However, the environment also provides mechanical support for growth cone adhesion and traction forces that stabilize leading edge protrusions. Interestingly, recent work suggests that both the mechanical properties of the environment and mechanical forces generated within growth cones influence axon guidance. In this review we discuss novel molecular mechanisms involved in growth cone force production and detection, and speculate how these processes may be necessary for the development of proper neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:26217175

  16. Unique characteristics of cones in Central Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Rina; Kurita, Kei

    2015-06-01

    Martian magmatism within recent several hundreds of millions years is still controversial. Central Elysium Planitia (CEP) is suspected as a site of the latest magmatism on Mars, but hot debates have been caused as for the origin of this flat plain. Cones in CEP are expected to be a key to resolve this controversy. In previous works, there are 2 models proposed for the origin of CEP cones: volcanic rootless cone (e.g. Jaeger et al., 2007) and periglacial pingo (e.g. Burr et al., 2002; Page et al., 2009). In this study, we described detail morphology, distribution and size of CEP cones by using high-resolution images and topographic data. CEP cones are classified into 3 morphological types: Single Cone (SC), Double Cone (DC), and Lotus Fruit Cone (LC). DC has an inner cone in the summit crater of the outer cone, and LC has several inner cones in the summit crater of the outer cone. Several cones have moat structure around the edifice with peripheral rise. DCs and LCs are located in very flat areas of Athabasca Valles in the vicinity of Cerberus Fossae, while SCs distribute in the entire region of CEP. We compared CEP cones with terrestrial rootless cones and pingos in aerial photos. In Lake Myvatn, Iceland, there exist rootless cones which resemble DCs and LCs in CEP. Based on the similarities with terrestrial analogies, we concluded that the most feasible origin of CEP cones is rootless cones.

  17. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  18. Diminished foraging performance of a mutant zebrafish with reduced population of ultraviolet cones

    PubMed Central

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) cones are photoreceptors that sense light in the range 300–450 nm and are found in the retinas of non-mammalian vertebrates and small mammals. Despite their widespread presence across taxa, the functions that these cones exert in the lives of animals remain largely unknown. In this study, I used the zebrafish lor (lots of rods) mutant, characterized by a diminished UV cone population compared to that of wild-type zebrafish, to test whether its foraging performance differed from that of the wild-type (control). The mean location distance and angle (variables that are reliable indicators of foraging performance) at which control fish detected zooplankton prey were, on average, 24 and 90% greater than corresponding measures for lor fish. Such inferior foraging performance of the mutant could be explained by reduced contrast perception of the prey, resulting from the diminished population of UV cones and associated sensitivity. Thus, UV cones enhance the foraging performance of zebrafish, a crucial ecological function that may explain why small zooplanktivorous fishes retain UV cones throughout their lives. PMID:26936243

  19. Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: Rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J.; Pokorny, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Reaction times for incremental and decremental stimuli were measured at five suprathreshold contrasts for six retinal illuminance levels where rods alone (0.002–0.2 Trolands), rods and cones (2–20 Trolands) or cones alone (200 Trolands) mediated detection. A 4-primary photostimulator allowed independent control of rod or cone excitations. This is the first report of reaction times to isolated rod or cone stimuli at mesopic light levels under the same adaptation conditions. The main findings are: 1) For rods, responses to decrements were faster than increments, but cone reaction times were closely similar. 2) At light levels where both systems were functional, rod reaction times were ~20 ms longer. The data were fitted with a computational model that incorporates rod and cone impulse response functions and a stimulus-dependent neural sensory component that triggers a motor response. Rod and cone impulse response functions were derived from published psychophysical two-pulse threshold data and temporal modulation transfer functions. The model fits were accomplished with a limited number of free parameters: two global parameters to estimate the irreducible minimum reaction time for each receptor type, and one local parameter for each reaction time versus contrast function. This is the first model to provide a neural basis for the variation in reaction time with retinal illuminance, stimulus contrast, stimulus polarity, and receptor class modulated. PMID:17346763

  20. Extrafoveal Cone Packing in Eyes With a History of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Akula, James D.; Soni, Garima; Swanson, Matthew J.; Bush, Jennifer N.; Moskowitz, Anne; Swanson, Emily A.; Favazza, Tara L.; Tavormina, Jena L.; Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hansen, Ronald M.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the density and packing geometry of the extrafoveal cone photoreceptors in eyes with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We used a multimodal combination of adaptive optics (AO) scanning light ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Cones were identified in subjects (aged 14–26 years) with a history of ROP that was either severe and treated by laser ablation of avascular peripheral retina (TROP; n = 5) or mild and spontaneously resolved, untreated (UROP; n = 5), and in term-born controls (CT; n = 8). The AO-SLO images were obtained at temporal eccentricities 4.5°, 9°, 13.5°, and 18° using both confocal and offset apertures with simultaneous, colocal OCT images. Effects of group, eccentricity, and aperture were evaluated and the modalities compared. Results In the SLO images, cone density was lower and the packing pattern less regular in TROP, relative to CT and UROP retinae. Although SLO image quality appeared lower in TROP, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error did not differ among the groups. In TROP eyes, cone discrimination was easier in offset aperture images. There was no evidence of cone loss in the TROP OCT images. Conclusions Low cone density in TROP confocal SLO images may have resulted from lower image quality. Since AO correction in these eyes was equivalent to that of the control group, and OCT imaging showed no significant cone loss, the optical properties of the inner retina or properties of the cones themselves are likely altered in a way that affects photoreceptor imaging. PMID:26868749

  1. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  2. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  3. Photocurrents of cone photoreceptors of the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Kraft, T W

    1988-10-01

    1. Visual transduction in photoreceptors of the ground squirrel, Citellus lateralis, was studied by recording membrane current from individual cones in small pieces of retina. 2. Brief flashes of light produced transient reductions of the dark current; saturating response amplitudes were up to 67 pA. A flash strength of about 11,000 photons microns-2 at lambda max was required to give a half-saturating response. The stimulus-response relation was well fitted by an exponential saturation curve. Responses below 20% of maximum behaved linearly. 3. The response to a dim flash in most cells had a time to peak of 20-30 ms and resembled the impulse response of a series of five low-pass filters. 4. The variance of the dim-flash response amplitude put an upper limit of 80 fA on the size of the single photon response. Estimates based on the effective collecting area suggest the single photon response to be of the order of 10 fA. 5. Flash responses of squirrel cones usually lacked the undershoot observed in primate cones, although in about 1/3 of the cells a small undershoot developed during recording. 6. Background lights slightly shortened the time to peak of the flash response and reduced the integration time. 7. Spectral sensitivity measurements showed two classes of cones with peak sensitivities at about 520 and 435 nm. Rod sensitivity peaked near 500 nm. Spectral univariance was obeyed by all three classes of cells. 8. The shapes of the spectral sensitivity curves of the rod and both types of cones were similar to each other when plotted on a log wave number scale, but differed significantly from similar plots of monkey and human cone spectra. 9. The kinetics and sensitivity of flash responses of the blue- and green-sensitive cones were indistinguishable.

  4. Cone Photoreceptors in Bass Retina Use Two Connexins to Mediate Electrical Coupling

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, John; Bao Nguyen, H.; Mills, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical coupling via gap junctions is a common property of CNS neurons. In retinal photoreceptors, coupling plays important roles in noise filtering, intensity coding, and spatial processing. In many vertebrates, coupling is regulated during the course of light adaptation. To understand the mechanisms of this regulation, we studied photoreceptor gap junction proteins. We found that two connexins were expressed in bass cone photoreceptors. Connexin35 (Cx35) mRNA was present in many cell types including photoreceptors, amacrine, bipolar, and a few ganglion cells. Antibodies to Cx35 labeled abundant gap junctions in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In the outer plexiform layer, numerous plaques co-localized with cone telodendria at crossing contacts and tip-to-tip contacts. Cx34.7 mRNA was found predominantly in the photoreceptor layer, primarily in cones. Cx34.7 immunolabeling was limited to small plaques immediately beneath cone pedicles, and did not co-localize with Cx35. Cx34.7 plaques were associated with a dense complex of cone membrane beneath the pedicles, including apparent contacts between telodendria and cone pedicles. Tracer coupling studies of the connexins expressed in HeLa cells showed that coupling through Cx35 gap junctions was reduced by protein kinase A (PKA) activation and enhanced by PKA inhibition through a more than five-fold activity range. Cx34.7 was too poorly expressed to study. PKA regulation suggests that coupling through Cx35 gap junctions can be controlled dynamically through dopamine receptor pathways during light adaptation. If Cx34.7 forms functional cell-cell channels between cones, it would provide a physically separate pathway for electrical coupling. PMID:15201336

  5. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.

  6. Rods affect S-cone discrimination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test.

    PubMed

    Knight, R; Buck, S L; Fowler, G A; Nguyen, A

    1998-11-01

    Rod influence on hue discrimination was assessed by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. Rod influence was taken as the difference in error scores obtained after complete dark adaptation and during the cone plateau at three mesopic (23, 9, 3 td) and one standard (158 td) light level. On the FM 100, rods produced a differential discrimination loss along a tritan axis as compared with a red-green axis without any bias toward a rod confusion axis. Rods appear to impair discrimination mediated by S-cone pathways, which at moderate levels of illumination can differentially elevate tritan errors on the FM 100.

  7. Laser scattering induced holograms in lithium niobate. [observation of diffraction cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnusson, R.; Gaylord, T. K.

    1974-01-01

    A 3.0-mm thick poled single crystal of lithium niobate doped with 0.1 mole% iron was exposed to a single beam and then to two intersecting beams of an argon ion laser operating at 515-nm wavelength. Laser scattering induced holograms were thus written and analyzed. The presence of diffraction cones was observed and is shown to result from the internally recorded interference pattern resulting from the interference of the original incident laser beam with light scattered from material inhomogeneities. This phenomenon is analyzed using Ewald sphere construction techniques which reveal the geometrical relationships existing for the diffraction cones.

  8. Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Programming Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    4 Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Prog ramm in(I Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions by A. Chames Z. M. Huang J. J. Rousseau 0. B. Sun 0. L...Report 606 Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Programming: Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions by A. Chames Z. M. Huang J. J. Rousseau D. B. Sun...permitted for any purpose of the U.S. Govemement. Tr% C CENTER FOR CYBERNETIC STUDIES cV- A. Chames , Director V 3 D 1 College of Business Administration

  9. Homologies among Coniferophyte cones: further observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauvogel-Stamm, Léa; Galtier, Jean

    1998-04-01

    A reinvestigation of the Triassic conifer pollen cone of Darneya shows evidence that clusters of pollen sacs are attached (adnate), at regular intervals, to the upper side of the stalk and that the distribution of stomata is restricted to the apical part of the abaxial side of the peltate scale. These features and others, such as the commissure visible on the stalk and the scale, suggest a dual nature of the male scale complex of Darneya which therefore is interpreted as an abaxial bract fused with an adaxial fertile shoot bearing several clusters of pollen sacs. This conifer pollen cone is thus considered as a compound strobilus (inflorescence) homologous with the female cone of the conifers and therefore with the cones, both male and female, of the cordaites.

  10. Exploring the topographic evolution of cinder cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, R.; Zibart, S.; Gleeman, E.; Alfano, F.; Clarke, A. B.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Dekko, R.

    2013-12-01

    The simple original form and monogenetic character of cinder cones make them interesting targets for the study of landscape evolution. Topographic metrics such as cone height-width ratios and histograms of topographic slope yield useful and portable characterizations of cinder cone relative ages. We explored the topographic evolution of cinder cones by simulating surface processes using numerical and physical experimentation approaches and by collecting high resolution topography over exemplary elements of the San Francisco Volcanic field in northern Arizona. We identified a clear distinction in cone form development between those composed of transport-limited cinder only and those with a capping hard agglutinated rim. We employed a fully 2 dimensional numerical implementation of non linear diffusion with spatially variable transport rates. The agglutinate was idealized as an annulus of diminished transport rate. In the laboratory, we used a simple erosion model consisting of fine mist over a cone of fine sand. The agglutinate was represented with a spray adhesive cap. Non-agglutinated cones show a steady decrease in height and increase in width over time, resulting in a lower height-to-width ratios and greater rounding of profiles than agglutinated cones. The presence of an agglutinate top lessens the degree of rounding, producing a concave profile with a resistant 'neck' as the cone flank erodes, in contrast with non-agglutinated cones which develop into convex-concave profiles. The resistant agglutinate protects itself and the material directly underneath it from erosion; this material stays in place while the sediments around it are transported downslope. The slope distributions start out as bimodal: flat and angle of repose. In the non-agglutinated case, the rounding of the cone and broadening of the base produces a more continuous slope distribution with overall progressive slope decrease from the angle of repose and slope increase from the flat base. The

  11. DEFORMATION OF SCORIA CONE BY CONDUIT PRESSURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Gaffney; B. Damjanac; D. Krier; G. Valentine

    2005-08-26

    A simplified mechanical model is used to simulate the deformation of a scoria cone due to pressurization of magma in a feeder conduit. The scoria cone is modeled as consisting of a cone of stabilized scoria with an axial region of loose scoria (height h{sub 1}), all overlying a vertically oriented cylindrical conduit intruded into rhyolite tuff country rock. For our analyses, the conduit is filled with basalt magma, usually with the upper length (h{sub 2}) solidified. The style of deformation of the cone depends on both h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}. If magma is prevented from hydrofracturing out of the conduit (as, for example, might be the case if the magma is surrounded by a solidified, but plastically deformable layer acting as a gasket backed up by the brittle country rock) pressures in the magma can build to 10s of MPa. When h{sub 1} is 100 m, not unusual for a small isolated basaltic cinder cone, the magma pressure needed to destabilize the cone when molten magma extends all the way to the original ground surface (h{sub 2} = 0) is only about one-third of the pressure when the upper part of the conduit is solidified (h{sub 2} = 25m). In the former case, almost the entire upper third of the cone is at failure in tension when the configuration becomes unstable. In the latter case, small portions of the surface of the cone are failing in tension when instability occurs, but a large volume in the central core of the cone is failing in shear or compressions. These results may provide insight into the status of volcanic plumbing, either past or present, beneath scoria cones. Field observations at the Lathrop Wells volcano in southern Nevada identify structures at the outer edge just below the crater rim that appear to be inward-dipping listric normal faults. This may indicate that, near the end of its active stage, the cone was close to failing in this fashion. A companion paper suggests that such a failure could have been quite energetic had it occurred.

  12. Tantalum Cones in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric G; Patel, Nirav K; Chughtai, Morad; Elmallah, Randa D K; Delanois, Ronald E; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    The best strategy to address large bony defects in revision total knee arthroplasty has yet to be determined. The relatively recent development of porous tantalum cones and their use to address massive bone loss in knee arthroplasty has shown promising short- and intermediate-term results. The purpose of this review is to present the current literature on: (1) basic science of porous tantalum, (2) classification and treatment for bone loss, (3) clinical results, and (4) evolution of newer generation cones.

  13. Causes and consequences of inherited cone disorders.

    PubMed

    Roosing, Susanne; Thiadens, Alberta A H J; Hoyng, Carel B; Klaver, Caroline C W; den Hollander, Anneke I; Cremers, Frans P M

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary cone disorders (CDs) are characterized by defects of the cone photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium underlying the macula, and include achromatopsia (ACHM), cone dystrophy (COD), cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), color vision impairment, Stargardt disease (STGD) and other maculopathies. Forty-two genes have been implicated in non-syndromic inherited CDs. Mutations in the 5 genes implicated in ACHM explain ∼93% of the cases. On the contrary, only 21% of CRDs (17 genes) and 25% of CODs (8 genes) have been elucidated. The fact that the large majority of COD and CRD-associated genes are yet to be discovered hints towards the existence of unknown cone-specific or cone-sensitive processes. The ACHM-associated genes encode proteins that fulfill crucial roles in the cone phototransduction cascade, which is the most frequently compromised (10 genes) process in CDs. Another 7 CD-associated proteins are required for transport processes towards or through the connecting cilium. The remaining CD-associated proteins are involved in cell membrane morphogenesis and maintenance, synaptic transduction, and the retinoid cycle. Further novel genes are likely to be identified in the near future by combining large-scale DNA sequencing and transcriptomics technologies. For 31 of 42 CD-associated genes, mammalian models are available, 14 of which have successfully been used for gene augmentation studies. However, gene augmentation for CDs should ideally be developed in large mammalian models with cone-rich areas, which are currently available for only 11 CD genes. Future research will aim to elucidate the remaining causative genes, identify the molecular mechanisms of CD, and develop novel therapies aimed at preventing vision loss in individuals with CD in the future.

  14. A novel mechanism of cone photoreceptor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Marcus H C; Smith, Robert G; Kamermans, Maarten

    2017-04-01

    An animal's ability to survive depends on its sensory systems being able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, by maximizing the information extracted and reducing the noise transmitted. The visual system does this by adapting to luminance and contrast. While luminance adaptation can begin at the retinal photoreceptors, contrast adaptation has been shown to start at later stages in the retina. Photoreceptors adapt to changes in luminance over multiple time scales ranging from tens of milliseconds to minutes, with the adaptive changes arising from processes within the phototransduction cascade. Here we show a new form of adaptation in cones that is independent of the phototransduction process. Rather, it is mediated by voltage-gated ion channels in the cone membrane and acts by changing the frequency response of cones such that their responses speed up as the membrane potential modulation depth increases and slow down as the membrane potential modulation depth decreases. This mechanism is effectively activated by high-contrast stimuli dominated by low frequencies such as natural stimuli. However, the more generally used Gaussian white noise stimuli were not effective since they did not modulate the cone membrane potential to the same extent. This new adaptive process had a time constant of less than a second. A critical component of the underlying mechanism is the hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, as pharmacologically blocking it prevented the long- and mid- wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (L- and M-cones) from adapting. Consistent with this, short- wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (S-cones) did not show the adaptive response, and we found they also lacked a prominent Ih. The adaptive filtering mechanism identified here improves the information flow by removing higher-frequency noise during lower signal-to-noise ratio conditions, as occurs when contrast levels are low. Although this new adaptive mechanism can be driven by

  15. Unique photoreceptor arrangements in a fish with polarized light discrimination.

    PubMed

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

    2011-03-01

    In contrast to other vertebrates, some anchovies have cone photoreceptors with longitudinally oriented outer segment lamellae. These photoreceptors are axially dichroic (i.e., they are sensitive to the polarization of axially incident light) and form the basis of a polarization detection system in the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. Whether other cone types exist in the retina of this animal, and whether multiple cone opsins are expressed in the retinas of anchovies, is unknown. Likewise, a detailed examination of photoreceptor ultrastructure in nondichroic photoreceptors has not been carried out despite its importance to understand visual specializations within the retina and its use in the formulation of models to explain cellular structure. Here, I combined light and electron microscopy with immunohistochemical studies of opsin expression to infer mechanisms of lamellar formation and to evaluate the potential for color vision in the northern anchovy retina. Morphological observations revealed three cone formations: 1) continuous rows made up of alternating long and short (bilobed) cones with longitudinally oriented lamellae that are orthogonal between cone types; 2) continuous rows of alternating long and short cones in which only the short cones have longitudinally oriented lamellae; and 3) rows of triple cones with transversely oriented lamellae, each triple cone consisting of two lateral cones flanking a small central cone. Ultrastructure investigations supported two models of outer segment formation resulting in the longitudinally oriented lamellae of long and short cones. In the case of the long cone, lateral compression of the outer segment, potentially via the formation of guanine platelet stacks in neighboring pigment epithelium cells, results in a shape transformation from conical to cunate and a tilt from transverse to longitudinal lamellae. In the case of the short (bilobed) cone, membrane invaginations from the connecting ciliary structure grow

  16. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  17. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  18. Distributional geometry of squashed cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursaev, Dmitri V.; Patrushev, Alexander; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2013-08-01

    A regularization procedure developed by D. V. Fursaev and S. N. Solodukhin, [Phys. Rev. D 52, 2133 (1995)PRVDAQ0556-2821] for the integral curvature invariants on manifolds with conical singularities is generalized to the case of squashed cones. In general, the squashed conical singularities do not have rotational O(2) symmetry in a subspace orthogonal to a singular surface Σ so that the surface is allowed to have extrinsic curvatures. A new feature of the squashed conical singularities is that the surface terms in the integral invariants, in the limit of a small angle deficit, now depend also on the extrinsic curvatures of Σ. A case of invariants which are quadratic polynomials of the Riemann curvature is elaborated in different dimensions and applied to several problems related to entanglement entropy. The results are in complete agreement with computations of the logarithmic terms in entanglement entropy of 4D conformal theories [S. N. Solodukhin, Phys. Lett. B 665, 305 (2008)PYLBAJ0370-2693]. Among other applications of the suggested method are logarithmic terms in entanglement entropy of nonconformal theories and a holographic formula for entanglement entropy in theories with gravity duals.

  19. Development of a Cone Penetrometer for Measuring Spectral Characteristics of Soils in Situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Landris T., Jr.; Malone, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    A patent was recently granted to the U.S. Army for an adaptation of a soil cone penetrometer that can be used to measure the spectral characteristics (fluorescence or reflectance) of soils adjacent to the penetrometer rod. The system can use a variety of light sources and spectral analytical equipment. A laser induced fluorescence measuring system has proven to be of immediate use in mapping the distribution of oil contaminated soil at waste disposal and oil storage areas. The fiber optic adaptation coupled with a cone penetrometer permits optical characteristics of the in-situ soil to be measured rapidly, safely, and inexpensively. The fiber optic cone penetrometer can be used to gather spectral data to a depth of approximately 25 to 30 m even in dense sands or stiff clays and can investigate 300 m of soil per day. Typical detection limits for oil contamination in sand is on the order of several hundred parts per million.

  20. Distinct and Atypical Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cell Death Pathways between Photoreceptor Cell Types upon Specific Ablation of Ranbp2 in Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung-in; Yu, Minzhong; Hao, Ying; Qiu, Sunny; Pillai, Indulekha C. L.; Peachey, Neal S.; Ferreira, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-autonomous cell-death is a cardinal feature of the disintegration of neural networks in neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular bases of this process are poorly understood. The neural retina comprises a mosaic of rod and cone photoreceptors. Cone and rod photoreceptors degenerate upon rod-specific expression of heterogeneous mutations in functionally distinct genes, whereas cone-specific mutations are thought to cause only cone demise. Here we show that conditional ablation in cone photoreceptors of Ran-binding protein-2 (Ranbp2), a cell context-dependent pleiotropic protein linked to neuroprotection, familial necrotic encephalopathies, acute transverse myelitis and tumor-suppression, promotes early electrophysiological deficits, subcellular erosive destruction and non-apoptotic death of cones, whereas rod photoreceptors undergo cone-dependent non-autonomous apoptosis. Cone-specific Ranbp2 ablation causes the temporal activation of a cone-intrinsic molecular cascade highlighted by the early activation of metalloproteinase 11/stromelysin-3 and up-regulation of Crx and CoREST, followed by the down-modulation of cone-specific phototransduction genes, transient up-regulation of regulatory/survival genes and activation of caspase-7 without apoptosis. Conversely, PARP1+-apoptotic rods develop upon sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and loss of membrane permeability. Rod photoreceptor demise ceases upon cone degeneration. These findings reveal novel roles of Ranbp2 in the modulation of intrinsic and extrinsic cell death mechanisms and pathways. They also unveil a novel spatiotemporal paradigm of progression of neurodegeneration upon cell-specific genetic damage whereby a cone to rod non-autonomous death pathway with intrinsically distinct cell-type death manifestations is triggered by cell-specific loss of Ranbp2. Finally, this study casts new light onto cell-death mechanisms that may be shared by human dystrophies with distinct retinal spatial

  1. Dephosphorylation during Bleach and Regeneration of Visual Pigment in Carp Rod and Cone Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Hiromi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    On absorption of light by vertebrate visual pigment, the chromophore, 11-cis retinal, is isomerized to all-trans retinal to activate the phototransduction cascade, which leads to a hyperpolarizing light response. Activated pigment is inactivated by phosphorylation on the protein moiety, opsin. Isomerized all-trans retinal is ultimately released from opsin, and the pigment is regenerated by binding to 11-cis retinal. In this pigment regeneration cycle, the phosphates incorporated should be removed in order that the pigment regains the capability of activating the phototransduction cascade. However, it is not clear yet how pigment dephosphorylation takes place in the regeneration cycle. First in this study, we tried to estimate the dephosphorylation activity in living carp rods and cones and found that the activity, which is present mainly in the cytoplasm in both rods and cones, is three times higher in cones than in rods. Second, we examined at which stage the dephosphorylation takes place; before or after the release of all-trans retinal, during pigment regeneration, or after pigment regeneration. For this purpose we prepared three types of phosphorylated substrates in purified carp rod and cone membranes: phosphorylated bleaching intermediate, phosphorylated opsin, and phosphorylated and regenerated pigment. We also examined the effect of pigment regeneration on the dephosphorylation. The results showed that the dephosphorylation does not show substrate preference in the regeneration cycle and suggested that the dephosphorylation takes place constantly. The results also suggest that, under bright light, some of the regenerated visual pigment remains phosphorylated to reduce the light sensitivity in cones. PMID:26286749

  2. Genetic Dissection of Rod and Cone Pathways in the Dark-Adapted Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Saszik, Shannon M.; Barrow, Andrew J.; Lem, Janis; Bramblett, Debra E.; Paul, David L.; Frishman, Laura J.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    A monumental task of the mammalian retina is to encode an enormous range (>109-fold) of light intensities experienced by the animal in natural environments. Retinal neurons carry out this task by dividing labor into many parallel rod and cone synaptic pathways. Here we study the operational plan of various rod- and cone-mediated pathways by analyzing electroretinograms (ERGs), primarily b-wave responses, in dark-adapted wildtype, connexin36 knockout, depolarizing rod–bipolar cell (DBCR) knockout, and rod transducin alpha-subunit knockout mice [WT, Cx36(−/−), Bhlhb4(−/−), and Trα(−/−)]. To provide additional insight into the cellular origins of various components of the ERG, we compared dark-adapted ERG responses with response dynamic ranges of individual retinal cells recorded with patch electrodes from dark-adapted mouse retinas published from other studies. Our results suggest that the connexin36-mediated rod–cone coupling is weak when light stimulation is weak and becomes stronger as light stimulation increases in strength and that rod signals may be transmitted to some DBCCs via direct chemical synapses. Moreover, our analysis indicates that DBCR responses contribute about 80% of the overall DBC response to scotopic light and that rod and cone signals contribute almost equally to the overall DBC responses when stimuli are strong enough to saturate the rod bipolar cell response. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that analysis of ERG b-wave of dark-adapted, pathway-specific mutants can be used as an in vivo tool for dissecting rod and cone synaptic pathways and for studying the functions of pathway-specific gene products in the retina. PMID:19587322

  3. Dephosphorylation during bleach and regeneration of visual pigment in carp rod and cone membranes.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Hiromi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-10-02

    On absorption of light by vertebrate visual pigment, the chromophore, 11-cis retinal, is isomerized to all-trans retinal to activate the phototransduction cascade, which leads to a hyperpolarizing light response. Activated pigment is inactivated by phosphorylation on the protein moiety, opsin. Isomerized all-trans retinal is ultimately released from opsin, and the pigment is regenerated by binding to 11-cis retinal. In this pigment regeneration cycle, the phosphates incorporated should be removed in order that the pigment regains the capability of activating the phototransduction cascade. However, it is not clear yet how pigment dephosphorylation takes place in the regeneration cycle. First in this study, we tried to estimate the dephosphorylation activity in living carp rods and cones and found that the activity, which is present mainly in the cytoplasm in both rods and cones, is three times higher in cones than in rods. Second, we examined at which stage the dephosphorylation takes place; before or after the release of all-trans retinal, during pigment regeneration, or after pigment regeneration. For this purpose we prepared three types of phosphorylated substrates in purified carp rod and cone membranes: phosphorylated bleaching intermediate, phosphorylated opsin, and phosphorylated and regenerated pigment. We also examined the effect of pigment regeneration on the dephosphorylation. The results showed that the dephosphorylation does not show substrate preference in the regeneration cycle and suggested that the dephosphorylation takes place constantly. The results also suggest that, under bright light, some of the regenerated visual pigment remains phosphorylated to reduce the light sensitivity in cones.

  4. Matrix theory interpretation of discrete light cone quantization string worldsheets

    PubMed

    Grignani; Orland; Paniak; Semenoff

    2000-10-16

    We study the null compactification of type-IIA string perturbation theory at finite temperature. We prove a theorem about Riemann surfaces establishing that the moduli spaces of infinite-momentum-frame superstring worldsheets are identical to those of branched-cover instantons in the matrix-string model conjectured to describe M theory. This means that the identification of string degrees of freedom in the matrix model proposed by Dijkgraaf, Verlinde, and Verlinde is correct and that its natural generalization produces the moduli space of Riemann surfaces at all orders in the genus expansion.

  5. "Light-cone" dynamics after quantum quenches in spin chains.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Lars; Essler, Fabian H L; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2014-10-31

    Signal propagation in the nonequilibrium evolution after quantum quenches has recently attracted much experimental and theoretical interest. A key question arising in this context is what principles, and which of the properties of the quench, determine the characteristic propagation velocity. Here we investigate such issues for a class of quench protocols in one of the central paradigms of interacting many-particle quantum systems, the spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ chain. We consider quenches from a variety of initial thermal density matrices to the same final Hamiltonian using matrix product state methods. The spreading velocities are observed to vary substantially with the initial density matrix. However, we achieve a striking data collapse when the spreading velocity is considered to be a function of the excess energy. Using the fact that the XXZ chain is integrable, we present an explanation of the observed velocities in terms of "excitations" in an appropriately defined generalized Gibbs ensemble.

  6. Ecophysiological variables influencing Aleppo pine seed and cone production: a review.

    PubMed

    Ayari, Abdelaziz; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2014-04-01

    The most interesting factors associated with seed and cone production of Aleppo pine were largely reviewed to identify broad patterns and potential effectiveness of reforestation efforts and planning. Aleppo pine cone production and seed yields are relatively variable, with differences between spatial and temporal influences. These differences are considered, mainly between (i) year, (ii) stand characteristics and (iii) individual tree measurements. Annual variability among populations was recorded for cone production per tree, based on influencing factors such as genetic characteristics, wetness, nutrient availability, insect pests and disease. In addition, some factors may affect Aleppo pine tree growth directly but may be affecting seed and cone production indirectly. Therefore, reduced stand density results in less competition among Aleppo pine trees and accompanying understory flora, which subsequently increases the stem diameter and other tree dimensions, including seed production. This review suggests that reforestation planning, particularly thinning, will result in improved tree morphology that will increase Aleppo pine seed and cone crops. Wildfire intensity and stand conditions such as light and soil nutrient status are also examined.

  7. Circuitry to explain how the relative number of L and M cones shapes color experience

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Touch, Phanith; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The wavelength of light that appears unique yellow is surprisingly consistent across people even though the ratio of middle (M) to long (L) wavelength sensitive cones is strikingly variable. This observation has been explained by normalization to the mean spectral distribution of our shared environment. Our purpose was to reconcile the nearly perfect alignment of everyone's unique yellow through a normalization process with the striking variability in unique green, which varies by as much as 60 nm between individuals. The spectral location of unique green was measured in a group of volunteers whose cone ratios were estimated with a technique that combined genetics and flicker photometric electroretinograms. In contrast to unique yellow, unique green was highly dependent upon relative cone numerosity. We hypothesized that the difference in neural architecture of the blue-yellow and red-green opponent systems in the presence of a normalization process creates the surprising dependence of unique green on cone ratio. We then compared the predictions of different theories of color vision processing that incorporate L and M cone ratio and a normalization process. The results of this analysis reveal that—contrary to prevailing notions--postretinal contributions may not be required to explain the phenomena of unique hues. PMID:27366885

  8. Sodium-dependent calcium extrusion and sensitivity regulation in retinal cones of the salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, K; Yau, K W

    1989-01-01

    1. Membrane current was recorded from an isolated, dark-adapted salamander cone by sucking its inner segment into a tight-fitting glass pipette containing Ringer solution. The outer segment of the cell was exposed to a bath solution that could be changed rapidly. 2. After removing Na+ from the bath Ringer solution for a short period of time in darkness (the 'loading period'), a transient inward current was observed upon restoring it in bright light. A similar but longer-lasting current was observed when Na+ was restored in the light after a large Ca2+ influx was induced through the light-sensitive conductance in darkness. 3. The above transient current was not observed if Li+ or guanidinium was substituted for Na+ in the light, or if Ba2+ was substituted for Ca2+ during the dark loading period. However, a current was observed if Sr2+ was the substituting ion for Ca2+ during loading. These observations suggested that the current was associated with an electrogenic Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux at the cone outer segment. 4. The saturated amplitude of the exchange current was 12-25 pA with a mean around 16 pA. This is very comparable to that measured in the outer segment of a salamander rod under similar conditions. 5. By comparing a known Ca2+ load in a cone outer segment to the subsequent charge transfer through the exchange, we estimated that the stoichiometry of the exchange was near 3Na+:1Ca2+. 6. With a small Ca2+ load, or in the presence of Cs+ around the inner segment, the final temporal decline of the Na+-Ca2+ exchange current was roughly exponential, with a mean time constant of about 100 ms. This decline is about four times faster than that measured in rods. We interpret the shorter time constant in cones to reflect a faster rate of decline of intracellular free Ca2+ in their outer segments resulting from the exchange activity. 7. In the absence of external Na+, and hence any Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux, the absolute sensitivity of a cone to a dim flash was

  9. Pulsating Electrohydrodynamic Cone-Jets: from Choked Jet to Oscillating Cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bober, David; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Pulsating cone-jets occur in a variety of electrostatic spraying and printing systems. We report an experimental study of the pulsation frequency to reconcile two models based on a choked jet and an oscillating cone, respectively. The two regimes are demarcated by the ratio of the supplied flow rate (Qs) to the minimum flow rate (Qm) required for a steady Taylor cone-jet. When Qs Qm , the Taylor cone anchored at the nozzle experiences a capillary oscillation analogous to the Rayleigh mode of a free drop; the pulsation frequency in the oscillating cone regime plateaus to the capillary oscillation frequency which is independent of Qs /Qm .

  10. Strain engineering of Dirac cones in graphyne

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gaoxue; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Ravindra; Si, Mingsu

    2014-05-26

    6,6,12-graphyne, one of the two-dimensional carbon allotropes with the rectangular lattice structure, has two kinds of non-equivalent anisotropic Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone. We show that Dirac cones can be tuned independently by the uniaxial compressive strain applied to graphyne, which induces n-type and p-type self-doping effect, by shifting the energy of the Dirac cones in the opposite directions. On the other hand, application of the tensile strain results into a transition from gapless to finite gap system for the monolayer. For the AB-stacked bilayer, the results predict tunability of Dirac-cones by in-plane strains as well as the strain applied perpendicular to the plane. The group velocities of the Dirac cones show enhancement in the resistance anisotropy for bilayer relative to the case of monolayer. Such tunable and direction-dependent electronic properties predicted for 6,6,12-graphyne make it to be competitive for the next-generation electronic devices at nanoscale.

  11. Whiskers, cones and pyramids created in sputtering by ion bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    A thorough study of the role which foreign atoms play in cone formation during sputtering of metals revealed many experimental facts. Two types of cone formation were distinquished, deposit cones and seed cones. Twenty-six combinations of metals for seed cone formation were tested. The sputtering yield variations with composition for combinations which form seed cones were measured. It was demonstrated that whisker growth becomes a common occurrence when low melting point material is sputter deposited on a hot nonsputtered high melting point electrode.

  12. Optimization over Multi-order Cones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Department of Mathematics Technical Report 2011-1 Optimization over multi-order cones Baha ’ M. Alzalg and K. A. Ariyawansa February 2011 Postal...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Optimization over multi-order cones Baha M. Alzalg∗ and K. A. Ariyawansa† Abstract In this paper we propose multi-order cone...that x ∈ Qnp , and x 〈n〉 〈p〉 y to mean that x− y 〈n〉 〈p〉 0. Given 1 ≤ pi ≤ ∞ for i = 1, 2, · · · , r. Let Q 〈n1,n2,··· ,nr〉 〈p1,p2,··· ,pr〉 := Qn1p1

  13. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones

    PubMed Central

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators). PMID:28074936

  14. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones.

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-11

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000-113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators).

  15. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators).

  16. Tilted cone beam VCT reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Jiang; Tang, Xiangyang

    2005-04-01

    Reconstruction algorithms for volumetric CT have been the focus of many studies. Several exact and approximate reconstruction algorithms have been proposed for step-and-shoot and helical scanning trajectories to combat cone beam related artifacts. In this paper, we present a closed form cone beam reconstruction formula for tilted gantry data acquisition. Although several algorithms were proposed to compensate for errors induced by the gantry tilt, none of the algorithms addresses the case in which the cone beam geometry is first rebinned to a set of parallel beams prior to the filtered backprojection. Because of the rebinning process, the amount of iso-center adjustment depends not only on the projection angle and tilt angle, but also on the reconstructed pixel location. The proposed algorithm has been tested extensively on both 16 and 64 slice VCT with phantoms and clinical data. The efficacy of the algorithm is clearly demonstrated by the experiments.

  17. Lentiviral Gene Transfer of Rpe65 Rescues Survival and Function of Cones in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Crippa, Sylvain V; Hauswirth, William W; Lem, Janis; Munier, Francis L; Seeliger, Mathias W; Wenzel, Andreas; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Background RPE65 is specifically expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and is essential for the recycling of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rod and cone opsins. In humans, mutations in RPE65 lead to Leber congenital amaurosis or early-onset retinal dystrophy, a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa. The proof of feasibility of gene therapy for RPE65 deficiency has already been established in a dog model of Leber congenital amaurosis, but rescue of the cone function, although crucial for human high-acuity vision, has never been strictly proven. In Rpe65 knockout mice, photoreceptors show a drastically reduced light sensitivity and are subject to degeneration, the cone photoreceptors being lost at early stages of the disease. In the present study, we address the question of whether application of a lentiviral vector expressing the Rpe65 mouse cDNA prevents cone degeneration and restores cone function in Rpe65 knockout mice. Methods and Findings Subretinal injection of the vector in Rpe65-deficient mice led to sustained expression of Rpe65 in the retinal pigment epithelium. Electroretinogram recordings showed that Rpe65 gene transfer restored retinal function to a near-normal pattern. We performed histological analyses using cone-specific markers and demonstrated that Rpe65 gene transfer completely prevented cone degeneration until at least four months, an age at which almost all cones have degenerated in the untreated Rpe65-deficient mouse. We established an algorithm that allows prediction of the cone-rescue area as a function of transgene expression, which should be a useful tool for future clinical trials. Finally, in mice deficient for both RPE65 and rod transducin, Rpe65 gene transfer restored cone function when applied at an early stage of the disease. Conclusions By demonstrating that lentivirus-mediated Rpe65 gene transfer protects and restores the function of cones in the Rpe65−/− mouse, this study reinforces the therapeutic value of gene therapy

  18. Assessing mechanical properties from cone indentation hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicarlo, Anthony Albert

    This dissertation investigates methods for assessing the mechanical properties of materials using hardness values obtained from cone indentations. A broad range of isotropic metallic materials was simulated using finite element analysis. In particular, the elastic and plastic bulk properties, which define the stress-strain behavior of materials that exhibit power law hardening, are studied. Other investigators have found that the Young's modulus, E, can be determined from the unloading data of a cone indentation. Therefore, the remaining properties of interest, in this study, are the yield strength, Y, and the work hardening exponent, n. Atkins and Tabor have conducted pioneering work in the area of determining the stress-strain behavior of a metallic material from cone indentation experiments. This work has been re-visited in this study using computational models implementing an expanded range of mechanical properties. Consequently, discrepancies in this prediction method were uncovered when the mechanical properties were outside of the original range studied. As a result, two new prediction methods have been developed using the data collected from the finite element simulations in conjunction with a regression technique. The first method correlates the non-dimensional hardness values, H/E, collected from five cone indentations to the non-dimensional mechanical properties, Y/E and n. The second method is similar in principle, but uses two hardness values as opposed to five. The yield strength can be estimated with a priori knowledge of E. Both of these methods are compared to the method developed by Atkins and Tabor. Although the majority of the work mentioned is focused on the macro-scale, bulk mechanical properties, there is some investigation of meso-scale cone indentations. At the meso-scale, the number of geometric dislocations is significant enough to noticeably increase the strength of a material. This length scale effect is studied for various angled cone

  19. Understanding Cone Photoreceptor Cell Death in Achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Livia S; Vandenberghe, Luk H

    2016-01-01

    Colour vision is only achieved in the presence of healthy and functional cone photoreceptors found in the retina. It is an essential component of human vision and usually the first complaint patients undergoing vision degeneration have is the loss of daylight colour vision. Therefore, an understanding of the biology and basic mechanisms behind cone death under the degenerative state of retinal dystrophies and how the activation of the apoptotic pathway is triggered will provide valuable knowledge. It will also have broader applications for a spectrum of visual disorders and will be critical for future advances in translational research.

  20. The First Three Dimensional Digital Models of Shatter Cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Bouley, S.; Reimold, W. U.; Baratoux, L.

    2014-09-01

    Shatter cones are used as a diagnostic evidence for impact, but model of formation is unclear. Geometrical parameters may offer critical tests. The first 3-D models of 30 shatter cones from 16 different impact structures are reported here.

  1. Basaltic Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M

    1964-01-17

    A basaltic cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top.

  2. Contributions of Rod and Cone Pathways to Retinal Direction Selectivity Through Development

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Juliana M.; Morrie, Ryan D.; Baertsch, Hans C.

    2016-01-01

    Direction selectivity is a robust computation across a broad stimulus space that is mediated by activity of both rod and cone photoreceptors through the ON and OFF pathways. However, rods, S-cones, and M-cones activate the ON and OFF circuits via distinct pathways and the relative contribution of each to direction selectivity is unknown. Using a variety of stimulation paradigms, pharmacological agents, and knockout mice that lack rod transduction, we found that inputs from the ON pathway were critical for strong direction-selective (DS) tuning in the OFF pathway. For UV light stimulation, the ON pathway inputs to the OFF pathway originated with rod signaling, whereas for visible stimulation, the ON pathway inputs to the OFF pathway originated with both rod and M-cone signaling. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that blocking the ON pathway reduced directional tuning in the OFF pathway via a reduction in null-side inhibition, which is provided by OFF starburst amacrine cells (SACs). Consistent with this, our recordings from OFF SACs confirmed that signals originating in the ON pathway contribute to their excitation. Finally, we observed that, for UV stimulation, ON contributions to OFF DS tuning matured earlier than direct signaling via the OFF pathway. These data indicate that the retina uses multiple strategies for computing DS responses across different colors and stages of development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The retina uses parallel pathways to encode different features of the visual scene. In some cases, these distinct pathways converge on circuits that mediate a distinct computation. For example, rod and cone pathways enable direction-selective (DS) ganglion cells to encode motion over a wide range of light intensities. Here, we show that although direction selectivity is robust across light intensities, motion discrimination for OFF signals is dependent upon ON signaling. At eye opening, ON directional tuning is mature, whereas OFF DS tuning is

  3. Synaptic Transmission from Horizontal Cells to Cones Is Impaired by Loss of Connexin Hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Lauw J.; Sun, Ziyi; Steijaert, Marvin N.; Bolte, Petra; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Klooster, Jan; Claassen, Yvonne; Shields, Colleen R.; Ten Eikelder, Huub M. M.; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Zoidl, Georg; McMahon, Douglas G.; Kamermans, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells generate the inhibitory surround of bipolar cells, an essential step in contrast enhancement. For the last decades, the mechanism involved in this inhibitory synaptic pathway has been a major controversy in retinal research. One hypothesis suggests that connexin hemichannels mediate this negative feedback signal; another suggests that feedback is mediated by protons. Mutant zebrafish were generated that lack connexin 55.5 hemichannels in horizontal cells. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were made from isolated horizontal cells and cones in flat mount retinas. Light-induced feedback from horizontal cells to cones was reduced in mutants. A reduction of feedback was also found when horizontal cells were pharmacologically hyperpolarized but was absent when they were pharmacologically depolarized. Hemichannel currents in isolated horizontal cells showed a similar behavior. The hyperpolarization-induced hemichannel current was strongly reduced in the mutants while the depolarization-induced hemichannel current was not. Intracellular recordings were made from horizontal cells. Consistent with impaired feedback in the mutant, spectral opponent responses in horizontal cells were diminished in these animals. A behavioral assay revealed a lower contrast-sensitivity, illustrating the role of the horizontal cell to cone feedback pathway in contrast enhancement. Model simulations showed that the observed modifications of feedback can be accounted for by an ephaptic mechanism. A model for feedback, in which the number of connexin hemichannels is reduced to about 40%, fully predicts the specific asymmetric modification of feedback. To our knowledge, this is the first successful genetic interference in the feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. It provides direct evidence for an unconventional role of connexin hemichannels in the inhibitory synapse between horizontal cells and cones. This is an important step in resolving a

  4. Electric-field magnitudes of whistler-mode waves near the resonance cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, G.

    The theory of dipole-antenna radiation in a magnetoplasma has been tested through the analysis of the data from the two-point propagation experiment OEDIPUS C (OC). One of the first phenomena to attract attention was whistler-mode propagation near the lower oblique resonance at 25 kHz. Signal strengths of waves propagating near the resonance cone were considerably stronger than those inside the cone. Those signal strengths have been explained using a new application of the reciprocity principle to estimate the receiving dipole's effective length, which is found to be much larger than its physical length. Recently, data analysis uncovered the same enhancement of resonance-cone signals around 100 kHz. Evidence of the linear polarization of the wave electric field was obtained from both the 25- and 100-kHz data. The magnitudes of dipole effective lengths deduced from the OC observations cast a new light on past investigations of phenomena involving whistler-mode propagation near the resonance cone. One example is tests of the theory for auroral-hiss generation. In these tests, theoretical electric-field magnitudes were compared with values inferred from receiving dipole voltages when the dipole was assumed to have an effective length equal to its physical length, L. The ratio of the observed to theoretical field strengths was about 20 dB, which led to the conclusion that the test-particle theory was not applicable. It now appears that the observed fields were overestimated because of the incorrect effective-length assumption. There are other instances of perceived magnitudes of electric fields of waves propagating near the lower- or upper-oblique resonance cone. Two-point active propagation experiments using the ISIS topside sounders during rendezvous produced observations of strong, highly dispersed pulses that appeared to carry an unusually large total energy. These results signal a need for caution in the interpretation of signal levels of resonance-cone

  5. Restoration of cone vision in a mouse model of achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Alexander, John J; Umino, Yumiko; Everhart, Drew; Chang, Bo; Min, Seok H; Li, Qiuhong; Timmers, Adrian M; Hawes, Norman L; Pang, Ji-Jing; Barlow, Robert B; Hauswirth, William W

    2007-06-01

    Loss of cone function in the central retina is a pivotal event in the development of severe vision impairment for many prevalent blinding diseases. Complete achromatopsia is a genetic defect resulting in cone vision loss in 1 in 30,000 individuals. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy, we show that it is possible to target cones and rescue both the cone-mediated electroretinogram response and visual acuity in the Gnat2 ( cpfl3 ) mouse model of achromatopsia.

  6. Successful gene therapy in the RPGRIP1-deficient dog: a large model of cone-rod dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lhériteau, Elsa; Petit, Lolita; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Libeau, Lyse; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Guihal, Caroline; François, Achille; Guyon, Richard; Provost, Nathalie; Lemoine, Françoise; Papal, Samantha; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    For the development of new therapies, proof-of-concept studies in large animal models that share clinical features with their human counterparts represent a pivotal step. For inherited retinal dystrophies primarily involving photoreceptor cells, the efficacy of gene therapy has been demonstrated in canine models of stationary cone dystrophies and progressive rod-cone dystrophies but not in large models of progressive cone-rod dystrophies, another important cause of blindness. To address the last issue, we evaluated gene therapy in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1)-deficient dog, a model exhibiting a severe cone-rod dystrophy similar to that seen in humans. Subretinal injection of AAV5 (n = 5) or AAV8 (n = 2) encoding the canine Rpgrip1 improved photoreceptor survival in transduced areas of treated retinas. Cone function was significantly and stably rescued in all treated eyes (18-72% of those recorded in normal eyes) up to 24 months postinjection. Rod function was also preserved (22-29% of baseline function) in four of the five treated dogs up to 24 months postinjection. No detectable rod function remained in untreated contralateral eyes. More importantly, treatment preserved bright- and dim-light vision. Efficacy of gene therapy in this large animal model of cone-rod dystrophy provides great promise for human treatment.

  7. Slow Cone Reflectance Changes during Bleaching Determined by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Living Human Eyes.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masakazu; Miyagawa, Suguru; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takao; Lohmann, Tibor Karl; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujikado, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the reflectance of human cone photoreceptors by an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) during photobleaching. A custom-built AO-SLO with an observation light of 840-nm was used to measure the cone densities and the reflectance changes during bleaching by 630 nm red light emitting diodes. Measurements were made at 1° and 3° temporal to the fovea within an area of 1° × 1° in 8 eyes of 8 normal subjects. After dark-adaptation, images of the cone mosaics were recorded continuously for 5-min before, 5-min during, and after 5-min of light stimulation with a sampling rate of 5-Hz. The first positive peak (P1) was observed at 72.2 ± 15.0-s and a second positive peak (P2) at 257.5 ± 34.5-s at 1°. The increase of the reflectance of P1 was significantly larger at 1° (34.4 ± 13.9%) than at 3° (26.0 ± 10.5%; P = 0.03, Wilcoxon's signed rank test). The average cone density at 1° (51123.13 ± 1401.23 cells/mm2) was significantly larger than that at 3° (30876.13 ± 1459.28 cells/mm2; P <0.001, Wilcoxon's signed rank test). The changes in the reflectance of the cones during bleaching by red light had two peaks. The two peaks may be caused by regeneration of cone photopigment during bleaching.

  8. Funnel cone for focusing intense ion beams on a target

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.

    2009-10-05

    We describe a funnel cone for concentrating an ion beam on a target. The cone utilizes the reflection characteristic of ion beams on solid walls to focus the incident beam andincrease beam intensity on target. The cone has been modeled with the TRIM code. A prototype has been tested and installed for use in the 350-keV K+ NDCX target chamber.

  9. Mouse Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors Are Driven by the Most Sensitive Rod Pathway and by Both Types of Cones

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shijun; Estevez, Maureen E.; Berson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are depolarized by light by two mechanisms: directly, through activation of their photopigment melanopsin; and indirectly through synaptic circuits driven by rods and cones. To learn more about the rod and cone circuits driving ipRGCs, we made multielectrode array (MEA) and patch-clamp recordings in wildtype and genetically modified mice. Rod-driven ON inputs to ipRGCs proved to be as sensitive as any reaching the conventional ganglion cells. These signals presumably pass in part through the primary rod pathway, involving rod bipolar cells and AII amacrine cells coupled to ON cone bipolar cells through gap junctions. Consistent with this interpretation, the sensitive rod ON input to ipRGCs was eliminated by pharmacological or genetic disruption of gap junctions, as previously reported for conventional ganglion cells. A presumptive cone input was also detectable as a brisk, synaptically mediated ON response that persisted after disruption of rod ON pathways. This was roughly three log units less sensitive than the rod input. Spectral analysis revealed that both types of cones, the M- and S-cones, contribute to this response and that both cone types drive ON responses. This contrasts with the blue-OFF, yellow-ON chromatic opponency reported in primate ipRGCs. The cone-mediated response was surprisingly persistent during steady illumination, echoing the tonic nature of both the rod input to ipRGCs and their intrinsic, melanopsin-based phototransduction. These synaptic inputs greatly expand the dynamic range and spectral bandpass of the non-image-forming visual functions for which ipRGCs provide the principal retinal input. PMID:23762490

  10. Final design report for cone penetrometer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    The final design report documents the completion of the design review meetings for acceptance of the cone penetrometer from the vendor. All design comments have been dispositioned and closed. Open items dealt with completion of the safety assessment,operational procedures, operational testing and readiness review.

  11. OSM's cone design and installation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, M.W.

    1983-06-29

    The concrete filled steel cone offers an alternative solution in sealing vertical mine shafts. This paper gives the design and installation experiences of the Office of Surface Mining when dealing with abandoned coal mines. This same solution can also be used with other types of shaft closures. 4 figures.

  12. Epigenomic landscapes of retinal rods and cones

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Alisa; Luo, Chongyuan; Davis, Fred P; Mukamel, Eran A; Henry, Gilbert L; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Picard, Serge; Lister, Ryan; Eddy, Sean R; Beer, Michael A; Ecker, Joseph R; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors are highly similar in many respects but they have important functional and molecular differences. Here, we investigate genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility in mouse rods and cones and correlate differences in these features with gene expression, histone marks, transcription factor binding, and DNA sequence motifs. Loss of NR2E3 in rods shifts their epigenomes to a more cone-like state. The data further reveal wide differences in DNA methylation between retinal photoreceptors and brain neurons. Surprisingly, we also find a substantial fraction of DNA hypo-methylated regions in adult rods that are not in active chromatin. Many of these regions exhibit hallmarks of regulatory regions that were active earlier in neuronal development, suggesting that these regions could remain undermethylated due to the highly compact chromatin in mature rods. This work defines the epigenomic landscapes of rods and cones, revealing features relevant to photoreceptor development and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11613.001 PMID:26949250

  13. Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    this grant, we sought to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the earliest events in cone photoreceptor development and to exploit this knowledge ...identified 236 genes that were differentially expressed (P < 0.01, false discovery rate < 0.25) between DMSO and DAPT conditions at times that preceded

  14. Novel pharmacological targets from Indian cone snails.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, M Santhana; Manikandan, S

    2011-02-01

    The oceans are a source of combinatorial library of unique natural products, 'not found in the terrestrial environment'. Marine invertebrates such as sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, tunicates (Urochordata) and their associated microorganisms are the major representatives of promising bioactive compounds. Among these, the predatory molluscan cone snails have evolved with highly structured small and complex array of peptides (more than 50,000) linked to their prey capture and defence. These peptides have become a valuable source of neuro pharmacological targets as many of them selectively modulate ion channels and transporters. A group of scientists from United States, Europe, Australia, Israel and China have been characterized drugs for neuropathic pain and pharmacological targets from the peptides of a few cone snail species. Several are now in Clinical and preclinical development. Less than 1% of the cono peptides are pharmacologically characterized. India has a diversity of 20-30% of total cone snail species distributed worldwide. A group of Indian Scientists have made promising drug discovery programs from Conus peptides. This review will focus on the Conus peptides from Indian cone snails species, their neuro pharmacological targets and future directions.

  15. Interaction between rod and cone inputs in mixed-input bipolar cells in goldfish retina.

    PubMed

    Joselevitch, Christina; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-05-15

    One class of goldfish bipolar cells, the mixed-input bipolar cell, contacts both rods and cones. Although the morphology of the different mixed-input bipolar cell subtypes has been described, insight into the interaction between rods and cones at the bipolar cell level is scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize this interaction in the different physiological types of mixed-input bipolar cells. We found mixed-input bipolar cells that depolarized, hyperpolarized, or showed a combination of the two types of response after center stimulation. The relative contributions of rod and cone inputs varied strongly in these cell populations. Depolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells are rod-dominated, having the highest sensitivity and the smallest dynamic range. Hyperpolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells, on the other hand, have a more balanced rod-cone input ratio. This extends their dynamic range and decreases their sensitivity. Finally, opponent mixed-input bipolar cells seem to be mostly cone-dominated, although some rod input is present. The antagonistic photoreceptor inputs form a push-pull system that makes these mixed-input bipolar cells very sensitive to changes in light intensity. Our finding that spectral tuning changes with light intensity conflicts with the idea that the separate non-opponent and opponent channels are related to coding of brightness and color, respectively. The organization of mixed-input bipolar cells into various classes with different dynamic ranges and absolute sensitivities might be a strategy to transmit information about all visual aspects most efficiently, given the sustained nature of bipolar cell responses and their limited voltage range.

  16. Pharmacological Amelioration of Cone Survival and Vision in a Mouse Model for Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songhua; Samardzija, Marijana; Yang, Zhihui; Grimm, Christian

    2016-01-01

    RPE65, an abundant membrane-associate protein in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a key retinoid isomerase of the visual cycle necessary for generating 11-cis-retinal that functions not only as a molecular switch for activating cone and rod visual pigments in response to light stimulation, but also as a chaperone for normal trafficking of cone opsins to the outer segments. Many mutations in RPE65 are associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). A R91W substitution, the most frequent LCA-associated mutation, results in a severe decrease in protein level and enzymatic activity of RPE65, causing cone opsin mislocalization and early cone degeneration in the mutation knock-in mouse model of LCA. Here we show that R91W RPE65 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent proteasomal degradation in the knock-in mouse RPE due to misfolding. The 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 13 mediated degradation specifically of misfolded R91W RPE65. The mutation disrupted membrane-association and colocalization of RPE65 with lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) that provides the hydrophobic substrate for RPE65. Systemic administration of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone, increased protein stability, enzymatic activity, membrane-association, and colocalization of R91W RPE65 with LRAT. This rescue effect increased synthesis of 11-cis-retinal and 9-cis-retinal, a functional iso-chromophore of the visual pigments, led to alleviation of S-opsin mislocalization and cone degeneration in the knock-in mice. Importantly, PBA-treatment also improved cone-mediated vision in the mutant mice. These results indicate that PBA, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved safe oral medication, may provide a noninvasive therapeutic intervention that delays daylight vision loss in patients with RPE65 mutations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT LCA is a severe early onset retinal dystrophy. Recent clinical trials of gene therapy have implicated the need of an alternative or

  17. Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejections That Caused Particularly Large Geomagnetic Storms Using ENLIL Heliosphere Cone Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; MacNeice, P. J.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    2010-12-01

    The largest geomagnetic storms are caused by the solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In our previous paper (Taktakishvili et al., [2009]) we reported the results of modeling 14 selected well observed strong halo CME events using the WSA/ENLIL cone model combination. In that study the cone model input parameters were obtained from white-light coronagraph images of the CME events using the analytical method developed by Xie et al [ 2004 ]. This work verified that coronagraph input gives reasonably good results for the CME arrival time prediction. Recently Pulkkinen et al., [2009] developed a novel method for automatic determination of cone model parameters. This approach combines standard image processing techniques and a novel inversion routine to derive the cone parameters. The present work extends our previous studies by addressing more CME events. The approach in this paper is different from our previous study: we started from addressing 36 particularly strong geomagnetic storms, then tried to associate them with particular CMEs using SOHO/LASCO catalogue, and finally modeled these CMEs using WSA/ENLIL cone model. This approach is addressing space weather forecasting and operational needs. We employed both analytical and automatic methods to determine cone model input parameters. We examined the CME arrival times and magnitude of impact at 1 AU for both techniques. The results of the simulations were compared with the ACE satellite observations. This comparison demonstrated that WSA/ENLIL model combination with coronograph input gives reasonably good results for the CME arrival times for this set of "geo-effective" CME events as well. References: Taktakishvili, A., M. Kuznetsova, P. Macneice, M. Hesse, L. Rastaetter, A. Pulkkinen, A. Chulaki and D. Odstrci (2009), Validation of the coronal mass ejection predictions at the Earth orbit estimated by ENLIL heliosphere cone model, Space Weather,7, S03004,doi10.1029/2008SW000448. Xie, H., L. Ofman, and G. Lawrence

  18. Simulated and empiric wind pollination patterns of conifer ovulate cones

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Karl J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel analyses of conifer ovulate cones indicate that the total geometry of the cone enhances the probability of pollen entrapment. Aerodynamic characteristics of cone scale-bract complexes are such that suspended pollen is directed toward the micropyles of attached ovules. Within the taxa examined, there appears to be a preferential entrapment by ovulate cones of pollen of the same species. The data are interpreted as evidence for an aerodynamic reciprocity between wind-suspended pollen and the structure of ovulate cones which increases the frequency of pollination and the potential for fertilization. Images PMID:16593147

  19. Unpaired Dirac cones in photonic lattices and networks (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Yidong; Leykam, Daniel; Rechtsman, Mikael C.

    2016-09-01

    Unpaired Dirac cones are bandstructures with two bands crossing at a single point in the Brillouin zone. It is known that photonic bandstructures can exhibit pairs of Dirac cones, similar to graphene; unpaired cones, however, have not observed in photonics, and have been observed in condensed-matter systems only among topological insulator surface states. We show that unpaired Dirac cones occur in a 2D photonic lattice that is not the surface of a 3D system. These modes have unusual properties, including conical diffraction and antilocalization immune to short-range disorder, due to the absence of "intervalley" scattering between Dirac cones.

  20. The growth cone as seen through Cajal's original histological preparations and publications.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, each neuron must contact its appropriate target cell in order to establish its specific connections. More than a century ago, Ramon y Cajal discovered an amoeboid-like structure at the end of the axon of developing nerve cells. He called this structure the growth cone [cono de crecimiento] and he proposed that this structure was guided towards its target tissue by chemical substances secreted by the different cells that line its course. We have reviewed the discovery of the growth cone by Cajal using his original publications, his original scientific drawings, and by studying his histological preparations conserved at the "Instituto Cajal" (Madrid, Spain).(1) We found a very good correlation between the structure of the growth cone in the Golgi-impregnated and reduced silver-nitrate-stained material used by Cajal, and that which is revealed with present-day methods. Finally, Cajal's view of the function of the growth cone and his chemotactic hypothesis will also be considered in the light of present-day knowledge.

  1. Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2015-03-01

    All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness.

  2. Prospects for retinal cone-targeted gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, John J; Hauswirth, William W

    2008-06-01

    Gene therapy strategies that target therapeutic genes to retinal cones are a worthy goal both because cone photoreceptor diseases are severely vision limiting and because many retinal diseases that do not affect cones directly eventually lead to cone loss, the reason for eventual blindness. Human achromatopsia is a genetic disease of cones that renders them nonfunctional but otherwise intact. Thus, animal models of achromatopsia were used in conjunction with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors whose serotype efficiently transduces cones and with a promoter that limits transgene expression to cones. In the Gnat2(cpfl3) mouse model of one genetic form of human achromatopsia, we were able to demonstrate recovery of normal cone function and visual acuity after a single subretinal treatment of vector that supplied wild-type Gnat2 protein to cones. This validates the overall strategy of targeting cones using recombinant viral vectors and justifies a more complete examination of animal models of cone disease as a prelude to considering a clinical gene therapy trial.

  3. Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn M; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-11-01

    At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca(2+)) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, τ = 1/(Dρδs), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, δ is the vesicle diameter, ρ is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons.

  4. k-cones and kirigami metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Seffen, Keith A

    2016-09-01

    We are inspired by the tensile buckling of a thin sheet with a slit to create a foldable planar metamaterial. The buckled shape comprises two pairs of identical e-cones connected to the slit, which we refer to as a k-cone. We approximate this shape as discrete vertices that can be folded out of plane as the slit is pulled apart. We determine their kinematics and we calculate generic shape properties using a simple elastic model of the folded shape. We then show how the folded sheet may be tessellated as a unit cell within a larger sheet, which may be constructed a priori by cutting and folding the latter in a regular way, in order to form a planar kirigami structure with a single degree of freedom.

  5. k-cones and kirigami metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2016-09-01

    We are inspired by the tensile buckling of a thin sheet with a slit to create a foldable planar metamaterial. The buckled shape comprises two pairs of identical e-cones connected to the slit, which we refer to as a k-cone. We approximate this shape as discrete vertices that can be folded out of plane as the slit is pulled apart. We determine their kinematics and we calculate generic shape properties using a simple elastic model of the folded shape. We then show how the folded sheet may be tessellated as a unit cell within a larger sheet, which may be constructed a priori by cutting and folding the latter in a regular way, in order to form a planar kirigami structure with a single degree of freedom.

  6. Using electrostatic modelling to study cone discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, W.

    2015-10-01

    Cone discharges, also known as bulking brush discharges, can arise when charged insulating powder accumulates in a heap in silos. They can be an effective ignition source to relatively ignition sensitive powders and therefore represent a possible electrostatic hazard. The current international guidance on control of electrostatic hazards (IEC/TS 60079-32-1 [1]), endorses the usage of electrostatic modelling to estimate the electric field above the powder heap. “Such model calculations should be based on the charge to mass ratio, bulk density and filling rate of the powder, the relative permittivity and resistivity of the bulked powder as well as the silo geometry.” This study shows a practical demonstration of this modelling technique. It also examines whether the shape of the heap affects the strength of the electric field above the powder heap, and thus the likelihood of cone discharges from occurring.

  7. Cone beam computed tomography use in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nervina, J M

    2012-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used by orthodontists to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of their patients. This is of value as malocclusion results from discrepancies in three planes of space. This review tracks the use of CBCT in orthodontics, from its validation as an accurate and reliable tool, to its use in diagnosing and treatment planning, and in assessing treatment outcomes in orthodontics.

  8. Ichthyotoxicity caused by marine cone snail venoms?

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Kauferstein, Silke

    2005-09-01

    Ten venoms from marine cone snails were tested for ichthyotoxic effects on zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) when added to the water. Only two venoms, from Conus capitaneus and Conus episcopatus, produced lethal effects at high concentrations (50-300 microg/ml) within 20-90 min. No sedative or hypnotic symptoms were observed. The experiments confirm that Conus venoms exert a quick and prompt activity only by parenteral injection into the prey as it is performed by the snail.

  9. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  10. Large-Cone Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongliang; Gong, Mingming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-06-15

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has been greatly popularized by its parts-based interpretation and the effective multiplicative updating rule for searching local solutions. In this paper, we study the problem of how to obtain an attractive local solution for NMF, which not only fits the given training data well but also generalizes well on the unseen test data. Based on the geometric interpretation of NMF, we introduce two large-cone penalties for NMF and propose large-cone NMF (LCNMF) algorithms. Compared with NMF, LCNMF will obtain bases comprising a larger simplicial cone, and therefore has three advantages. 1) the empirical reconstruction error of LCNMF could mostly be smaller; (2) the generalization ability of the proposed algorithm is much more powerful; and (3) the obtained bases of LCNMF have a low-overlapping property, which enables the bases to be sparse and makes the proposed algorithms very robust. Experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets confirm the efficiency of LCNMF.

  11. Inverted cones and their elastic creases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the elastic inversion of a right circular cone, in particular, the uniform shape of the narrow crease that divides its upright and inverted parts. Our methodology considers a cylindrical shell analogy for simplicity where the crease is the boundary layer deformation. Solution of its governing equation of deformation requires careful crafting of the underlying assumptions and boundary conditions in order to reveal an expression for the crease shape in closed form. We can then define the characteristic width of crease exactly, which is compared to a geometrically nonlinear, large displacement finite element analysis. This width is shown to be accurately predicted for shallow and steep cones, which imparts confidence to our original assumptions. Using the shape of crease, we compute the strain energy stored in the inverted cone, in order to derive an expression for the applied force of inversion by a simple energy method. Again, our predictions match finite element data very well. This study may complement other studies of creases traditionally formed in a less controlled manner, for example, during crumpling of lightweight sheets.

  12. Internal Reflection Sensor for the Cone Penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Job Bello

    1998-05-29

    The objectives of this project are to design, assemble, test, and demonstrate a prototype Internal Reflection Sensor (IRS) for the cone penetrometer. The sensor will ultimately be deployed during site characterization with the goal of providing real-time, in situ detection of NonAqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. In the first phase of this program, we have designed and assembled an IRS module that interfaces directly to a standard cone penetrometer system. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the sensor responds in real-time to a wide variety of free phase NAPLs without interference from natural materials such as water and soil of various types or dissolved contaminants. In a preliminary field test, the sensor was able to locate NAPLs at thin, discrete depths in a soil test pit when deployed with a cone penetrometer. Ruggedness of the device was tested with a series of penetrometer pushes to the depth of refusal at a clean location. There was no visible damage to the sensor and its performance did not change in the course of these experiments. Based on the successes of the Phase I program, it is recommended that the project proceed to full-scale demonstration in Phase II.

  13. Sedimentary Biosignatures of Social Organization in Cone-Forming Filamentous Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, M. M.; Gong, J.; Zeng, Z.; Sneed, J.; Wehner, M.; Sparks, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    -moving bacteria during the evening. This diel cycle, together with preferential movement of relatively coarse sand grains that protrude above surrounding finer grains, efficiently sorts the underlying sediment such that mature mats are composed of large stabilized centers resting on small piles of coarser sand. Because these cone-forming mats sort sand grains by applying a shear stress at the sediment surface, growth of similar bacteria on sand surfaces should result in the preferential aggregation of equant coarse light mineral grains into cones and the formation of finer heavy mineral lags in interconical spaces. We observe these patterns of sorting by grain size, aspect ratio, and density around cones in Moodies Group fossil mats. These patterns could not have been produced by hydraulic sorting alone, and instead suggest the following conclusions. Cone-constructing Moodies microorganisms were 1) filamentous, 2) moved by gliding motility, and 3) moved as socially organized groups. In addition, it seems probable that these organisms 4) periodically reversed the direction of their movement on a time scale much more rapid than the time between deposition of sand beds, possibly as part of a diel cycle.

  14. Modelling and control of double-cone dielectric elastomer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Among various dielectric elastomer devices, cone actuators are of large interest for their multi-degree-of-freedom design. These objects combine the common advantages of dielectric elastomers (i.e. solid-state actuation, self-sensing capability, high conversion efficiency, light weight and low cost) with the possibility to actuate more than one degree of freedom in a single device. The potential applications of this feature in robotics are huge, making cone actuators very attractive. This work focuses on rotational degrees of freedom to complete existing literature and improve the understanding of such aspect. Simple tools are presented for the performance prediction of the device: finite element method simulations and interpolating relations have been used to assess the actuator steady-state behaviour in terms of torque and rotation as a function of geometric parameters. Results are interpolated by fit relations accounting for all the relevant parameters. The obtained data are validated through comparison with experimental results: steady-state torque and rotation are determined at a given high voltage actuation. In addition, the transient response to step input has been measured and, as a result, the voltage-to-torque and the voltage-to-rotation transfer functions are obtained. Experimental data are collected and used to validate the prediction capability of the transfer function in terms of time response to step input and frequency response. The developed static and dynamic models have been employed to implement a feedback compensator that controls the device motion; the simulated behaviour is compared to experimental data, resulting in a maximum prediction error of 7.5%.

  15. Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejections that Caused Particularly Large Geomagnetic Storms Using ENLIL Heliosphere Cone Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; MacNeice, P.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-01-01

    In our previous paper we reported the results of modeling of 14 selected well -observed strong halo coronal mass ejection (CME) events using the WSA -ENLIL cone model combination. Cone model input parameters were obtained from white light coronagraph images of the CME events using the analytical method developed by Xie et al. This work verified that coronagraph input gives reasonably good results for the CME arrival time prediction. In contrast to Taktakishvili et al., where we started the analysis by looking for clear CME signatures in the data and then proceeded to model the interplanetary consequences at 1 AU, in the present paper we start by generating a list of observed geomagnetic storm events and then work our way back to remote solar observations and carry out the corresponding CME modeling. The approach used in this study is addressing space weather forecasting and operational needs. We analyzed 36 particularly strong geomagnetic storms, then tried to associate them with particular CMEs using SOHO/LASCO catalogue, and finally modeled these CMEs using WSA-ENLIL cone model. Recently, Pulkkinen et al. developed a novel method for automatic determination of cone model parameters. We employed both analytical and automatic methods to determine cone model input parameters. We examined the CME arrival times and magnitude of impact at 1 AU for both techniques. The results of the simulations are compared with the ACE satellite observations. This comparison demonstrated that WSA -ENLIL model combination with coronagraph input gives reasonably good results for the CME arrival times for this set of 'geoeffective" CME events as well.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of three disinfecting agents on Resilon cones and their effect on surface topography: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Mahesh Martur; Meharwade, Prasanna Mahadevasa; Srinivasan, Raghu; Bhandary, Shreetha; Nasreen, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and 2% peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfecting Resilon cones and to evaluate topographical changes microscopically under scanning electron microscope (SEM) after rapid chemical disinfection. Materials and Methods: Resilon cones were disinfected in an ultraviolet (UV) light chamber for 20 min and contaminated by immersing in a microbial suspension of Enterococcus faecalis for 30 min. The contaminated cones were then immersed in the 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 2% PAA for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min, separately. The cones were then incubated at 37°C in thioglycollate broth for 7 days and examined for turbidity. The samples showing turbidity were subcultured on blood agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Gram staining was done to confirm that the cultured bacteria were E. faecalis. Surface changes of disinfected Resilon cones were evaluated under SEM. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann–Whitney U-test. Result: In eliminating E. faecalis, 5.25% NaOCl was most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. Topographic examination of tested Resilon cones revealed some surface deposits after disinfection with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX, whereas 2% PAA caused surface erosion. Conclusion: In disinfecting Resilon cones, 5.25% NaOCl is most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. PMID:27099418

  17. Mathematical Model of the Role of RdCVF in the Coexistence of Rods and Cones in a Healthy Eye.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Erika T; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Wirkus, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the essential components and processes for coexistence of rods and cones is at the forefront of retinal research. The recent discovery on RdCVF's mechanism and mode of action for enhancing cone survival brings us a step closer to unraveling key questions of coexistence and codependence of these neurons. In this work, we build from ecological and enzyme kinetic work on functional response kinetics and present a mathematical model that allows us to investigate the role of RdCVF and its contribution to glucose intake. Our model results and analysis predict a dual role of RdCVF for enhancing and repressing the healthy coexistence of the rods and cones. Our results show that maintaining RdCVF above a threshold value allows for coexistence. However, a significant increase above this value threatens the existence of rods as the cones become extremely efficient at uptaking glucose and begin to take most of it for themselves. We investigate the role of natural glucose intake and that due to RdCVF in both high and low nutrient levels. Our analysis reveals that under low nutrient levels coexistence is not possible regardless of the amount of RdCVF present. With high nutrient levels coexistence can be achieved with a relative small increase in glucose uptake. By understanding the contributions of rods to cones survival via RdCVF in a non-diseased retina, we hope to shed light on degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.

  18. Tantalum cones and bone defects in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Boureau, F; Putman, S; Arnould, A; Dereudre, G; Migaud, H; Pasquier, G

    2015-04-01

    Management of bone loss is a major challenge in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The development of preformed porous tantalum cones offers new possibilities, because they seem to have biological and mechanical qualities that facilitate osseointegration. Compared to the original procedure, when metaphyseal bone defects are too severe, a single tantalum cone may not be enough and we have developed a technique that could extend the indications for this cone in these cases. We used 2 cones to fill femoral bone defects in 7 patients. There were no complications due to wear of the tantalum cones. Radiological follow-up did show any migration or loosening. The short-term results confirm the interest of porous tantalum cones and suggest that they can be an alternative to allografts or megaprostheses in case of massive bone defects.

  19. Pulsar average waveforms and hollow cone beam models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of pulsar average waveforms at radio frequencies from 40 MHz to 15 GHz is presented. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the observer sees one cut of a hollow-cone beam pattern and that stationary properties of the emission vary over the cone. The distributions of apparent cone widths for different observed forms of the average pulse profiles (single, double/unresolved, double/resolved, triple and multiple) are in modest agreement with a model of a circular hollow-cone beam with random observer-spin axis orientation, a random cone axis-spin axis alignment, and a small range of physical hollow-cone parameters for all objects.

  20. Spin-to-orbital angular momentum exchange via reflection from a cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R.; Wright, Ewan M.

    2011-10-01

    In a recent paper we explored the novel reflection properties of several conical optical elements using numerical simulations based on Maxwell's equations. For example, in the case of a hollow metallic cone having an apex angle of 90°, a circularly-polarized incident beam acquires, upon reflection, the opposite spin angular momentum in addition to an orbital angular momentum twice as large as the spin, whereas a 90° cone made of a transparent material in which the incident light suffers two total internal reflections before returning, may be designed to endow the retro-reflected beam with different mixtures of orbital and spin angular momenta. In the present paper we introduce an approximate analysis based on the Jones calculus to elucidate the physics underlying the reflection properties, and we point to the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  1. Mapping nonlinear receptive field structure in primate retina at single cone resolution.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Field, Greg D; Li, Peter H; Greschner, Martin; Gunning, Deborah E; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Paninski, Liam; Simoncelli, Eero P; Chichilnisky, E J

    2015-10-30

    The function of a neural circuit is shaped by the computations performed by its interneurons, which in many cases are not easily accessible to experimental investigation. Here, we elucidate the transformation of visual signals flowing from the input to the output of the primate retina, using a combination of large-scale multi-electrode recordings from an identified ganglion cell type, visual stimulation targeted at individual cone photoreceptors, and a hierarchical computational model. The results reveal nonlinear subunits in the circuity of OFF midget ganglion cells, which subserve high-resolution vision. The model explains light responses to a variety of stimuli more accurately than a linear model, including stimuli targeted to cones within and across subunits. The recovered model components are consistent with known anatomical organization of midget bipolar interneurons. These results reveal the spatial structure of linear and nonlinear encoding, at the resolution of single cells and at the scale of complete circuits.

  2. Cone-shell Raman spectroscopy (CSRS) for depth-sensitive measurements in layered tissue.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khan Mohammad; Majumder, Shovan Kumar; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-11-01

    We report the development of a depth-sensitive Raman spectroscopy system using the configuration of cone-shell excitation and cone detection. The system uses a 785 nm diode laser and three identical axicons for Raman excitation of the target sample in the form of a hollow conic section. The Raman scattered light from the sample, passed through the same (but solid) conic section, is collected for detection. Apart from its ability of probing larger depths (~ few mm), an important attraction of the system is that the probing depths can be varied by simply varying the separation between axicons in the excitation arm. Furthermore, no adjustment is required in the sample arm, which is a significant advantage for noncontact, depth-sensitive measurement. Evaluation of the performance of the developed setup on nonbiological phantom and biological tissue sample demonstrated its ability to recover Raman spectra of layers located at depths of ~2-3 mm beneath the surface.

  3. Asymmetric half-cone/nanohole array films with structural and directional reshaping of extraordinary optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Structured films with periodic arrays of nanoholes covered by half-cone shells are fabricated via a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. The designed films show strong polarization dependence in optical transmission. By decreasing the height of half-cone shells the peak shifts and this shift varies strongly for different orthogonal polarizations. Furthermore, the three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric arrays exhibit a pronounced increase in the transmission intensity by changing the direction of the incident light from the half-cone shell (shelter) side to the empty side. Special surface plasmon resonances excited by the unique 3D asymmetric structure are responsible for these novel properties, and the experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The nanostructured films in this work will be useful for metallic nanophotonic elements in many applications, including surface plasmon enhanced optical sensing and ultrafast optical switching, as well as versatile substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, anisotropic wettability and other potential uses.Structured films with periodic arrays of nanoholes covered by half-cone shells are fabricated via a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. The designed films show strong polarization dependence in optical transmission. By decreasing the height of half-cone shells the peak shifts and this shift varies strongly for different orthogonal polarizations. Furthermore, the three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric arrays exhibit a pronounced increase in the transmission intensity by changing the direction of the incident light from the half-cone shell (shelter) side to the empty side. Special surface plasmon resonances excited by the unique 3D asymmetric structure are responsible for these novel properties, and the experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The nanostructured films in this work will be useful for metallic nanophotonic elements in many

  4. Mach Cones in Weakly and Strongly Coupled Dusty Magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-10-31

    A theoretical investigation on the formation of Mach cones in weakly and strongly coupled dusty magnetoplasmas has been presented. The salient features of dust-acoustic and dust-magnetoacoustic Mach cones in a weakly coupled dusty magnetoplasma as well as dust-acoustic Mach cones in a strongly coupled dusty magnetoplasma have been clearly explained. The relevance of this theoretical investigation to the formation of such dust-acoustic and dust-magnetoacoustic Mach cones in Saturn's dusty rings and laboratory dusty plasma experiments are discussed.

  5. Identifying Dirac cones in carbon allotropes with square symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinying; Huang, Huaqing; Duan, Wenhui; Liu, Zhirong

    2013-11-14

    A theoretical study is conducted to search for Dirac cones in two-dimensional carbon allotropes with square symmetry. By enumerating the carbon atoms in a unit cell up to 12, an allotrope with octatomic rings is recognized to possess Dirac cones under a simple tight-binding approach. The obtained Dirac cones are accompanied by flat bands at the Fermi level, and the resulting massless Dirac-Weyl fermions are chiral particles with a pseudospin of S = 1, rather than the conventional S = 1∕2 of graphene. The spin-1 Dirac cones are also predicted to exist in hexagonal graphene antidot lattices.

  6. Hydroburst test of a carbon-carbon involute exit cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    1986-01-01

    A hydroburst test of the aft portion of the PAM-D exit cone and the test procedure are described in detail. The hydrostatic pressure required to buckle the cone was 9.75 psi. Meanwhile, the PAM-D exit cone was modeled using the finite element method and a theoretical bucking pressure (8.76 psi) was predicted using the SPAR finite element code. The modeling technique employed is discussed. By comparing the theoretical to predicted critical pressures, this report verifies the modeling technique and calculates a material knockdown factor for the carbon-carbon exit cone.

  7. The trip of the tip: understanding the growth cone machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Van Vactor, David

    2009-01-01

    Preface The central player in the road trip of axon guidance is the growth cone, a dynamic structure located at the tip of the growing axon. During its journey, the growth cone comprises both `vehicle' and `navigator'. Whereas the `vehicle' maintains growth cone movement and provides the cytoskeletal structural elements of its framework, a motor to move forward, and a mechanism to provide traction on the road, the `navigator' aspect guides this system in a spatially-biased way to translate environmental signals into directional movement. Understanding the functions and regulation of the vehicle and navigator provides new insights into the cell biology of growth cone guidance. PMID:19373241

  8. Dynamics on the cone: Closed orbits and superintegrability

    SciTech Connect

    Brihaye, Y.; Kosiński, P.

    2014-05-15

    The generalization of Bertrand’s theorem to the case of the motion of point particle on the surface of a cone is presented. The superintegrability of such models is discussed. The additional integrals of motion are analysed for the case of Kepler and harmonic oscillator potentials. -- Highlights: •Bertrand’s theorem is generalized to the case of the motion on a cone. •The superintegrability of the dynamics on a cone is discussed. •The W-algebra of integrals of motion for Kepler and harmonic oscillator problems on a cone is derived.

  9. Cone penetrometer: Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Cone penetrometer technology (CPT) provides cost-effective, real-time data for use in the characterization of the subsurface. Recent innovations in this baseline technology allow for improved access to the subsurface for environmental restoration applications. The technology has been improved by both industry and government agencies and is constantly advancing due to research efforts. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (formerly Technology Development) has contributed significantly to these efforts. This report focuses on the advancements made in conjunction with DOE`s support but recognizes Department of Defense (DOD) and industry efforts.

  10. S-IB Nose Cone Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions. The Saturn IB vehicle was a two-stage rocket and had a payload capability about 50 percent greater than the Saturn I vehicle. The first stage, S-IB stage, was a redesigned first stage of the Saturn I. This photograph is of the S-IB nose cone #3 during assembly in building 4752.

  11. A spectral isoperimetric inequality for cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    In this note, we investigate three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with δ -interactions supported on C^2-smooth cones, both finite and infinite. Our main results concern a Faber-Krahn-type inequality for the principal eigenvalue of these operators. The proofs rely on the Birman-Schwinger principle and on the fact that circles are unique minimizers for a class of energy functionals. The main novel idea consists in the way of constructing test functions for the Birman-Schwinger principle.

  12. Cone Beam Computed Tomography - Know its Secrets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mohan; Shanavas, Muhammad; Sidappa, Ashwin; Kiran, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an advanced imaging modality that has high clinical applications in the field of dentistry. CBCT proved to be a successful investigative modality that has been used for dental and maxillofacial imaging. Radiation exposure dose from CBCT is 10 times less than from conventional CT scans during maxillofacial exposure. Furthermore, CBCT is highly accurate and can provide a three-dimensional volumetric data in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. This article describes the basic technique, difference in CBCT from CT and main clinical applications of CBCT. PMID:25859112

  13. Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam R; D'Annunzio, Lindsay; Smith, Abbi E; Sharma, Anit; Hofmann, Christopher M; Marshall, N J; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    The expression of cone opsin genes is a primary determinant of the characteristics of colour vision. Interspecific variation in opsin expression is common in African cichlids. It is correlated with foraging among cichlids from Lake Malawi, and with ambient light environment among cichlids from Lake Victoria. In this study, we tested whether gene expression varied within species such that it might be important in contributing to divergence. We hypothesized that light attenuation with depth would be correlated with predictable changes in gene expression in Lake Malawi, and that this variation would tune visual sensitivities to match the ambient light environment. We observed significant differences in cone opsin expression in three different comparisons among populations of the same species. Higher LWS expression was found in shallow versus deep Copadichromis eucinostomus. In Metriaclima zebra, individuals from Zimbawe Rock expressed significantly more SWS2B than those from Thumbi West Island, although these locales have similar ambient light environments. Finally, Tropheops gracilior from deeper water had significantly more variation in expression than their shallow counterparts. These results support that gene expression varies significantly between populations of the same species. Surprisingly, these results could not be explained by predicted visual performance as models predicted that differential expression patterns did not confer sensitivity advantages at different depths. This suggested that expression variation did not confer a local sensitivity advantage. Therefore, our findings were contrary to a primary requirement of the sensory bias hypothesis. As such, other explanations for intraspecific gene expression variation need to be tested.

  14. Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter

    2017-04-05

    Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  15. Cone signals for spectacle-lens compensation: differential responses to short and long wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Frances J; Wallman, Josh

    2008-09-01

    Chick eyes compensate for defocus imposed by spectacle lenses by making compensatory changes in eye length and choroidal thickness, a laboratory model of emmetropization. To investigate the roles of longitudinal chromatic aberration and of chromatic mechanisms in emmetropization, we examined the participation of different cone classes, and we compared the efficacy of lens compensation under monochromatic illumination with that under white light of the same illuminance to the chick eye. Chicks wore positive or negative 6D or 8D lenses on one eye for 3 days, under either blue (460 nm) or red (620 nm) light at 0.67 lux or under white light at 0.67 or 0.2 lux (all measures are corrected for chick photopic sensitivity). The illumination conditions were chosen to differentially stimulate either the short-wavelength and ultraviolet cones or the long-wavelength and double cones. Measurements are expressed as the relative change: the inter-ocular difference in the amount of change over the 3 days of lens wear. We find that under this low illumination the two components of lens compensation were differentially affected by the monochromatic illumination: in blue light lens compensation was mainly due to changes in eye length, whereas in red light lens compensation was mainly due to changes in choroidal thickness. In general, white light produced better lens compensation than monochromatic illumination. NEGATIVE LENSES: Under white light negative lenses caused an increase in eye length (60 microm) together with a decrease in choroidal thickness (-51 microm) relative to the fellow eye. Under blue light, although there was an increase in eye length (32 microm), there was no change in choroidal thickness (5 microm). In contrast, under red light there was a decrease in choroidal thickness (-62 microm) but no increase in eye length (8 microm). Relative ocular elongation was the same in white and monochromatic light. POSITIVE LENSES: Under white light positive lenses caused a

  16. CNGB3-Achromatopsia Clinical Trial With CNTF: Diminished Rod Pathway Responses With No Evidence of Improvement in Cone Function

    PubMed Central

    Zein, Wadih M.; Jeffrey, Brett G.; Wiley, Henry E.; Turriff, Amy E.; Tumminia, Santa J.; Tao, Weng; Bush, Ronald A.; Marangoni, Dario; Wen, Rong; Wei, Lisa L.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects rod photoreceptors from retinal degenerative disease in multiple nonhuman models. Thus far, CNTF has failed to demonstrate rod protection in trials for human retinitis pigmentosa. Recently, CNTF was found to improve cone photoreceptor function in a canine CNGB3 achromatopsia model. This study explores whether this finding translates to humans with CNGB3 achromatopsia. Methods. A five-subject, open-label Phase I/II study was initiated by implanting intraocular microcapsules releasing CNTF (nominally 20 ng/d) into one eye each of CNGB3 achromat participants. Fellow eyes served as untreated controls. Subjects were followed for 1 year. Results. Pupil constriction in treated eyes gave evidence of intraocular CNTF release. Additionally, scotopic ERG responses were reduced, and dark-adapted psychophysical absolute thresholds were increased, attributable to diminished rod or rod pathway activity. Optical coherence tomography revealed that the cone-rich fovea underwent structural changes as the foveal hyporeflective zone (HRZ) became diminished in CNTF-treated eyes. No objectively measurable enhancement of cone function was found by assessments of visual acuity, mesopic increment sensitivity threshold, or the photopic ERG. Careful measurements of color hue discrimination showed no change. Nonetheless, subjects reported beneficial changes of visual function in the treated eyes, including reduced light sensitivity and aversion to bright light, which may trace to decreased effective ambient light from the pupillary constriction; further they noted slowed adaptation to darkness, consistent with CNTF action on rod photoreceptors. Conclusions. Ciliary neurotrophic factor did not measurably enhance cone function, which reveals a species difference between human and canine CNGB3 cones in response to CNTF. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01648452.) PMID:25205868

  17. 3D imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended time periods using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Lee, Sangyeol; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Wang, Qiang; Herde, Ashley E.; Besecker, Jason; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (AO-OCT) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive method for 3D imaging of the microscopic retina. The purpose of this study is to advance AO-OCT technology by enabling repeated imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended periods of time (days). This sort of longitudinal imaging permits monitoring of 3D cone dynamics in both normal and diseased eyes, in particular the physiological processes of disc renewal and phagocytosis, which are disrupted by retinal diseases such as age related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. For this study, the existing AO-OCT system at Indiana underwent several major hardware and software improvements to optimize system performance for 4D cone imaging. First, ultrahigh speed imaging was realized using a Basler Sprint camera. Second, a light source with adjustable spectrum was realized by integration of an Integral laser (Femto Lasers, λc=800nm, ▵λ=160nm) and spectral filters in the source arm. For cone imaging, we used a bandpass filter with λc=809nm and ▵λ=81nm (2.6 μm nominal axial resolution in tissue, and 167 KHz A-line rate using 1,408 px), which reduced the impact of eye motion compared to previous AO-OCT implementations. Third, eye motion artifacts were further reduced by custom ImageJ plugins that registered (axially and laterally) the volume videos. In two subjects, cone photoreceptors were imaged and tracked over a ten day period and their reflectance and outer segment (OS) lengths measured. High-speed imaging and image registration/dewarping were found to reduce eye motion to a fraction of a cone width (1 μm root mean square). The pattern of reflections in the cones was found to change dramatically and occurred on a spatial scale well below the resolution of clinical instruments. Normalized reflectance of connecting cilia (CC) and OS posterior tip (PT) of an exemplary cone was 54+/-4, 47+/-4, 48+/-6, 50+/-5, 56+/-1% and 46+/-4, 53+/-4, 52+/-6, 50+/-5, 44

  18. Microcomputed tomography and shock microdeformation studies on shatter cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaag, Patrice Tristan; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Hipsley, Christy Anna

    2016-08-01

    One of the aspects of impact cratering that are still not fully understood is the formation of shatter cones and related fracturing phenomena. Yet, shatter cones have been applied as an impact-diagnostic criterion for decades without the role of shock waves and target rock defects in their formation having been elucidated ever. We have tested the application of the nondestructive microcomputed tomography (μCT) method to visualize the interior of shatter cones in order to possibly resolve links between fracture patterns and shatter cone surface features (striations and intervening "valleys"). Shatter-coned samples from different impact sites and in different lithologies were investigated for their μCT suitability, with a shatter cone in sandstone from the Serra da Cangalha impact structure (Brazil) remaining as the most promising candidate because of the fracture resolution achieved. To validate the obtained CT data, the scanned specimen was cut into three orthogonal sets of thin sections. Scans with 13 μm resolution were obtained. μCT scans and microscopic analysis unraveled an orientation of subplanar fractures and related fluid inclusion trails, and planar fracture (PF) orientations in the interior of shatter cones. Planar deformation features (PDF) were observed predominantly near the shatter cone surface. Previously undescribed varieties of feather features (FF), in the form of lamellae emanating from curviplanar and curved fractures, as well as an "arrowhead"-like FF development with microlamellae originating from both sides of a PF, were observed. The timing of shatter cone formation was investigated by establishing temporal relations to the generation of various shock microscopic effects. Shatter cones are, thus, generated post- or syn-formation of PF, FF, subplanar fractures, and PDF. The earliest possible time for shatter cone formation is during the late stage of the compressional phase, that is, shock wave passage, of an impact event.

  19. Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Toco Yuen Ping; Song, HongXin; Burns, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To measure the variation in human cone photoreceptor packing density across the retina both within an individual and between individuals with different refractive errors. METHODS A high resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to image the cones of eleven human eyes. Five emmetropes and six myopes were tested (+0.50D to -7.50D). For each subject we obtained four approximately 10 degree by 1.5 degree strips of cone images. Each strip started at the fovea, and proceeded towards the periphery along the four primary meridians. The position of each cone within the sampling windows was digitized manually by the investigator. From these cone counts, the density of cones was calculated for a set of fixed distances from the fovea for locations throughout the image. RESULTS Cone photoreceptor packing density decreased from 27,712 cells/mm2 to 7,070 cells/mm2 from the retinal eccentricity of 0.30mm to 3.40mm along the superior meridian in five emmetropic eyes. Cone photoreceptor packing density in cells/mm2 was significantly lower in myopic eyes than in emmetropic eyes. At a given location, there was considerable individual variation in cone photoreceptor packing density, although more than 20% of the variance could be accounted for by differences in axial length. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide a baseline analysis of individual difference in cone photoreceptor packing density in healthy human eyes. As predicted by retinal stretching models, cone photoreceptor packing density is lower in highly myopic eyes than in emmetropic eyes. PMID:18552378

  20. Real Gas/Blunt Cone. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, George S.; Eitelberg, Georg

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter recent activity in real-gas database definition and code validation will be summarized. In the Phase I report of the Working Group (WG) 181, aerothermodynamic problems were classified, for purpose of discussion, into seven types: aerodynamic parameters, viscous/shock interaction, boundary-layer transition, forebody-heating/heat-transfer, radiation and ablation, lee and base-region flow, and low-density flow. Several of these problem types were the subject of various chapters of the Phase 1 report describing real-gas effects and ground test facility issues. In this chapter some background and objectives outlined in the real-Gas effects Chapter V of the Phase 1 report will be reviewed. The results of the blunt cone test campaign developed under the auspices of the WG18 activity to study real-gas phenomena will be summarized, including the experimental and computational programs, issues and questions, and recommendations. Further, recent progress in other real-gas areas beyond the blunt cone test campaign will be discussed. Finally, a summary in which the present status of our understanding of real-gas issues will be presented.

  1. Implosion of indirectly driven reentrant cone shell target

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Stephens; S.P. Hatchett; R.E. Turner; K.A. Tanaka; R. Kodama

    2003-10-31

    In an x-ray driven reentrant cone fast ignition target the x-ray spectrum contains a high energy component that casuses preheating of the reentrant cone and mixing of the gold into the collapsing shell. Direct laser drive might avoid this problem.

  2. Galileo Spacecraft Scan Platform Celestial Pointing Cone Control Gain Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In, C-H. C.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    During September and October 1991, pictures of the Gaspra asteroid and neighboring stars were taken by the Galileo Optical Navigation (OPNAV) Team for the purpose of navigation the spacecraft for a successful Gaspra encounter. The star tracks in these pictures showed that the scan platform celestial pointing cone controller performed poorly in compensating for wobble-induced cone offsets.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Shatter Cones Development in Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2003-03-01

    We present a new model for the formation of shatter cones in impact craters. Our model has been tested by means of numerical simulations. Our results are consistent with the observations of shatter cones in natural impact craters and explosions experiments.

  4. Gene therapy rescues cone function in congenital achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.; Alexander, John J.; Rowlan, Jessica S.; Garcia, Monique M.; Chiodo, Vince A.; Kaya, Asli; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.; Acland, Gregory M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2010-01-01

    The successful restoration of visual function with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene replacement therapy in animals and humans with an inherited disease of the retinal pigment epithelium has ushered in a new era of retinal therapeutics. For many retinal disorders, however, targeting of therapeutic vectors to mutant rods and/or cones will be required. In this study, the primary cone photoreceptor disorder achromatopsia served as the ideal translational model to develop gene therapy directed to cone photoreceptors. We demonstrate that rAAV-mediated gene replacement therapy with different forms of the human red cone opsin promoter led to the restoration of cone function and day vision in two canine models of CNGB3 achromatopsia, a neuronal channelopathy that is the most common form of achromatopsia in man. The robustness and stability of the observed treatment effect was mutation independent, but promoter and age dependent. Subretinal administration of rAAV5–hCNGB3 with a long version of the red cone opsin promoter in younger animals led to a stable therapeutic effect for at least 33 months. Our results hold promise for future clinical trials of cone-directed gene therapy in achromatopsia and other cone-specific disorders. PMID:20378608

  5. Scoria Cone Construction Mechanism, Lathrop Wells Volcano, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G. Valentine; D. Krier; F. Perry; G. Heiken

    2005-01-18

    Scoria cones are commonly assumed to have been constructed by the accumulation of ballistically-ejected clasts from discrete and relatively coarse-grained Strombolian bursts and subsequent avalanching such that the cone slopes are at or near the angle of repose for loose scoria. The cone at the hawaiitic Lathrop Wells volcano, southern Nevada, contains deposits that are consistent with the above processes during early cone-building phases; these early deposits are composed mainly of coarse lapilli and fluidal bombs and are partially welded, indicating relatively little cooling during flight. However, the bulk of the cone is comprised of relatively fine-grained (ash and lapilli), planar beds with no welding, even within a few tens of meters of the vent. This facies is consistent with deposition by direct fallout from sustained eruption columns of relatively well-fragmented material, primarily mantling cone slopes and with a lesser degree of avalanching than is commonly assumed. A laterally extensive fallout deposit (up to 20 km from the vent) is inferred to have formed contemporaneously with these later cone deposits. This additional mechanism for construction of scoria cones may also be important at other locations, particularly where the magmas are relatively high in volatile content and where conditions promote the formation of abundant microlites in the rising mafic magma.

  6. Gene therapy rescues cone function in congenital achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Alexander, John J; Rowlan, Jessica S; Garcia, Monique M; Chiodo, Vince A; Kaya, Asli; Tanaka, Jacqueline C; Acland, Gregory M; Hauswirth, William W; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2010-07-01

    The successful restoration of visual function with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene replacement therapy in animals and humans with an inherited disease of the retinal pigment epithelium has ushered in a new era of retinal therapeutics. For many retinal disorders, however, targeting of therapeutic vectors to mutant rods and/or cones will be required. In this study, the primary cone photoreceptor disorder achromatopsia served as the ideal translational model to develop gene therapy directed to cone photoreceptors. We demonstrate that rAAV-mediated gene replacement therapy with different forms of the human red cone opsin promoter led to the restoration of cone function and day vision in two canine models of CNGB3 achromatopsia, a neuronal channelopathy that is the most common form of achromatopsia in man. The robustness and stability of the observed treatment effect was mutation independent, but promoter and age dependent. Subretinal administration of rAAV5-hCNGB3 with a long version of the red cone opsin promoter in younger animals led to a stable therapeutic effect for at least 33 months. Our results hold promise for future clinical trials of cone-directed gene therapy in achromatopsia and other cone-specific disorders.

  7. The Double Cone: A Mechanical Paradox or a Geometrical Constraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Italian National Plan "Lauree Scientifiche" (PLS) in collaboration with secondary schools, we have investigated the mechanical paradox of the double cone. We have calculated the geometric condition for obtaining an upward movement. Based on this result, we have built a mechanical model with a double cone made of aluminum…

  8. Assessment of Rod, Cone, and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Contributions to the Canine Chromatic Pupillary Response

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Connie Y.; Koehl, Kristin L.; Harman, Christine D.; Iwabe, Simone; Guzman, José M.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.; Kardon, Randy H.; Komáromy, András M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chromatic pupillometry protocol for specific functional assessment of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in dogs. Methods Chromatic pupillometry was tested and compared in 37 dogs in different stages of primary loss of rod, cone, and combined rod/cone and optic nerve function, and in 5 wild-type (WT) dogs. Eyes were stimulated with 1-s flashes of dim (1 cd/m2) and bright (400 cd/m2) blue light (for scotopic conditions) or bright red (400 cd/m2) light with 25-cd/m2 blue background (for photopic conditions). Canine retinal melanopsin/Opn4 was cloned, and its expression was evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Mean ± SD percentage of pupil constriction amplitudes induced by scotopic dim blue (scDB), scotopic bright blue (scBB), and photopic bright red (phBR) lights in WT dogs were 21.3% ± 10.6%, 50.0% ± 17.5%, and 19.4% ± 7.4%, respectively. Melanopsin-mediated responses to scBB persisted for several minutes (7.7 ± 4.6 min) after stimulus offset. In dogs with inherited retinal degeneration, loss of rod function resulted in absent scDB responses, followed by decreased phBR responses with disease progression and loss of cone function. Primary loss of cone function abolished phBR responses but preserved those responses to blue light (scDB and scBB). Although melanopsin/Opn4 expression was diminished with retinal degeneration, melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs were identified for the first time in both WT and degenerated canine retinas. Conclusions Pupil responses elicited by light stimuli of different colors and intensities allowed differential functional assessment of canine rods, cones, and ipRGCs. Chromatic pupillometry offers an effective tool for diagnosing retinal and optic nerve diseases. PMID:28061512

  9. Unsupervised Learning of Cone Spectral Classes from Natural Images

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Noah C.; Manning, Jeremy R.; Brainard, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The first step in the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision was the expression of a third cone class not present in ancestral mammals. This observation motivates a fundamental question about the evolution of any sensory system: how is it possible to detect and exploit the presence of a novel sensory class? We explore this question in the context of primate color vision. We present an unsupervised learning algorithm capable of both detecting the number of spectral cone classes in a retinal mosaic and learning the class of each cone using the inter-cone correlations obtained in response to natural image input. The algorithm's ability to classify cones is in broad agreement with experimental evidence about functional color vision for a wide range of mosaic parameters, including those characterizing dichromacy, typical trichromacy, anomalous trichromacy, and possible tetrachromacy. PMID:24967877

  10. Unsupervised learning of cone spectral classes from natural images.

    PubMed

    Benson, Noah C; Manning, Jeremy R; Brainard, David H

    2014-06-01

    The first step in the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision was the expression of a third cone class not present in ancestral mammals. This observation motivates a fundamental question about the evolution of any sensory system: how is it possible to detect and exploit the presence of a novel sensory class? We explore this question in the context of primate color vision. We present an unsupervised learning algorithm capable of both detecting the number of spectral cone classes in a retinal mosaic and learning the class of each cone using the inter-cone correlations obtained in response to natural image input. The algorithm's ability to classify cones is in broad agreement with experimental evidence about functional color vision for a wide range of mosaic parameters, including those characterizing dichromacy, typical trichromacy, anomalous trichromacy, and possible tetrachromacy.

  11. 'Parabolic' trapped modes and steered Dirac cones in platonic crystals.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, R C; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Brun, M; Smith, M J A

    2015-05-08

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves governed by the biharmonic operator, and propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the design of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates for a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that these Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.

  12. Two-Step Reactivation of Dormant Cones in Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Sang Joon; Scott, Patrick A.; Lu, Xiaoqin; Emery, Douglas; Liu, Yongqin; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, Michael R.; Ross, Jason W.; Kaplan, Henry J.; Dean, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Most Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) mutations arise in rod photoreceptor genes, leading to diminished peripheral and nightime vision. Using a pig model of autosomal-dominant RP, we show glucose becomes sequestered in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and thus is not transported to photoreceptors. The resulting starvation for glucose metabolites impairs synthesis of cone visual pigment -rich outer segments (OS), and then their mitochondrial-rich inner segments dissociate. Loss of these functional structures diminishes cone-dependent high-resolution central vision, which is utilized for most daily tasks. By transplanting wild-type rods, to restore glucose transport, or directly replacing glucose in the subretinal space, to bypass its retention in the RPE, we can regenerate cone functional structures, reactivating the dormant cells. Beyond providing metabolic building blocks for cone functional structures, we show glucose induces thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) to regulate Akt signaling, thereby shunting metabolites toward aerobic glucose metabolism and regenerating cone OS synthesis. PMID:27050517

  13. Granular flow along the interior surface of rotating cones

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1984-04-26

    Relationships are developed between the effective cone half-angle, ..cap alpha../sub eff/, and the actual cone half-angle, ..cap alpha.., for subcritical flow of granular material along the inside surface of a rotating cone. Rotational speed must be high enough to keep the granular material against the wall. If ..cap alpha../sub eff/ is between the wall friction angle, phi/sub w/ and the angle of repose, phi/sub r/, the flowrate may be controlled at the exit and depends on the exit aperture area and the rotational speed. Laboratory experiments show that exit control is possible over the entire range of effective cone half-angles from phi/sub w/ < ..cap alpha../sub eff/ < phi/sub r/ and even beyond these limits. The most uniform thickness of granular material is obtained when the cone half-angle is close to phi/sub r/.

  14. The hydrogen atom confined by one and two hard cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsa, A.; Alcaraz-Pelegrina, J. M.; Le Sech, C.

    2017-02-01

    The bound states of the H atom in a semi-infinite space limited by one or two conical boundaries are studied. The exact solution when the nucleus is located at the apex of the conical boundaries is obtained. A rapid increase of the energy when the cone angle opens and tends to π / 2 is found. A second situation with the atom separated from the summit of the cone is considered. The changes on the energy and the electronic structure are analyzed. The quantum force is evaluated by calculating the energy derivative versus the distance to the cone vertex. One of the forces exerted on the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope can be modelized by a hard cone probing the electron cloud in the contact mode. Our numerical results show that the quantum force present an important dependence with the cone angle and it vanishes rapidly as the distance increases.

  15. Computer-aided detection of human cone photoreceptor inner segments using multi-scale circular voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    Cone photoreceptors are highly specialized cells responsible for the origin of vision in the human eye. Their inner segments can be noninvasively visualized using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) with nonconfocal split detection capabilities. Monitoring the number of cones can lead to more precise metrics for real-time diagnosis and assessment of disease progression. Cell identification in split detection AOSLO images is hindered by cell regions with heterogeneous intensity arising from shadowing effects and low contrast boundaries due to overlying blood vessels. Here, we present a multi-scale circular voting approach to overcome these challenges through the novel combination of: 1) iterative circular voting to identify candidate cells based on their circular structures, 2) a multi-scale strategy to identify the optimal circular voting response, and 3) clustering to improve robustness while removing false positives. We acquired images from three healthy subjects at various locations on the retina and manually labeled cell locations to create ground-truth for evaluating the detection accuracy. The images span a large range of cell densities. The overall recall, precision, and F1 score were 91±4%, 84±10%, and 87±7% (Mean±SD). Results showed that our method for the identification of cone photoreceptor inner segments performs well even with low contrast cell boundaries and vessel obscuration. These encouraging results demonstrate that the proposed approach can robustly and accurately identify cells in split detection AOSLO images.

  16. Multiple-Cone Sunshade for a Spaceborne Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cafferty, Terry; Ford, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a sunshade assembly for the spaceborne telescope of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph mission. During operation, the telescope is aimed at target stars in the semihemisphere away from the Earth's Sun. The observatory rotates about its pointing axis during a single star observation, resulting in relative movement of the Sun. The sunshade assembly protects the telescope against excessive solar-induced thermal distortions for times long enough to complete observations. The assembly includes a cylindrical baffle immediately surrounding the telescope, and a series of coaxial conical shields at half-cone angle increments of between 3 and 6. The black inner surface of the cylindrical baffle suppresses stray light. The outer surface of the cylindrical baffle and all the surfaces of the conical shields except the outermost one are specular and highly reflective in the infrared. The outer surface of the outer shield is a material with low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance, such as silverized Teflon or white paint. This arrangement strongly radiatively couples each shield layer more effectively to cold space than to adjacent shield layers. The result is that the solar-driven temperature gradients in the cylindrical baffle are nearly negated, and only weakly communicated to the highly-infrared-reflective face of the primary telescope mirror.

  17. S cones: Evolution, retinal distribution, development, and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, David M; Peichl, Leo

    2014-03-01

    S cones expressing the short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) class of visual pigment generally form only a minority type of cone photoreceptor within the vertebrate duplex retina. Hence, their primary role is in color vision, not in high acuity vision. In mammals, S cones may be present as a constant fraction of the cones across the retina, may be restricted to certain regions of the retina or may form a gradient across the retina, and in some species, there is coexpression of SWS1 and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class of pigment in many cones. During retinal development, SWS1 opsin expression generally precedes that of LWS opsin, and evidence from genetic studies indicates that the S cone pathway may be the default pathway for cone development. With the notable exception of the cartilaginous fishes, where S cones appear to be absent, they are present in representative species from all other vertebrate classes. S cone loss is not, however, uncommon; they are absent from most aquatic mammals and from some but not all nocturnal terrestrial species. The peak spectral sensitivity of S cones depends on the spectral characteristics of the pigment present. Evidence from the study of agnathans and teleost fishes indicates that the ancestral vertebrate SWS1 pigment was ultraviolet (UV) sensitive with a peak around 360 nm, but this has shifted into the violet region of the spectrum (>380 nm) on many separate occasions during vertebrate evolution. In all cases, the shift was generated by just one or a few replacements in tuning-relevant residues. Only in the avian lineage has tuning moved in the opposite direction, with the reinvention of UV-sensitive pigments.

  18. Cone-based electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidlisecky, Adam

    Determining the 3-D spatial distribution of subsurface properties is a critical part of managing the clean-up of contaminated sites. Most standard hydrologic methods sample small regions immediately adjacent to wells or testing devices. This provides data which are not representative of the entire region of interest. Furthermore, at many contaminated sites invasive methods are not acceptable, due to the risks associated with contacting and spreading the contaminants. To address these issues, I have developed a minimally invasive technology that provides information about the 3-D distribution of electrical conductivity. This new technique, cone-based electrical resistivity tomography (C-bert), integrates the existing technologies of resistivity cone penetration testing (RCPT) with electrical resistivity tomography. Development of this tool included the creation of new software and modeling algorithms, the design of field equipment, field testing, and processing and interpretation of the resulting data. I present a 2.5-D forward modeling algorithm that incorporates an effective correction for the errors caused by boundary effects and source singularities. The algorithm includes an optimization technique for acquiring the Fourier coefficients required for the solution. A 3-D inversion algorithm is presented that has two major improvements over existing algorithms. First, it includes a 3-D version of the boundary correction/source singularity correction developed for the 2.5-D problem. Second, the algorithm can handle any type of acquisition geometry; this was a requirement for the development of C-bert. C-bert involves placing several permanent current electrodes in the subsurface and using electrodes mounted on a cone penetrometer and at the surface to measure the resultant potential field. In addition to these measurements, we obtain the standard suite of RCPT data, including high resolution resistivity logs. The RCPT data can be used to generate a realistic

  19. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  20. Retinal Degeneration Slow (RDS) Glycosylation Plays a Role in Cone Function and in the Regulation of RDS·ROM-1 Protein Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Michael W; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2015-11-13

    The photoreceptor-specific glycoprotein retinal degeneration slow (RDS, also called PRPH2) is necessary for the formation of rod and cone outer segments. Mutations in RDS cause rod and cone-dominant retinal disease, and it is well established that both cell types have different requirements for RDS. However, the molecular mechanisms for this difference remain unclear. Although RDS glycosylation is highly conserved, previous studies have revealed no apparent function for the glycan in rods. In light of the highly conserved nature of RDS glycosylation, we hypothesized that it is important for RDS function in cones and could underlie part of the differential requirement for RDS in the two photoreceptor subtypes. We generated a knockin mouse expressing RDS without the N-glycosylation site (N229S). Normal levels of RDS and the unglycosylated RDS binding partner rod outer segment membrane protein 1 (ROM-1) were found in N229S retinas. However, cone electroretinogram responses were decreased by 40% at 6 months of age. Because cones make up only 3-5% of photoreceptors in the wild-type background, N229S mice were crossed into the nrl(-/-) background (in which all rods are converted to cone-like cells) for biochemical analysis. In N229S/nrl(-/-) retinas, RDS and ROM-1 levels were decreased by ~60% each. These data suggest that glycosylation of RDS is required for RDS function or stability in cones, a difference that may be due to extracellular versus intradiscal localization of the RDS glycan in cones versus rods.

  1. Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Gross, Julia Christina; Burda, Hynek; Winklhofer, Michael; Peichl, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are a ubiquitous group of blue-light absorbing flavoproteins that in the mammalian retina have an important role in the circadian clock. In birds, cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a), localized in the UV/violet-sensitive S1 cone photoreceptors, is proposed to be the retinal receptor molecule of the light-dependent magnetic compass. The retinal localization of mammalian Cry1, homologue to avian Cry1a, is unknown, and it is open whether mammalian Cry1 is also involved in magnetic field sensing. To constrain the possible role of retinal Cry1, we immunohistochemically analysed 90 mammalian species across 48 families in 16 orders, using an antiserum against the Cry1 C-terminus that in birds labels only the photo-activated conformation. In the Carnivora families Canidae, Mustelidae and Ursidae, and in some Primates, Cry1 was consistently labeled in the outer segment of the shortwave-sensitive S1 cones. This finding would be compatible with a magnetoreceptive function of Cry1 in these taxa. In all other taxa, Cry1 was not detected by the antiserum that likely also in mammals labels the photo-activated conformation, although Western blots showed Cry1 in mouse retinal cell nuclei. We speculate that in the mouse and the other negative-tested mammals Cry1 is involved in circadian functions as a non-light-responsive protein. PMID:26898837

  2. Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Gross, Julia Christina; Burda, Hynek; Winklhofer, Michael; Peichl, Leo

    2016-02-22

    Cryptochromes are a ubiquitous group of blue-light absorbing flavoproteins that in the mammalian retina have an important role in the circadian clock. In birds, cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a), localized in the UV/violet-sensitive S1 cone photoreceptors, is proposed to be the retinal receptor molecule of the light-dependent magnetic compass. The retinal localization of mammalian Cry1, homologue to avian Cry1a, is unknown, and it is open whether mammalian Cry1 is also involved in magnetic field sensing. To constrain the possible role of retinal Cry1, we immunohistochemically analysed 90 mammalian species across 48 families in 16 orders, using an antiserum against the Cry1 C-terminus that in birds labels only the photo-activated conformation. In the Carnivora families Canidae, Mustelidae and Ursidae, and in some Primates, Cry1 was consistently labeled in the outer segment of the shortwave-sensitive S1 cones. This finding would be compatible with a magnetoreceptive function of Cry1 in these taxa. In all other taxa, Cry1 was not detected by the antiserum that likely also in mammals labels the photo-activated conformation, although Western blots showed Cry1 in mouse retinal cell nuclei. We speculate that in the mouse and the other negative-tested mammals Cry1 is involved in circadian functions as a non-light-responsive protein.

  3. Relativistic quantum dynamics on a double cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, F. A.; Silva, Edilberto O.; Lima, Jonas R. F.; Filgueiras, C.; Moraes, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the relativistic quantum problem of a particle constrained to a double cone surface. For this purpose, we build the Dirac equation in a curved space using the tetrads formalism. Two cases are analysed. First, we consider a free particle on the conical surface, and then we add an uniform magnetic field. In the first case, the exact energy spectrum is obtained and its non-relativistic limit compared to previously published results. In the second case, the spectrum is also exactly obtained and a detailed analysis considering all possible combinations of signs of the quantum numbers reveals the occurrence of highly degenerate zero energy modes. The results obtained here can be applied, for instance, in the investigation of the electronic and transport properties of condensed matter systems that can be described by an effective Dirac equation, such as graphene and topological insulators.

  4. The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Schofield, C J; Dias, J C

    1999-01-01

    Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with an economic impact far outranking the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Although the chronic infection remains virtually incurable, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and screening blood donors to avoid transfusional transmission. In line with this strategy, governments of the six Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) launched in 1991 an ambitious initiative to control Chagas disease through elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans, and large-scale screening of blood donors. Now at its mid-point, the programme has achieved remarkable success, with transmission halted over vast areas of the previously endemic regions. Well over 2 million rural houses have been sprayed to eliminate T. infestans, and the programme has already shown significant economic rates of return in addition to the medical and social benefits.

  5. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon

    2012-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillo-facial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontics. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice.

  6. Handling data redundancy in helical cone beam reconstruction with a cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiangyang; Hsieh Jiang

    2007-06-15

    A cone-angle-based window function is defined in this manuscript for image reconstruction using helical cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithms. Rather than defining the window boundaries in a two-dimensional detector acquiring projection data for computed tomographic imaging, the cone-angle-based window function deals with data redundancy by selecting rays with the smallest cone angle relative to the reconstruction plane. To be computationally efficient, an asymptotic approximation of the cone-angle-based window function is also given and analyzed in this paper. The benefit of using such an asymptotic approximation also includes the avoidance of functional discontinuities that cause artifacts in reconstructed tomographic images. The cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation provide a way, equivalent to the Tam-Danielsson-window, for helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithms to deal with data redundancy, regardless of where the helical pitch is constant or dynamically variable during a scan. By taking the cone-parallel geometry as an example, a computer simulation study is conducted to evaluate the proposed window function and its asymptotic approximation for helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm to handle data redundancy. The computer simulated Forbild head and thorax phantoms are utilized in the performance evaluation, showing that the proposed cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation can deal with data redundancy very well in cone beam image reconstruction from projection data acquired along helical source trajectories. Moreover, a numerical study carried out in this paper reveals that the proposed cone-angle-based window function is actually equivalent to the Tam-Danielsson-window, and rigorous mathematical proofs are being investigated.

  7. Rb suppresses human cone-precursor-derived retinoblastoma tumours.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoliang L; Singh, Hardeep P; Wang, Lu; Qi, Dong-Lai; Poulos, Bradford K; Abramson, David H; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Cobrinik, David

    2014-10-16

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood retinal tumour that initiates in response to biallelic RB1 inactivation and loss of functional retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Although Rb has diverse tumour-suppressor functions and is inactivated in many cancers, germline RB1 mutations predispose to retinoblastoma far more strongly than to other malignancies. This tropism suggests that retinal cell-type-specific circuitry sensitizes to Rb loss, yet the nature of the circuitry and the cell type in which it operates have been unclear. Here we show that post-mitotic human cone precursors are uniquely sensitive to Rb depletion. Rb knockdown induced cone precursor proliferation in prospectively isolated populations and in intact retina. Proliferation followed the induction of E2F-regulated genes, and depended on factors having strong expression in maturing cone precursors and crucial roles in retinoblastoma cell proliferation, including MYCN and MDM2. Proliferation of Rb-depleted cones and retinoblastoma cells also depended on the Rb-related protein p107, SKP2, and a p27 downregulation associated with cone precursor maturation. Moreover, Rb-depleted cone precursors formed tumours in orthotopic xenografts with histological features and protein expression typical of human retinoblastoma. These findings provide a compelling molecular rationale for a cone precursor origin of retinoblastoma. More generally, they demonstrate that cell-type-specific circuitry can collaborate with an initiating oncogenic mutation to enable tumorigenesis.

  8. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Burchardt, Steffi; Hallot, Erwan; Mourgues, Régis; Bulois, Cédric

    2015-04-01

    Igneous sheet intrusions of various shapes, such as dikes and cone sheets, coexist as parts of complex volcanic plumbing systems likely fed by common sources. How they form is fundamental regarding volcanic hazards, but yet no dynamic model simulates and predicts satisfactorily their diversity. Here we present scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced dikes and cone sheets under controlled conditions (Galland et al., 2014). Our models show that their formation is governed by a dimensionless ratio (Π1), which describes the shape of the magma source, and a dynamic dimensionless ratio (Π2), which compares the viscous stresses in the flowing magma to the host-rock strength. Plotting our experiments against these two numbers results in a phase diagram evidencing a dike and a cone-sheet field, separated by a sharp transition that fits a power law. This result shows that dikes and cone sheets correspond to distinct physical regimes of magma emplacement in the crust. For a given host-rock strength, cone sheets preferentially form when the source is shallow, relative to its lateral extent, or when the magma influx velocity (or viscosity) is high. Conversely, dikes form when the source is deep compared to its size, or when magma influx rate (or viscosity) is low. Both dikes and cone sheets may form from the same source, the shift from one regime to the other being then controlled by magma dynamics, i.e., different values of Π2. The extrapolated empirical dike-to-cone sheet transition is in good agreement with the occurrence of dikes and cone sheets in various natural volcanic settings. Galland, O., Burchardt, S., Hallot, E., Mourgues, R., Bulois, C., 2014. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2014JB011059, 10.1002/2014jb011059.

  9. Local calcium changes regulate the length of growth cone filopodia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su; Geddis, Matthew S; Rehder, Vincent

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in growth cones can act as an important regulator of growth cone behavior. Here we investigated whether there is a spatial and temporal correlation between [Ca(2+)](i) and one particular aspect of growth cone behavior, namely the regulation of growth cone filopodia. Calcium was released from the caged compound NP-EGTA (o-nitrophenyl EGTA tetrapotassium salt) to simulate a signaling event in the form of a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i). In three different experimental paradigms, we released calcium either globally (within an entire growth cone), regionally (within a small area of the lamellipodium), or locally (within a single filopodium). We demonstrate that global photolysis of NP-EGTA in growth cones caused a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i) throughout the growth cone and elicited subsequent filopodial elongation that was restricted to the stimulated growth cone. Pharmacological blockage of either calmodulin or the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, inhibited the effect of uncaging calcium, suggesting that these enzymes are acting downstream of calcium. Regional uncaging of calcium in the lamellipodium caused a regional increase in [Ca(2+)](i), but induced filopodial elongation on the entire growth cone. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) locally within an individual filopodium resulted in the elongation of only the stimulated filopodium. These findings suggest that the effect of an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) on filopodial behavior depends on the spatial distribution of the calcium signal. In particular, calcium signals within filopodia can cause filopodial length changes that are likely a first step towards directed filopodial steering events seen during pathfinding in vivo.

  10. Comparison of Cone Model Parameters for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Jang, Soojeong; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, Hae-Yeon

    2013-11-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are a major cause of geomagnetic storms, hence their three-dimensional structures are important for space weather. We compare three cone models: an elliptical-cone model, an ice-cream-cone model, and an asymmetric-cone model. These models allow us to determine three-dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle [ γ] between sky plane and cone axis. We compare these parameters obtained from three models using 62 HCMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO from 2001 to 2002. Then we obtain the root-mean-square (RMS) error between the highest measured projection speeds and their calculated projection speeds from the cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with one another ( R > 0.8). The correlation coefficients between angular widths range from 0.1 to 0.48 and those between γ-values range from -0.08 to 0.47, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be the different assumptions and methods. The RMS errors between the highest measured projection speeds and the highest estimated projection speeds of the elliptical-cone model, the ice-cream-cone model, and the asymmetric-cone model are 376 km s-1, 169 km s-1, and 152 km s-1. We obtain the correlation coefficients between the location from the models and the flare location ( R > 0.45). Finally, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of these models in terms of space-weather application.

  11. Lateral suppression of mesopic rod and cone flicker detection

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of flicker detection suppression by measuring mesopic rod and cone critical flicker frequencies (CFFs) at different center and surround illuminance levels. Stimuli were generated with a four-primary photostimulator that provided independent control of rod and cone excitations. The results showed that dim surrounds ≤0.2 Td suppressed cone-mediated CFFs at ≥20 Td but not rod-mediated CFFs. These results can be understood in terms of peak amplitudes of photoreceptor impulse response functions under different stimulation conditions. PMID:22330377

  12. Pulsar average wave forms and hollow-cone beam models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulsar wave forms have been analyzed from observations conducted over a wide radio-frequency range to assess the wave-form morphologies and to measure wave-form widths. The results of the analysis compare favorably with the predictions of a model with a hollow-cone beam of fixed dimensions and with random orientation of both the observer and the cone axis with respect to the pulsar spin axis. A class of three-component wave forms is included in the model by adding a central pencil beam to the hollow-cone hypothesis. The consequences of a number of discrepancies between observations and quantitative predictions of the model are discussed.

  13. Actin-binding proteins take the reins in growth cones.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chi W; Flynn, Kevin C; Bamburg, James R

    2008-02-01

    Higher-order actin-based networks (actin superstructures) are important for growth-cone motility and guidance. Principles for generating, organizing and remodelling actin superstructures have emerged from recent findings in cell-free systems, non-neuronal cells and growth cones. This Review examines how actin superstructures are initiated de novo at the leading-edge membrane and how the spontaneous organization of actin superstructures is driven by ensembles of actin-binding proteins. How the regulation of actin-binding proteins can affect growth-cone turning and axonal regeneration is also discussed.

  14. Attitude reorientation of spacecraft by means of impulse coning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Minimum maneuver costs for attitude reorientation of spacecraft of all possible inertial distribution over a wide range of maneuver angles by use of the impulse coning method of reorientation was studied. Maneuver cost is proportional to the product of fuel consumed and time expended during a maneuver. Assumptions included impulsive external control torques, rigid-body spacecraft, rest-to-rest maneuvers, and no disturbance torques. Also, coning maneuvers were constrained to have equal initial and final cone angles. Maneuver costs are presented for general reorientations as well as for spin-axis reorientations where final attitude about the spin axis is arbitrary.

  15. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  16. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  17. Simulation analysis of the effects of an initial cone position and opening angle on a cone-guided implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagawa, T.; Sakagami, H.; Nagatomo, H.

    2013-10-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the implosion process is important in forming a high-density plasma core. In the case of a fast ignition scheme using a cone-guided target, the fuel target is imploded with a cone inserted. This scheme is advantageous for efficiently heating the imploded fuel core; however, asymmetric implosion is essentially inevitable. Moreover, the effect of cone position and opening angle on implosion also becomes critical. Focusing on these problems, the effect of the asymmetric implosion, the initial position, and the opening angle on the compression rate of the fuel is investigated using a three-dimensional pure hydrodynamic code.

  18. Does the Dirac cone of germanene exist on metal substrates?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Jingzhen; Xiong, Junhua; Pan, Yuanyuan; Ye, Meng; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Han; Quhe, Ruge; Lu, Jing

    2016-07-28

    Germanene, a germanium analogue of graphene and silicene, has been synthesized on metal substrates. It is predicted that the intrinsic germanene has a Dirac cone in its band structure, just like graphene and silicene. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the geometrical structures and electronic properties of germanene on the Ag, Au, Cu, Al, Pt and Ir substrates. The Dirac cone of germanene is destroyed on the Al, Pt and Ir substrates but preserved on the Ag and Au substrates with a slight band hybridization. The upper part of the Dirac cone is destroyed for germanene on the Cu substrate while the lower part remains preserved. By contrast, the Dirac cone is always destroyed for silicene on these metal substrates because of a strong band hybridization. Our study suggests that it is possible to extract the intrinsic properties of germanene on the Ag and Au substrates although it appears impossible for silicene on these two substrates.

  19. Cone monochromacy and visual pigment spectral tuning in wobbegong sharks.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Susan M; Davies, Wayne I L; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-12-23

    Much is known regarding the evolution of colour vision in nearly every vertebrate class, with the notable exception of the elasmobranchs. While multiple spectrally distinct cone types are found in some rays, sharks appear to possess only a single class of cone and, therefore, may be colour blind. In this study, the visual opsin genes of two wobbegong species, Orectolobus maculatus and Orectolobus ornatus, were isolated to verify the molecular basis of their monochromacy. In both species, only two opsin genes are present, RH1 (rod) and LWS (cone), which provide further evidence to support the concept that sharks possess only a single cone type. Examination of the coding sequences revealed substitutions that account for interspecific variation in the photopigment absorbance spectra, which may reflect the difference in visual ecology between these species.

  20. Conifer ovulate cones accumulate pollen principally by simple impaction

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, James E.; Henning, Kevin; Pennel, Christophe; Lahoubi, Mohamed; Patrick, Michael A.; Young, Phillipe G.; Tabor, Gavin R.

    2007-01-01

    In many pine species (Family Pinaceae), ovulate cones structurally resemble a turbine, which has been widely interpreted as an adaptation for improving pollination by producing complex aerodynamic effects. We tested the turbine interpretation by quantifying patterns of pollen accumulation on ovulate cones in a wind tunnel and by using simulation models based on computational fluid dynamics. We used computer-aided design and computed tomography to create computational fluid dynamics model cones. We studied three species: Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, and Cedrus libani. Irrespective of the approach or species studied, we found no evidence that turbine-like aerodynamics made a significant contribution to pollen accumulation, which instead occurred primarily by simple impaction. Consequently, we suggest alternative adaptive interpretations for the structure of ovulate cones. PMID:17986613

  1. Shape measurement and vibration analysis of moving speaker cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Liu, Yuankun; Lehtonen, Petri

    2014-06-01

    Surface three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is needed for many fast processes such as structural testing of material, standing waves on loudspeaker cone, etc. Usually measurement is done from limited number of points using electrical sensors or laser distance meters. Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) enables fast shape measurement of the whole surface. Method is based on angled sinusoidal fringe pattern projection and image capturing. FTP requires only one image of the deformed fringe pattern to restore the 3-D shape of the measured object, which makes real-time or dynamic data processing possible. In our experiment the method was used for loudspeaker cone distortion measurement in dynamic conditions. For sound quality issues it is important that the whole cone moves in same phase and there are no partial waves. Our imaging resolution was 1280x1024 pixels and frame rate was 200 fps. Using our setup we found unwanted spatial waves in our sample cone.

  2. Further observations on resonance cones in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemann, H.; Singh, N.

    1983-01-01

    Results on the angular distribution of the electrostatic potential of a pulsating point charge in a warm magnetized plasma permeated by an electron beam are presented. The theoretical formulation for a finite magnetic field is given, and the solution of the resonance cone dispersion relation is presented. Numerical results on the angular distribution of the potential are shown, and the propagation of waves outside the resonance cones is described. It is demonstrated that with the inclusions of a finite magnetic field, the field patterns of a point charge are qualitatively similar to those obtained for a uniaxial plasma. The Cerenkov radiation occurs at angles much smaller than the cold-cone angle, even with the finite magnetic field. When the beam velocity is well above the thermal velocity of the background electrons, a characteristic wave propagation occurs between the cold-cone angles.

  3. Supersonic flow around circular cones at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1951-01-01

    The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.

  4. Microhabitats within venomous cone snails contain diverse actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S; Hughen, Ronald W; Light, Alan R; Concepcion, Gisela P; Olivera, Baldomero M; Schmidt, Eric W

    2009-11-01

    Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been reported on these organisms. A microhabitat approach was used in which dissected tissue from each snail was treated as an individual sample in order to explore bacteria in the tissues separately. Our results revealed a diverse, novel, and highly culturable cone snail-associated actinomycete community, with some isolates showing promising bioactivity in a neurological assay. This suggests that cone snails may represent an underexplored reservoir of novel actinomycetes of potential interest for drug discovery.

  5. 26. LONE CONE AND OLD ROAD GRADE TO LEFT SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LONE CONE AND OLD ROAD GRADE TO LEFT SEEN FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO LAUNDROMAT AT MOREFIELD CAMPGROUND STORE, FACING NW. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  6. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Venomous Cone Snail Conus consors

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stöcklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription. PMID:23236512

  7. 68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Microhabitats within Venomous Cone Snails Contain Diverse Actinobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Light, Alan R.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been reported on these organisms. A microhabitat approach was used in which dissected tissue from each snail was treated as an individual sample in order to explore bacteria in the tissues separately. Our results revealed a diverse, novel, and highly culturable cone snail-associated actinomycete community, with some isolates showing promising bioactivity in a neurological assay. This suggests that cone snails may represent an underexplored reservoir of novel actinomycetes of potential interest for drug discovery. PMID:19749071

  9. Nano-cone resistive memory for ultralow power operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjun; Jung, Sunghun; Kim, Min-Hwi; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Bang, Suhyun; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-03-24

    SiN x -based nano-structure resistive memory is fabricated by fully silicon CMOS compatible process integration including particularly designed anisotropic etching for the construction of a nano-cone silicon bottom electrode (BE). Bipolar resistive switching characteristics have significantly reduced switching current and voltage and are demonstrated in a nano-cone BE structure, as compared with those in a flat BE one. We have verified by systematic device simulations that the main cause of reduction in the performance parameters is the high electric field being more effectively concentrated at the tip of the cone-shaped BE. The greatly improved nonlinearity of the nano-cone resistive memory cell will be beneficial in the ultra-high-density crossbar array.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the venomous cone snail Conus consors.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stöcklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription.

  11. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  12. Conifer ovulate cones accumulate pollen principally by simple impaction.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, James E; Henning, Kevin; Pennel, Christophe; Lahoubi, Mohamed; Patrick, Michael A; Young, Phillipe G; Tabor, Gavin R

    2007-11-13

    In many pine species (Family Pinaceae), ovulate cones structurally resemble a turbine, which has been widely interpreted as an adaptation for improving pollination by producing complex aerodynamic effects. We tested the turbine interpretation by quantifying patterns of pollen accumulation on ovulate cones in a wind tunnel and by using simulation models based on computational fluid dynamics. We used computer-aided design and computed tomography to create computational fluid dynamics model cones. We studied three species: Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, and Cedrus libani. Irrespective of the approach or species studied, we found no evidence that turbine-like aerodynamics made a significant contribution to pollen accumulation, which instead occurred primarily by simple impaction. Consequently, we suggest alternative adaptive interpretations for the structure of ovulate cones.

  13. On the dynamics of a particle on a cone

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K. Rembielinski, J.

    2013-02-15

    A detailed study of the classical and quantum mechanics of a free particle on a double cone and a particle bound to its tip by a harmonic oscillator potential is presented. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the classical and quantum free particle and harmonic oscillator on a double cone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the solutions of classical equations and show that the motion in a generator is unstable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify the observables and Hilbert space for the quantum particle on a double cone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The case of the quantization on the double cone is compared with a single-nappe case. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We solve the Schroedinger equations and discuss them in the context of the classical instabilities.

  14. 127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor from the bass lake carriage road. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Nano-cone resistive memory for ultralow power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Jung, Sunghun; Kim, Min-Hwi; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Bang, Suhyung; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-03-01

    SiN x -based nano-structure resistive memory is fabricated by fully silicon CMOS compatible process integration including particularly designed anisotropic etching for the construction of a nano-cone silicon bottom electrode (BE). Bipolar resistive switching characteristics have significantly reduced switching current and voltage and are demonstrated in a nano-cone BE structure, as compared with those in a flat BE one. We have verified by systematic device simulations that the main cause of reduction in the performance parameters is the high electric field being more effectively concentrated at the tip of the cone-shaped BE. The greatly improved nonlinearity of the nano-cone resistive memory cell will be beneficial in the ultra-high-density crossbar array.

  16. Does L/M cone opponency disappear in human periphery?

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kathy T; Sakurai, Masato; Chu, William

    2005-01-01

    We have assessed the optimal cone contrast sensitivity across eccentricity in human vision of the two cone-opponent mechanisms [L/M or red-green, and S/(L + M) or blue-yellow] and the luminance mechanism. We have used a novel stimulus, termed a 'sinring', that is a radially modulated sine-wave arc, Gaussian enveloped in both angular and radial directions. This stimulus overcomes the problem inherent in Gabor stimuli of confounding stimulus spatial frequency, size, and eccentricity and so allows contrast sensitivity to be tracked accurately into the periphery. Our results show that L/M cone opponency declines steeply across the human periphery and becomes behaviourally absent by 25-30 deg (in the nasal field). This result suggests that any L/M cone-opponent neurons found in primate peripheral retina beyond this limit are unlikely to be significant for colour contrast detection measured behaviourally.

  17. Interpreting electric-field magnitudes of waves propagating near the resonance cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, G.

    2003-04-01

    The theory of dipole-antenna radiation in a magnetoplasma has been tested through the analysis of the data from the two-point propagation experiment OEDIPUS C (OC). It has been possible to investigate various wave modes because of the swept- frequency operation of the synchronized transmitter-receiver pair. One of the first phenomena to attract attention was whistler-mode propagation near the lower oblique resonance at 25 kHz. Signals transmitted there were considerably stronger than for wave-vector directions inside the resonance cone. Those signal strengths have been explained using a new application of the reciprocity principle to estimate the receiving dipole's effective length, which is found to be much larger than its physical length. Recently, data analysis uncovered the same enhancement of resonance-cone signal around 100 kHz. Evidence of linear polarization of the wave electric field was obtained in both the 25- and 100-kHz data. The magnitudes of dipole effective lengths deduced from the OC observations cast a new light on past investigations of phenomena involving whistler-mode propagation near the resonance cone. One example is tests of theory of auroral- hiss generation. These tests compared theoretical electric-field magnitudes with values inferred from receiving dipole voltages when the dipoles were assumed to have effective lengths equal to half their physical length, L. The ratio of the observed to theoretical field strengths was about 20 dB, which led to the conclusion that the test-particle theory was not applicable. It now appears that the observed fields were overestimated by 20 dB because of the incorrect L/2 assumption. There are other examples of perceived magnitudes of electric fields of waves propagating near an oblique resonance cone, either the lower or upper. Two-point active propagation experiments using the topside sounders during rendezvous produced observations of strong, highly dispersed pulses that appeared to carry an unusually

  18. Solar concentrating properties of truncated hexagonal, pyramidal and circular cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhard, D. G.; Strobel, G. L.; Shealy, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The solar concentrating properties of specularly reflecting truncated pyramidal, hexagonal, and circular cones are evaluated. Pyramidal and hexagonal configurations are discussed with reference to the concentration factor as a function of half apex angle and the length of the side over the width, and to the irradiance distribution. Expressions are derived for the concentration factor and the irradiance at the base of a circular cone when the sunlight is incident normal to the aperture and for oblique incidence.

  19. Processing Cones: A Computational Structure for Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    image analysis applications, referred to as a processing cone, is described and sample algorithms are presented. A fundamental characteristic of the structure is its hierarchical organization into two-dimensional arrays of decreasing resolution. In this architecture, a protypical function is defined on a local window of data and applied uniformly to all windows in a parallel manner. Three basic modes of processing are supported in the cone: reduction operations (upward processing), horizontal operations (processing at a single level) and projection operations (downward

  20. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  1. Elliptic Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H

    1958-01-01

    To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for elliptic cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of elliptic cones.

  2. Organizational motifs for ground squirrel cone bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Light, Adam C; Zhu, Yongling; Shi, Jun; Saszik, Shannon; Lindstrom, Sarah; Davidson, Laura; Li, Xiaoyu; Chiodo, Vince A; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Wei; DeVries, Steven H

    2012-09-01

    In daylight vision, parallel processing starts at the cone synapse. Cone signals flow to On and Off bipolar cells, which are further divided into types according to morphology, immunocytochemistry, and function. The axons of the bipolar cell types stratify at different levels in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and can interact with costratifying amacrine and ganglion cells. These interactions endow the ganglion cell types with unique functional properties. The wiring that underlies the interactions among bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells is poorly understood. It may be easier to elucidate this wiring if organizational rules can be established. We identify 13 types of cone bipolar cells in the ground squirrel, 11 of which contact contiguous cones, with the possible exception of short-wavelength-sensitive cones. Cells were identified by antibody labeling, tracer filling, and Golgi-like filling following transduction with an adeno-associated virus encoding for green fluorescent protein. The 11 bipolar cell types displayed two organizational patterns. In the first pattern, eight to 10 of the 11 types came in pairs with partially overlapping axonal stratification. Pairs shared morphological, immunocytochemical, and functional properties. The existence of similar pairs is a new motif that might have implications for how signals first diverge from a cone to bipolar cells and then reconverge onto a costratifying ganglion cell. The second pattern is a mirror symmetric organization about the middle of the IPL involving at least seven bipolar cell types. This anatomical symmetry may be associated with a functional symmetry in On and Off ganglion cell responses.

  3. Cone size is related to branching architecture in conifers.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Crane, Peter R; Donoghue, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between branch diameter and leaf size has been widely used to understand how vegetative resources are allocated in plants. Branching architecture influences reproductive allocation as well, but fewer studies have explored this relationship at broad phylogenetic or ecological scales. In this study, we tested whether pollen-producing and seed-producing cone size scales with branch diameter in conifers, a diverse and globally distributed lineage of nonflowering seed plants. Branch diameter and cone size were analyzed using multiple regression models and evolutionary models of trait evolution for a data set of 293 extant conifer species within an explicit phylogenetic framework. Branch diameter is a strong predictor of cone size across conifer species, particularly for pollen cones and dry seed cones. However, these relationships are complex in detail because leaf morphology and seed dispersal biology influence the specific ways in which they are expressed. The ubiquity and strength of these scaling relationships across conifers suggest that reproductive and vegetative morphologies are coupled in the group, and it is therefore difficult to disentangle the evolution of cone size from the evolution of branching architecture.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Shatter Cones Development in Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    Shatter cones are the characteristic forms of rock fractures in impact structures. They have been used for decades as unequivocal fingerprints of meteoritic impacts on Earth. The abundant data about shapes, apical angles, sizes and distributions of shatter cones for many terrestrial impact structures should provide insights for the determination of impact conditions and characteristics of shock waves produced by high-velocity projectiles in geologic media. However, previously proposed models for the formation of shatter cones do not agree with observations. For example, the widely accepted Johnson-Talbot mechanism requires that the longitudinal stress drops to zero between the arrival of the elastic precursor and the main plastic wave. Unfortunately, observations do not support such a drop. A model has been also proposed to explain the striated features on the surface of shatter cones but can not invoked for their conical shape. The mechanism by which shatter cones form thus remains enigmatic to date. In this paper we present a new model for the formation of shatter cones. Our model has been tested by means of numerical simulations using the hydrocodes SALE 2D enhanced with the Grady-Kipp-Melosh fragmentation model.

  5. Loss cone-driven cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Yi, Sibaek; Lim, Dayeh; Kim, Hee-Eun; Seough, Jungjoon; Yoon, Peter H.

    2013-11-01

    The weakly (or mildly) relativistic cyclotron maser instability has been successfully applied to explain the Earth's auroral kilometric radiation and other radio sources in nature and laboratory. Among the most important physical parameters that determine the instability criteria is the ratio of plasma-to-electron cyclotron frequencies, ωp/Ω. It is therefore instructive to consider how the normalized maximum growth rate, γmax/Ω, varies as a function of ωp/Ω. Although many authors have already discussed this problem, in order to complete the analysis, one must also understand how the radiation emission angle corresponding to the maximum growth, θmax, scales with ωp/Ω, since the propagation angle determines the radiation beaming pattern. Also, the behavior of the frequency corresponding to the maximum growth rate at each harmonic, (ωmax-sΩ)/Ω, where s=1,2,3,ċ , as a function of ωp/Ωis of importance for a complete understanding of the maser excitation. The present paper computes these additional quantities for the first time, making use of a model loss cone electron distribution function.

  6. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases.

  7. Nugget hardfacing toughens roller cone bits

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-25

    A new hardfacing material made of pure sintered tungsten carbide nuggets has improved roller cone rock bit performance in extremely hard lithologies, increasing penetration rates and extending bit life through multiple formations. In a recent test run in the Shushufindi 95 wells in Ecuador, a Security DBS 9 7/8-in. MPSF IADC 117M (International Association of Drilling Contractors bit code) bit with this new hardfacing drilled out the float equipment, cement, and show and then 3,309 ft of hard formations. The bit drilled through the Orteguaza claystone/shale/sand and chert formations and then to total depth at 6,309 ft in the Tiyuyacu shale/sand. The 3,309-ft interval was drilled at an average penetration rate (ROP) of 52.5 ft/hr. The proprietary nugget material was tested according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) G65 wear test method, a standard industry method of measuring wear resistance. The nugget material had ASTM wear test resistance more than twice that of standard hardfacing from conventional tungsten carbide.

  8. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases. PMID:26667580

  9. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene.

    PubMed

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-15

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton's law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the "Chern number" occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton's law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases.

  10. Computation of supersonic laminar viscous flow past a pointed cone at angle of attack in spinning and coning motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, R.; Rakich, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Computational results obtained with a parabolic Navier-Stokes marching code are presented for supersonic viscous flow past a pointed cone at angle of attack undergoing a combined spinning and coning motion. The code takes into account the asymmetries in the flow field resulting from the motion and computes the asymmetric shock shape, crossflow and streamwise shear, heat transfer, crossflow separation and vortex structure. The side force and moment are also computed. Reasonably good agreement is obtained with the side force measurements of Schiff and Tobak. Comparison is also made with the only available numerical inviscid analysis. It is found that the asymmetric pressure loads due to coning motion are much larger than all other viscous forces due to spin and coning, making viscous forces negligible in the combined motion.

  11. Kinetics of thermal activation of an ultraviolet cone pigment.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Victoria; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Liu, Jian; Guo, Ying; Batista, Victor S; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2015-01-14

    Visual pigments can be thermally activated via isomerization of the retinyl chromophore and hydrolysis of the Schiff base (SB) through which the retinyl chromophore is bound to the opsin protein. Here, we present the first combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal activation of a Siberian hamster ultraviolet (SHUV) pigment. We measured the rates of thermal isomerization and hydrolysis in the SHUV pigment and bovine rhodopsin. We found that these rates were significantly faster in the UV pigment than in rhodopsin due to the difference in the structural and electrostatic effects surrounding the unprotonated Schiff base (USB) retinyl chromophore in the UV pigment. Theoretical (DFT-QM/MM) calculations of the cis-trans thermal isomerization revealed a barrier of ∼23 kcal/mol for the USB retinyl chromophore in SHUV compared to ∼40 kcal/mol for protonated Schiff base (PSB) chromophore in rhodopsin. The lower barrier for thermal isomerization in the SHUV pigment is attributed to the (i) lessening of the steric restraints near the β-ionone ring and SB ends of the chromophore, (ii) displacement of the transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) away from the binding pocket toward TM5 due to absence of the salt bridge between the USB and the protonated E113 residue, and (iii) change in orientation of the hydrogen-bonding networks (HBNs) in the extracellular loop 2 (EII). The results in comparing thermal stability of UV cone pigment and rhodopsin provide insight into molecular evolution of vertebrate visual pigments in achieving low discrete dark noise and high photosensitivity in rod pigments for dim-light vision.

  12. Intraspecific geographic variation in rod and cone visual pigment sensitivity of a parrot, Platycercus elegans

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L.; Ribot, Raoul F. H.; Endler, John A.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in wavelength sensitivity among subspecies is unknown among vertebrates. The parrot Platycercus elegans has extreme plumage variation between subspecies ranging from pale yellow to crimson which, with differences in background colour and light environment between subspecies, makes it a good candidate for the evolution of within-species differences in vision. We report differences in visual pigments between populations of P. elegans from two subspecies, providing the first known support for population and subspecies variation in visual pigments within a vertebrate species; it is also the first instance of intraspecific variation in rod sensitivity within any vertebrate species. Differences in wavelength sensitivity of rods and cones corresponded to geographic differences in plumage colour. Between study populations, visual pigments varied but not oil droplets. Adaptive functions for the visual pigment differences are untested but they could cause divergence in behaviours associated with colour as well as in dim light, and provide insights into the role of senses in divergence and speciation. PMID:28128324

  13. Intraspecific geographic variation in rod and cone visual pigment sensitivity of a parrot, Platycercus elegans.

    PubMed

    Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L; Ribot, Raoul F H; Endler, John A; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2017-01-27

    Variation in wavelength sensitivity among subspecies is unknown among vertebrates. The parrot Platycercus elegans has extreme plumage variation between subspecies ranging from pale yellow to crimson which, with differences in background colour and light environment between subspecies, makes it a good candidate for the evolution of within-species differences in vision. We report differences in visual pigments between populations of P. elegans from two subspecies, providing the first known support for population and subspecies variation in visual pigments within a vertebrate species; it is also the first instance of intraspecific variation in rod sensitivity within any vertebrate species. Differences in wavelength sensitivity of rods and cones corresponded to geographic differences in plumage colour. Between study populations, visual pigments varied but not oil droplets. Adaptive functions for the visual pigment differences are untested but they could cause divergence in behaviours associated with colour as well as in dim light, and provide insights into the role of senses in divergence and speciation.

  14. Functional Optical Coherence Tomography Enables In Vivo Physiological Assessment of Retinal Rod and Cone Photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Lu, Rongwen; Wang, Benquan; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Curcio, Christine A.; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-04-01

    Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (<4 ms) after retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have demonstrated the feasibility of functional OCT mapping of rod and cone photoreceptors, promising a new method for early disease detection and improved treatment of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other eye diseases that can cause photoreceptor damage.

  15. Photomicrographic evaluation of the apical sealing capacity of three types of gutta-percha master cones: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nica, Luminita Maria; Didilescu, Andreea; Rusu, Darian; Bacila, Adrian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the apical sealing capacity of three types of gutta-percha master cones of the same apical size and different tapers following root canal preparation with nickel-titanium ProTaper Universal rotary instruments and microstructural replication with System B and Obtura III. Thirty extracted human incisors having one single straight root canal (type I Weine) were instrumented with rotary ProTaper to an F3 (30/.09) and gauged to confirm a final apical size of #30. Teeth were divided into three groups (n = 10) to be obturated as follows: Group 1: master cone Meta 0.06 taper/AH Plus, Group 2: master cone fine-medium Autofit 0.08 taper/AH Plus, and Group 3: master cone ProTaper F3 0.09 taper/AH Plus. The chosen technique was the continuous wave of compaction (System B and Obtura III). Teeth were embedded in acrylic and incrementally reduced at 0.5 and 1.0 mm from the apical foramina in a grinding machine for metallographic samples. Sections were examined and digitally photographed under a metallographic optical microscope in normal and polarized light and the images were processed. The total cross-sectional area of the root canal, the gutta-percha/sealer/voids' areas were quantified for each sample and statistically compared using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed (P > 0.05); however, the mean percentage of the gutta-percha-filled area was slightly higher in Group 1 at both levels of observation. Despite different tapers, all the three types of cones provided a good sealing capacity in the last apical millimeter of the root canal, with good gutta-percha-sealer ratio and few or no voids.

  16. Cone Photoreceptor Sensitivities and Unique Hue Chromatic Responses: Correlation and Causation Imply the Physiological Basis of Unique Hues

    PubMed Central

    Pridmore, Ralph W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95–1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision. PMID:24204755

  17. Developing an Outcome Measure With High Luminance for Optogenetics Treatment of Severe Retinal Degenerations and for Gene Therapy of Cone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Roman, Alejandro J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Yan, Boyuan; Pascolini, Michele; Charng, Jason; Pajaro, Simone; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present stimuli with varied sizes, colors, and patterns over a large range of luminance. Methods The filter bar used in scotopic MP1 was replaced with a custom slide-in tray that introduces light from an external projector driven by an additional computer. MP1 software was modified to provide retinal tracking information to the computer driving the projector. Retinal tracking performance was evaluated by imaging the system input and the output simultaneously with a high-speed video system. Spatial resolution was measured with achromatic and chromatic grating/background combinations over scotopic and photopic ranges. Results The range of retinal illuminance achievable by the modification was up to 6.8 log photopic Trolands (phot-Td); however, in the current work, only a lower range over −4 to +3 log phot-Td was tested in human subjects. Optical magnification was optimized for low-vision testing with gratings from 4.5 to 0.2 cyc/deg. In normal subjects, spatial resolution driven by rods, short wavelength-sensitive (S-) cones, and long/middle wavelength-sensitive (L/M-) cones was obtained by the choice of adapting conditions and wavelengths of grating and background. Data from a patient with blue cone monochromacy was used to confirm mediation. Conclusions The modified MP1 can be developed into an outcome measure for treatments in patients with severe retinal degeneration, very low vision, and abnormal eye movements such as those for whom treatment with optogenetics is planned, as well as for patients with cone disorders such as blue cone monochromacy for whom treatment with gene therapy is planned to improve L/M-cone function above a normal complement of rod and S-cone function. PMID:27309625

  18. Long-Term Preservation of Cones and Improvement in Visual Function Following Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by Guanylate Cyclase-1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mihelec, Marija; Pearson, Rachael A.; Robbie, Scott J.; Buch, Prateek K.; Azam, Selina A.; Bainbridge, James W.B.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a severe retinal dystrophy manifesting from early infancy as poor vision or blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in GUCY2D cause LCA1 and are one of the most common causes of LCA, accounting for 20% of all cases. Human GUCY2D and mouse Gucy2e genes encode guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), which is responsible for restoring the dark state in photoreceptors after light exposure. The Gucy2e–/– mouse shows partially diminished rod function, but an absence of cone function before degeneration. Although the cones appear morphologically normal, they exhibit mislocalization of proteins involved in phototransduction. In this study we tested the efficacy of an rAAV2/8 vector containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter and the human GUCY2D gene. Following subretinal delivery of the vector in Gucy2e–/– mice, GC1 protein was detected in the rod and cone outer segments, and in transduced areas of retina cone transducin was appropriately localized to cone outer segments. Moreover, we observed a dose-dependent restoration of rod and cone function and an improvement in visual behavior of the treated mice. Most importantly, cone preservation was observed in transduced areas up to 6 months post injection. To date, this is the most effective rescue of the Gucy2e–/– mouse model of LCA and we propose that a vector, similar to the one used in this study, could be suitable for use in a clinical trial of gene therapy for LCA1. PMID:21671801

  19. Depletion of cholinergic amacrine cells by a novel immunotoxin does not perturb the formation of segregated on and off cone bipolar cell projections.

    PubMed

    Gunhan, Emine; Choudary, Prabhakara V; Landerholm, Thomas E; Chalupa, Leo M

    2002-03-15

    Cone bipolar cells are the first retinal neurons that respond in a differential manner to light onset and offset. In the mature retina, the terminal arbors of On and Off cone bipolar cells terminate in different sublaminas of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) where they form synapses with the dendrites of On and Off retinal ganglion cells and with the stratified processes of cholinergic amacrine cells. Here we first show that cholinergic processes within the On and Off sublaminas of the IPL are present early in development, being evident in the rat on the day of birth, approximately 10 d before the formation of segregated cone bipolar cell axons. This temporal sequence, as well as our previous finding that the segregation of On and Off cone bipolar cell inputs occurs in the absence of retinal ganglion cells, suggested that cholinergic amacrine cells could provide a scaffold for the subsequent in-growth of bipolar cell axons. To test this hypothesis directly, a new cholinergic cell immunotoxin was constructed by conjugating saporin, the ribosome-inactivating protein toxin, to an antibody against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. A single intraocular injection of the immunotoxin caused a rapid, complete, and selective loss of cholinergic amacrine cells from the developing rat retina. On and Off cone bipolar cells were visualized using an antibody against recoverin, the calcium-binding protein that labels the soma and processes of these interneurons. After complete depletion of cholinergic amacrine cells, cone bipolar cell axon terminals still formed their two characteristic strata within the IPL. These findings demonstrate that the presence of cholinergic amacrine cells is not required for the segregation of recoverin-positive On and Off cone bipolar cell projections.

  20. Melanopsin-dependent light avoidance in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Juliette; Wu, Vincent; Donovan, Michael; Majumdar, Sriparna; Rentería, René C.; Porco, Travis; Van Gelder, Russell N.; Copenhagen, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) form a light-sensitive system separate from rods and cones. Direct light stimulation of ipRGCs can regulate many nonimage-forming visual functions such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms and pupil responses, and can intensify migraine headache in adults. In mice, ipRGCs are light responsive as early as the day of birth. In contrast, their eyelids do not open until 12–13 d after birth (P12–13), and light signaling from rods and cones does not begin until approximately P10. No physiological or behavioral function is established for ipRGCs in neonates before the onset of rod and cone signaling. Here we report that mouse pups as young as P6 will completely turn away from a light. Light-induced responses of ipRGCs could be readily recorded in retinas of pups younger than P9, and we found no evidence for rod- and cone-mediated visual signaling to the RGCs of these younger mice. These results confirm that negative phototaxis is evident before the onset of rod- and cone-mediated visual signaling, and well before the onset of image-forming vision. Negative phototaxis was absent in mice lacking melanopsin. We conclude that light activation of melanopsin ipRGCs is necessary and sufficient for negative phototaxis. These results strongly suggest that light activation of ipRGCs may regulate physiological functions such as sleep/wake cycles in preterm and neonatal infants. PMID:20855606

  1. Out-of-plane magnetized cone-shaped magnetic nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, D. K.; Günther, S.; Fritzsche, M.; Lenz, K.; Varvaro, G.; Laureti, S.; Makarov, D.; Mücklich, A.; Facsko, S.; Albrecht, M.; Fassbender, J.

    2017-03-01

    The geometry of a magnetic nano-object, namely its shape and dimensions determines the complex electromagnetic responses. Here, we address the geometry-induced changes of the magnetic properties of thin ferromagnetic Co/Pd multilayers with out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy deposited on three-dimensionally curved templates. For this purpose, arrays of self-assembled cone-shaped nano-objects with a chracteristic size of either 30 or 70 nm were created in GaSb(0 0 1) by the ion erosion technique. The templates are designed in the way that the shape of the cone remains the same for all the samples; namely, we keep the opening angle at about 55° by adjusting the ratio between the cone height and its base diameter to be about 1. In this case, we are able to address the impact of the linear dimensions of the object on the magnetic properties and exclude the impact of the shape from the consideration. The deposition of 15 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers on top of the cone templates results in the formation of a close-packed array of 2D magnetic cone-shaped shells. Integral angle-dependent magnetometry measurements demonstrate that the local curvature results in the spread of the easy axes of magnetization following the shape of the nanocones independent of the linear dimensions of the cones. At the same time different local magnetic domain patterns are observed for samples prepared on 30 and 70 nm large cones. When the thickness of the magnetic shell is only half of the linear dimension of a cone, a clear multidomain state is observed. Remarkably, we find that the neighboring magnetic cone-shaped shells are exchange decoupled when the linear dimension of a cone is four times larger compared to the thickness of the magnetic shell. These findings are relevant for the further development of tilted bit patterned magnetic recording media as well as for the emergent field of magnetism in curved geometries.

  2. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    SciTech Connect

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-08-03

    The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of

  3. Quasilocal energy exchange and the null cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun, Nezihe

    2016-10-01

    Energy is at best defined quasilocally in general relativity. Quasilocal energy definitions depend on the conditions one imposes on the boundary Hamiltonian, i.e., how a finite region of spacetime is "isolated." Here, we propose a method to define and investigate systems in terms of their matter plus gravitational energy content. We adopt a generic construction, that involves embedding of an arbitrary dimensional world sheet into an arbitrary dimensional spacetime, to a 2 +2 picture. In our case, the closed 2-dimensional spacelike surface S , that is orthogonal to the 2-dimensional timelike world sheet T at every point, encloses the system in question. The integrability conditions of T and S correspond to three null tetrad gauge conditions once we transform our notation to the one of the null cone observables. We interpret the Raychaudhuri equation of T as a work-energy relation for systems that are not in equilibrium with their surroundings. We achieve this by identifying the quasilocal charge densities corresponding to rotational and nonrotational degrees of freedom, in addition to a relative work density associated with tidal fields. We define the corresponding quasilocal charges that appear in our work-energy relation and which can potentially be exchanged with the surroundings. These charges and our tetrad conditions are invariant under type-III Lorentz transformations, i.e., the boosting of the observers in the directions orthogonal to S . We apply our construction to a radiating Vaidya spacetime, a C -metric and the interior of a Lanczos-van Stockum dust metric. The delicate issues related to the axially symmetric stationary spacetimes and possible extensions to the Kerr geometry are also discussed.

  4. Regulation of neuronal growth cone filopodia by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Van Wagenen, S; Rehder, V

    1999-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to play an important role during neuronal development. Since many of its effects occur during the time of growth cone pathfinding and target interaction, we here test the hypothesis that part of NO's effects might be exerted at the growth cone. We found that low concentrations of the NO-donors DEA/NO, SIN-1, and SNP caused a rapid and transient elongation of filopodia as well as a reduction in filopodial number. These effects resulted from distinct changes in filopodial extension and retraction rates. Our novel findings suggest that NO could play a physiological role by temporarily changing a growth cone's morphology and switching its behavior from a close-range to a long-range exploratory mode. We subsequently dissected the pathway by which NO acted on growth cones. The effect of NO donors on filopodial length could be blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), indicating that NO acted via sGC. Supporting this idea, injection of cyclic GMP (cGMP) mimicked the effect of NO donors on growth cone filopodia. Moreover, application of NO-donors as well as injection of cGMP elicited a rapid and transient rise in intracellular calcium in growth cones, indicating that NO acted via cGMP to elevate calcium. This calcium rise, as well as the morphological effects of SIN-1 on filopodia, were blocked by preventing calcium entry. Given the role of filopodia in axonal guidance, our new data suggest that NO could function at the neuronal growth cone as an intracellular and/or intercellular signaling molecule by affecting steering decisions during neuronal pathfinding.

  5. Isomerization and Oxidation of Vitamin A in Cone-Dominant Retinas: A Novel Pathway for Visual-Pigment Regeneration in Daylight

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Nathan L.; Radu, Roxana A.; Clemmons, Richard S.; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The first step toward light perception is 11-cis to all-trans photoisomerization of the retinaldehyde chromophore in a rod or cone opsin-pigment molecule. Light sensitivity of the opsin pigment is restored through a multistep pathway called the visual cycle, which effects all-trans to 11-cis re-isomerization of the retinoid chromophore. The maximum throughput of the known visual cycle, however, is too slow to explain sustained photosensitivity in bright light. Here, we demonstrate three novel enzymatic activities in cone-dominant ground-squirrel and chicken retinas: an all-trans-retinol isomerase, an 11-cis-retinyl-ester synthase, and an 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase. Together these activities comprise a novel pathway that regenerates opsin photopigments at a rate 20-fold faster than the known visual cycle. We suggest that this pathway is responsible for sustained daylight vision in vertebrates. PMID:12367507

  6. The pKa of the protonated Schiff bases of gecko cone and octopus visual pigments.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J; Steinberg, G; Livnah, N; Sheves, M; Ebrey, T G; Tsuda, M

    1994-01-01

    A visual pigment is composed of retinal bound to its apoprotein by a protonated Schiff base linkage. Light isomerizes the chromophore and eventually causes the deprotonation of this Schiff base linkage at the meta II stage of the bleaching cycle. The meta II intermediate of the visual pigment is the active form of the pigment that binds to and activates the G protein transducin, starting the visual cascade. The deprotonation of the Schiff base is mandatory for the formation of meta II intermediate. We studied the proton binding affinity, pKa, of the Schiff base of both octopus rhodopsin and the gecko cone pigment P521 by spectral titration. Several fluorinated retinal analogs have strong electron withdrawing character around the Schiff base region and lower the Schiff base pKa in model compounds. We regenerated octopus and gecko visual pigments with these fluorinated and other retinal analogs. Experiments on these artificial pigments showed that the spectral changes seen upon raising the pH indeed reflected the pKa of the Schiff base and not the denaturation of the pigment or the deprotonation of some other group in the pigment. The Schiff base pKa is 10.4 for octopus rhodopsin and 9.9 for the gecko cone pigment. We also showed that although the removal of Cl- ions causes considerable blue-shift in the gecko cone pigment P521, it affects the Schiff base pKa very little, indicating that the lambda max of visual pigment and its Schiff base pKa are not tightly coupled. PMID:7948697

  7. Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Peter; Weiss, Achim

    1988-01-01

    Refsdal's (1970) method is generalized to study the propagation of light rays through an inhomogeneous universe. The probability distribution for the linear component of the cumulative shear (CS) along light rays is derived, and it is shown that the CS can be dominated by nonlinear components, espcially for light rays in empty cones. The amplification tail of the amplification probability distribution is compared with analytic results; these linear investigations are shown to underestimate the high-amplification probability and hence the importance of the amplification bias in source counts. The distribution of the ellipticity of images of infinitesimal circular sources is derived, and it is shown that this can be dominated by the nonlinear contributions to the CS.

  8. Neuroendocrine effects of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Russel J.

    1991-09-01

    The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

  9. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  10. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  11. Strong topological metal material with multiple Dirac cones

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Huiwen; Valla, T.; Pletikosic, I.; ...

    2016-01-25

    We report a new, cleavable, strong topological metal, Zr2Te2P, which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the Fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone with a largely linear dispersion over a 2 eV energy range. A third surface TRS-protected Dirac cone is predicted, and observed using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, making Zr2Te2Pmore » the first system, to our knowledge, to realize TRS-protected Dirac cones at M¯ points. The high anisotropy of this Dirac cone is similar to the one in the hypothetical Dirac semimetal BiO2. As a result, we propose that if EF can be tuned into the pseudogap where the Dirac dispersions exist, it may be possible to observe ultrahigh carrier mobility and large magnetoresistance in this material.« less

  12. Strong topological metal material with multiple Dirac cones

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Huiwen; Valla, T.; Pletikosic, I.; Gibson, Q. D.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Cava, R. J.

    2016-01-25

    We report a new, cleavable, strong topological metal, Zr2Te2P, which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the Fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone with a largely linear dispersion over a 2 eV energy range. A third surface TRS-protected Dirac cone is predicted, and observed using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, making Zr2Te2P the first system, to our knowledge, to realize TRS-protected Dirac cones at M¯ points. The high anisotropy of this Dirac cone is similar to the one in the hypothetical Dirac semimetal BiO2. As a result, we propose that if EF can be tuned into the pseudogap where the Dirac dispersions exist, it may be possible to observe ultrahigh carrier mobility and large magnetoresistance in this material.

  13. AN IONIZATION CONE IN THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 5253

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Martin, Crystal L.

    2011-11-01

    There are few observational constraints on how the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies depends on galactic parameters. Here we report on the first major detection of an ionization cone in NGC 5253, a nearby starburst galaxy. This high-excitation feature is identified by mapping the emission-line ratios in the galaxy using [S III] {lambda}9069, [S II] {lambda}6716, and H{alpha} narrowband images from the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. The ionization cone appears optically thin, which suggests the escape of ionizing photons. The cone morphology is narrow with an estimated solid angle covering just 3% of 4{pi} steradians, and the young, massive clusters of the nuclear starburst can easily generate the radiation required to ionize the cone. Although less likely, we cannot rule out the possibility of an obscured active galactic nucleus source. An echelle spectrum along the minor axis shows complex kinematics that are consistent with outflow activity. The narrow morphology of the ionization cone supports the scenario that an orientation bias contributes to the difficulty in detecting Lyman continuum emission from starbursts and Lyman break galaxies.

  14. RASGRF2 controls nuclear migration in postnatal retinal cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jimeno, David; Gómez, Carmela; Calzada, Nuria; de la Villa, Pedro; Lillo, Concepción; Santos, Eugenio

    2016-02-15

    Detailed immunocytochemical analyses comparing wild-type (WT), GRF1-knockout (KO), GRF2-KO and GRF1/2 double-knockout (DKO) mouse retinas uncovered the specific accumulation of misplaced, 'ectopic' cone photoreceptor nuclei in the photoreceptor segment (PS) area of retinas from GRF2-KO and GRF1/2-DKO, but not of WT or GRF1-KO mice. Localization of ectopic nuclei in the PS area of GRF2-depleted retinas occurred postnatally and peaked between postnatal day (P)11 and P15. Mechanistically, the generation of this phenotype involved disruption of the outer limiting membrane and intrusion into the PS layer by cone nuclei displaying significant perinuclear accumulation of signaling molecules known to participate in nuclear migration and cytoskeletal reorganization, such as PAR3, PAR6 and activated, phosphorylated forms of PAK, MLC2 and VASP. Electroretinographic recordings showed specific impairment of cone-mediated retinal function in GRF2-KO and GRF1/2-DKO retinas compared with WT controls. These data identify defective cone nuclear migration as a novel phenotype in mouse retinas lacking GRF2 and support a crucial role of GRF2 in control of the nuclear migration processes required for proper postnatal development and function of retinal cone photoreceptors.

  15. Discrimination of cone contrast changes as evidence for colour constancy in cerebral achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, A C; Bramwell, D I; Heywood, C; Cowey, A

    1998-11-01

    One proposed mechanism for underpinning colour constancy is computation of the relative activity of cones within one class--cone ratios, or cone contrasts--between surfaces in a fixed scene undergoing a change in illuminant. Although there is evidence that cone ratios do determine colour appearance under many conditions, the site or sites of their computation is unknown. Here, we report that a cerebrally achromatopsic observer, MS, displayed evidence of colour constancy in asymmetric colour matching tasks and was able to discriminate changes in cone ratios for simple, but not complex scenes. We hypothesise that the site of local cone-ratio computation is therefore early in the visual system, probably retinal.

  16. Non-imaging Optics of multi-LED light source for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Kashif; Gosnell, Martin E.; Ploschner, Martin; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of our work was to design a light source which should be capable to collect and illuminate light of LEDs at the smaller aperture of cone (9mm) which could be either coupled with secondary optics of a microscope or utilized independently for hyperspectral studies. Optimized performance of cone was assessed for different substrates (diffused glass silica, Alumina, Zerodur glass, acrylic plastic) and coating surfaces (white diffused, flat white paint, standard mirror) using a simulation software. The parameters optimized for truncated cone include slanting length and Top Major R (Larger diameter of cone) which were also varied from 10 to 350 mm and 10 to 80 mm respectively. In order to see affect of LED positions on cone efficiency, the positions of LED were varied from central axis to off-axis. Similarly, interLED distance was varied from 2 mm to 6 mm to reckon its effect on the performance of cone. The optimized Slant length (80 mm) and Top Major R (50 mm) were determined for substrates (glass zerodur or acrylic plastic) and coating surface (standard mirror). The output profile of truncated source was found non uniform, which is a typical presentation of non imaging optics problem. The maximum efficiency of cone has been found for LED at the centre and it was found decreasing as LED moves away from the central axis. Moreover, shorter the interLED distance, better is the performance of cone. The primary optics of cone shaped light source is capable to lit visible and UV LEDs in practical design. The optimum parameters obtained through simulations could be implemented in the fabrication procedure if the reflectance of source would have been maintained upto finish level of a standard mirror.

  17. Skeletal dosimetry in cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B. R. B.; Ding, G. X.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

    2009-07-15

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a relatively new patient imaging technique that has proved invaluable for treatment target verification and patient positioning during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). It has been shown that CBCT results in additional dose to bone that may amount to 10% of the prescribed dose. In this study, voxelized human phantoms, FAX06 (adult female) and MAX06 (adult male), are used together with phase-space data collected from a realistic model of a CBCT imager to calculate dose in the red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSCs), the two organs at risk within the bone spongiosa, during simulated head and neck, chest and pelvis CBCT scans. The FAX06/MAX06 phantoms model spongiosa based on micro-CT images, filling the relevant phantom voxels, which are 0.12x0.12x0.12 cm{sup 3}, with 17x17x17 {mu}m{sup 3} microvoxels to form a micromatrix of trabecular bone and bone marrow. FAX06/MAX06 have already been implemented in an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code to simulate radiation transport in the phantoms; however, this study required significant modifications of the code to allow use of phase-space data from a simulated CBCT imager as a source and to allow scoring of total dose, RBM dose and BSC dose on a voxel-by-voxel basis. In simulated CBCT scans, the BSC dose is significantly greater than the dose to other organs at risk. For example, in a simulated head and neck scan, the average BSC dose is 25% higher than the average dose to eye lens ({approx}8.3 cGy), and 80% greater than the average dose to brain (5.7 cGy). Average dose to RBM, on the other hand, is typically only {approx}50% of the average BSC dose and less than the dose to other organs at risk (54% of the dose to eye lens and 76% of dose to brain in a head and neck scan). Thus, elevated dose in bone due to CBCT results in elevated BSC dose. This is potentially of concern when using CBCT in conjunction with radiotherapy treatment.

  18. Axial analysis of cones and adjacent retinal structures using AOSLO (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papay, Joel A.; Johnston, Kirby D.; Sawides, Lucie; de Castro, Alberto; Burns, Stephen A.; Elsner, Ann E.

    2016-03-01

    We imaged the retina using the Indiana Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Our system uses two deformable mirrors to provide en face, high-resolution images of retinal structures at a 28 Hz frame rate. The wavelength of the sensor light was 850 nm and the imaging wavelength was 820 nm at 50 and 120 °W respectively. The confocal pinhole was located in a position conjugate with the retina allowed us to segment one retina plane. Two different confocal apertures of 75 μm and 100 μm (1.5 and 2 times the Airy disk size) were used to provide different amounts of confocal or scattered light. The imaging area was 1.4 x 1.2 deg which corresponds roughly to 400 x 350 μm. Using the large stroke deformable mirror, which provides the focusing capability of the confocal system, we imaged the same location at different planes. We moved from superficial layers to the retinal pigment epithelium in 0.3 D increments. The range of adjustments included the subjectively best overall image, and focal planes anterior and posterior to this. We imaged 10 subjects at approximately 7.5 deg temporal from the fovea. A video of individual frames was taken, and the individual frames were dewarped, aligned, and averaged. We measured 10 bright and 10 dim cones for each subject at the 10 depths, with brightness groupings based subjectively on the most superficial location. The function for amount of light reflected differed for the two groups of cones. Reflectivity varied as a function of depth.

  19. Spin-Cherenkov effect and magnonic Mach cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming; Kákay, Attila; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    We report on the Cherenkov-type excitation of spin waves (SWs) in ferromagnets. Our micromagnetic simulations show that a localized magnetic field pulse moving sufficiently fast along the surface of a ferromagnet generates a SW boom, with a Mach-type cone of propagating wave fronts. The SWs are formed when the velocity of the source exceeds the propagation speed of SWs. Unlike the single cone of the usual Cherenkov effect, we find that the magnetic Mach cone consists of two wave fronts with different wave numbers. In patterned thin strips, this magnetic analog of the Cherenkov effect should enable the excitation of SWs with well-defined and velocity-dependent frequency. It thereby provides a promising route towards tunable SW generation, with important potential for applications in magnonic devices.

  20. Concrescence: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alluri, LeelaSubhashini Choudary; Mallela, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    Concrescence is a form of twinning, formed by the confluence of cementum of two teeth at the root level. The diagnosis of concrescence has largely relied on the conventional 2D imaging. The 2D imaging has inherent limitations such as distortion and superimposition. Cone-Beam CT eliminates these limitations. The aim of this article was to describe a case of dental abnormality using Cone-Beam CT imaging modality. Volumetric data demonstrated confluence of left mandibular third molar with a paramolar, a supernumerary tooth. To our knowledge, this is the second case in the dental literature reported demonstrating the use of Cone-Beam CT in the diagnosis of concrescence. PMID:27800194

  1. The oral cone of Anomalocaris is not a classic ``peytoia''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Allison C.; Bergström, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The Cambro-Ordovician anomalocaridids are large ecdysozoans commonly regarded as ancestors of the arthropods and apex predators. Predation is indicated partly by the presence of an unusual "peytoia"-type oral cone, which is a tetraradial outer ring of 32 plates, four of which are enlarged and in perpendicular arrangement. This oral cone morphology was considered a highly consistent and defining characteristic of well-known Burgess Shale taxa. It is here shown that Anomalocaris has a different oral cone, with only three large plates and a variable number of smaller and medium plates. Its functional morphology suggests that suction, rather than biting, was used for food ingestion, and that anomalocaridids in general employed a range of different scavenging and predatory feeding strategies. Removing anomalocaridids from the position of highly specialized trilobite predators forces a reconsideration of the ecological structure of the earliest marine animal communities in the Cambrian.

  2. The oral cone of Anomalocaris is not a classic ''peytoia''.

    PubMed

    Daley, Allison C; Bergström, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The Cambro-Ordovician anomalocaridids are large ecdysozoans commonly regarded as ancestors of the arthropods and apex predators. Predation is indicated partly by the presence of an unusual "peytoia"-type oral cone, which is a tetraradial outer ring of 32 plates, four of which are enlarged and in perpendicular arrangement. This oral cone morphology was considered a highly consistent and defining characteristic of well-known Burgess Shale taxa. It is here shown that Anomalocaris has a different oral cone, with only three large plates and a variable number of smaller and medium plates. Its functional morphology suggests that suction, rather than biting, was used for food ingestion, and that anomalocaridids in general employed a range of different scavenging and predatory feeding strategies. Removing anomalocaridids from the position of highly specialized trilobite predators forces a reconsideration of the ecological structure of the earliest marine animal communities in the Cambrian.

  3. Jet maximization, axis minimization, and stable cone finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    Jet finding is a type of optimization problem, where hadrons from a high-energy collision event are grouped into jets based on a clustering criterion. As three interesting examples, one can form a jet cluster that (i) optimizes the overall jet four-vector, (ii) optimizes the jet axis, or (iii) aligns the jet axis with the jet four-vector. In this paper, we show that these three approaches to jet finding, despite being philosophically quite different, can be regarded as descendants of a mother optimization problem. For the special case of finding a single cone jet of fixed opening angle, the three approaches are genuinely identical when defined appropriately, and the result is a stable cone jet with the largest value of a quantity J . This relationship is only approximate for cone jets in the rapidity-azimuth plane, as used at the Large Hadron Collider, though the differences are mild for small radius jets.

  4. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  5. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but spaceweather prediction. Several models(such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observated by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of 33 FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. It was demonstrated that the correlation coefficient for the speeds by using these both methods is 0.97.

  6. CONE - An STS-based cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. S.; Vento, D. M.; Hanna, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the CONE program is presented which includes a definition of the technology addressed by CONE and a baseline experiment set, a description of the experimental and support subsystems, interface requirements between the STS and the experiment carrier (Hitchhiker M), and the reusability and expansion capacity for additional experiment flights. CONE evaluates three primary technologies: the active thermodynamic vent system, the passive thermodynamic vent system, and liquid acquisition device performance. The cryogenic fluid management technology database that the system offers will allow for efficient subcritical cryogenic system designs for operation in a low-gravity environment. This system maximizes the balance between existing component technology and the need for the development of a cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) test bed to investigate and demonstrate methods of storage and handling arenas.

  7. Dirac cones in transition metal doped boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Cao, Xuewei; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    The transition metal (TM) doped zinc blende boron nitride (c-BN) is studied by using the first principle calculation. TM atoms fill in the interstitials in c-BN and form two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The generalized gradient approximation and projector augmented wave method are used. The calculated density of states and band structures show that d electrons of TM atoms form impurity bands in the gap of c-BN. When the TM-BN system is in ferromagnetic or non-magnetic state, Dirac cones emerge at the K point in Brillouin zone. When TM is Ti and Co, the Dirac cones are spin polarized and very close to the Fermi level, which makes them promising candidates of Dirac half-metal [H. Ishizuka and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237207 (2012)]. While TM is Ni and Cu, the system is non-magnetic and Dirac cones located above the Fermi level.

  8. Furrows in the wake of propagating d-cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Omer; Efrati, Efi; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2015-06-01

    A crumpled sheet of paper displays an intricate pattern of creases and point-like singular structures, termed d-cones. It is typically assumed that elongated creases form when ridges connecting two d-cones fold beyond the material yielding threshold, and scarring is thus a by-product of the folding dynamics that seek to minimize elastic energy. Here we show that rather than merely being the consequence of folding, plasticity can act as its instigator. We introduce and characterize a different type of crease that is inherently plastic and is formed by the propagation of a single point defect. When a pre-existing d-cone is strained beyond a certain threshold, the singular structure at its apex sharpens abruptly. The resulting focusing of strains yields the material just ahead of the singularity, allowing it to propagate, leaving a furrow-like scar in its wake. We suggest an intuitive fracture analogue to explain the creation of furrows.

  9. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-09-17

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformation of the Dirac cone often reveals intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. Dirac cones and exceptional points are connected: it was theoretically suggested that certain non-Hermitian perturbations can deform a Dirac cone and spawn a ring of exceptional points. Here we experimentally demonstrate such an 'exceptional ring' in a photonic crystal slab. Angle-resolved reflection measurements of the photonic crystal slab reveal that the peaks of reflectivity follow the conical band structure of a Dirac cone resulting from accidental degeneracy, whereas the complex eigenvalues of the system are deformed into a two-dimensional flat band enclosed by an exceptional ring. This deformation arises from the dissimilar radiation rates of dipole and quadrupole resonances, which play a role analogous to the loss and gain in parity-time symmetric systems. Our results indicate that the radiation existing in any open system can fundamentally alter its physical properties in ways previously expected only in the presence of material loss and gain.

  10. Detection of cone dysfunction induced by digoxin in dogs by multicolor electroretinography.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Seiya; Osawa, Akiko; Itoh, Norihiko; Wakaiki, Shinsuke; Tsuzuki, Keiko; Seno, Takahiro; Kushiro, Tokiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Kotani, Tadao

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to detect discrete cone function with the present conventional electroretinography (ERG) examination. In this study, we developed contact electrodes with a built-in color (red (644 nm), green (525 nm), or blue (470 nm)) light source (color LED-electrode), and evaluated an experimental model of digoxin in the dog. First, 17 normal Beagle dogs were used to determine which electrode works well for color ERG measurement on dogs. Then, color ERG was performed on seven normal Beagle dogs at various points during a 14-day period of digoxin administration. A single daily dose of 0.0125 mg/kg/day, which is within the recommended oral maintenance dosage range for dogs, was administered orally for 2 weeks. Ophthalmic examination, measurement of plasma concentration of digoxin, and color ERG examination were performed. On first examination, amplitudes of all responses were significantly (P < 0.01) lower with the red, than with the blue and green electrodes during ERG recording. In ERG using the red electrode, the standard deviation was large. According to these preliminary results, the red electrode was not used in the experimental dog model with digoxin. In the digoxin administrated animals, no significant change was observed in the ophthalmic examination findings. The digoxin level increased steadily throughout the dosing period but was always within the therapeutic range for dogs. In rod ERG, no abnormalities were detected with any electrode. In standard combined ERG, decreased amplitude of the a-wave was detected with every electrode. In single flash cone ERG, prolongation of implicit time was detected by color ERG with the blue and green electrodes. In 30-Hz flicker ERG, decreased amplitude was detected only by color ERG with the blue electrode. The decreased amplitude and prolonged implicit time recovered after termination of digoxin administration. Cone dysfunction induced by digoxin in the dog was revealed by multicolor ERG using blue and green LED

  11. Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.

    PubMed

    Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S

    2012-08-01

    We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit.

  12. Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Dubis, Adam M; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2013-06-01

    Geometrical analysis of the photoreceptor mosaic can reveal subclinical ocular pathologies. In this paper, we describe a fully automatic algorithm to identify and segment photoreceptors in adaptive optics ophthalmoscope images of the photoreceptor mosaic. This method is an extension of our previously described closed contour segmentation framework based on graph theory and dynamic programming (GTDP). We validated the performance of the proposed algorithm by comparing it to the state-of-the-art technique on a large data set consisting of over 200,000 cones and posted the results online. We found that the GTDP method achieved a higher detection rate, decreasing the cone miss rate by over a factor of five.

  13. Cone snail venomics: from novel biology to novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, Jutty Rajan; Brust, Andreas; Jin, Ai-Hua; Alewood, Paul F; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Peptide neurotoxins from cone snails called conotoxins are renowned for their therapeutic potential to treat pain and several neurodegenerative diseases. Inefficient assay-guided discovery methods have been replaced by high-throughput bioassays integrated with advanced MS and next-generation sequencing, ushering in the era of 'venomics'. In this review, we focus on the impact of venomics on the understanding of cone snail biology as well as the application of venomics to accelerate the discovery of new conotoxins. We also discuss the continued importance of medicinal chemistry approaches to optimize conotoxins for clinical use, with a descriptive case study of MrIA featured.

  14. Configuration of singular optical cones in gyrotropic crystals with dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Merkulov, V. S.

    2015-02-15

    Optical conic singularities in crystals with linear dichroism and natural optical activity at the point of intersection of dispersion curves for the main refractive indices are considered. The possible existence of singularities like a nodal point, tangency point, triple point, and cusps of the first and second order is demonstrated. Forty-nine different types of irreducible fourth-order optical cones obtained by sequential bifurcations of eight main singular cones are established. The classification is based on the concept of roughness of systems depending on parameters.

  15. Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Son, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Uk; Song, Yang Hee; Kim, Buem Joon; Ryu, Chul Jong; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2012-05-02

    Cone-shaped nanostructures with controllable side-wall angle are success- fully fabricated with a SiO(2) nanosphere lithography (NSL) etching mask. Vertical LEDs with cone-shaped nanostructures with a 24.1° side-wall angle provide 6% more light output power compared to those using hexagonal pyramids formed by photochemical etching. This achievement is attributed to effective elimination of total internal reflection by angle-controlled nanostructures.

  16. Filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization in Drosophila visual circuit development.

    PubMed

    Özel, Mehmet Neset; Langen, Marion; Hassan, Bassem A; Hiesinger, P Robin

    2015-10-29

    Filopodial dynamics are thought to control growth cone guidance, but the types and roles of growth cone dynamics underlying neural circuit assembly in a living brain are largely unknown. To address this issue, we have developed long-term, continuous, fast and high-resolution imaging of growth cone dynamics from axon growth to synapse formation in cultured Drosophila brains. Using R7 photoreceptor neurons as a model we show that >90% of the growth cone filopodia exhibit fast, stochastic dynamics that persist despite ongoing stepwise layer formation. Correspondingly, R7 growth cones stabilize early and change their final position by passive dislocation. N-Cadherin controls both fast filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization. Surprisingly, loss of N-Cadherin causes no primary targeting defects, but destabilizes R7 growth cones to jump between correct and incorrect layers. Hence, growth cone dynamics can influence wiring specificity without a direct role in target recognition and implement simple rules during circuit assembly.

  17. Horizontal Cells of the Primate Retina: Cone Specificity Without Spectral Opponency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, Dennis M.; Lee, Barry B.; Stafford, Donna K.; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C.

    1996-02-01

    The chromatic dimensions of human color vision have a neural basis in the retina. Ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, exhibit spectral opponency; they are excited by some wavelengths and inhibited by others. The hypothesis that the opponent circuitry emerges from selective connections between horizontal cell interneurons and cone photoreceptors sensitive to long, middle, and short wavelengths (L-, M-, and S-cones) was tested by physiologically and anatomically characterizing cone connections of horizontal cell mosaics in macaque monkeys. H1 horizontal cells received input only from L- and M-cones, whereas H2 horizontal cells received a strong input from S-cones and a weaker input from L- and M-cones. All cone inputs were the same sign, and both horizontal cell types lacked opponency. Despite cone type selectivity, the horizontal cell cannot be the locus of an opponent transformation in primates, including humans.

  18. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: Evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoe, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  19. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. PMID:26817768

  20. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities

    PubMed Central

    Altimus, C.M.; Güler, A.D.; Alam, N.M.; Arman, A.C.; Prusky, G.T.; Sampath, A.P.; Hattar, S

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not well understood. We demonstrate in genetic mouse models lacking functional rods, or where rods are the only functional photoreceptors, that rods are solely responsible for photoentrainment at scotopic light intensities. Surprisingly, rods were also capable of driving circadian photoentrainment at photopic intensities where they were incapable of supporting a visually–guided behavior. Using animals in which cone photoreceptors were ablated, we demonstrate that rods signal through cones at high light intensities, but not low light intensities. Thus two distinct retinal circuits drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. PMID:20711184

  1. Cone photoreceptor types in zebrafish are generated by symmetric terminal divisions of dedicated precursors

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sachihiro C.; Bleckert, Adam; Williams, Philip R.; Takechi, Masaki; Kawamura, Shoji; Wong, Rachel O. L.

    2013-01-01

    Proper functioning of sensory systems requires the generation of appropriate numbers and proportions of neuronal subtypes that encode distinct information. Perception of color relies on signals from multiple cone photoreceptor types. In cone-dominated retinas, each cone expresses a single opsin type with peak sensitivity to UV, long (L) (red), medium (M) (green), or short (S) (blue) wavelengths. The modes of cell division generating distinct cone types are unknown. We report here a mechanism whereby zebrafish cone photoreceptors of the same type are produced by symmetric division of dedicated precursors. Transgenic fish in which the thyroid hormone receptor β2 (trβ2) promoter drives fluorescent protein expression before L-cone precursors themselves are produced permitted tracking of their division in vivo. Every L cone in a local region resulted from the terminal division of an L-cone precursor, suggesting that such divisions contribute significantly to L-cone production. Analysis of the fate of isolated pairs of cones and time-lapse observations suggest that other cone types can also arise by symmetric terminal divisions. Such divisions of dedicated precursors may help to rapidly attain the final numbers and proportions of cone types (L > M, UV > S) in zebrafish larvae. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments show that L-opsin expression requires trβ2 activity before cone differentiation. Ectopic expression of trβ2 after cone differentiation produces cones with mixed opsins. Temporal differences in the onset of trβ2 expression could explain why some species have mixed, and others have pure, cone types. PMID:23980162

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of the standard dynamics model in coning motion at Mach 0.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jermey, C.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted on the Standard Dynamics Model (a simplified generic fighter aircraft shape) undergoing coning motion at Mach 0.6. Six component force and moment data are presented for a range of angle of attack, sideslip, and coning rates. At the relatively low non-dimensional coning rate employed (omega b/2V less than or equal to 0.04), the lateral aerodynamic characteristics generally show a linear variation with coning rate.

  3. Light Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Discusses multipurpose athletic-field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spillover and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems. (GR)

  4. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  5. Cone-beam computed tomography in endodontics: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Nesari, Royeen; Rossman, Louis E; Kratchman, Samuel I

    2009-01-01

    From digital radiography units to office computer systems, there are several pieces of equipment that make up today's high-tech dental office. Recently, advances in dental imaging have allowed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), which is a form of 3-dimensional radiography, to gain increasing popularity as another major office component. In consideration of the current economic conditions, cost has become a definite obstacle for many practitioners. With several brands available, this technology has nonetheless generated considerable attention for use in presurgical treatment planning and diagnosis. However, is there enough evidence for its use in endodontics? This article aims to bring to light the many exciting features of CBCT, including its operation, impact, and feasibility in endodontics.

  6. Rootless Cone? Pingo? or Mud Volcano? in Central Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, R.; Kurita, K.

    2011-03-01

    It is possible that Mars has experienced recent (~100 Ma) magmatism. In central Elysium Planitia, the identification of cone-like landforms are discussed: rootless cones, pingos, or mud volcanos. From their morphology, the landforms are thought to be rootless cones.

  7. Apparatus and process for an off-surface cone penetrometer sensor

    DOEpatents

    Smail, Timothy R.; French, Phillip J.; Huffman, Russell K.

    2003-04-29

    A cone penetrometer is provided having a pivoting arm which deploys a variable distance from the surface of the cone penetrometer. Sensors placed on the end of the deployable arm provide for data collection outside a compression zone created by the insertion of the cone penetrometer.

  8. Horizontal Stress In-Situ by Cone Penetrometers and Related Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    the factors that increase the liquefaction resistance of a given soil also increase the cone resistance. A cone resistance prediction method based on...results were used to validate cone resistance prediction method for four different sands. namely, Monterey #0 sand, Ticino sand, Hokksund sand, and

  9. The eddy-eliminating method of guide cone in the closed sump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Cheng, L.; Xia, C. Z.; Zhou, J. R.; Yan, H. Q.; Jiang, H. Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the effect on eddy-eliminating method of guide cone in the closed sump, the simple factor analysis and CFD numerical simulation are applied to calculate the flow field of closed sump and select ω-shaped back wall. ω-shaped back wall is consistent with the stream line in the suction sump, on this basis, CFD numerical simulation is conducted with the eddy-eliminating of the triangle guide cone and traditional guide cone. The results show that, for eddy-eliminating measures, with the height of triangular guide cone from 0 to 0.407HZ/DL , the excessive triangle guide cone hinder water into the flared pipe. With the width of triangular guide cone from 0.5 to 1.0BZ/DL , increasing width of triangular guide cone may increase the pumping hydraulic performance and pumping efficiency. However with the width of triangular guide cone from 0.5 to 1.0 BZ/DL , too broad traditional guide cone hinder water into the flared pipe. In the design discharge, whether triangle guide cone or traditional guide cone have a little effect on the efficiency of the pumping station. But in terms of the eddy-eliminating on the bottom of suction sump, it is necessary to set up guide cone.

  10. Alouatta trichromatic color vision: cone spectra and physiological responses studied with microspectrophotometry and single unit retinal electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Saito, Cézar A; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K; Lee, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10-20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression.

  11. Electrical coupling, receptive fields, and relative rod/cone inputs of horizontal cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Samuel M

    2006-11-20

    Light responses, dendritic/axonal morphology, receptive field diameters, patterns of dye coupling, and relative rod/cone inputs of various types of horizontal cells (HCs) were studied using intracellular recording and Lucifer yellow/neurobiotin dye injection methods in the flatmount tiger salamander retina. Three physiologically and morphologically distinct types of HC entities were identified. 1) The A-type HCs are somas that do not bear axons, with average (+/-SE) soma diameters of 20.01 +/- 0.59 microm, relatively sparse and thick dendrites, and they resemble the A-type HC in mammals. The average receptive field diameter of these cells is 529.6 +/- 10.87 microm and they receive inputs predominantly from cones. 2) The B-type HCs are broad-field somas that bear thin and long axons, with average soma diameters of 17.67 +/- 0.38 microm, thinner dendrites of higher density, and they resemble the B-type HC in mammals. The average receptive field diameter of these cells is 1,633.55 +/- 37.34 microm and they receive mixed inputs from rods and cones. 3) The B-type HC axon terminals are broad-field, coarse axon terminal processes and they resemble the B-type HC axon terminal in rabbits. The average receptive field diameter of these axon terminals is 1,291.67 +/- 24.02 microm and they receive mixed inputs from rods and cones. All these types of HC are dye-coupled with adjacent HCs of the same type. Additionally, B-type HCs and axon terminals are dye-coupled with subpopulations of bipolar cells whose axon terminals ramify in the proximal half of the inner plexiform layer, raising the possibility that these HCs may send feedforward antagonistic surround responses to depolarizing bipolar cells through electrical synapses.

  12. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 95. VIEW OF ZINC FEEDER FROM SOUTHEAST. NOTE FEEDER CONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. VIEW OF ZINC FEEDER FROM SOUTHEAST. NOTE FEEDER CONE AND PIPING FROM VACUUM RECEIVER ON LEFT. PRECIPITATE PUMP MOTOR MOUNT VISIBLE BELOW FEEDER STAIRS, PUMP AND MOTOR MISSING. SUMPS ARE LOCATED UNDER THIS FLOOR, WITH ACCESS TO HATCH TO THE RIGHT OF FEEDER STAIR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. Dirac cones in the spectrum of bond-decorated graphenes

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Heuvel, Willem Soncini, Alessandro

    2014-06-21

    We present a two-band model based on periodic Hückel theory, which is capable of predicting the existence and position of Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone of an infinite class of two-dimensional periodic carbon networks, obtained by systematic perturbation of the graphene connectivity by bond decoration, that is by inclusion of arbitrary π-electron Hückel networks into each of the three carbon–carbon π-bonds within the graphene unit cell. The bond decoration process can fundamentally modify the graphene unit cell and honeycomb connectivity, representing a simple and general way to describe many cases of graphene chemical functionalization of experimental interest, such as graphyne, janusgraphenes, and chlorographenes. Exact mathematical conditions for the presence of Dirac cones in the spectrum of the resulting two-dimensional π-networks are formulated in terms of the spectral properties of the decorating graphs. Our method predicts the existence of Dirac cones in experimentally characterized janusgraphenes and chlorographenes, recently speculated on the basis of density functional theory calculations. For these cases, our approach provides a proof of the existence of Dirac cones, and can be carried out at the cost of a back of the envelope calculation, bypassing any diagonalization step, even within Hückel theory.

  15. Cone-beam image reconstruction using spherical harmonics.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, K; Zeng, G L; Gullberg, G T

    2001-06-01

    Image reconstruction from cone-beam projections is required for both x-ray computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Grangeat's algorithm accurately performs cone-beam reconstruction provided that Tuy's data sufficiency condition is satisfied and projections are complete. The algorithm consists of three stages: (a) Forming weighted plane integrals by calculating the line integrals on the cone-beam detector, and obtaining the first derivative of the plane integrals (3D Radon transform) by taking the derivative of the weighted plane integrals. (b) Rebinning the data and calculating the second derivative with respect to the normal to the plane. (c) Reconstructing the image using the 3D Radon backprojection. A new method for implementing the first stage of Grangeat's algorithm was developed using spherical harmonics. The method assumes that the detector is large enough to image the whole object without truncation. Computer simulations show that if the trajectory of the cone vertex satisfies Tuy's data sufficiency condition, the proposed algorithm provides an exact reconstruction.

  16. Supersonic flow calculations for a cone with an elliptic flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehrhaupt, H.

    1970-01-01

    A three-dimensional supersonic flow program is presented for calculating the flow field about a cone at zero angle of attack with an elliptical flare. The program is irrotational, and results remain valid in the region ahead of the first relected characteristic from the points of shock where the shock is no longer axisymmetric.

  17. Analysis: Prediction of Pile Capacity Using the Cone Penetration Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    capacity measurements with frictional resistance measurements, many theoretical and empirical correlations have been developed to determine various...geotechnical parameters. Cone penetration test results have been commonly used to determine such parameters as soil classification, friction angle ...tensile strength were added to the sand resulting in an increased stiffness, but the friction angle of the sand remained essentially unchanged. In

  18. Operational Based Vision Assessment Cone Contrast Test: Description and Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    test for identifying and classifying protanomalous and deuteranomalous (red/ green ) color deficient individuals. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Color vision...protanomalous and deuteranomalous (red/ green ) color deficient individuals. 2.0 PURPOSE/BACKGROUND The Operational Based Vision Assessment cone contrast...clearly demonstrated that observed colors on the Rabin CCT change dramatically with head movement . These changes will, of course, invalidate the test

  19. Growth Cone Biomechanics in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Jeffrey; Koch, Daniel; Rosoff, Will; Geller, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    The growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of an axon, integrates information about the local environment and modulates outgrowth and guidance, but little is known about effects of external mechanical cues and internal mechanical forces on growth-cone mediated guidance. We have investigated neurite outgrowth, traction forces and cytoskeletal substrate coupling on soft elastic substrates for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (from the peripheral nervous system) and hippocampal neurons (from the central) to see how the mechanics of the microenvironment affect different populations. We find that the biomechanics of DRG neurons are dramatically different from hippocampal, with DRG neurons displaying relatively large, steady traction forces and maximal outgrowth and forces on substrates of intermediate stiffness, while hippocampal neurons display weak, intermittent forces and limited dependence of outgrowth and forces on substrate stiffness. DRG growth cones have slower rates of retrograde actin flow and higher density of localized paxillin (a protein associated with substrate adhesion complexes) compared to hippocampal neurons, suggesting that the difference in force generation is due to stronger adhesions and therefore stronger substrate coupling in DRG growth cones.

  20. Local translation of RhoA regulates growth cone collapse

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Llewellyn J.; Macosko, Evan Z.; Jeromin, Andreas; Urquhart, Erica R.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2005-01-01

    Neuronal development requires highly coordinated regulation of the cytoskeleton within the developing axon. This dynamic regulation manifests itself in axonal branching, turning, and pathfinding, presynaptic differentiation, and growth cone collapse and extension. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secreted guidance cue that primarily acts to repel axons from inappropriate targets, induces cytoskeletal rearrangements that results in growth cone collapse 1. These effects require intra-axonal mRNA translation. Here we show that transcripts for RhoA, a small GTPase that regulates the actin cytoskeleton, are localized to developing axons and growth cones, and this localization is mediated by an axonal targeting element located in the RhoA 3’UTR. Sema3A induces intra-axonal translation of RhoA mRNA and this local translation of RhoA is necessary and sufficient for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse. These studies indicate that local RhoA translation regulates the neuronal cytoskeleton and identify a novel mechanism for the regulation of RhoA signaling. PMID:16107849

  1. Variability and Reliabiltiy in Axon Growth Cone Navigation Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnelo, Marta; Ricoult, Sébastien G.; Juncker, David; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Faisal, Aldo A.

    2015-03-01

    The nervous system's wiring is a result of axon growth cones navigating through specific molecular environments during development. In order to reach their target, growth cones need to make decisions under uncertainty as they are faced with stochastic sensory information and probabilistic movements. The overall system therefore exhibits features of whole organisms (perception, decision making, action) in the subset of a single cell. We aim to characterise growth cone navigation in defined nano-dot guidance cue environments, by using the tools of computational neuroscience to conduct ``molecular psychophysics.'' We start with a generative model of growth cone behaviour and we 1. characterise sensory and internal sources of noise contributing to behavioural variables, by combining knowledge of the underlying stochastic dynamics in cue sensing and the growth of the cytoskeleton. This enables us to 2. produce bottom-up lower limit estimates of behavioural response reliability and visualise it as probability distributions over axon growth trajectories. Given this information we can match our in silico model's ``psychometric'' decision curves with empirical data. Finally we use a Monte-Carlo approach to predict response distributions of axon trajectories from our model.

  2. Directing collagen fibers using counter-rotating cone extrusion.

    PubMed

    Hoogenkamp, Henk R; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Wolf, Louis; Suurs, Patricia; Dunnewind, Bertus; Barbut, Shai; Friedl, Peter; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F

    2015-01-01

    The bio-inspired engineering of tissue equivalents should take into account anisotropic morphology and the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix. This especially applies to collagen fibrils, which have various, but highly defined, orientations throughout tissues and organs. There are several methods available to control the alignment of soluble collagen monomers, but the options to direct native insoluble collagen fibers are limited. Here we apply a controlled counter-rotating cone extrusion technology to engineer tubular collagen constructs with defined anisotropy. Driven by diverging inner and outer cone rotation speeds, collagen fibrils from bovine skin were extruded and precipitated onto mandrels as tubes with oriented fibers and bundles, as examined by second harmonic generation microscopy and quantitative image analysis. A clear correlation was found whereby the direction and extent of collagen fiber alignment during extrusion were a function of the shear forces caused by a combination of the cone rotation and flow direction. A gradual change in the fiber direction, spanning +50 to -40°, was observed throughout the sections of the sample, with an average decrease ranging from 2.3 to 2.6° every 10μm. By varying the cone speeds, the collagen constructs showed differences in elasticity and toughness, spanning 900-2000kPa and 19-35mJ, respectively. Rotational extrusion presents an enabling technology to create and control the (an)isotropic architecture of collagen constructs for application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  3. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  4. 63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust scrubber at building 202, June 18, 1955. NASA GRC drawing no. CD-101266. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report 14 new cases of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa and three new cases of cone-rod dystrophy and to compare the similarities and dissimilarities to those found in the bilateral forms of these disorders. Methods: A total of 272 cases of retinitis pigmentosa and 167 cases of cone-rod dystrophy were studied by corneal full field electroretinograms and electrooculograms. The student t-test was used to compare categories. Results: The percentage of familial and nonfamilial cases was the same for the bilateral and unilateral forms of the disease. In our series, unilateral retinitis pigmentosa makes up approximately 5% of the total population of retinitis pigmentosa, while unilateral cone-rod dystrophy makes up only about 2% of the total. In the familial forms of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa the most common inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant and all affected relatives had bilateral disease. Conclusion: Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy appear to be directly related to the more common bilateral forms of these disorders. The genetic mechanisms which account for asymmetric disorders are not currently understood. It may be a different unidentified mutation at a single loci or it is possible that nonlinked mutations in multiple loci account for this unusual disorder. PMID:19668577

  6. Use of Stone Cone minimizes stone migration during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Springhart, W Patrick; Tan, Yeh Hong; Albala, David M; Perelman, Jason; Teichman, Joel M; Preminger, Glenn M

    2006-05-01

    We describe a simple and effective method using the Stone Cone to prevent migration of stone fragments into the ureter during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This maneuver may reduce the need for antegrade ureteroscopy to remove residual fragments, thereby saving time and obviating the need for placement of an occlusion balloon.

  7. Actin, microvilli, and the fertilization cone of sea urchin eggs

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Sea urchin eggs and oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage were fixed at various times after insemination, and thin sections were examined. Actin filaments can first be found in the cortical cytoplasm 1 min after insemination, and by 2 min enormous numbers of filaments are present. At these early stages, the filaments are only occasionally organized into bundles, but one end of many filaments contacts the plasma membrane. By 3 min, and even more dramatically by 5 min after insemination, the filaments become progressively more often found in bundles that lie parallel to the long axis of the microvilli and the fertilization cones. By 7 min, the bundles of filaments in the cone are maximally pronounced, with virtually all the filaments lying parallel to one another. Decoration of the filaments with subfragment 1 of myosin shows that, in both the microvilli and the cones, the filaments are unidirectionally polarized with the arrowheads pointing towards the cell center. The efflux of H+ from the eggs was measured as a function of time after insemination. The rapid phase of H+ efflux occurs at the same time as actin polymerization. From these results it appears that the formation of bundles of actin filaments in microvilli and in cones is a two-step process, involving actin polymerization to form filaments, randomly oriented but in most cases having one end in contact with the plasma membrane, followed by the zippering together of the filaments by macromolecular bridges. PMID:6893988

  8. A Case Study in Mathematics--The Cone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damaskos, Nickander J.

    1969-01-01

    A case study in mathematics designed to illustrate how the computer may be instructed to solve complicated problems. The problem is to find the volume of a right truncated cone given the altitude and a half angle or the base radius. (RP)

  9. Possible Involvement of Cone Opsins in Distinct Photoresponses of Intrinsically Photosensitive Dermal Chromatophores in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shyh-Chi; Robertson, R. Meldrum; Hawryshyn, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    Dermal specialized pigment cells (chromatophores) are thought to be one type of extraretinal photoreceptors responsible for a wide variety of sensory tasks, including adjusting body coloration. Unlike the well-studied image-forming function in retinal photoreceptors, direct evidence characterizing the mechanism of chromatophore photoresponses is less understood, particularly at the molecular and cellular levels. In the present study, cone opsin expression was detected in tilapia caudal fin where photosensitive chromatophores exist. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed co-existence of different cone opsins within melanophores and erythrophores. By stimulating cells with six wavelengths ranging from 380 to 580 nm, we found melanophores and erythrophores showed distinct photoresponses. After exposed to light, regardless of wavelength presentation, melanophores dispersed and maintained cell shape in an expansion stage by shuttling pigment granules. Conversely, erythrophores aggregated or dispersed pigment granules when exposed to short- or middle/long-wavelength light, respectively. These results suggest that diverse molecular mechanisms and light-detecting strategies may be employed by different types of tilapia chromatophores, which are instrumental in pigment pattern formation. PMID:23940562

  10. Shock detachment process on cones in hypervelocity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, Ivett Alejandra

    1999-11-01

    The shock detachment process on cones in hypervelocity flows is one of the most sensitive flows to relaxation effects. The critical angle for shock detachment under frozen conditions can be very different from the critical angle under chemical and thermal equilibrium. The rate of increase of the detachment distance with cone angle is also affected by the relaxation rate. The purpose of this study is to explain the effects of nonequilibrium on the shock detachment distance and its growth rate on cones in hypervelocity flows. The study consists of an experimental and a computational program. The experimental part has been carried out at Caltech's hypervelocity reflected shock tunnel. Six free-stream conditions were chosen, using both N2 and CO2 as test gases. The experimental data obtained are holographic interferograms, surface temperature, and pressure measurements. The code employed for the numerical simulations is a Navier-Stokes solver that can account for thermal and chemical nonequilibrium in axisymmetric flows. The data obtained for the shock detachment distance confirms a previous theoretical model that predicts the detachment distance will grow more slowly for relaxing flows than for frozen or equilibrium flows. This difference is due to the behavior of the sonic line inside the shock layer. Different growth rates result when the detachment distance is controlled by the diameter of the cone (frozen and equilibrium cases) than when it is controlled by the relaxation length (nonequilibrium flows). The behavior of the detachment distance from the frozen to equilibrium limits for a given cone half-angle and free-stream condition has also been studied. It was confirmed that the ratio of the detachment distance to the cone diameter is constant in the two extremes and rapidly switches from one value to the other for cone diameters of about 2 cm to 16 cm. The experimental interferograms are also compared with numerical ones in terms of the detachment distance, the

  11. Cone penetrometer deployed in situ video microscope for characterizing sub-surface soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, S.H.; Knowles, D.S.; Kertesz, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper we report on the development and field testing of an in situ video microscope that has been integrated with a cone penetrometer probe in order to provide a real-time method for characterizing subsurface soil properties. The video microscope system consists of a miniature CCD color camera system coupled with an appropriate magnification and focusing optics to provide a field of view with a coverage of approximately 20 mm. The camera/optic system is mounted in a cone penetrometer probe so that the camera views the soil that is in contact with a sapphire window mounted on the side of the probe. The soil outside the window is illuminated by diffuse light provided through the window by an optical fiber illumination system connected to a white light source at the surface. The video signal from the camera is returned to the surface where it can be displayed in real-time on a video monitor, recorded on a video cassette recorder (VCR), and/or captured digitally with a frame grabber installed in a microcomputer system. In its highest resolution configuration, the in situ camera system has demonstrated a capability to resolve particle sizes as small as 10 {mu}m. By using other lens systems to increase the magnification factor, smaller particles could be resolved, however, the field of view would be reduced. Initial field tests have demonstrated the ability of the camera system to provide real-time qualitative characterization of soil particle sizes. In situ video images also reveal information on porosity of the soil matrix and the presence of water in the saturated zone. Current efforts are focused on the development of automated imaging processing techniques as a means of extracting quantitative information on soil particle size distributions. Data will be presented that compares data derived from digital images with conventional sieve/hydrometer analyses.

  12. Shaping light with split lens configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizana, A.; Vargas, A.; Turpin, A.; Ramirez, C.; Estevez, I.; Campos, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present an intuitive and versatile method that can dynamically generate 2D and 3D tailored light patterns. The light structures are generated by dynamically implementing discrete and continuous split lens configurations onto a spatial light modulator. These configurations can be dynamically modified by tuning a reduced number of control parameters with simple physical interpretation. We demonstrate the versatility of the method by experimentally implementing a wide number of structured beams, including optical lattices, a light cone, and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Compared with other optical illuminators, the advantages of our method are its simple interpretation and control for creating the light structures, and that it is based on a robust, dynamic and easy-to-build optical set-up. The proposed method may be useful in a large number of applications, such as optical trapping, super-resolution imaging or illuminating arrays of photonic switching devices.

  13. Nonperturbative light-front Hamiltonian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    We examine the current state-of-the-art in nonperturbative calculations done with Hamiltonians constructed in light-front quantization of various field theories. The language of light-front quantization is introduced, and important (numerical) techniques, such as Pauli-Villars regularization, discrete light-cone quantization, basis light-front quantization, the light-front coupled-cluster method, the renormalization group procedure for effective particles, sector-dependent renormalization, and the Lanczos diagonalization method, are surveyed. Specific applications are discussed for quenched scalar Yukawa theory, ϕ4 theory, ordinary Yukawa theory, supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, quantum electrodynamics, and quantum chromodynamics. The content should serve as an introduction to these methods for anyone interested in doing such calculations and as a rallying point for those who wish to solve quantum chromodynamics in terms of wave functions rather than random samplings of Euclidean field configurations.

  14. Shock detachment process on cones in hypervelocity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, Ivett A.

    1999-11-01

    The shock detachment process on cones in hypervelocity flows is one of the most sensitive flows to relaxation effects. The critical angle for shock detachment under frozen conditions can be very different from the critical angle under chemical and thermal equilibrium. The rate of increase of the detachment distance with cone angle is also affected by the relaxation rate. The purpose of this study is to explain the effects of nonequilibrium on the shock detachment distance and its growth rate on cones in hypervelocity flows. The study consists of an experimental and a computational program. The experimental part has been carried out at Caltech's hypervelocity reflected shock tunnel (T5). Six different free-stream conditions have been chosen, four using N2 as the test gas and two using CO2. About 170 shots were performed on 24 cones. The cones range in diameter from 2 cm to 16 cm with half-angles varying from 55° to 75°. The experimental data obtained are holographic interferograms of every shot, and surface temperature and pressure measurements for the bigger cones. Extensive numerical simulations were made for the N2 flows and some were also made for the CO2 flows. The code employed is a Navier-Stokes solver that can account for thermal and chemical nonequilibrium in axisymmetric flows. The experimental and computational data obtained for the shock detachment distance confirms a previous theoretical model that predicts the detachment distance will grow more slowly for relaxing flows than for frozen or equilibrium flows. This difference is explained in terms of the behavior of the sonic line inside the shock layer. Different growth rates result when the detachment distance is controlled by the diameter of the cone (frozen and equilibrium cases) than when it is controlled by the extent of the relaxation zone inside the shock layer (nonequilibrium flows). The experimental data are also complemented with computational data to observe the behavior of the detachment

  15. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea).

    PubMed

    Puillandre, N; Bouchet, P; Duda, T F; Kauferstein, S; Kohn, A J; Olivera, B M; Watkins, M; Meyer, C

    2014-09-01

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (∼12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (∼3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

  16. Effects of roundabout on growth cone dynamics, filopodial length, and growth cone morphology at the midline and throughout the neuropile.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Whitington, P M

    1999-09-15

    roundabout (robo) encodes an axon guidance receptor that controls midline crossing in the Drosophila CNS. In robo mutants, axons that normally project ipsilaterally can cross and recross the midline. Growth cones expressing Robo are believed to be repelled from the midline by the interaction of Robo and its ligand Slit, an extracellular protein expressed by the midline glia. To help understand the cellular basis for the midline repulsion mediated by Robo, we used time-lapse observations to compare the growth cone behavior of the ipsilaterally projecting motorneuron RP2 in robo and wild-type embyros. In wild-type embryos, filopodia can project across the midline but are quickly retracted. In robo mutants, medial filopodia can remain extended for longer periods and can develop into contralateral branches. In many cases RP2 produces both ipsilateral and contralateral branches, both of which can extend into the periphery. The growth cone also exhibits longer filopodia and more extensive branching both at the midline and throughout the neuropile. Cell injections in fixed stage 13 embryos confirmed and quantified these results for both RP2 and the interneuron pCC. The results suggest that Robo both repels growth cones at the midline and inhibits branching throughout the neuropile by promoting filopodial retraction.

  17. Lighting Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Frank D.

    1975-01-01

    With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

  18. A class of coning algorithms based on a half-compressed structure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chuanye; Chen, Xiyuan

    2014-08-06

    Aiming to advance the coning algorithm performance of strapdown inertial navigation systems, a new half-compressed coning correction structure is presented. The half-compressed algorithm structure is analytically proven to be equivalent to the traditional compressed structure under coning environments. The half-compressed algorithm coefficients allow direct configuration from traditional compressed algorithm coefficients. A type of algorithm error model is defined for coning algorithm performance evaluation under maneuver environment conditions. Like previous uncompressed algorithms, the half-compressed algorithm has improved maneuver accuracy and retained coning accuracy compared with its corresponding compressed algorithm. Compared with prior uncompressed algorithms, the formula for the new algorithm coefficients is simpler.

  19. Short Wavelength Cone Opsin Is Not Expressed in the Retina of Arboreal African Pangolin (Manis tricuspis).

    PubMed

    Adekanmbi, Adejoke J; Adekanmbi, Adefisayo A; Akinola, Oluwole B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of cone photoreceptors present in the retina of Manis tricuspis. Specifically, the LWS (L-) opsin expressed in longwave-sensitive cones and SWS1 (S-) opsin shortwave-sensitive cones were targeted. Vertical sections revealed reactivity to a cone marker, peanut agglutinin (PNA), and to an LWS antibody, but not to an SWS1 antibody. This suggests that the Manis tricuspis visual system is not able to discriminate shorter wavelengths from longer wavelengths because the short wavelength cones are not expressed in their retina.

  20. Short Wavelength Cone Opsin Is Not Expressed in the Retina of Arboreal African Pangolin (Manis tricuspis)

    PubMed Central

    Adekanmbi, Adejoke J.; Adekanmbi, Adefisayo A.; Akinola, Oluwole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of cone photoreceptors present in the retina of Manis tricuspis. Specifically, the LWS (L-) opsin expressed in longwave-sensitive cones and SWS1 (S-) opsin shortwave-sensitive cones were targeted. Vertical sections revealed reactivity to a cone marker, peanut agglutinin (PNA), and to an LWS antibody, but not to an SWS1 antibody. This suggests that the Manis tricuspis visual system is not able to discriminate shorter wavelengths from longer wavelengths because the short wavelength cones are not expressed in their retina. PMID:27242946