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Sample records for light cone

  1. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  2. Prescriptionless light-cone integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A. T.; Schmidt, A. G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Perturbative quantum gauge field theory as seen within the perspective of physical gauge choices such as the light-cone gauge entails the emergence of troublesome poles of the type (k\\cdot n)^{-α} in the Feynman integrals. These come from the boson field propagator, where α = 1,2,\\cdots and n^{μ} is the external arbitrary four-vector that defines the gauge proper. This becomes an additional hurdle in the computation of Feynman diagrams, since any graph containing internal boson lines will inevitably produce integrands with denominators bearing the characteristic gauge-fixing factor. How one deals with them has been the subject of research over decades, and several prescriptions have been suggested and tried in the course of time, with failures and successes. However, a more recent development at this fronteer which applies the negative dimensional technique to compute light-cone Feynman integrals shows that we can altogether dispense with prescriptions to perform the calculations. An additional bonus comes to us attached to this new technique, in that not only it renders the light-cone prescriptionless but, by the very nature of it, it can also dispense with decomposition formulas or partial fractioning tricks used in the standard approach to separate pole products of the type (k\\cdot n)^{-α}[(k-p)\\cdot n]^{-β} (β = 1,2,\\cdots ). In this work we demonstrate how all this can be done.

  3. Lightcone: Light-cone generating script

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernyk, Max

    2014-03-01

    Lightcone works with simulated galaxy data stored in a relational database to rearrange the data in a shape of a light-cone; simulated galaxy data is expected to be in a box volume. The light-cone constructing script works with output from the SAGE semi-analytic model, but will work with any other model that has galaxy positions (and other properties) saved per snapshots of the simulation volume distributed in time. The database configuration file is set up for PostgreSQL RDBMS, but can be modified for use with any other SQL database.

  4. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  5. Hadronic wavefunctions in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, T.

    1994-05-01

    The analysis of light-cone wavefunctions seems the most promising theoretical approach to a detailed understanding of the structure of relativistic bound states, particularly hadrons. However, there are numerous complications in this approach. Most importantly, the light-cone approach sacrifices manifest rotational invariance in exchange for the elimination of negative-energy states. The requirement of rotational invariance of the full theory places important constraints on proposed light-cone wavefunctions, whether they are modelled or extracted from some numerical procedure. A formulation of the consequences of the hidden rotational symmetry has been sought for some time; it is presented in Chapter 2. In lattice gauge theory or heavy-quark effective theory, much of the focus is on the extraction of numerical values of operators which are related to the hadronic wavefunction. These operators are to some extent interdependent, with relations induced by fundamental constraints on the underlying wavefunction. The consequences of the requirement of unitarity are explored in Chapter 3, and are found to have startling phenomenological relevance. To test model light-cone wavefunctions, experimental predictions must be made. The reliability of perturbative QCD as a tool for making such predictions has been questioned. In Chapter 4, the author presents a computation of the rates for nucleon-antinucleon annihilation, improving the reliability of the perturbative computation by taking into account the Sudakov suppression of exclusive processes at large transverse impact parameter. In Chapter 5, he develops the analysis of semiexclusive production. This work focuses on processes in which a single isolated meson is produced perturbatively and recoils against a wide hadronizing system. At energies above about 10 GeV, semiexclusive processes are shown to be the most sensitive experimental probes of hadronic structure.

  6. Light responses of primate and other mammalian cones

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li-Hui; Luo, Dong-Gen; Yau, King-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Retinal cones are photoreceptors for daylight vision. For lower vertebrates, cones are known to give monophasic, hyperpolarizing responses to light flashes. For primate cones, however, they have been reported to give strongly biphasic flash responses, with an initial hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization beyond the dark level, now a textbook dogma. We have reexamined this primate-cone observation and, surprisingly, found predominantly monophasic cone responses. Correspondingly, we found that primate cones began to adapt to steady light at much lower intensities than previously reported, explainable by a larger steady response to background light for a monophasic than for a biphasic response. Similarly, we have found a monophasic cone response for several other mammalian species. Thus, a monophasic flash response may in fact be the norm for primate and other mammalian cones as for lower-vertebrate cones. This revised information is important for ultimately understanding human retinal signal processing and correlating with psychophysical data. PMID:24550304

  7. Light responses of primate and other mammalian cones.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li-Hui; Luo, Dong-Gen; Yau, King-Wai

    2014-02-18

    Retinal cones are photoreceptors for daylight vision. For lower vertebrates, cones are known to give monophasic, hyperpolarizing responses to light flashes. For primate cones, however, they have been reported to give strongly biphasic flash responses, with an initial hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization beyond the dark level, now a textbook dogma. We have reexamined this primate-cone observation and, surprisingly, found predominantly monophasic cone responses. Correspondingly, we found that primate cones began to adapt to steady light at much lower intensities than previously reported, explainable by a larger steady response to background light for a monophasic than for a biphasic response. Similarly, we have found a monophasic cone response for several other mammalian species. Thus, a monophasic flash response may in fact be the norm for primate and other mammalian cones as for lower-vertebrate cones. This revised information is important for ultimately understanding human retinal signal processing and correlating with psychophysical data. PMID:24550304

  8. Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer.

  9. Light-cone quantization and hadron structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics.

  10. Dimensional regularization and dimensional reduction in the light cone

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, J.

    2008-06-15

    We calculate all of the 2 to 2 scattering process in Yang-Mills theory in the light cone gauge, with the dimensional regulator as the UV regulator. The IR is regulated with a cutoff in q{sup +}. It supplements our earlier work, where a Lorentz noncovariant regulator was used, and the final results bear some problems in gauge fixing. Supersymmetry relations among various amplitudes are checked by using the light cone superfields.

  11. Light-driven calcium signals in mouse cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Schubert, Timm; Paquet-Durand, François; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Chang, Le; Koeppen, Katja; Ott, Thomas; Griesbeck, Oliver; Seeliger, Mathias W; Euler, Thomas; Wissinger, Bernd

    2012-05-16

    Calcium mediates various neuronal functions. The complexity of neuronal Ca²⁺ signaling is well exemplified by retinal cone photoreceptors, which, with their distinct compartmentalization, offer unique possibilities for studying the diversity of Ca²⁺ functions in a single cell. Measuring subcellular Ca²⁺ signals in cones under physiological conditions is not only fundamental for understanding cone function, it also bears important insights into pathophysiological processes governing retinal neurodegeneration. However, due to the proximity of light-sensitive outer segments to other cellular compartments, optical measurements of light-evoked Ca²⁺ responses in cones are challenging. We addressed this problem by generating a transgenic mouse (HR2.1:TN-XL) in which both short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones selectively express the genetically encoded ratiometric Ca²⁺ biosensor TN-XL. We show that HR2.1:TN-XL allows recording of light-evoked Ca²⁺ responses using two-photon imaging in individual cone photoreceptor terminals and to probe phototransduction and its diverse regulatory mechanisms with pharmacology at subcellular resolution. To further test this system, we asked whether the classical, nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC)-cGMP pathway could modulate Ca²⁺ in cone terminals. Surprisingly, NO reduced Ca²⁺ resting levels in mouse cones, without evidence for direct sGC involvement. In conclusion, HR2.1:TN-XL mice offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate light-driven Ca²⁺ dynamics and their (dys)regulation in cone photoreceptors.

  12. Nonperturbative renormalization of QED in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.R.; Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    As a precursor to work on QCD, we study the dressed electron in QED non-perturbatively. The calculational scheme uses an invariant mass cutoff, discretized light cone quantization, a Tamm-Dancoff truncation of the Fock space, and a small photon mass. Nonperturbative renormalization of the coupling and electron mass is developed.

  13. Riemannian light cone from vanishing birefringence in premetric vacuum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Laemmerzahl, Claus; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2004-11-15

    We consider premetric electrodynamics with a local and linear constitutive law for the vacuum. Within this framework, we find quartic Fresnel wave surfaces for the propagation of light. If we require (i) the Fresnel equation to have only real solutions and (ii) the vanishing of birefringence in vacuum, then a Riemannian light cone is implied. No proper Finslerian structure can occur. This is generalized to dynamical equations of any order.

  14. Light-cone fluctuations in the cosmic string spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, H. F.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bessa, C. H. G.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider light-cone fluctuations arising as a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the locally flat cosmic string spacetime. By setting the light-cone along the z -direction we are able to develop a full analysis to calculate the renormalized graviton two-point function, as well as the mean square fluctuation in the geodesic interval function and the time delay (or advance) in the propagation of a light pulse. We found that all these expressions depend upon the parameter characterizing the conical topology of the cosmic string spacetime and vanish in the absence of it. We also point out that at large distances from the cosmic string the mean square fluctuation in the geodesic interval function is extremely small while in the opposite limit it logarithmically increases.

  15. Structure of the Nucleon Spin on the Light Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, B.

    2008-10-13

    The spin structure of the nucleon is studied in a light-cone description of the nucleon where the Fock expansion is truncated to consider only valence quarks. Transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and transverse-spin densities, defined through the generalized parton distributions in the impact parameter space, are investigated as new tools to reveal the spin-spin and spin-orbit correlations for different quark and nucleon polarizations.

  16. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-15

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the {lambda}CDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w{sub 0} and w{sub a} follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.

  17. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w0 and wa follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.

  18. Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offen, Nils

    2016-10-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.

  19. Azimuthal spin asymmetries in light-cone constituent quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Boffi, S.; Pasquini, B.; Efremov, A. V.; Schweitzer, P.

    2009-05-01

    We present results for all leading-twist azimuthal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering due to T-even transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions on the basis of a light-cone constituent quark model. Attention is paid to discuss the range of applicability of the model, especially with regard to the scale dependence of the observables and the transverse-momentum dependence of the distributions. We find good agreement with available experimental data and present predictions to be further tested by future CLAS, COMPASS, and HERMES data.

  20. Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offen, Nils

    2016-08-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.

  1. Geodesic-light-cone coordinates and the Bianchi I spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Pierre; Nugier, Fabien; Fanizza, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The geodesic-light-cone (GLC) coordinates are a useful tool to analyse light propagation and observations in cosmological models. In this article, we propose a detailed, pedagogical, and rigorous introduction to this coordinate system, explore its gauge degrees of freedom, and emphasize its interest when geometric optics is at stake. We then apply the GLC formalism to the homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi I cosmology. More than a simple illustration, this application (i) allows us to show that the Weinberg conjecture according to which gravitational lensing does not affect the proper area of constant-redshift surfaces is significantly violated in a globally anisotropic universe; and (ii) offers a glimpse into new ways to constrain cosmic isotropy from the Hubble diagram.

  2. The B3 Subunit of the Cone Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel Regulates the Light Responses of Cones and Contributes to the Channel Structural Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-Qin; Thapa, Arjun; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Jianhua; Elliott, Michael H; Rodgers, Karla K; Smith, Marci L; Wang, Jin-Shan; Pittler, Steven J; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2016-04-15

    Cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in cone phototransduction, which is a process essential for daylight vision, color vision, and visual acuity. Mutations in the cone channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with human cone diseases, including achromatopsia, cone dystrophies, and early onset macular degeneration. Mutations in CNGB3 alone account for 50% of reported cases of achromatopsia. This work investigated the role of CNGB3 in cone light response and cone channel structural stability. As cones comprise only 2-3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, we used Cngb3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice with CNGB3 deficiency on a cone-dominant background in our study. We found that, in the absence of CNGB3, CNGA3 was able to travel to the outer segments, co-localize with cone opsin, and form tetrameric complexes. Electroretinogram analyses revealed reduced cone light response amplitude/sensitivity and slower response recovery in Cngb3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice compared with Nrl(-/-) mice. Absence of CNGB3 expression altered the adaptation capacity of cones and severely compromised function in bright light. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that CNGA3 channels lacking CNGB3 were more resilient to proteolysis than CNGA3/CNGB3 channels, suggesting a hindered structural flexibility. Thus, CNGB3 regulates cone light response kinetics and the channel structural flexibility. This work advances our understanding of the biochemical and functional role of CNGB3 in cone photoreceptors.

  3. The B3 Subunit of the Cone Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel Regulates the Light Responses of Cones and Contributes to the Channel Structural Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-Qin; Thapa, Arjun; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Jianhua; Elliott, Michael H; Rodgers, Karla K; Smith, Marci L; Wang, Jin-Shan; Pittler, Steven J; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2016-04-15

    Cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in cone phototransduction, which is a process essential for daylight vision, color vision, and visual acuity. Mutations in the cone channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with human cone diseases, including achromatopsia, cone dystrophies, and early onset macular degeneration. Mutations in CNGB3 alone account for 50% of reported cases of achromatopsia. This work investigated the role of CNGB3 in cone light response and cone channel structural stability. As cones comprise only 2-3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, we used Cngb3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice with CNGB3 deficiency on a cone-dominant background in our study. We found that, in the absence of CNGB3, CNGA3 was able to travel to the outer segments, co-localize with cone opsin, and form tetrameric complexes. Electroretinogram analyses revealed reduced cone light response amplitude/sensitivity and slower response recovery in Cngb3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice compared with Nrl(-/-) mice. Absence of CNGB3 expression altered the adaptation capacity of cones and severely compromised function in bright light. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that CNGA3 channels lacking CNGB3 were more resilient to proteolysis than CNGA3/CNGB3 channels, suggesting a hindered structural flexibility. Thus, CNGB3 regulates cone light response kinetics and the channel structural flexibility. This work advances our understanding of the biochemical and functional role of CNGB3 in cone photoreceptors. PMID:26893377

  4. Discretized Light-Cone Quantization: Application to Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Andrew Chun-Nien

    In this work, a general method for solving quantum field theories, Discretized Light-Cone Quantization (DLCQ), is presented. The method is very straightforward and essentially consists of diagonalizing the light-cone Hamiltonian matrix for the mass spectrum and wavefunctions. This method has been applied successfully in the past of various one space, one time dimensional theories. In each of these past applications, the mass spectrum and wave functions were successfully obtained, and all results agree with previous analytical and numerical work. The success of DLCQ in 1 + 1 dimensions provides the hope of solving theories in three space and one time dimensions. The application to higher dimensions is much more involved than in 1 + 1 dimensions due to the need to introduce ultraviolet and infrared regulators, and invoke a renormalization scheme consistent with gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. This is in addition to the extra work involved implementing two extra dimensions with their added degrees of freedom. In this paper, I will present the application of DLCQ to 3 + 1 dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics. The theoretical framework of DLCQ in the context of 3 + 1 QED is shown in the first 8 sections. Issues addressed include the question of self-induced inertias and normal ordering, the agreement of Feynman rule and light-cone answers for one-loop radiative corrections, and ultraviolet and infrared regulation. Many of the results presented here are applicable to quantum field theory in general. Unfortunately, solving 3 + 1 QED in this general framework has so far proven elusive due to a number of difficulties. These problems and a way around them using a truncated Fock space are presented in Section 7, with renormalization in this truncated space presented in Section 8. The next 5 sections show attempts to numerically solve 3 + 1 QED in a truncated Fock space by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian and by a variational calculation for the positronium system

  5. Cyclic nucleotides of cone-dominant retinas. Reduction of cyclic AMP levels by light and by cone degeneration.

    PubMed

    Farber, D B; Souza, D W; Chase, D G; Lolley, R N

    1981-01-01

    Dark-adapted retinas or whole eyes of 13-line ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) and western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) contain higher levels of cyclic AMP than of cyclic GMP. In these cone-dominant retinas, light reduces cyclic AMP content selectively. Freezing of dark- or light-adapted retinas or eyes also reduces cyclic AMP content, with only minimal changes in cyclic GMP levels. In addition, exposure of frozen retinas of dark-adapted ground squirrel to light results in a significant decrease in cyclic AMP content. The destruction of cone visual cells of ground squirrel retina by iodoacetic acid injection decreases the cyclic nucleotide content of the dark-adapted retina. Considering the relative loss of cyclic nucleotides from cone degeneration, we estimate that the content of cyclic AMP in visual cells of ground squirrel retina is about four times greater than that of cyclic GMP. PMID:6256308

  6. Light-cone gauge for 1 + 1 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric

    1992-09-01

    Explicit construction of the light-cone gauge quantum theory of bosonic strings in 1 + 1 space-time dimensions reveals unexpected structures. One is the existence of a gauge choice that gives a free action at the price of propagating ghosts and a nontrivial BRST charge. Fixing this gauge leaves a U(1) Kac-Moody algebra of residual symmetry, generated by a conformal tensor of rank two and a conformal scalar. Another is that the BRST charge made from these currents is nilpotent when the action includes a linear dilaton background, independent of the particular value of the dilaton gradient. Space-time Lorentz invariance in this theory is still elusive, however, because of the linear dilaton background and the nature of the gauge symmetries.

  7. Worldsheet theory of light-cone gauge noncritical strings on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    It is possible to formulate light-cone gauge string field theory in noncritical dimensions. Such a theory corresponds to conformal gauge worldsheet theory with nonstandard longitudinal part. We study the longitudinal part of the worldsheet theory on higher genus Riemann surfaces. The results in this paper shall be used to study the dimensional regularization of light-cone gauge string field theory.

  8. Light-cone wavefunction representations of the Sivers and the Boer-Mulders distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dae Sung

    2013-02-01

    We find the light-cone wavefunction representations of the Sivers and the Boer-Mulders distribution functions. A necessary condition for the existence of these representations is that the light-cone wavefunctions have complex phases. We induce the complex phases by incorporating the final-state interactions into the light-cone wavefunctions. For the scalar and the axial-vector diquark models for a nucleon, we calculate explicitly the Sivers and the Boer-Mulders distribution functions from the light-cone wavefunction representations. We obtain the results that the Sivers distribution function has opposite signs with a factor of 3 difference in magnitude for the two models, whereas the Boer-Mulders distribution function has the same sign and magnitude. We can understand these results from the properties of the light-cone wavefunction representations of the Sivers and the Boer-Mulders distribution functions.

  9. The light-cone Fock state expansion and hadron physics phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The light-cone Fock expansion is defined in the following way: one first constructs the light-cone time evolution operator and the invariant mass operator in light-cone gauge from the QCD Lagrangian. The total longitudinal momentum and transverse momenta are conserved, i.e. are independent of the interactions. The matrix elements of the invariant mass operator on the complete orthonormal basis of the free theory can then be constructed. The matrix elements connect Fock states differing by 0, 1, or 2 quark or gluon quanta, and they include the instantaneous quark and gluon contributions imposed by eliminating dependent degrees of freedom in light-cone gauge. Applications of light-cone methods to QCD phenomenology are briefly described.

  10. The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

    2014-03-01

    Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

  11. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frédéric; Cooper, Howard M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Non-visual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and towards the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modelling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light. PMID:17329208

  12. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light.

    PubMed

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frederic; Cooper, Howard M

    2007-03-01

    Nonvisual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light-sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and toward the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modeling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal, and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light.

  13. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  14. Endogenous nitric oxide enhances the light-response of cones during light-adaptation in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaki; Ohtsuka, Teruya; Stell, William K

    2011-01-01

    The electroretinogram (ERG) is a non-invasive indicator of retinal function. Light flashes evoke a cornea-negative a-wave followed by a cornea-positive b-wave. Light-adaptation is known to increase the amplitude of cone-dependent b-waves. To identify the underlying mechanism, we recorded rat cone photoresponses in situ, using intravitreally-injected glutamate to block synaptic transmission and intense paired-flash stimuli to isolate cone a-waves. Steady adapting illumination caused a progressive increase in cone a-wave amplitude, which was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by intravitreal CPTIO, a nitric oxide scavenger. We conclude that light-adaptation causes release of nitric oxide, which enhances the cone photoresponse. PMID:20951158

  15. E{sub 7(7)} on the Light-Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Soo

    2008-11-23

    We study the E{sub 7(7)} on-shell duality symmetry of N = 8 supergravity in four dimensions and show that all physical fields transform under E{sub 7(7)} on the light-cone. We then use this symmetry to construct order {kappa}{sup 2} interactions in light-cone superspace, by requiring this E{sub 7(7)} transformations commutes with the supersymmetry transformations.

  16. Stray light reduction in optical computed tomography using a convergent cone-beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kevin; Dekker, Kurtis; Battista, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The planar diffuser light source for a cone-beam optical CT scanner was replaced with a filtered LED and large Fresnel lens. The source was focused on a camera and convergent cone-beam images were acquired. Images are sensitive to mismatches in the refractive index of vessels, samples and matching liquid. For PETE jars and water solutions, a loss of approximately 30% of the projections was demonstrated. Teflon PFA cylinders provided better refractive index matching and more accurate reconstructions. The convergent cone-beam source dramatically increased imaging efficiency by a factor of 1000 and reduced stray light levels by confining illumination to image forming rays.

  17. Sine-Gordon model and the small k+ region of light-cone perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Paul A.

    1992-10-01

    The nonperturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k+=0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the nonperturbative β2=8π critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman's variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k+=0 diagrams in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and nonvanishing for all β, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k+=0 region of momentum also contributes to connected Green's functions; the connected two-point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k+=0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k+=0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher-dimensional gauge theories starting at two-loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  18. Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation

    PubMed Central

    Altimus, C. M.; Güler, A. D.; Villa, K. L.; McNeill, D. S.; LeGates, T. A.; Hattar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Light detected in the retina modulates several physiological processes including circadian photo-entrainment and pupillary light reflex. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) convey rod-cone and melanopsin-driven light input to the brain. Using EEGs and electromyograms, we show that acute light induces sleep in mice during their nocturnal active phase whereas acute dark awakens mice during their diurnal sleep phase. We used retinal mutant mouse lines that lack (i) the ipRGCs, (ii) the photo-transduction pathways of rods and cones, or (iii) the melanopsin protein and showed that the influence of light and dark on sleep requires both rod-cone and melanopsin signaling through ipRGCs and is independent of image formation. We further show that, although acute light pulses overcome circadian and homeostatic drives for sleep, upon repeated light exposures using a 3.5 h/3.5 h light/dark cycle, the circadian and homeostatic drives override the light input. Thus, in addition to their known role in aligning circadian physiology with day and night, ipRGCs also relay light and dark information from both rod-cone and melanopsin-based pathways to modulate sleep and wakefulness. PMID:19060203

  19. Reionization on large scales. IV. Predictions for the 21 cm signal incorporating the light cone effect

    SciTech Connect

    La Plante, P.; Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present predictions for the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We discuss the implications of the 'light cone' effect, which incorporates evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and 21 cm brightness temperature along the line of sight. Using a novel method calibrated against radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the neutral hydrogen density field and 21 cm signal in large volumes (L = 2 Gpc h {sup –1}). The inclusion of the light cone effect leads to a relative decrease of about 50% in the 21 cm power spectrum on all scales. We also find that the effect is more prominent at the midpoint of reionization and later. The light cone effect can also introduce an anisotropy along the line of sight. By decomposing the 3D power spectrum into components perpendicular to and along the line of sight, we find that in our fiducial reionization model, there is no significant anisotropy. However, parallel modes can contribute up to 40% more power for shorter reionization scenarios. The scales on which the light cone effect is relevant are comparable to scales where one measures the baryon acoustic oscillation. We argue that due to its large comoving scale and introduction of anisotropy, the light cone effect is important when considering redshift space distortions and future application to the Alcock-Paczyński test for the determination of cosmological parameters.

  20. Optical Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptors Directly Following the Capture of Light

    PubMed Central

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Capture of light in the photoreceptor outer segment initiates a cascade of chemical events that inhibit neurotransmitter release, ultimately resulting in vision. The massed response of the photoreceptor population can be measured non-invasively by electrical recordings, but responses from individual cells cannot be measured without dissecting the retina. Here we used optical imaging to observe individual human cones in the living eye as they underwent bleaching of photopigment and associated phototransduction. The retina was simultaneously stimulated and observed with high intensity visible light at 1 kHz, using adaptive optics. There was marked variability between individual cones in both photosensitivity and pigment optical density, challenging the conventional assumption that photoreceptors act as identical subunits (coefficient of variation in rate of photoisomerization = 23%). There was also a pronounced inverse correlation between these two parameters (p<10−7); the temporal evolution of image statistics revealed this to be a dynamic relationship, with cone waveguiding efficiency beginning a dramatic increase within 3 ms of light onset. Beginning as early as 2 ms after light onset and including half of cells by ∼7 ms, cone intensity showed reversals characteristic of interference phenomena, with greater delays in reversal corresponding to cones with more photopigment (p<10−3). The timing of these changes is argued to best correspond with either the cessation of dark current, or to related events such as changes in intracellular cGMP. Cone intensity also showed fluctuations of high frequency (332±25 Hz) and low amplitude (3.0±0.85%). Other groups have shown similar fluctuations that were directly evoked by light; if this corresponds to the same phenomenon, we propose that the amplitude of fluctuation may be increased by the use of a bright flash followed by a brief pause, to allow recovery of cone circulating current. PMID:24260177

  1. Light trapping above the light cone in a one-dimensional array of dielectric spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate bound states in the first TE and TM diffraction continua (BSC) in a linear periodic array of dielectric spheres in air above the light cone. We classify the BSCs according to the symmetry specified by the azimuthal number m , the Bloch wave vector β directed along the array, and polarization. The most simple symmetry-protected TE and TM polarized BSCs have m =0 and β =0 and occur in a wide range of the radii of the spheres and dielectric constants. More complicated BSCs with m ≠0 and β =0 exist only for a selected radius of the spheres at a fixed dielectric constant. We also find robust Bloch BSCs with β ≠0 and m =0 . We present also the BSCs embedded into two and three diffraction continua. We show that the BSCs can be easily detected by the collapse of the Fano resonance for scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by the array.

  2. Dark Light, Rod Saturation, and the Absolute and Incremental Sensitivity of Mouse Cone Vision

    PubMed Central

    Naarendorp, Frank; Esdaille, Tricia M.; Banden, Serenity M.; Andrews-Labenski, John; Gross, Owen P.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2012-01-01

    Visual thresholds of mice for the detection of small, brief targets were measured with a novel behavioral methodology in the dark and in the presence of adapting lights spanning ∼8 log10 units of intensity. To help dissect the contributions of rod and cone pathways, both wild-type mice and mice lacking rod (Gnat1−/−) or cone (Gnat2cpfl3) function were studied. Overall, the visual sensitivity of mice was found to be remarkably similar to that of the human peripheral retina. Rod absolute threshold corresponded to 12-15 isomerized pigment molecules (R*) in image fields of 800 to 3000 rods. Rod “dark light” (intrinsic retinal noise in darkness) corresponded to that estimated previously from single-cell recordings, 0.012R*s−1rod−1, indicating that spontaneous thermalisomerizations are responsible. Psychophysical rod saturation was measured for the first time in a nonhman species and found to be very similar to that of the human rod monochromat. Cone threshold corresponded to ∼5 R* cone−1 in an image field of 280 cones. Cone dark light was equivalent to ∼5000 R*s−1 cone−1, consistent with primate single-cell data but 100-fold higher than predicted by recent measurements of the rate of thermal isomerization of mouse cone opsins, indicating that nonopsin sources of noise determine cone threshold. The new, fully automated behavioral method is based on the ability of mice to learn to interrupt spontaneous wheel running on the presentation of a visual cue and provides an efficient and highly reliable means of examining visual function in naturally behaving normal and mutant mice. PMID:20844144

  3. Speed, sensitivity, and stability of the light response in rod and cone photoreceptors: Facts and models

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, Juan I.

    2012-01-01

    The light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina are quantitatively different, yet extremely stable and reproducible because of the extraordinary regulation of the cascade of enzymatic reactions that link photon absorption and visual pigment excitation to the gating of cGMP-gated ion channels in the outer segment plasma membrane. While the molecular scheme of the phototransduction pathway is essentially the same in rods and cones, the enzymes and protein regulators that constitute the pathway are distinct. These enzymes and regulators can differ in the quantitative features of their functions or in concentration if their functions are similar or both can be true. The molecular identity and distinct function of the molecules of the transduction cascade in rods and cones are summarized. The functional significance of these molecular differences is examined with a mathematical model of the signal-transducing enzymatic cascade. Constrained by available electrophysiological, biochemical and biophysical data, the model simulates photocurrents that match well the electrical photoresponses measured in both rods and cones. Using simulation computed with the mathematical model, the time course of light-dependent changes in enzymatic activities and second messenger concentrations in non-mammalian rods and cones are compared side by side. PMID:22658984

  4. Spin and orbital angular momenta of light reflected from a cone

    SciTech Connect

    Mansuripur, Masud; Wright, Ewan M.; Zakharian, Armis R.

    2011-09-15

    We examine several retro-reflecting optical elements, each involving two reflections. In the case of a hollow metallic cone having an apex angle of 90 deg., a circularly polarized incident beam acquires, upon reflection, the opposite spin angular momentum. However, no angular momentum is transferred to the cone, because the reflected beam picks up an orbital angular momentum that is twice as large but opposite in direction to that of its spin. A 90 deg. cone made of a transparent material in which the incident light suffers two total internal reflections before returning may be designed to endow the retro-reflected beam with different mixtures of orbital and spin angular momenta. Under no circumstances, however, is it possible to transfer angular momentum from the light beam to the cone without either allowing absorption or breaking the axial symmetry of the cone. A simple example of broken symmetry is provided by a wedge-shaped metallic reflector having an apex angle of 90 deg., which picks up angular momentum upon reflecting a circularly polarized incident beam.

  5. Light adaptation and the luminance-response function of the cone electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Peachey, N S; Alexander, K R; Derlacki, D J; Fishman, G A

    1992-01-01

    Cone electroretinograms are typically isolated by presenting stimulus flashes against rod-desensitizing adapting fields. To investigate the manner in which adapting-field luminance affects cone electroretinogram response properties, we measured cone electroretinogram luminance-response functions of two normal subjects, with stimuli presented against adapting fields that ranged in luminance from -1.2 to 2.1 log cd/m2. A flicker rate of 31.1 Hz was used to isolate cone electroretinograms under all adaptation conditions. A hyperbolic equation of the form (R/Rmax) = Ln/(Ln + Kn) was fitted to each luminance-response function by a least-squares criterion. As adapting field luminance increased, the best-fit values of the variables K and n increased, which is in general agreement with results of electrophysiologic studies of light adaptation in retinal neurons. However, Rmax values also increased with adapting field luminance. The change in all three of these variables with adapting field luminance must be considered in the interpretation of cone electroretinogram luminance-response functions from patients with retinal disorders.

  6. Nucleon form factors to next-to-leading order with light-cone sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Passek-Kumericki, K.; Peters, G.

    2008-08-01

    We have calculated the leading-twist next-to-leading order (NLO), i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}), correction to the light-cone sum rules prediction for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. We have used the Ioffe nucleon interpolation current and worked in M{sub N}=0 approximation, with M{sub N} being the mass of the nucleon. In this approximation, only the Pauli form factor F{sub 2} receives a correction and the calculated correction is quite sizable (ca. 60%). The numerical results for the proton form factors show the improved agreement with the experimental data. We also discuss the problems encountered when going away from M{sub N}=0 approximation at NLO, as well as gauge invariance of the perturbative results. This work presents the first step towards the NLO accuracy in the light-cone sum rules for baryon form factors.

  7. Free vector propagator in the light-cone gauge and the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetto, A. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova )

    1992-10-15

    We show that the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt causal prescription in the light-cone gauge leads to a free vector propagator which is a tempered distribution, at variance with the Cauchy principal-value prescription and other ones related to it by residual gauge transformations, which unavoidably entail infrared singularities already at the free level of the theory. In this respect the causal prescription seems to enjoy a privileged status.

  8. The application of light-cone quantization to quantum chromodynamics in one-plus-one dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbostel, K.J.

    1988-12-01

    Formal and computational aspects of light cone quantization are studied by application to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in one spatial plus one temporal dimension. This quantization scheme, which has been extensively applied to perturbative calculations, is shown to provide an intuitively appealing and numerically tractable approach to non-perturbative computations as well. In the initial section, a light-cone quantization procedure is developed which incorporates fields on the boundaries. This allows for the consistent treatment of massless fermions and the construction of explicitly conserved momentum and charge operators. The next section, which comprises the majority of this work, focuses on the numerical solution of the light-cone Schrodinger equation for bound states. The state space is constructed and the Hamiltonian is evaluated and diagonalized by computer for arbitrary number of colors, baryon number and coupling constant strength. As a result, the full spectrum of mesons and baryons and their associated wavefunctions are determined. These results are compared with those which exist from other approaches to test the reliability of the method. The program also provides a preliminary test for the feasibility of, and an opportunity to develop approximation schemes for, an attack on three-plus-one dimensional QCD. Finally, analytic results are presented which include a discussion of integral equations for wavefunctions and their endpoint behavior. Solutions for hadronic masses and wavefunctions in the limits of both large and small quark mass are discussed. 49 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Automatic detection of cone photoreceptors in split detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images.

    PubMed

    Cunefare, David; Cooper, Robert F; Higgins, Brian; Katz, David F; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living retina is potentially useful for early diagnosis and prognosis of many ocular diseases. Non-confocal split detector based adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) imaging reveals the cone photoreceptor inner segment mosaics often not visualized on confocal AOSLO imaging. Despite recent advances in automated cone segmentation algorithms for confocal AOSLO imagery, quantitative analysis of split detector AOSLO images is currently a time-consuming manual process. In this paper, we present the fully automatic adaptive filtering and local detection (AFLD) method for detecting cones in split detector AOSLO images. We validated our algorithm on 80 images from 10 subjects, showing an overall mean Dice's coefficient of 0.95 (standard deviation 0.03), when comparing our AFLD algorithm to an expert grader. This is comparable to the inter-observer Dice's coefficient of 0.94 (standard deviation 0.04). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first validated, fully-automated segmentation method which has been applied to split detector AOSLO images.

  10. Automatic detection of cone photoreceptors in split detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images

    PubMed Central

    Cunefare, David; Cooper, Robert F.; Higgins, Brian; Katz, David F.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living retina is potentially useful for early diagnosis and prognosis of many ocular diseases. Non-confocal split detector based adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) imaging reveals the cone photoreceptor inner segment mosaics often not visualized on confocal AOSLO imaging. Despite recent advances in automated cone segmentation algorithms for confocal AOSLO imagery, quantitative analysis of split detector AOSLO images is currently a time-consuming manual process. In this paper, we present the fully automatic adaptive filtering and local detection (AFLD) method for detecting cones in split detector AOSLO images. We validated our algorithm on 80 images from 10 subjects, showing an overall mean Dice’s coefficient of 0.95 (standard deviation 0.03), when comparing our AFLD algorithm to an expert grader. This is comparable to the inter-observer Dice’s coefficient of 0.94 (standard deviation 0.04). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first validated, fully-automated segmentation method which has been applied to split detector AOSLO images. PMID:27231641

  11. Particle-in-cell simulations of hot electron generation using defocused laser light in cone targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Pasley, John

    2016-08-01

    The effects of defocusing a high intensity pulse of laser light on the generation of hot electrons in a cone are investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The results indicate that defocused laser light can soften the electron energy spectrum and increase the coupling efficiency compared to the use of a laser in tight focus. It is shown that this is a consequence of the density profile of plasma produced by the laser prepulse, which is less dense in the case of the defocused laser. The relevance of this result to fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is discussed.

  12. B ---> pi and B ---> K transitions from QCD sum rules on the light cone

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, P.

    1998-09-01

    I calculate the form factors describing semileptonic and penguin-induced decays of B mesons into light pseudoscalar mesons. The form factors are calculated from QCD sum rules on the light-cone including contributions up to twist 4, radiative corrections to the leading twist contribution and SU(3)-breaking effects. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be \\sim 15%. The heavy-quark-limit relations between semileptonic and penguin form factors are found to be valid in the full accessible range of momentum transfer.

  13. A distinct contribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones to light-evoked activity in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Allen, Annette E; Brown, Timothy M; Lucas, Robert J

    2011-11-16

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) combine inputs from outer-retinal rod/cone photoreceptors with their intrinsic phototransduction machinery to drive a wide range of so-called non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light. Defining the contribution of each photoreceptor class to evoked responses is vital for determining the degree to which our sensory capabilities depend on melanopsin and for optimizing NIF responses to benefit human health. We addressed this problem by recording electrophysiological responses in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus (PON) (a target of ipRGCs and origin of the pupil light reflex) to a range of gradual and abrupt changes in light intensity. Dim stimuli drove minimal changes in PON activity, suggesting that rods contribute little under these conditions. To separate cone from melanopsin influences, we compared responses to short (460 nm) and longer (600/655 nm) wavelengths in mice carrying a red shifted cone population (Opn1mw®) or lacking melanopsin (Opn4⁻/⁻). Our data reveal a surprising difference in the quality of information available from medium- and short-wavelength-sensitive cones. The majority cone population (responsive to 600/655 nm) supported only transient changes in firing and responses to relatively sudden changes in light intensity. In contrast, cones uniquely sensitive to the shorter wavelength (S-cones) were better able to drive responses to gradual changes in illuminance, contributed a distinct off inhibition, and at least partially recapitulated the ability of melanopsin to sustain responses under continuous illumination. These data reveal a new role for S-cones unrelated to color vision and suggest renewed consideration of cone contributions to NIF vision at shorter wavelengths.

  14. QCD corrections to B → π form factors from light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long

    2015-09-01

    We compute perturbative corrections to B → π form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes. Applying the method of regions we demonstrate factorization of the vacuum-to-B-meson correlation function defined with an interpolating current for pion, at one-loop level, explicitly in the heavy quark limit. The short-distance functions in the factorization formulae of the correlation function involves both hard and hard-collinear scales; and these functions can be further factorized into hard coefficients by integrating out the hard fluctuations and jet functions encoding the hard-collinear information. Resummation of large logarithms in the short-distance functions is then achieved via the standard renormalization-group approach. We further show that structures of the factorization formulae for fBπ+ (q2) and fBπ0 (q2) at large hadronic recoil from QCD light-cone sum rules match that derived in QCD factorization. In particular, we perform an exploratory phenomenological analysis of B → π form factors, paying attention to various sources of perturbative and systematic uncertainties, and extract |Vub | = (3.05-0.38+0.54|th. ± 0.09|exp.) ×10-3 with the inverse moment of the B-meson distribution amplitude ϕB+ (ω) determined by reproducing fBπ+ (q2 = 0) obtained from the light-cone sum rules with π distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, we present the invariant-mass distributions of the lepton pair for B → πℓνℓ (ℓ = μ, τ) in the whole kinematic region. Finally, we discuss non-valence Fock state contributions to the B → π form factors fBπ+ (q2) and fBπ0 (q2) in brief.

  15. Light-cone Sum Rules in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    SciTech Connect

    De Fazio, Fulvia; Feldmann, Thorsten; Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC

    2005-06-20

    We derive light-cone sum rules (LCSRs) for exclusive B-meson decays into light energetic hadrons from correlation functions within soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). In these sum rules the short-distance scale refers to ''hard-collinear'' interactions with virtualities of order {Lambda}{sub QCD}m{sub b}. Hard scales (related to virtualities of order m{sub b}{sup 2}) are integrated out and enter via external coefficient functions in the sum rule. Soft dynamics is encoded in light-cone distribution amplitudes for the B-meson, which describe both the factorizable and non-factorizable contributions to exclusive B-meson decay amplitudes. As an example, we provide a detailed study of the SCET sum rule for the B {yields} {pi} transition form factor at large recoil, including radiative corrections from hard-collinear loop diagrams at first order in the strong coupling constant. We find remarkable conceptual and numerical differences with the heavy-quark limit of the conventional LCSR approach in QCD.

  16. Pion-photon transition form factor in light-cone sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Pimikov, A. V.; Bakulev, A. P.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2012-10-23

    We extract constraints on the pion distribution amplitude from available data on the pionphoton transition form factor in the framework of light-cone sum rules. A pronounced discrepancy (2.7 - 3){sigma} between the Gegenbauer expansion coefficients extracted from the CELLO, CLEO, and Belle experimental data relative to those from BaBar is found. Predictions for the pion-photon transition form factor are presented by employing a pion distribution amplitude obtained long ago from QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. These predictions comply with the Belle data but disagree with those of BaBar beyond 9 GeV{sup 2}.

  17. The impact of QCD and light-cone quantum mechanics on nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Schlumpf, F.

    1994-12-01

    We discuss a number of novel applications of Quantum Chromodynamics to nuclear structure and dynamics, such as the reduced amplitude formalism for exclusive nuclear amplitudes. We particularly emphasize the importance of light-cone Hamiltonian and Fock State methods as a tool for describing the wavefunctions of composite relativistic many-body systems and their interactions. We also show that the use of covariant kinematics leads to nontrivial corrections to the standard formulae for the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of nucleons and nuclei.

  18. The geometry of the light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, David; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-11-01

    The moduli space of Riemann surfaces with at least two punctures can be decomposed into a cell complex by using a particular family of ribbon graphs called Nakamura graphs. We distinguish the moduli space with all punctures labelled from that with a single labelled puncture. In both cases, we describe a cell decomposition where the cells are parametrised by graphs or equivalence classes of finite sequences (tuples) of permutations. Each cell is a convex polytope defined by a system of linear equations and inequalities relating light-cone string parameters, quotiented by the automorphism group of the graph. We give explicit examples of the cell decomposition at low genus with few punctures.

  19. The geometry of the light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, David Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-11-15

    The moduli space of Riemann surfaces with at least two punctures can be decomposed into a cell complex by using a particular family of ribbon graphs called Nakamura graphs. We distinguish the moduli space with all punctures labelled from that with a single labelled puncture. In both cases, we describe a cell decomposition where the cells are parametrised by graphs or equivalence classes of finite sequences (tuples) of permutations. Each cell is a convex polytope defined by a system of linear equations and inequalities relating light-cone string parameters, quotiented by the automorphism group of the graph. We give explicit examples of the cell decomposition at low genus with few punctures.

  20. Photon distribution amplitudes and light-cone wave functions in chiral quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Dorokhov, Alexander E.; Broniowski, Wojciech; Ruiz Arriola, Enrique

    2006-09-01

    The leading- and higher-twist distribution amplitudes and light-cone wave functions of real and virtual photons are analyzed in chiral quark models. The calculations are performed in the nonlocal quark model based on the instanton picture of the QCD vacuum, as well as in the spectral quark model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the Pauli-Villars regulator, which both treat interaction of quarks with external fields locally. We find that in all considered models the leading-twist distribution amplitudes of the real photon defined at the quark-model momentum scale are constant or remarkably close to the constant in the x variable, thus are far from the asymptotic limit form. The QCD evolution to higher momentum scales is necessary and we carry it out at the leading order of the perturbative theory for the leading-twist amplitudes. We provide estimates for the magnetic susceptibility of the quark condensate {chi}{sub m} and the coupling f{sub 3{gamma}}, which in the nonlocal model turn out to be close to the estimates from QCD sum rules. We find the higher-twist distribution amplitudes at the quark model scale and compare them to the Wandzura-Wilczek estimates. In addition, in the spectral model we evaluate the distribution amplitudes and light-cone wave functions of the {rho}-meson.

  1. Light-cone sum rules for B → π form factors revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancić, G.; Khodjamirian, A.; Mannel, Th.; Melić, B.; Offen, N.

    2008-04-01

    We reconsider and update the QCD light-cone sum rules for B → π form factors. The gluon radiative corrections to the twist-2 and twist-3 terms in the correlation functions are calculated. The overline-MS b-quark mass is employed, instead of the one-loop pole mass used in the previous analyses. The light-cone sum rule for f+Bπ(q2) is fitted to the measured q2-distribution in B → πlνl, fixing the input parameters with the largest uncertainty: the Gegenbauer moments of the pion distribution amplitude. For the B → π vector form factor at zero momentum transfer we predict f+Bπ(0) = 0.26+0.04-0.03. Combining it with the value of the product |Vubf+Bπ(0)| extracted from experiment, we obtain |Vub| = (3.5±0.4±0.2±0.1) × 10-3. In addition, the scalar and penguin B → π form factors f0Bπ(q2) and fTBπ(q2) are calculated.

  2. Effects of Intraframe Distortion on Measures of Cone Mosaic Geometry from Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Robert F.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Chui, Toco Y.; Rosen, Richard B.; Michaelides, Michel; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effects of intraframe distortion due to involuntary eye motion on measures of cone mosaic geometry derived from adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images. Methods We acquired AOSLO image sequences from 20 subjects at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0° temporal from fixation. An expert grader manually selected 10 minimally distorted reference frames from each 150-frame sequence for subsequent registration. Cone mosaic geometry was measured in all registered images (n = 600) using multiple metrics, and the repeatability of these metrics was used to assess the impact of the distortions from each reference frame. In nine additional subjects, we compared AOSLO-derived measurements to those from adaptive optics (AO)-fundus images, which do not contain system-imposed intraframe distortions. Results We observed substantial variation across subjects in the repeatability of density (1.2%–8.7%), inter-cell distance (0.8%–4.6%), percentage of six-sided Voronoi cells (0.8%–10.6%), and Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR) (1.2%–13.2%). The average of all metrics extracted from AOSLO images (with the exception of VCAR) was not significantly different than those derived from AO-fundus images, though there was variability between individual images. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intraframe distortion found in AOSLO images can affect the accuracy and repeatability of cone mosaic metrics. It may be possible to use multiple images from the same retinal area to approximate a “distortionless” image, though more work is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. Translational Relevance Even in subjects with good fixation, images from AOSLOs contain intraframe distortions due to eye motion during scanning. The existence of these artifacts emphasizes the need for caution when interpreting results derived from scanning instruments. PMID:26933523

  3. Direct Measurement of the Pion Valence-Quark Momentum Distribution, the Pion Light-Cone Wave Function Squared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitala, E. M.; Amato, S.; Anjos, J. C.; Appel, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Banerjee, S.; Bediaga, I.; Blaylock, G.; Bracker, S. B.; Burchat, P. R.; Burnstein, R. A.; Carter, T.; Carvalho, H. S.; Copty, N. K.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Darling, C.; Denisenko, K.; Deval, S.; Fernandez, A.; Fox, G. F.; Gagnon, P.; Gerzon, S.; Gobel, C.; Gounder, K.; Halling, A. M.; Herrera, G.; Hurvits, G.; James, C.; Kasper, P. A.; Kwan, S.; Langs, D. C.; Leslie, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lundberg, B.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Meadows, B.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Mihalcea, D.; Milburn, R. H.; de Miranda, J. M.; Napier, A.; Nguyen, A.; D'Oliveira, A. B.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Peng, K. C.; Perera, L. P.; Purohit, M. V.; Quinn, B.; Radeztsky, S.; Rafatian, A.; Reay, N. W.; Reidy, J. J.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sanders, D. A.; Santha, A. K.; Santoro, A. F.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sheaff, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Solano, J.; Stanton, N. R.; Stefanski, R. J.; Stenson, K.; Summers, D. J.; Takach, S.; Thorne, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Watanabe, S.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Wiener, J.; Witchey, N.; Wolin, E.; Yang, S. M.; Yi, D.; Yoshida, S.; Zaliznyak, R.; Zhang, C.

    2001-05-01

    We present the first direct measurements of the pion valence-quark momentum distribution which is related to the square of the pion light-cone wave function. The measurements were carried out using data on diffractive dissociation of 500 GeV/c π- into dijets from a platinum target at Fermilab experiment E791. The results show that the \\|qq¯> light-cone asymptotic wave function describes the data well for Q2~10 \\(GeV/c\\)2 or more. We also measured the transverse momentum distribution of the diffractive dijets.

  4. The electrical response of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light.

    PubMed

    Baylor, D A; Hodgkin, A L; Lamb, T D

    1974-11-01

    1. The linear response of turtle cones to weak flashes or steps of light was usually well fitted by equations based on a chain of six or seven reactions with time constants varying over about a 6-fold range.2. The temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of the reciprocal of the time to peak of the response to a flash was 1.8 (15-25 degrees C), corresponding to an activation energy of 10 kcal/mole.3. Electrical measurements with one internal electrode and a balancing circuit gave the following results on red-sensitive cones of high resistance: resistance across cell surface in dark 50-170 MOmega; time constant in dark 4-6.5 msec. The effect of a bright light was to increase the resistance and time constant by 10-30%.4. If the cell time constant, resting potential and maximum hyperpolarization are known, the fraction of ionic channels blocked by light at any instant can be calculated from the hyperpolarization and its rate of change. At times less than 50 msec the shape of this relation is consistent with the idea that the concentration of a blocking molecule which varies linearly with light intensity is in equilibrium with the fraction of ionic channels blocked.5. The rising phase of the response to flashes and steps of light covering a 10(5)-fold range of intensities is well fitted by a theory in which the essential assumptions are that (i) light starts a linear chain of reactions leading to the production of a substance which blocks ionic channels in the outer segment, (ii) an equilibrium between the blocking molecules and unblocked channels is established rapidly, and (iii) the electrical properties of the cell can be represented by a simple circuit with a time constant in the dark of about 6 msec.6. Deviations from the simple theory which occur after 50 msec are attributed partly to a time-dependent desensitization mechanism and partly to a change in saturation potential resulting from a voltage-dependent change in conductance.7. The existence of several components in

  5. Light-cone anisotropy in the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawada, Karolina; Semelin, Benoît; Vonlanthen, Patrick; Baek, Sunghye; Revaz, Yves

    2014-04-01

    Using a suite of detailed numerical simulations, we estimate the level of anisotropy generated by the time evolution along the light cone of the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations include the physics necessary to model the signal during both the late emission regime and the early absorption regime, namely X-ray and Lyman band 3D radiative transfer in addition to the usual dynamics and ionizing UV transfer. The signal is analysed using correlation functions perpendicular and parallel to the line of sight. We reproduce general findings from previous theoretical studies: the overall amplitude of the correlations and the fact that the light-cone anisotropy is visible only on large scales (100 comoving Mpc). However, the detailed behaviour is different. We find that, at three different epochs, the amplitudes of the correlations along and perpendicular to the line of sight differ from each other, indicating anisotropy. We show that these three epochs are associated with three events of the global reionization history: the overlap of ionized bubbles, the onset of mild heating by X-rays in regions around the sources, and the onset of efficient Lyman α coupling in regions around the sources. We find that a 20 × 20 deg2 survey area may be necessary to mitigate sample variance when we use the directional correlation functions. On a 100 Mpc (comoving) scale, we show that the light-cone anisotropy dominates over the anisotropy generated by peculiar velocity gradients computed in the linear regime. By modelling instrumental noise and limited resolution, we find that the anisotropy should be easily detectable by the Square Kilometre Array, assuming perfect foreground removal, the limiting factor being a large enough survey size. In the case of the Low-Frequency Array for radio astronomy, it is likely that only one anisotropy episode (ionized bubble overlap) will fall in the observing frequency range. This episode will be detectable only if sample

  6. On Quantization in Light-cone Variables Compatible with Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaisky, M. V.; Kaputkina, N. E.

    2016-06-01

    Canonical quantization of quantum field theory models is inherently related to the Lorentz invariant partition of classical fields into the positive and the negative frequency parts u( x) = u +( x) + u -( x), performed with the help of Fourier transform in Minkowski space. That is the commutation relations are being established between nonlocalized solutions of field equations. At the same time the construction of divergence free physical theory requires the separation of the contributions of different space-time scales. In present paper, using the light-cone variables, we propose a quantization procedure which is compatible with separation of scales using continuous wavelet transform, as described in our previous paper (Altaisky, M.V., Kaputkina, N.E.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 025015 2013).

  7. Second moment of the pion light-cone distribution amplitude from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V. M.; Collins, S.; Göckeler, M.; Pérez-Rubio, P.; Schäfer, A.; Schiel, R. W.; Sternbeck, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of a lattice study of the second moment of the light-cone pion distribution amplitude using two flavors of dynamical (clover) fermions on lattices of different volumes and pion masses down to mπ˜150 MeV . At lattice spacings between 0.06 and 0.08 fm we find for the second Gegenbauer moment the value a2=0.1364 (154 )(145 ) at the scale μ =2 GeV in the MS ¯ scheme, where the first error is statistical including the uncertainty of the chiral extrapolation, and the second error is the estimated uncertainty coming from the nonperturbatively determined renormalization factors. The error due to the continuum extrapolation cannot be quantified yet and is the only remaining significant source of uncertainty.

  8. Pion-photon transition form factor in light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimikov, A. V.; Bakulev, A. P.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2012-10-01

    We extract constraints on the pion distribution amplitude from available data on the pionphoton transition form factor in the framework of light-cone sum rules. A pronounced discrepancy (2.7 - 3)σ between the Gegenbauer expansion coefficients extracted from the CELLO, CLEO, and Belle experimental data relative to those from BaBar is found. Predictions for the pion-photon transition form factor are presented by employing a pion distribution amplitude obtained long ago from QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. These predictions comply with the Belle data but disagree with those of BaBar beyond 9 GeV2. This original article was incorrectly published with a corrupt version of Fig. 1. The corrigendum (which is attached to this article) includes the correct version of the figure.

  9. Decay {eta}{sub b{yields}}J/{psi}J/{psi} in light cone formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Braguta, V. V.; Kartvelishvili, V.

    2010-01-01

    The decays of pseudoscalar bottomonium {eta}{sub b} into a pair of vector charmonia, J/{psi}J/{psi}, J/{psi}{psi}{sup '}, {psi}{sup '{psi}'}, are considered in the light cone formalism. Relativistic and leading logarithmic radiative corrections to the amplitudes of these processes are resummed. It is shown that the small value for the branching ratio of the decay {eta}{sub b{yields}}J/{psi}J/{psi} obtained within the leading-order nonrelativistic QCD is a consequence of a fine-tuning between certain parameters, which is broken when relativistic and leading logarithmic radiative corrections are taken into account. As a result, the branching ratio obtained in this paper is enhanced by an order of magnitude.

  10. B → Vℓ+ℓ- in the Standard Model from light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharucha, Aoife; Straub, David M.; Zwicky, Roman

    2016-08-01

    We present B q → ρ, B q → ω, B q → K ∗, B s → K ∗ and B s → ϕ form factors from light-cone sum rules (LCSR) at {O}({α}_s) for twist-2 and 3 and {O}({α}_s^0) for twist-4 with updated hadronic input parameters. Three asymptotic light-cone distribution amplitudes of twist-4 (and 5) are determined, necessary for the form factors to obey the equations of motion. It is argued that the latter constrain the uncertainty of tensor-to-vector form factor ratios thereby improving the prediction of zeros of helicity amplitudes of major importance for B → K ∗ℓℓ angular observables. We provide easy-to-use fits to the LCSR results, including the full error correlation matrix, in all modes at low q 2 as well as combined fits to LCSR and lattice results covering the entire kinematic range for B q → K ∗, B s → K ∗ and B s → ϕ. The error correlation matrix avoids the problem of overestimating the uncertainty in phenomenological applications. Using the new form factors and recent computations of non-factorisable contributions we provide Standard Model predictions for B → K ∗γ as well as B → K ∗ℓ+ℓ- and B s → ϕμ + μ - at low dilepton invariant mass. Employing our B → ( ρ,ω) form factor results we extract the CKM element | V ub| from the semileptonic decays B → ( ρ, ω)ℓ ν and find good agreement with other exclusive determinations.

  11. Light-Output Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Three-Dimensional Backside Reflectors Patterned by Microscale Cone Array

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinyong; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) backside reflector, compared with flat reflectors, can improve the probability of finding the escape cone for reflecting lights and thus enhance the light-extraction efficiency (LEE) for GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) chips. A triangle-lattice of microscale SiO2 cone array followed by a 16-pair Ti3O5/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflector (16-DBR) was proposed to be attached on the backside of sapphire substrate, and the light-output enhancement was demonstrated by numerical simulation and experiments. The LED chips with flat reflectors or 3D reflectors were simulated using Monte Carlo ray tracing method. It is shown that the LEE increases as the reflectivity of backside reflector increases, and the light-output can be significantly improved by 3D reflectors compared to flat counterparts. It can also be observed that the LEE decreases as the refractive index of the cone material increases. The 3D 16-DBR patterned by microscale SiO2 cone array benefits large enhancement of LEE. This microscale pattern was prepared by standard photolithography and wet-etching technique. Measurement results show that the 3D 16-DBR can provide 12.1% enhancement of wall-plug efficiency, which is consistent with the simulated value of 11.73% for the enhancement of LEE. PMID:25133262

  12. An exact Jacobi map in the geodesic light-cone gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, G.; Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.

    2013-11-01

    The remarkable properties of the recently proposed geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge allow to explicitly solve the geodesic-deviation equation, and thus to derive an exact expression for the Jacobi map JAB(s,o) connecting a generic source s to a geodesic observer o in a generic space time. In this gauge JAB factorizes into the product of a local quantity at s times one at o, implying similarly factorized expressions for the area and luminosity distance. In any other coordinate system JAB is simply given by expressing the GLC quantities in terms of the corresponding ones in the new coordinates. This is explicitly done, at first and second order, respectively, for the synchronous and Poisson gauge-fixing of a perturbed, spatially-flat cosmological background, and the consistency of the two outcomes is checked. Our results slightly amend previous calculations of the luminosity-redshift relation and suggest a possible non-perturbative way for computing the effects of inhomogeneities on observations based on light-like signals.

  13. Effect of stimulus size and luminance on the rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated pupillary light reflex.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason C; McAnany, J Jason

    2015-01-01

    This study determined if the pupillary light reflex (PLR) driven by brief stimulus presentations can be accounted for by the product of stimulus luminance and area (i.e., corneal flux density, CFD) under conditions biased toward the rod, cone, and melanopsin pathways. Five visually normal subjects participated in the study. Stimuli consisted of 1-s short- and long-wavelength flashes that spanned a large range of luminance and angular subtense. The stimuli were presented in the central visual field in the dark (rod and melanopsin conditions) and against a rod-suppressing short-wavelength background (cone condition). Rod- and cone-mediated PLRs were measured at the maximum constriction after stimulus onset whereas the melanopsin-mediated PLR was measured 5-7 s after stimulus offset. The rod- and melanopsin-mediated PLRs were well accounted for by CFD, such that doubling the stimulus luminance had the same effect on the PLR as doubling the stimulus area. Melanopsin-mediated PLRs were elicited only by short-wavelength, large (>16°) stimuli with luminance greater than 10 cd/m(2), but when present, the melanopsin-mediated PLR was well accounted for by CFD. In contrast, CFD could not account for the cone-mediated PLR because the PLR was approximately independent of stimulus size but strongly dependent on stimulus luminance. These findings highlight important differences in how stimulus luminance and size combine to govern the PLR elicited by brief flashes under rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated conditions.

  14. Chromatic organization of cone photoreceptors in the retina of rainbow trout: single cones irreversibly switch from UV (SWS1) to blue (SWS2) light sensitive opsin during natural development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christiana L; Flamarique, Iñigo Novales

    2007-12-01

    The retinas of salmonid fishes have single and double cones arranged in square to row formations termed mosaics. The square mosaic unit is formed by four double cones that make the sides of the square with a single (centre) cone in the middle, and a single (corner) cone at each corner of the square when present. Previous research using coho salmon-derived riboprobes on four species of anadromous Pacific salmon has shown that all single cones express a SWS1 (UV sensitive) visual pigment protein (opsin) at hatching, and that these cones switch to a SWS2 (blue light sensitive) opsin during the juvenile period. Whether this opsin switch applies to non-anadromous species, like the rainbow trout, is under debate as species-specific riboprobes have not been used to study opsin expression during development of a trout. As well, a postulated recovery of SWS1 opsin expression in the retina of adult rainbow trout, perhaps via a reverse process to that occurring in the juvenile, has not been investigated. Here, we used in situ hybridization with species-specific riboprobes and microspectrophotometry on rainbow trout retina to show that: (1) single cones in the juvenile switch opsin expression from SWS1 to SWS2, (2) this switch is not reversed in the adult, i.e. all single cones in the main retina continue to express SWS2 opsin, and (3) opsin switches do not occur in double cones: each member expresses one opsin, maximally sensitive to green (RH2) or red (LWS) light. The opsin switch in the single cones of salmonid fishes may be a general process of chromatic organization that occurs during retinal development of most vertebrates.

  15. Multi Dark Lens Simulations: weak lensing light-cones and data base presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Jullo, Eric; Metcalf, R. Benton; de la Torre, Sylvain; Yepes, Gustavo; Prada, Francisco; Comparat, Johan; Göttlober, Stefan; Kyplin, Anatoly; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Petkova, Margarita; Shan, Huan Yuan; Tessore, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a large data base of weak lensing light cones constructed using different snapshots from the Big MultiDark simulation (BigMDPL). The ray-tracing through different multiple plane has been performed with the GLAMER code accounting both for single source redshifts and for sources distributed along the cosmic time. This first paper presents weak lensing forecasts and results according to the geometry of the VIPERS-W1 and VIPERS-W4 field of view. Additional fields will be available on our data base and new ones can be run upon request. Our data base also contains some tools for lensing analysis. In this paper we present results for convergence power spectra, one point and high order weak lensing statistics useful for forecasts and for cosmological studies. Covariance matrices have also been computed for the different realizations of the W1 and W4 fields. In addition we compute also galaxy-shear and projected density contrasts for different halo masses at two lens redshift according to the CFHTLS source redshift distribution both using stacking and cross-correlation techniques, finding very good agreement.

  16. Perturbative corrections to Λ b → Λ form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long

    2016-02-01

    We compute radiative corrections to Λ b → Λ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with Λ b -baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-Λ b -baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in Λ /m b , with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to- B-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at {O}({α}_s) shift the Λ b → Λ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originates from the next-to-leading order jet function instead of the hard coefficient functions. Having at hand the sum rule predictions for the Λ b → Λ from factors we further investigate several decay observables in the electro-weak penguin Λ b → Λ ℓ + ℓ - transitions in the factorization limit (i.e., ignoring the "non-factorizable" hadronic effects which cannot be expressed in terms of the Λ b → Λ from factors), including the invariant mass distribution of the lepton pair, the forward-backward asymmetry in the dilepton system and the longitudinal polarization fraction of the leptonic sector.

  17. Temperature dependence of dark-adapted sensitivity and light-adaptation in photoreceptors with A1 visual pigments: a comparison of frog L-cones and rods.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, H; Nymark, S; Donner, K; Koskelainen, A

    2009-07-01

    Flash responses of L-cones and rods were recorded as ERG mass potentials in the frog retina at different temperatures (2-25 degrees C). The purpose was to elucidate factors that make cones faster and less sensitive than rods, particularly the possible role of thermal activation of L-cone visual pigment in maintaining a "light-adapted" state even in darkness. Up to ca. 15 degrees C, cones and rods were desensitized roughly equally by warming (Q(10) approximately 2.2-2.7), retaining a 5-fold sensitivity difference. In this range, the cone/rod difference must depend on factors other than thermal activation of the visual pigment. Above 15 degrees C, cones showed an additional component of desensitization compared with rods, coupled to accelerated response shut-off. This behavior is consistent with light-adaptation from temperature-dependent intrinsic activity (dark light). The apparent dark light as measured by the minimum background intensities needed to affect sensitivity and/or kinetics increased by ca. 10-fold between 15 and 25 degrees C, whereas reported increases in visual-pigment activation rates over this range are less than 5-fold. We conclude that the dark state of frog L-cones above 15 degrees C may be largely set by thermal activation of the phototransduction machinery, but only part of the experimentally determined dark light can be ascribed to the visual pigment.

  18. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Hankins, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Gnat−/−, Cnga3−/−, Opn4−/− triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  19. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Hankins, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Gnat(-/-), Cnga3(-/-), Opn4(-/-) triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  20. B{sub (s)}{yields}S transitions in the light cone sum rules with the chiral current

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yanjun; Li Zuohong; Huang Tao

    2011-01-15

    We make a QCD light-cone sum rule assessment of B{sub (s)} semileptonic decays to a light scalar meson, B{sub (s)}{yields}Sl{nu}{sub l}, Sll(l=e,{mu},{tau}). Chiral current correlators are used and calculations are performed at leading order in {alpha}{sub s}. Having little knowledge of the ingredients of the scalar mesons, we confine ourself to the two-quark picture for them and work with the two possible scenarios. The resulting sum rules for the form factors receive no contributions from the twist-3 distribution amplitudes, in comparison with the calculation of the conventional light-cone sum rule approach where the twist-3 parts usually play an important role. We specify the range of the squared momentum transfer q{sup 2}, in which the operator product expansion for the correlators remains valid approximately. It is found that the form factors satisfy a relation consistent with the prediction of soft collinear effective theory. In the effective range we investigate behaviors of the form factors and differential decay widths and compare our calculations with the observations from other approaches.

  1. An Algebraic Model for the mathfrak{su}(2|2) Light-Cone String Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, S.

    We first revisit the light-cone string field theory on the flat andpp-wave background. By our systematic analysis, we find that some unsatisfactions in the previous construction can be overcome. After that, we head for the construction of the LCSFT on the bubbling geometry with an isometry [mathfrak{psu}(2|2)]^2 ltimes {mathbb R}. We clarify the structure of expansion and propose toy models for it. This proceeding is based on the collaboration with Kishimoto [I. Kishimoto and S. Moriyama, J. High Energy Phys. textbf{08} (2010), 013, arXiv:1005.4719 (Ref. 1)].

  2. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granton, Patrick V.; Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light’s spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans.

  3. Constraints on the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude from a QCD light-cone sum rule with chiral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-Gang

    2008-10-01

    We present an improved analysis of the constraints on the first two Gegenbauer moments, a {2/ π } and a {4/ π }, of the pion’s leading-twist distribution amplitude from a QCD light-cone sum rule analysis of the B→ π weak transition form factor f +( q 2). A proper chiral current is adopted in QCD light-cone sum rules so as to eliminate the most uncertain twist-3 contributions to f +( q 2), and then we concentrate our attention on the properties of the leading-twist pionic DA. A nearly model-independent f +( q 2), based on the spectrum of B→ π l ν decays from BaBar, together with uncertainties, is adopted as the standard shape for f +( q 2) for our discussion. From a minimum χ 2-fit and by taking the theoretical uncertainties into account, we obtain a {2/ π }(1 GeV)=0.17{-0.17/+0.15} and a {4/ π }(1 GeV)=-0.06{-0.22/+0.20} at the 1 σ confidence level for m {b/*}∈[4.7,4,8] GeV.

  4. Revisiting the b1π and ρ π decay modes of the 1-+ light hybrid state with light-cone QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhuo-Ran; Jin, Hong-Ying; Steele, T. G.; Zhang, Zhu-Feng

    2016-09-01

    We study the ρ π and b1π decay modes of the 1-+ light hybrid state within the framework of light-cone QCD sum rules. We use both the tensor current ψ ¯ σμ νψ and the derivative current ψ ¯ D↔ μγ5ψ as interpolating currents to calculate the partial decay width of the b1π decay mode. Comparing the sum rules obtained by using different currents, we obtain Γ (π1→b1π ) =8 - 23 , 32-86 and 52-151 MeV for m1-+=1.6 , 1.8 and 2.0 GeV respectively, which favor the results from the flux tube models and lattice simulations. We also use the tensor current to study the ρ π decay mode, and although an extended stability criterion is needed, our results suggest a small partial decay width.

  5. Use of a local cone model to predict essential CSF light adaptation behavior used in the design of luminance quantization nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Scott; Golestaneh, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The human visual system's luminance nonlinearity ranges continuously from square root behavior in the very dark, gamma-like behavior in dim ambient, cube-root in office lighting, and logarithmic for daylight ranges. Early display quantization nonlinearities have been developed based on luminance bipartite JND data. More advanced approaches considered spatial frequency behavior, and used the Barten light-adaptive Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) modelled across a range of light adaptation to determine the luminance nonlinearity (e.g., DICOM, referred to as a GSDF {grayscale display function}). A recent approach for a GSDF, also referred to as an electrical-to-optical transfer function (EOTF), using that light-adaptive CSF model improves on this by tracking the CSF for the most sensitive spatial frequency, which changes with adaptation level. We explored the cone photoreceptor's contribution to the behavior of this maximum sensitivity of the CSF as a function of light adaptation, despite the CSF's frequency variations and that the cone's nonlinearity is a point-process. We found that parameters of a local cone model could fit the max sensitivity of the CSF model, across all frequencies, and are within the ranges of parameters commonly accepted for psychophysicallytuned cone models. Thus, a linking of the spatial frequency and luminance dimensions has been made for a key neural component. This provides a better theoretical foundation for the recently designed visual signal format using the aforementioned EOTF.

  6. Supersymmetry and the discrete light-cone quantization limit of the Lie 3-algebra model of M theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Matsuo

    2012-02-01

    In M. Sato, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 07 (2010) 02610.1007/JHEP07(2010)026, we proposed two models of M theory, the Hermitian 3-algebra model and Lie 3-algebra model. In this paper, we study the Lie 3-algebra model with a Lorentzian Lie 3-algebra. This model is ghost-free despite the Lorentzian 3-algebra. We show that our model satisfies two criteria as a model of M theory. First, we show that the model possesses N=1 supersymmetry in 11 dimensions. Second, we show the model reduces to Banks-Fischler-Shenker-Susskind matrix theory with finite size matrices in a discrete light-cone quantization limit.

  7. The leading twist light-cone distribution amplitudes for the S-wave and P-wave Bc mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji; Yang, Deshan

    2016-07-01

    The light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) serve as important nonperturbative inputs for the study of hard exclusive processes. In this paper, we calculate ten LCDAs at twist-2 for the S-wave and P-wave B c mesons up to the next-to-leading order (NLO) of the strong coupling α s and leading order of the velocity expansion. Each one of these ten LCDAs is expressed as a product of a perturbatively calculable distribution and a universal NRQCD matrix-element. By use of the spin symmetry, only two NRQCD matrix-elements will be involved. The reduction of the number of non-perturbative inputs will improve the predictive power of collinear factorization.

  8. The MICE Grand Challenge light-cone simulation - III. Galaxy lensing mocks from all-sky lensing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosalba, P.; Gaztañaga, E.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.

    2015-02-01

    In Paper I of this series, we presented a new N-body light-cone simulation from the MICE Collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 h-1 Gpc)3 comoving volume, from which we built halo and galaxy catalogues using a Halo Occupation Distribution and Halo Abundance Matching technique, as presented in the companion Paper II. Given its large volume and fine mass resolution, the MICE-GC simulation also allows an accurate modelling of the lensing observables from upcoming wide and deep galaxy surveys. In the last paper of this series (Paper III), we describe the construction of all-sky lensing maps, following the `Onion Universe' approach, and discuss their properties in the light-cone up to z = 1.4 with sub-arcminute spatial resolution. By comparing the convergence power spectrum in the MICE-GC to lower mass-resolution (i.e. particle mass ˜1011 h-1 M⊙) simulations, we find that resolution effects are at the 5 per cent level for multipoles ℓ ˜ 103 and 20 per cent for ℓ ˜ 104. Resolution effects have a much lower impact on our simulation, as shown by comparing the MICE-GC to recent numerical fits by Takahashi. We use the all-sky lensing maps to model galaxy lensing properties, such as the convergence, shear, and lensed magnitudes and positions, and validate them thoroughly using galaxy shear auto and cross-correlations in harmonic and configuration space. Our results show that the galaxy lensing mocks here presented can be used to accurately model lensing observables down to arcminute scales. Accompanying this series of papers, we make a first public data release of the MICE-GC galaxy mock, the MICECAT v1.0, through a dedicated web-portal for the MICE simulations, http://cosmohub.pic.es, to help developing and exploiting the new generation of astronomical surveys.

  9. Exploring the evolution of reionization using a wavelet transform and the light cone effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Cathryn M.

    2016-09-01

    The Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization, during which collapsed structures produce the first ionizing photons and proceed to reionize the intergalactic medium, span a large range in redshift (z ˜ 30-6) and time (tage ˜ 0.1-1.0 Gyr). Exploration of these epochs using the redshifted 21 cm emission line from neutral hydrogen is currently limited to statistical detection and estimation metrics (e.g. the power spectrum) due to the weakness of the signal. Brightness temperature fluctuations in the line-of-sight dimension are probed by observing the emission line at different frequencies, and their structure is used as a primary discriminant between the cosmological signal and contaminating foreground extragalactic and Galactic continuum emission. Evolution of the signal over the observing bandwidth leads to the `line cone effect' whereby the H I structures at the start and end of the observing band are not statistically consistent, yielding a biased estimate of the signal power, and potential reduction in signal detectability. We implement a wavelet transform to wide bandwidth radio interferometry experiments to probe the local statistical properties of the signal. We show that use of the wavelet transform yields estimates with improved estimation performance, compared with the standard Fourier Transform over a fixed bandwidth. With the suite of current and future large bandwidth reionization experiments, such as with the 300 MHz instantaneous bandwidth of the Square Kilometre Array, a transform that retains local information will be important.

  10. Observation of trapped light induced by Dwarf Dirac-cone in out-of-plane condition for photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Subir; Biswas, Tushar; Bhadra, Shaymal K.

    2016-10-01

    Existence of out-of-plane conical dispersion for a triangular photonic crystal lattice is reported. It is observed that conical dispersion is maintained for a number of out-of-plane wave vectors (k z ). We study a case where Dirac like linear dispersion exists but the photonic density of states is not vanishing, called Dwarf Dirac cone (DDC) which does not support localized modes. We demonstrate the trapping of such modes by introducing defects in the crystal. Interestingly, we find by k-point sampling as well as by tuning trapped frequency that such a conical dispersion has an inherent light confining property and it is governed by neither of the known wave confining mechanisms like total internal reflection, band gap guidance. Our study reveals that such a conical dispersion in a non-vanishing photonic density of states induces unexpected intense trapping of light compared with those at other points in the continuum. Such studies provoke fabrication of new devices with exciting properties and new functionalities. Project supported by Director, CSIR-CGCRI, the DST, Government of India, and the CSIR 12th Plan Project (GLASSFIB), India.

  11. Cone Health and Retinoids.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cones are photoreceptor cells used for bright light and color vision. Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives, one of which is the 11-cis aldehyde form that serves as the chromophore for both cone and rod visual pigments. In the visual disease, Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA2), 11-cis-retinal generation is inhibited or abolished. Work by others has shown that patients with LCA2 have symptoms consistent with degenerating cones. In mouse models for LCA2, early cone degeneration is readily apparent: cone opsins and other proteins associated with the outer segment are delocalized and cell numbers decline rapidly within the first month. Rods would appear normal morphologically and functionally, if not for the absence of chromophore. Supplementation of mouse models of LCA2 with cis-retinoids has been shown to slow loss of cone photoreceptor cells if mice were maintained in darkness. Thus, 11-cis-retinal appears not only to have a role in the light response reaction but also to promote proper trafficking of the cone opsins and maintain viable cones. PMID:26310171

  12. Investigating strangeness in the proton by studying the effects of Light Cone parton distributions in the Meson Cloud Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuppan, Sam; Budnik, Garrett; Fox, Jordan

    2014-09-01

    The Meson Cloud Model (MCM) has proven to be a natural explanation for strangeness in the proton because of meson-baryon splitting into kaon-hyperon pairs. Total strangeness is predicted by integrated splitting functions, which represent the probability that the proton will fluctuate into a given meson-baryon pair. However, the momentum distributions s (x) and s (x) in the proton are determined from convolution integrals that depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) used for the mesons and baryons in the MCM. Theoretical calculations of these momentum distributions use many different forms for these PDFs. In our investigation, we calculate PDFs for K, K*, Λ, and Σ from two-body wave functions in a Light Cone Model (LCM) of the hadrons. We use these PDFs in conjunction with the MCM to create a hybrid model and compare our results to other theoretical calculations, experimental data from NuTeV, HERMES, ATLAS, and global parton distribution analyses. The Meson Cloud Model (MCM) has proven to be a natural explanation for strangeness in the proton because of meson-baryon splitting into kaon-hyperon pairs. Total strangeness is predicted by integrated splitting functions, which represent the probability that the proton will fluctuate into a given meson-baryon pair. However, the momentum distributions s (x) and s (x) in the proton are determined from convolution integrals that depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) used for the mesons and baryons in the MCM. Theoretical calculations of these momentum distributions use many different forms for these PDFs. In our investigation, we calculate PDFs for K, K*, Λ, and Σ from two-body wave functions in a Light Cone Model (LCM) of the hadrons. We use these PDFs in conjunction with the MCM to create a hybrid model and compare our results to other theoretical calculations, experimental data from NuTeV, HERMES, ATLAS, and global parton distribution analyses. This research has been supported in part by the

  13. A Novel In Vivo Model of Focal Light Emitting Diode-Induced Cone-Photoreceptor Phototoxicity: Neuroprotection Afforded by Brimonidine, BDNF, PEDF or bFGF

    PubMed Central

    García-Ayuso, Diego; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Bernal-Garro, José Manuel; Nieto-López, Leticia; Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco Manuel; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; Wheeler, Larry A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of light-emitting diode (LED)-induced phototoxicity (LIP) on cone-photoreceptors and their protection with brimonidine (BMD), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In anesthetized, dark adapted, adult albino rats a blue (400 nm) LED was placed perpendicular to the cornea (10 sec, 200 lux) and the effects were investigated using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and/or analysing the retina in oriented cross-sections or wholemounts immune-labelled for L- and S-opsin and counterstained with the nuclear stain DAPI. The effects of topical BMD (1%) or, intravitreally injected BDNF (5 µg), PEDF (2 µg), CNTF (0.4 µg) or bFGF (1 µg) after LIP were examined on wholemounts at 7 days. SD-OCT showed damage in a circular region of the superotemporal retina, whose diameter varied from 1,842.4±84.5 µm (at 24 hours) to 1,407.7±52.8 µm (at 7 days). This region had a progressive thickness diminution from 183.4±5 µm (at 12 h) to 114.6±6 µm (at 7 d). Oriented cross-sections showed within the light-damaged region of the retina massive loss of rods and cone-photoreceptors. Wholemounts documented a circular region containing lower numbers of L- and S-cones. Within a circular area (1 mm or 1.3 mm radius, respectively) in the left and in its corresponding region of the contralateral-fellow-retina, total L- or S-cones were 7,118±842 or 661±125 for the LED exposed retinas (n = 7) and 14,040±1,860 or 2,255±193 for the fellow retinas (n = 7), respectively. BMD, BDNF, PEDF and bFGF but not CNTF showed significant neuroprotective effects on L- or S-cones. We conclude that LIP results in rod and cone-photoreceptor loss, and is a reliable, quantifiable model to study cone-photoreceptor degeneration. Intravitreal BDNF, PEDF or bFGF, or topical BMD afford significant cone neuroprotection in this model

  14. The color cone.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2015-02-01

    While the notion of a color cone can be found in writings of Maxwell, Helmholtz, Grassmann, and other scientists of the nineteenth century, it has not been clearly defined as yet. In this paper, the color cone is understood as the set of points in the cone excitation space produced by all possible lights. The spectral curve representing all the monochromatic lights is shown not to entirely belong to the color cone boundary, since its ends turn into the color cone interior. The monochromatic lights represented by the fragment of the spectral curve lying on the color cone boundary make up what is called the effective visible spectrum. The color cone is shown to be a convex hull of the conical surface through the fragment of the spectral curve representing the effective visible spectrum. The effective visible spectrum ends are shown to be determined by the photopigment spectral absorbance being independent of the prereceptor filters (e.g., the spectral transmittance of the lense and macular pigment).

  15. Electroweak properties of octet baryons in a light-cone quark-diquark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    We study the electroweak properties of ground state octet baryons in a relativistic quark-spectator-diquark model, with a light-front formalism applied to take relativistic effects into account. Our model provides a consistent picture of the electroweak properties of the ground state octet baryons in the low momentum transfer region. The Melosh-Wigner rotation is applied as the transformation relation between spinors in the instant form and front form. Numerical results are presented for the magnetic moments, weak transition charges, and Sachs form factors. Our results are in good agreement with experimental measurements and other theoretical results.

  16. Lensing in the geodesic light-cone coordinates and its (exact) illustration to an off-center observer in Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi models

    SciTech Connect

    Fanizza, G.; Nugier, F. E-mail: fabienjean.nugier@unibo.it

    2015-02-01

    We present in this paper a new application of the geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge for weak lensing calculations. Using interesting properties of this gauge, we derive an exact expression of the amplification matrix—involving convergence, magnification and shear—and of the deformation matrix—involving the optical scalars. These expressions are simple and non-perturbative as long as no caustics are created on the past light-cone and are, by construction, free from the thin lens approximation. We apply these general expressions on the example of an Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model with an off-center observer and obtain explicit forms for the lensing quantities as a direct consequence of the non-perturbative transformation between GLC and LTB coordinates. We show their evolution in redshift after a numerical integration, for underdense and overdense LTB models, and interpret their respective variations in the simple non-curvature case.

  17. Exclusive C=+ charmonium production in e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}H+{gamma} at B factories within the light cone formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Braguta, V. V.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the cross sections of the processes e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}H+{gamma}, H={eta}{sub c}, {eta}{sub c}{sup '}, {chi}{sub c0}, {chi}{sub c1}, {chi}{sub c2} are calculated. The calculation is carried out at the leading twist approximation of the light cone formalism. Within this approach the leading logarithmic radiative and relativistic corrections to the amplitudes are resummed. For the processes e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}{eta}}{sub c}, {eta}{sub c}{sup '}+{gamma} one-loop radiative corrections are taken into account. It is also shown that one-loop leading logarithmic radiative corrections calculated within the light cone formalism for the processes under study coincide with that obtained by direct calculations of one-loop diagrams within nonrelativistic QCD.

  18. Massive Degeneracy and Goldstone Bosons: A Challenge for the Light Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Marvin; /SLAC

    2010-10-27

    Wherein it is argued that the light front formalism has problems dealing with Goldstone symmetries. It is further argued that the notion that in hadron condensates can explain Goldstone phenomena is false. This talk can be summarized as follows: (1) Exact symmetries can be realized in Wigner or Goldstone mode. (2) When a symmetry is realized in Wigner mode the states of the theory form degenerate irreducible representations of the symmetry group and the lowest energy state is unique. (3) When a symmetry is realized in Goldstone mode the lowest energy state of the theory is infinitely degenerate, the states of the theory do not form irreducible representations of the symmetry group and there are massless particles coupled by the conserved currents to any one of the possible ground states. (4) In finite volume the signal of a Goldstone realization of a symmetry is that the number of nearly degenerate states grows rapidly with increasing volume and the gap between these states shrinks exponentially with the volume. (5) The existence of a condensate such as the magnetization, for a ferromagnet, or the staggered magnetization for an anti-ferromagnet, signals a Goldstone symmetry. This is because this condensate transforms non-trivially under the symmetry transformations and so its existence implies the ground state isn't unique. (6) PCAC means that the pion, kaon and eta are would be Goldstone bosons of the theory where the quark masses are set to zero. This interpretation is overwhelmingly supported by experimental data. This means that these particles are really the wiggling of the order parameter or condensate. (7) Finally, in order for the Goldstone particle to exist there has to be something to wiggle every place where the particle can exist. This means that the condensate that is the order parameter for this Goldstone symmetry cannot be confined to the interior of hadrons. Thus, to reiterate, the challenge for the Light Front is to show how the formalism gives

  19. Naive time-reversal odd phenomena in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering from light-cone constituent quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Pasquini, Peter Schweitzer

    2011-06-01

    We present results for leading-twist azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering due to naively time-reversal odd transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions from the light-cone constituent quark model. We carefully discuss the range of applicability of the model, especially with regard to positivity constraints and evolution effects. We find good agreement with available experimental data from COMPASS and HERMES, and present predictions to be tested in forthcoming experiments at Jefferson Lab.

  20. Speed, adaptation, and stability of the response to light in cone photoreceptors: the functional role of Ca-dependent modulation of ligand sensitivity in cGMP-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Korenbrot, Juan I

    2012-01-01

    The response of cone photoreceptors to light is stable and reproducible because of the exceptional regulation of the cascade of enzymatic reactions that link visual pigment (VP) excitation to the gating of cyclic GMP (cGMP)-gated ion channels (cyclic nucleotide-gated [CNG]) in the outer segment plasma membrane. Regulation is achieved in part through negative feedback control of some of these reactions by cytoplasmic free Ca(2+). As part of the control process, Ca(2+) regulates the phosphorylation of excited VP, the activity of guanylate cyclase, and the ligand sensitivity of the CNG ion channels. We measured photocurrents elicited by stimuli in the form of flashes, steps, and flashes superimposed on steps in voltage-clamped single bass cones isolated from striped bass retina. We also developed a computational model that comprises all the known molecular events of cone phototransduction, including all Ca-dependent controls. Constrained by available experimental data in bass cones and cone transduction biochemistry, we achieved an excellent match between experimental photocurrents and those simulated by the model. We used the model to explore the physiological role of CNG ion channel modulation. Control of CNG channel activity by both cGMP and Ca(2+) causes the time course of the light-dependent currents to be faster than if only cGMP controlled their activity. Channel modulation also plays a critical role in the regulation of the light sensitivity and light adaptation of the cone photoresponse. In the absence of ion channel modulation, cone photocurrents would be unstable, oscillating during and at the offset of light stimuli. PMID:22200947

  1. Why rods and cones?

    PubMed

    Lamb, T D

    2016-02-01

    Under twenty-first-century metropolitan conditions, almost all of our vision is mediated by cones and the photopic system, yet cones make up barely 5% of our retinal photoreceptors. This paper looks at reasons why we additionally possess rods and a scotopic system, and asks why rods comprise 95% of our retinal photoreceptors. It considers the ability of rods to reliably signal the arrival of individual photons of light, as well as the ability of the retina to process these single-photon signals, and it discusses the advantages that accrue. Drawbacks in the arrangement, including the very slow dark adaptation of scotopic vision, are also considered. Finally, the timing of the evolution of cone and rod photoreceptors, the retina, and the camera-style eye is summarised.

  2. Application of the QCD light cone sum rule to tetraquarks: The strong vertices XbXbρ and XcXcρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agaev, S. S.; Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.

    2016-06-01

    The full version of the QCD light-cone sum rule method is applied to tetraquarks containing a single heavy b or c quark. To this end, investigations of the strong vertices XbXbρ and XcXcρ are performed, where Xb=[s u ][b ¯ d ¯ ] and Xc=[s u ][c ¯d ¯] are the exotic states built of four quarks of different flavors. The strong coupling constants GXbXbρ and GXcXcρ corresponding to these vertices are found using the ρ -meson leading- and higher-twist distribution amplitudes. In the calculations, Xb and Xc are treated as scalar bound states of a diquark and antidiquark.

  3. Effect of light source instability on uniformity of 3D reconstructions from a cone beam optical CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Begg, J; Taylor, M L; Holloway, L; Kron, T; Franich, R D

    2014-12-01

    Temporally varying light intensity during acquisition of projection images in an optical CT scanner can potentially be misinterpreted as physical properties of the sample. This work investigated the impact of LED light source intensity instability on measured attenuation coefficients. Different scenarios were investigated by conducting one or both of the reference and data scans in a 'cold' scanner, where the light source intensity had not yet stabilised. Uniform samples were scanned to assess the impact on measured uniformity. The orange (590 nm) light source decreased in intensity by 29 % over the first 2 h, while the red (633 nm) decreased by 9 %. The rates of change of intensity at 2 h were 0.1 and 0.03 % respectively over a 5 min period-corresponding to the scan duration. The normalisation function of the reconstruction software does not fully account for the intensity differences and discrepancies remain. Attenuation coefficient inaccuracies of up to 8 % were observed for data reconstructed from projection images acquired with a cold scanner. Increased noise was observed for most cases where one or both of the scans was acquired without sufficient warm-up. The decrease in accuracy and increase in noise were most apparent for data reconstructed from reference and data scans acquired with a cold scanner on different days. PMID:25262165

  4. Transition form factors of the pion in light-cone QCD sum rules with next-to-next-to-leading order contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2009-11-01

    The transition pion-photon form factor is studied within the framework of light-cone QCD sum rules. The spectral density for the next-to-leading order corrections is calculated for any Gegenbauer harmonic. At the level of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) radiative corrections, only that part of the hard-scattering amplitude is included that is proportional to the β-function, taking into account the leading zeroth-order harmonic. The relative size of the NNLO contribution in the prediction for the form factor Fγπ(Q) has been analyzed, making use of the BLM scale-setting procedure. In addition, predictions for the form factor Fρπ are obtained that turn out to be sensitive to the endpoint behavior of the pion distribution amplitude, thus providing in connection with experimental data an additional adjudicator for the pion distribution amplitude. In a note added, we comment on the preliminary high- Q BaBar data on Fγπ arguing that the significant growth of the form factor between 10 and 40 GeV cannot be explained in terms of higher-order perturbative corrections at the NNLO.

  5. Inferred L/M cone opsin polymorphism of ancestral tarsiers sheds dim light on the origin of anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Matsushita, Yuka; Moritz, Gillian L; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Kawamura, Shoji

    2013-05-22

    Tarsiers are small nocturnal primates with a long history of fuelling debate on the origin and evolution of anthropoid primates. Recently, the discovery of M and L opsin genes in two sister species, Tarsius bancanus (Bornean tarsier) and Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier), respectively, was interpreted as evidence of an ancestral long-to-middle (L/M) opsin polymorphism, which, in turn, suggested a diurnal or cathemeral (arrhythmic) activity pattern. This view is compatible with the hypothesis that stem tarsiers were diurnal; however, a reversion to nocturnality during the Middle Eocene, as evidenced by hyper-enlarged orbits, predates the divergence of T. bancanus and T. syrichta in the Late Miocene. Taken together, these findings suggest that some nocturnal tarsiers possessed high-acuity trichromatic vision, a concept that challenges prevailing views on the adaptive origins of the anthropoid visual system. It is, therefore, important to explore the plausibility and antiquity of trichromatic vision in the genus Tarsius. Here, we show that Sulawesi tarsiers (Tarsius tarsier), a phylogenetic out-group of Philippine and Bornean tarsiers, have an L opsin gene that is more similar to the L opsin gene of T. syrichta than to the M opsin gene of T. bancanus in non-synonymous nucleotide sequence. This result suggests that an L/M opsin polymorphism is the ancestral character state of crown tarsiers and raises the possibility that many hallmarks of the anthropoid visual system evolved under dim (mesopic) light conditions. This interpretation challenges the persistent nocturnal-diurnal dichotomy that has long informed debate on the origin of anthropoid primates. PMID:23536597

  6. Inferred L/M cone opsin polymorphism of ancestral tarsiers sheds dim light on the origin of anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Matsushita, Yuka; Moritz, Gillian L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Kawamura, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Tarsiers are small nocturnal primates with a long history of fuelling debate on the origin and evolution of anthropoid primates. Recently, the discovery of M and L opsin genes in two sister species, Tarsius bancanus (Bornean tarsier) and Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier), respectively, was interpreted as evidence of an ancestral long-to-middle (L/M) opsin polymorphism, which, in turn, suggested a diurnal or cathemeral (arrhythmic) activity pattern. This view is compatible with the hypothesis that stem tarsiers were diurnal; however, a reversion to nocturnality during the Middle Eocene, as evidenced by hyper-enlarged orbits, predates the divergence of T. bancanus and T. syrichta in the Late Miocene. Taken together, these findings suggest that some nocturnal tarsiers possessed high-acuity trichromatic vision, a concept that challenges prevailing views on the adaptive origins of the anthropoid visual system. It is, therefore, important to explore the plausibility and antiquity of trichromatic vision in the genus Tarsius. Here, we show that Sulawesi tarsiers (Tarsius tarsier), a phylogenetic out-group of Philippine and Bornean tarsiers, have an L opsin gene that is more similar to the L opsin gene of T. syrichta than to the M opsin gene of T. bancanus in non-synonymous nucleotide sequence. This result suggests that an L/M opsin polymorphism is the ancestral character state of crown tarsiers and raises the possibility that many hallmarks of the anthropoid visual system evolved under dim (mesopic) light conditions. This interpretation challenges the persistent nocturnal–diurnal dichotomy that has long informed debate on the origin of anthropoid primates. PMID:23536597

  7. Origin and Impact of Phototransduction Noise in Primate Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Angueyra, Juan Manuel; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Noise in the responses of cone photoreceptors sets a fundamental limit to visual sensitivity, yet the origin of noise in mammalian cones and its relation to behavioral sensitivity are poorly understood. Our work here on primate cones improves understanding of these issues in three ways. First, we find that cone noise is not dominated by spontaneous photopigment activation or by quantal fluctuations in photon absorption but instead by other sources, namely channel noise and fluctuations in cGMP. Second, we find that adaptation in cones, unlike that in rods, affects signals and noise differently. This difference helps explain why thresholds for rod- and cone-mediated signals have different dependencies on background light level. Third, past estimates of noise in mammalian cones are too high to explain behavioral sensitivity. Our measurements indicate a lower level of cone noise, and thus help reconcile physiological and behavioral estimates of cone noise and sensitivity. PMID:24097042

  8. The cone dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P; Moore, A T

    1998-01-01

    The cone dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that result in dysfunction of the cone photoreceptors and sometimes their post-receptoral pathways. The major clinical features of cone dystrophy are photophobia, reduced visual acuity and abnormal colour vision. Ganzfeld electroretinography shows reduced or absent cone responses. On the basis of their natural history, the cone dystrophies may be broadly divided into two groups: stationary and progressive cone dystrophies. The stationary cone dystrophies have received more attention, and subsequently our knowledge of their molecular genetic, psychophysical and clinical characteristics is better developed. Various methods of classification have been proposed for the progressive cone dystrophies, but none is entirely satisfactory, largely because the underlying disease mechanisms are poorly understood. Multidisciplinary studies involving clinical assessment, molecular genetics, electrophysiology and psychophysics should lead to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders.

  9. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  10. Recoverin depletion accelerates cone photoresponse recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Jingjing; Keim, Jennifer; Kastenhuber, Edda; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal Ca2+-binding protein Recoverin has been shown to regulate phototransduction termination in mammalian rods. Here we identify four recoverin genes in the zebrafish genome, rcv1a, rcv1b, rcv2a and rcv2b, and investigate their role in modulating the cone phototransduction cascade. While Recoverin-1b is only found in the adult retina, the other Recoverins are expressed throughout development in all four cone types, except Recoverin-1a, which is expressed only in rods and UV cones. Applying a double flash electroretinogram (ERG) paradigm, downregulation of Recoverin-2a or 2b accelerates cone photoresponse recovery, albeit at different light intensities. Exclusive recording from UV cones via spectral ERG reveals that knockdown of Recoverin-1a alone has no effect, but Recoverin-1a/2a double-knockdowns showed an even shorter recovery time than Recoverin-2a-deficient larvae. We also showed that UV cone photoresponse kinetics depend on Recoverin-2a function via cone-specific kinase Grk7a. This is the first in vivo study demonstrating that cone opsin deactivation kinetics determine overall photoresponse shut off kinetics. PMID:26246494

  11. The Cone-specific Visual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Shan; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2010-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors mediate our daytime vision and function under bright and rapidly-changing light conditions. As their visual pigment is destroyed in the process of photoactivation, the continuous function of cones imposes the need for rapid recycling of their chromophore and regeneration of their pigment. The canonical retinoid visual cycle through the retinal pigment epithelium cells recycles chromophore and supplies it to both rods and cones. However, shortcomings of this pathway, including its slow rate and competition with rods for chromophore, have led to the suggestion that cones might use a separate mechanism for recycling of chromophore. In the past four decades biochemical studies have identified enzymatic activities consistent with recycling chromophore in the retinas of cone-dominant animals, such as chicken and ground squirrel. These studies have led to the hypothesis of a cone-specific retina visual cycle. The physiological relevance of these studies was controversial for a long time and evidence for the function of this visual cycle emerged only in very recent studies and will be the focus of this review. The retina visual cycle supplies chromophore and promotes pigment regeneration only in cones but not in rods. This pathway is independent of the pigment epithelium and instead involves the Müller cells in the retina, where chromophore is recycled and supplied selectively to cones. The rapid supply of chromophore through the retina visual cycle is critical for extending the dynamic range of cones to bright light and for their rapid dark adaptation following exposure to light. The importance of the retina visual cycle is emphasized also by its preservation through evolution as its function has now been demonstrated in species ranging from salamander to zebrafish, mouse, primate, and human. PMID:21111842

  12. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm(2)). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain.

  13. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm2). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain. PMID:27375437

  14. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm(2)). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain. PMID:27375437

  15. Transformation of light double cones in the human retina: the origin of trichromatism, of 4D-spatiotemporal vision, and of patchwise 4D Fourier transformation in Talbot imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1997-09-01

    The interpretation of the 'inverted' retina of primates as an 'optoretina' (a light cones transforming diffractive cellular 3D-phase grating) integrates the functional, structural, and oscillatory aspects of a cortical layer. It is therefore relevant to consider prenatal developments as a basis of the macro- and micro-geometry of the inner eye. This geometry becomes relevant for the postnatal trichromatic synchrony organization (TSO) as well as the adaptive levels of human vision. It is shown that the functional performances, the trichromatism in photopic vision, the monocular spatiotemporal 3D- and 4D-motion detection, as well as the Fourier optical image transformation with extraction of invariances all become possible. To transform light cones into reciprocal gratings especially the spectral phase conditions in the eikonal of the geometrical optical imaging before the retinal 3D-grating become relevant first, then in the von Laue resp. reciprocal von Laue equation for 3D-grating optics inside the grating and finally in the periodicity of Talbot-2/Fresnel-planes in the near-field behind the grating. It is becoming possible to technically realize -- at least in some specific aspects -- such a cortical optoretina sensor element with its typical hexagonal-concentric structure which leads to these visual functions.

  16. Photovoltage of Rods and Cones in the Macaque Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeweis, David M.; Schnapf, Julie L.

    1995-05-01

    The kinetics, gain, and reliability of light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors are important determinants of overall visual sensitivity. In voltage recordings from photoreceptors in an intact primate retina, rods were found to be functionally isolated from each other, unlike the tightly coupled rods of cold-blooded vertebrates. Cones were observed to receive excitatory input from rods, which indicates that the cone pathway also processes rod signals. This input might be expected to degrade the spatial resolution of mesopic vision.

  17. Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Miller, Donald T.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of experimental and theoretical investigations have established that photoreceptors capture light based on the principles of optical waveguiding. Yet considerable uncertainty remains, even for the most basic prediction as to whether photoreceptors support more than a single waveguide mode. To test for modal behavior in human cone photoreceptors in the near infrared, we took advantage of adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT, λc = 785 nm) to noninvasively image in three dimensions the reflectance profile of cones. Modal content of reflections generated at the cone inner segment and outer segment junction (IS/OS) and cone outer segment tip (COST) was examined over a range of cone diameters in 1,802 cones from 0.6° to 10° retinal eccentricity. Second moment analysis in conjunction with theoretical predictions indicate cone IS and OS have optical properties consistent of waveguides, which depend on segment diameter and refractive index. Cone IS was found to support a single mode near the fovea (≤3°) and multiple modes further away (>4°). In contrast, no evidence of multiple modes was found in the cone OSs. The IS/OS and COST reflections share a common optical aperture, are most circular near the fovea, show no orientation preference, and are temporally stable. We tested mode predictions of a conventional step-index fiber model and found that in order to fit our AO-OCT results required a lower estimate of the IS refractive index and introduction of an IS focusing/tapering effect. PMID:26417509

  18. Electrical coupling between cones in turtle retina.

    PubMed Central

    Detwiler, P B; Hodgkin, A L

    1979-01-01

    1. The electrical coupling between cones of known spectral sensitivity in the peripheral part of the turtle's retina was studied by passing current through a micro-electrode inserted into one cone and recording with a second micro-electrode inserted into a neighbouring cone. 2. Spatial sensitivity profiles were determined by recording flash responses to a long narrow strip of light which was moved across the impaled cones in orthogonal directions. These measurements gave both the length constant lambda of electrical spread in the cone network and the separation of the two cones. 3. The cone separation determined from the spatial profiles agreed closely with that measured directly by injecting a fluorescent dye into two cones. 4. The length constant lambda varied from 18 to 39 micron with a mean of 25 micron for red-sensitive cones and 26 micron for green-sensitive cones. 5. The majority of cone pairs studied were electrically coupled provided they had the same spectral sensitivity and were separated by less than 60 micron: thirty-two out of thirty-six red-red pairs, two out of two green-green pairs, none out of eight red-green pairs: no blue cones were observed. 6. The strength of electrical coupling was expressed as a mutual resistance defined as the voltage in one cell divided by the current flowing into the other. Mutual resistances decreased from a maximum value of about 30 M omega at separations close to zero to 0.2 M omega, the lower limit of detectable coupling at separations of about 60 micron. Mutual resistances were always positive and were independent of which cell was directly polarized. The coupling seemed to be ohmic and any rectification or non-linearity probably arose in the cone membranes rather than in the coupling resistances. 7. The results were analysed in terms of the Lamb & Simon (1977) theories of square and hexagonal lattices, which approximate to the continuous sheet model except in the case of the cone to which current is applied. 8. The

  19. Salamander Blue-sensitive Cones Lost During Metamorphosis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Znoiko, Sergey; DeGrip, Willem J.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ma, Jian-xing

    2009-01-01

    The tiger salamander lives in shallow water with bright light in the aquatic phase, and in dim tunnels or caves in the terrestrial phase. In the aquatic phase, there are five types of photoreceptors—two types of rods and three types of cones. Our previous studies showed that the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same visual pigment and have the same absorbance spectra; however, the green rods have a larger photon-catch area and thus have higher light sensitivity than the blue-sensitive cones. Here we show that after metamorphosis, the terrestrial salamander looses the blue-sensitive cones, while the density of the green rods increases. Moreover, the size of the green rod outer segments is increased in the terrestrial phase, compared to that in the aquatic phase. This switch from the blue-sensitive cones to the green rods may represent an adaptation to the dim light environment of the terrestrial phase. PMID:18331398

  20. The B → K* transition form factors within the QCD light-cone sum rules and their application to the semi-leptonic decay B → K* μ + μ -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Cheng, Wei; Zhong, Tao

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed calculation on the B\\to {K}* transition form factors (TFFs), {A}{0,1,2}, V and {T}{1,2,3}, within the QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSRs). To suppress the contributions from high-twist light-cone distribution amplitudes, we adopt a right-handed chiral correlator to do the LCSR calculation. In the resultant LCSRs for the TFFs, the transverse leading-twist distribution amplitude {φ }2;{K*}\\perp provides over 90% contribution, thus those TFFs provide good platforms for testing the property of {φ }2;{K*}\\perp . We suggest a model for {φ }2;{K*}\\perp , in which two parameters {B}2;{K*}\\perp and {C}2;{K*}\\perp dominantly control its longitudinal distribution. With a proper choice of {B}2;{K*}\\perp and {C}2;{K*}\\perp , our predictions on B\\to {K}* TFFs are consistent with those of lattice QCD predictions. As an application, we also calculate the branching fraction of the B-meson rare decay B\\to {K}*{μ }+{μ }-. The predicted differential branching fraction {{d}}{B}/{{d}}{q}2(B\\to {K}*{μ }+{μ }-) is consistent with the LHCb and Belle measurements within errors. After integrating over the allowable q 2-region, we get the branching fraction, {B}(B\\to {K}*{μ }+{μ }-)=≤ft({1.088}-0.205+0.261\\right)× {10}-6, where the errors are squared average of the mentioned error sources. When the precision of experimental measurements or the other source of theoretical uncertainties for this process have been further improved in the future, we may get a definite conclusion on the behavior of {φ }2;{K*}\\perp .

  1. Cone sampling array models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Poirson, Allen

    1987-01-01

    A model is described for positioning cones in the retina. Each cone has a circular disk of influence, and the disks are tightly packed outward from the center. This model has three parameters that can vary with eccentricity: the mean radius of the cone disk, the standard deviation of the cone disk radius, and the standard deviation of postpacking jitter. Estimates for these parameters out to 1.6 deg are found by using measurements reported by Hirsch and Hylton (1985) and Hirsch and Miller (1987) of the positions of the cone inner segments of an adult macaque. The estimation is based on fitting measures of variation in local intercone distances, and the fit to these measures is good.

  2. Progressive cone dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Ripps, H; Noble, K G; Greenstein, V C; Siegel, I M; Carr, R E

    1987-01-01

    Psychophysical, reflectometric, and electrophysiological studies were performed on four members of a dominant pedigree with progressive cone dystrophy. The two youngest individuals were asymptomatic at the initial examination, and none of the subjects complained of problems associated with night vision. Absent or grossly reduced cone-mediated ERG responses revealed the widespread loss of cone function. Moderate elevations (1 log unit) in absolute threshold together with reductions in rhodopsin levels in the midperipheral retina provided evidence of a mild impairment of the rod system also, although not to the degree seen in a cone-rod dystrophy. The progressive nature of the disease was apparent from the case histories and the changes in visual performance that occurred on re-test after a 5-year interval. Likewise, the results of incremental threshold measurements at several retinal loci suggested that peripheral cones may be affected earlier and more severely than those in the central retina. PMID:3502298

  3. S-cone psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Hannah E

    2014-03-01

    We review the features of the S-cone system that appeal to the psychophysicist and summarize the celebrated characteristics of S-cone mediated vision. Two factors are emphasized: First, the fine stimulus control that is required to isolate putative visual mechanisms and second, the relationship between physiological data and psychophysical approaches. We review convergent findings from physiology and psychophysics with respect to asymmetries in the retinal wiring of S-ON and S-OFF visual pathways, and the associated treatment of increments and decrements in the S-cone system. Beyond the retina, we consider the lack of S-cone projections to superior colliculus and the use of S-cone stimuli in experimental psychology, for example to address questions about the mechanisms of visually driven attention. Careful selection of stimulus parameters enables psychophysicists to produce entirely reversible, temporary, "lesions," and to assess behavior in the absence of specific neural subsystems. PMID:24759446

  4. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks—the rays and chimaeras—are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λmax 484-518 nm) and cone (λmax 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  5. Design of a trichromatic cone array.

    PubMed

    Garrigan, Patrick; Ratliff, Charles P; Klein, Jennifer M; Sterling, Peter; Brainard, David H; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2010-02-01

    Cones with peak sensitivity to light at long (L), medium (M) and short (S) wavelengths are unequal in number on the human retina: S cones are rare (<10%) while increasing in fraction from center to periphery, and the L/M cone proportions are highly variable between individuals. What optical properties of the eye, and statistical properties of natural scenes, might drive this organization? We found that the spatial-chromatic structure of natural scenes was largely symmetric between the L, M and S sensitivity bands. Given this symmetry, short wavelength attenuation by ocular media gave L/M cones a modest signal-to-noise advantage, which was amplified, especially in the denser central retina, by long-wavelength accommodation of the lens. Meanwhile, total information represented by the cone mosaic remained relatively insensitive to L/M proportions. Thus, the observed cone array design along with a long-wavelength accommodated lens provides a selective advantage: it is maximally informative. PMID:20168996

  6. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks-the rays and chimaeras-are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λ(max) 484-518 nm) and cone (λ(max) 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology. PMID:21212930

  7. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks-the rays and chimaeras-are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λ(max) 484-518 nm) and cone (λ(max) 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  8. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yunlu; Shen, Susan Q.; Jui, Jonathan; Rupp, Alan C.; Byrne, Leah C.; Hattar, Samer; Flannery, John G.; Corbo, Joseph C.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde–binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by RLBP1) can lead to severe cone photoreceptor–mediated vision loss in patients. It is not known how CRALBP supports cone function or how altered CRALBP leads to cone dysfunction. Here, we determined that deletion of Rlbp1 in mice impairs the retinal visual cycle. Mice lacking CRALBP exhibited M-opsin mislocalization, M-cone loss, and impaired cone-driven visual behavior and light responses. Additionally, M-cone dark adaptation was largely suppressed in CRALBP-deficient animals. While rearing CRALBP-deficient mice in the dark prevented the deterioration of cone function, it did not rescue cone dark adaptation. Adeno-associated virus–mediated restoration of CRALBP expression specifically in Müller cells, but not retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, rescued the retinal visual cycle and M-cone sensitivity in knockout mice. Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone–driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation. PMID:25607845

  9. Rod-cone interactions and analysis of retinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Arden, G B; Hogg, C R

    1985-01-01

    Cone flicker threshold rises as the rods dark adapt, though the cone threshold to continuous light remains constant. The rise is normally about 1 log unit, but in certain patients who complain of night blindness it may be as great as 2.5 log units. In these persons the kinetics of the rod-cone interaction are those of the recovery of rod sensitivity. The rods impose a low-pass filter on the cones. This effect is absent in congenital nyctalopia and X-linked retinoschisis. We suggest that cone flicker is maintained through a feedback system involving horizontal cells, and when the rod dark current returns in dark adaptation this feedback is altered. Rod cone interaction thus tests rod dark current, and cases of abnormal interaction in patients with retinitis pigmentosa occur, which indicate that the transduction mechanism and the membrane dark current may be differentially affected. Images PMID:3873959

  10. Fast Electron Generation in Cones with Ultra-Intense Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; VanWoerkom, L; Akli, K; Bartal, T; Beg, F; Chawla, S; Chen, C; Chowdhury, E; Freeman, R; Hey, D; Key, M; King, J; Link, A; MacPhee, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Schumacher, D; Stephens, R; Tsui, Y; Ma, T

    2007-12-07

    Experimental results from copper cones irradiated with ultra-intense laser light are presented. Spatial images and total yields of Cu K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence were measured as a function of the laser focusing properties. The fluorescence emission extends into the cone approximately 300 {micro}m from the cone tip and cannot be explained by ray tracing including cone wall absorption. In addition the total fluorescence yield from cones is an order of magnitude higher than for equivalent mass foil targets. Indications are that the physics of the laser cone interaction is dominated by preplasma created from the long duration, low energy pre-pulse from the laser.

  11. Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal.

    PubMed

    Smallman, H S; MacLeod, D I; Doyle, P

    2001-08-01

    Through unique observations of an adult case of bilateral congenital cataract removal, we have found evidence that retinal photoreceptors will swiftly realign towards the brightest regions in the pupils of the eye. Cones may be phototropic, actively orientating themselves towards light like sunflowers in a field.

  12. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  13. 2017 Eclipse Shadow Cones

    NASA Video Gallery

    A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow falls on the Earth. The shadow comprises two concentric cones called the umbra and the penumbra. Within the smaller, central umbra, the Sun is complete...

  14. Lunar cinder cones.

    PubMed

    McGetchin, T R; Head, J W

    1973-04-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones.

  15. Lunar cinder cones.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Head, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones.

  16. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4 (FATP4) Prevents Light-Induced Degeneration of Cone and Rod Photoreceptors by Inhibiting RPE65 Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songhua; Lee, Jungsoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gordon, William C.; Hill, James M.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Jin, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While Rhodopsin is essential for sensing light for vision, it also mediates light-induced apoptosis of photoreceptors in mouse. RPE65, which catalyzes isomerization of all-trans retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis retinol (11cROL) in the visual cycle, controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate and photoreceptor susceptibility to light-induced degeneration. Mutations in RPE65 have been linked to blindness in affected children. Despite such importance, the mechanism that regulates RPE65 function remains unclear. Through unbiased expression screening of a bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cDNA library, we have identified elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 1 (ELOVL1) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), which each have very long-chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCFA-ACS) activity, as negative regulators of RPE65. We found that the VLCFA derivative lignoceroyl (C24:0)-CoA inhibited synthesis of 11cROL, whereas palmitoyl (C16:0)-CoA promoted synthesis of 11cROL. We further found that competition of FATP4 with RPE65 for the substrate of RPE65 was also involved in the mechanisms by which FATP4 inhibits synthesis of 11cROL. FATP4 was predominantly expressed in RPE, and the FATP4-deficient RPE showed significantly higher isomerase activity. Consistent with these results, the regeneration rate of 11-cis retinaldehyde and the recovery rate for rod light sensitivity were faster in FATP4-deficient mice than wild-type mice. Moreover, FATP4-deficient mice displayed increased accumulation of the cytotoxic all-trans retinaldehyde and hyper susceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Our findings demonstrate that ELOVL1, FATP4, and their products comprise the regulatory elements of RPE65 and play important roles in protecting photoreceptors from degeneration induced by light damage. PMID:23407971

  17. Hurricane track forecast cones from fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuel, T.; Prado, G.; Seychelles, F.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2012-06-01

    Trajectories of tropical cyclones may show large deviations from predicted tracks leading to uncertainty as to their landfall location for example. Prediction schemes usually render this uncertainty by showing track forecast cones representing the most probable region for the location of a cyclone during a period of time. By using the statistical properties of these deviations, we propose a simple method to predict possible corridors for the future trajectory of a cyclone. Examples of this scheme are implemented for hurricane Ike and hurricane Jimena. The corridors include the future trajectory up to at least 50 h before landfall. The cones proposed here shed new light on known track forecast cones as they link them directly to the statistics of these deviations.

  18. Hurricane track forecast cones from fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Meuel, T; Prado, G; Seychelles, F; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2012-01-01

    Trajectories of tropical cyclones may show large deviations from predicted tracks leading to uncertainty as to their landfall location for example. Prediction schemes usually render this uncertainty by showing track forecast cones representing the most probable region for the location of a cyclone during a period of time. By using the statistical properties of these deviations, we propose a simple method to predict possible corridors for the future trajectory of a cyclone. Examples of this scheme are implemented for hurricane Ike and hurricane Jimena. The corridors include the future trajectory up to at least 50 h before landfall. The cones proposed here shed new light on known track forecast cones as they link them directly to the statistics of these deviations.

  19. Hurricane track forecast cones from fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Meuel, T.; Prado, G.; Seychelles, F.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2012-01-01

    Trajectories of tropical cyclones may show large deviations from predicted tracks leading to uncertainty as to their landfall location for example. Prediction schemes usually render this uncertainty by showing track forecast cones representing the most probable region for the location of a cyclone during a period of time. By using the statistical properties of these deviations, we propose a simple method to predict possible corridors for the future trajectory of a cyclone. Examples of this scheme are implemented for hurricane Ike and hurricane Jimena. The corridors include the future trajectory up to at least 50 h before landfall. The cones proposed here shed new light on known track forecast cones as they link them directly to the statistics of these deviations. PMID:22701776

  20. Ideal illuminants for rod/L-cone color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Humans see multicolor complex images with illuminants that have very low amounts of 400 to 580nm light when there is enough long-wave light greater than 590nm. Interactions between rods and long-wave (L) cones generate these colors. They are observed when there is insufficient light for a threshold response from M- and S-cones. This paper measures the spectral emission of a wood fire and a wax candle and it compares these low-color temperature spectral radiant exitances with the sensitivities of rods and long-wave cones. The paper reviews some of the literature on the evolution of human cone pigments and the early use of fire by hominids.

  1. The Na(+)/Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger 2 modulates mammalian cone phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Keisuke; Vinberg, Frans; Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) modulate the phototransduction cascade of vertebrate cone photoreceptors to tune gain, inactivation, and light adaptation. In darkness, the continuous current entering the cone outer segment through cGMP-gated (CNG) channels is carried in part by Ca(2+), which is then extruded back to the extracellular space. The mechanism of Ca(2+) extrusion from mammalian cones is not understood. The dominant view has been that the cone-specific isoform of the Na(+)/Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger, NCKX2, is responsible for removing Ca(2+) from their outer segments. However, indirect evaluation of cone function in NCKX2-deficient (Nckx2(-/-)) mice by electroretinogram recordings revealed normal photopic b-wave responses. This unexpected result suggested that NCKX2 may not be involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis of mammalian cones. To address this controversy, we examined the expression of NCKX2 in mouse cones and performed transretinal recordings from Nckx2(-/-) mice to determine the effect of NCKX2 deletion on cone function directly. We found that Nckx2(-/-) cones exhibit compromised phototransduction inactivation, slower response recovery and delayed background adaptation. We conclude that NCKX2 is required for the maintenance of efficient Ca(2+) extrusion from mouse cones. However, surprisingly, Nckx2(-/-) cones adapted normally in steady background light, indicating the existence of additional Ca(2+)-extruding mechanisms in mammalian cones. PMID:27580676

  2. The Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger 2 modulates mammalian cone phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Keisuke; Vinberg, Frans; Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions (Ca2+) modulate the phototransduction cascade of vertebrate cone photoreceptors to tune gain, inactivation, and light adaptation. In darkness, the continuous current entering the cone outer segment through cGMP-gated (CNG) channels is carried in part by Ca2+, which is then extruded back to the extracellular space. The mechanism of Ca2+ extrusion from mammalian cones is not understood. The dominant view has been that the cone-specific isoform of the Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger, NCKX2, is responsible for removing Ca2+ from their outer segments. However, indirect evaluation of cone function in NCKX2-deficient (Nckx2−/−) mice by electroretinogram recordings revealed normal photopic b-wave responses. This unexpected result suggested that NCKX2 may not be involved in the Ca2+ homeostasis of mammalian cones. To address this controversy, we examined the expression of NCKX2 in mouse cones and performed transretinal recordings from Nckx2−/− mice to determine the effect of NCKX2 deletion on cone function directly. We found that Nckx2−/− cones exhibit compromised phototransduction inactivation, slower response recovery and delayed background adaptation. We conclude that NCKX2 is required for the maintenance of efficient Ca2+ extrusion from mouse cones. However, surprisingly, Nckx2−/− cones adapted normally in steady background light, indicating the existence of additional Ca2+-extruding mechanisms in mammalian cones. PMID:27580676

  3. The cone dysfunction syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Aboshiha, Jonathan; Dubis, Adam M; Hardcastle, Alison J; Michaelides, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The cone dysfunction syndromes are a heterogeneous group of inherited, predominantly stationary retinal disorders characterised by reduced central vision and varying degrees of colour vision abnormalities, nystagmus and photophobia. This review details the following conditions: complete and incomplete achromatopsia, blue-cone monochromatism, oligocone trichromacy, bradyopsia and Bornholm eye disease. We describe the clinical, psychophysical, electrophysiological and imaging findings that are characteristic to each condition in order to aid their accurate diagnosis, as well as highlight some classically held notions about these diseases that have come to be challenged over the recent years. The latest data regarding the genetic aetiology and pathological changes observed in the cone dysfunction syndromes are discussed, and, where relevant, translational avenues of research, including completed and anticipated interventional clinical trials, for some of the diseases described herein will be presented. Finally, we briefly review the current management of these disorders. PMID:25770143

  4. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  5. Formation of shatter cones in MEMIN impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, J.; Kenkmann, T.

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are the only macroscopic feature considered as evidence for shock metamorphism. Their presence is diagnostic for the discovery and verification of impact structures. The occurrence of shatter cones is heterogeneous throughout the crater record and their geometry can diverge from the typical cone shape. The precise formation mechanism of shatter cones is still not resolved. In this study, we aim at better constraining the boundary conditions of shatter cone formation in impact experiments and test a novel approach to qualitatively and quantitatively describe shatter cone geometries by white light interferometry. We recovered several ejected fragments from MEMIN cratering experiments that show slightly curved, striated surfaces and conical geometries with apices of 36°-52°. These fragments fulfilling the morphological criteria of shatter cones were found in experiments with 20-80 cm sized target cubes of sandstone, quartzite and limestone, but not in highly porous tuff. Targets were impacted by aluminum, steel, and iron meteorite projectiles at velocities of 4.6-7.8 km s-1. The projectile sizes ranged from 2.5-12 mm in diameter and produced experimental peak pressures of up to 86 GPa. In experiments with lower impact velocities shatter cones could not be found. A thorough morphometric analysis of the experimentally generated shatter cones was made with 3D white light interferometry scans at micrometer accuracy. SEM analysis of the surfaces of recovered fragments showed vesicular melt films alternating with smoothly polished surfaces. We hypothesize that the vesicular melt films predominantly form at strain releasing steps and suggest that shatter cones are probably mixed mode fractures.

  6. Ultra-short pulses to signal neuronal growth cone machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Manoj; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Andres, Rosa; Cormack, Iain G.; Artigas, David; Soriano, Eduardo; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2007-02-01

    Measurable change in the sensory motor machinery of growth cones are induced by non contact femtosecond laser. The focused laser beam with an average power of 3 mW was positioned at some distance away from the closest fillopodia of cortical neurons from primary cell cultures (mice E15). By identifying a set of preliminary parameters we were able to statistically analyze the phenomenological behavior of the fillopodia and classify the effects different conditions of laser light has on the growth cone. Results show that fillopodia become significantly biased towards the focused femtosecond laser light. The same experiment performed with continuous wave (CW) produced results which were indistinguishable from the case where there is no laser light present (placebo condition) indicating no clear effects of the CW laser light on the fillopodia at a distance. These findings show the potential for ultrashort pulsed light to become a new type of pathfinding cue for neuronal growth cones.

  7. Cap protects aircraft nose cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. F., Jr.; Bryan, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Inexpensive, easily fabricated cap protects aircraft nose cone from erosion. Made of molded polycarbonate, cap has been flight tested at both subsonic and supesonic speeds. Its strength and erosion characteristics are superior to those of fiberglass cones.

  8. Cone photopigment in older subjects: decreased optical density in early age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Ann E.; Burns, Stephen A.; Weiter, John J.

    2002-01-01

    We measured changes to cone photoreceptors in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. The data of 53 patients were compared with normative data for color matching measurements of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the central macula. A four-parameter model quantified cone photopigment optical density and kinetics. Cone photopigment optical density was on average less for the patients than for normal subjects and was uncorrelated with visual acuity. More light was needed to reduce the photopigment density by 50% in the steady state for patients. These results imply that cone photopigment optical density is reduced by factors other than slowed kinetics.

  9. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-10-01

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones. PMID:26423439

  10. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-10-01

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones.

  11. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B.; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones. PMID:26423439

  12. Evolutionary loss of cone photoreception in balaenid whales reveals circuit stability in the mammalian retina.

    PubMed

    Schweikert, Lorian E; Fasick, Jeffry I; Grace, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    The classical understanding of mammalian vision is that it occurs through "duplex" retinae containing both rod and cone photoreceptors, the signals from which are processed through rod- and/or cone-specific signaling pathways. The recent discovery of rod monochromacy in some cetacean lineages provides a novel opportunity to investigate the effects of an evolutionary loss of cone photoreception on retinal organization. Sequence analysis of right whale (Eubalaena glacialis; family Balaenidae) cDNA derived from long-wavelength sensitive (LWS) cone opsin mRNA identified several mutations in the opsin coding sequence, suggesting the loss of cone cell function, but maintenance of non-photosensitive, cone opsin mRNA-expressing cells in the retina. Subsequently, we investigated the retina of the closely related bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus; family Balaenidae) to determine how the loss of cone-mediated photoreception affects light signaling pathways in the retina. Anti-opsin immunofluorescence demonstrated the total loss of cone opsin expression in B. mysticetus, whereas light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and bipolar cell (protein kinase C-α [PKC-α] and recoverin) immunofluorescence revealed the maintenance of cone soma, putative cone pedicles, and both rod and cone bipolar cell types. These findings represent the first immunological and anatomical evidence of a naturally occurring rod-monochromatic mammalian retina, and suggest that despite the loss of cone-mediated photoreception, the associated cone signaling structures (i.e., cone synapses and cone bipolar cells) may be maintained for multichannel rod-based signaling in balaenid whales. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2873-2885, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26972896

  13. Directionality of individual cone photoreceptors in the parafoveal region.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hugh J; Blanco, Leonardo; Codona, Johanan L; Li, Simone L; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    The pointing direction of cone photoreceptors can be inferred from the Stiles-Crawford Effect of the First Kind (SCE-I) measurement. Healthy retinas have tightly packed cones with a SCE-I function peak either centered in the pupil or with a slight nasal bias. Various retinal pathologies can change the profile of the SCE-I function implying that the arrangement or the light capturing properties of the cone photoreceptors are affected. Measuring the SCE-I may reveal early signs of photoreceptor change before actual cell apoptosis occurs. In vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics (AO) was used to measure the pointing direction of individual cones at eight retinal locations in four control human subjects. Retinal images were acquired by translating an aperture in the light delivery arm through 19 different locations across a subject's entrance pupil. Angular tuning properties of individual cones were calculated by fitting a Gaussian to the reflected intensity profile of each cone projected onto the pupil. Results were compared to those from an accepted psychophysical SCE-I measurement technique. The maximal difference in cone directionality of an ensemble of cones, ρ¯, between the major and minor axes of the Gaussian fit was 0.05 versus 0.29mm(-2) in one subject. All four subjects were found to have a mean nasal bias of 0.81mm with a standard deviation of ±0.30mm in the peak position at all retinal locations with mean ρ¯ value decreasing by 23% with increasing retinal eccentricity. Results show that cones in the parafoveal region converge towards the center of the pupillary aperture, confirming the anterior pointing alignment hypothesis. PMID:26494187

  14. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  15. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  16. Mouse rods signal through gap junctions with cones

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Gargini, Claudia; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors are coupled by gap junctions (GJs), relatively large channels able to mediate both electrical and molecular communication. Despite their critical location in our visual system and evidence that they are dynamically gated for dark/light adaptation, the full impact that rod–cone GJs can have on cone function is not known. We recorded the photovoltage of mouse cones and found that the initial level of rod input increased spontaneously after obtaining intracellular access. This process allowed us to explore the underlying coupling capacity to rods, revealing that fully coupled cones acquire a striking rod-like phenotype. Calcium, a candidate mediator of the coupling process, does not appear to be involved on the cone side of the junctional channels. Our findings show that the anatomical substrate is adequate for rod–cone coupling to play an important role in vision and, possibly, in biochemical signaling among photoreceptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01386.001 PMID:24399457

  17. Cone rod dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Christian P

    2007-01-01

    Cone rod dystrophies (CRDs) (prevalence 1/40,000) are inherited retinal dystrophies that belong to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CRDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly localized to the macular region. In contrast to typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP), also called the rod cone dystrophies (RCDs) resulting from the primary loss in rod photoreceptors and later followed by the secondary loss in cone photoreceptors, CRDs reflect the opposite sequence of events. CRD is characterized by primary cone involvement, or, sometimes, by concomitant loss of both cones and rods that explains the predominant symptoms of CRDs: decreased visual acuity, color vision defects, photoaversion and decreased sensitivity in the central visual field, later followed by progressive loss in peripheral vision and night blindness. The clinical course of CRDs is generally more severe and rapid than that of RCDs, leading to earlier legal blindness and disability. At end stage, however, CRDs do not differ from RCDs. CRDs are most frequently non syndromic, but they may also be part of several syndromes, such as Bardet Biedl syndrome and Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 (SCA7). Non syndromic CRDs are genetically heterogeneous (ten cloned genes and three loci have been identified so far). The four major causative genes involved in the pathogenesis of CRDs are ABCA4 (which causes Stargardt disease and also 30 to 60% of autosomal recessive CRDs), CRX and GUCY2D (which are responsible for many reported cases of autosomal dominant CRDs), and RPGR (which causes about 2/3 of X-linked RP and also an undetermined percentage of X-linked CRDs). It is likely that highly deleterious mutations in genes that otherwise cause RP or macular dystrophy may also lead to CRDs. The diagnosis of CRDs is based on clinical history, fundus examination and electroretinogram. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, genetic counseling is always advised. Currently

  18. Differential regulation of cone calcium signals by different horizontal cell feedback mechanisms in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Robin; Schultz, Konrad; Dedek, Karin; Euler, Thomas; Schubert, Timm

    2014-08-27

    Controlling neurotransmitter release by modulating the presynaptic calcium level is a key mechanism to ensure reliable signal transmission from one neuron to the next. In this study, we investigated how the glutamatergic output of cone photoreceptors (cones) in the mouse retina is shaped by different feedback mechanisms from postsynaptic GABAergic horizontal cells (HCs) using a combination of two-photon calcium imaging and pharmacology at the level of individual cone axon terminals. We provide evidence that hemichannel-mediated (putative ephaptic) feedback sets the cone output gain by defining the basal calcium level, a mechanism that may be crucial for adapting cones to the ambient light level. In contrast, pH-mediated feedback did not modulate the cone basal calcium level but affected the size and shape of light-evoked cone calcium signals in a contrast-dependent way: low-contrast light responses were amplified, whereas high-contrast light responses were reduced. Finally, we provide functional evidence that GABA shapes light-evoked calcium signals in cones. Because we could not localize ionotropic GABA receptors on cone axon terminals using electron microscopy, we suggest that GABA may act through GABA autoreceptors on HCs, thereby possibly modulating hemichannel- and/or pH-mediated feedback. Together, our results suggest that at the cone synapse, hemichannel-mediated (ephaptic) and pH-mediated feedback fulfill distinct functions to adjust the output of cones to changing ambient light levels and stimulus contrasts and that the efficacy of these feedback mechanisms is likely modulated by GABA release in the outer retina.

  19. The uniqueness of the solution of cone-like inversion models for halo CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. P.

    2006-12-01

    Most of elliptic halo CMEs are believed to be formed by the Thompson scattering of the photospheric light by the 3-D cone-like shell of the CME plasma. To obtain the real propagation direction and angular width of the halo CMEs, such cone-like inversion models as the circular cone, the elliptic cone and the ice-cream cone models have been suggested recently. Because the number of given parameters that are used to characterize 2-D elliptic halo CMEs observed by one spacecraft are less than the number of unknown parameters that are used to characterize the 3-D elliptic cone model, the solution of the elliptic cone model is not unique. Since it is difficult to determine whether or not an observed halo CME is formed by an circular cone or elliptic cone shell, the solution of circular cone model may often be not unique too. To fix the problem of the uniqueness of the solution of various 3-D cone-like inversion models, this work tries to develop the algorithm for using the data from multi-spacecraft, such as the STEREO A and B, and the Solar Sentinels.

  20. Skewon modification of the light cone structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itin, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic media with generic linear response provide a rich class of Lorentz violation models. In the framework of a general covariant metric-free approach, we study electromagnetic wave propagation in these media. We define the notion of an optic tensor and present its unique canonical irreducible decomposition into the principle and skewon parts. The skewon contribution to the Minkowski vacuum is a subject that does not arise in the ordinary models of Lorentz violation based on a modified Lagrangian. We derive the covector parametrization of the skewon optic tensor and discuss its U (1 )-gauge symmetry. We obtain several compact expressions for the contribution of the principle and skewon optic tensor to the dispersion relation. As an application of the technique proposed here, we consider the case of a generic skewon tensor contributed to a simple metric-type principle part. Our main result: Every solution of the skewon-modified Minkowski dispersion relation is necessarily spacelike or null. It provides an extreme violation of the Lorentz symmetry. The case of the antisymmetric skewon is studied in detail, and some new special cases (electric, magnetic, and degenerate) are discovered. In the case of a skewon represented by a symmetric matrix, we observe a parametric gap that has some similarity to the Higgs model. We worked out a set of specific examples that justify the generic properties of the skewon models and demonstrate the different types of Lorentz violation phenomena.

  1. Radon Transform and Light-Cone Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The relevance of Radon transform for generalized and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions is discussed. The new application for conditional (fracture) parton distributions and dihadron fragmentation functions is suggested.

  2. Migraine photophobia originating in cone-driven retinal pathways.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Rodrigo; Bernstein, Carolyn A; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Lee, Alice J; Fulton, Anne B; Bertisch, Suzanne M; Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Cestari, Dean M; Saavedra-Walker, Rodrigo; Borsook, David; Doran, Bruce L; Buettner, Catherine; Burstein, Rami

    2016-07-01

    Migraine headache is uniquely exacerbated by light. Using psychophysical assessments in patients with normal eyesight we found that green light exacerbates migraine headache significantly less than white, blue, amber or red lights. To delineate mechanisms, we used electroretinography and visual evoked potential recording in patients, and multi-unit recording of dura- and light-sensitive thalamic neurons in rats to show that green activates cone-driven retinal pathways to a lesser extent than white, blue and red; that thalamic neurons are most responsive to blue and least responsive to green; and that cortical responses to green are significantly smaller than those generated by blue, amber and red lights. These findings suggest that patients' experience with colour and migraine photophobia could originate in cone-driven retinal pathways, fine-tuned in relay thalamic neurons outside the main visual pathway, and preserved by the cortex. Additionally, the findings provide substrate for the soothing effects of green light. PMID:27190022

  3. Double Cones as a Basis for Polarization Sensitivity in Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Manoel

    1995-01-01

    Over the course of the past 50 years there has been an increasing number of claims that certain vertebrates are sensitive to the linear polarization state of visible radiation. However, the mechanism(s) that mediates this polarization sensitivity remains elusive at the present time. The retinas of most vertebrates contain anatomical structures loosely referred to as double cones--composite entities constituted by the apposition of two independently developed, diurnally active photoreceptors. The significance of this apposition for visual function also remains elusive. It is possible that double cones mediate polarization sensitivity as a consequence of geometric birefringence; light polarized parallel to the axis joining the centers of the two halves of a double cone can potentially stimulate the receptors more strongly than light polarized in the direction perpendicular to both that axis and the normal axis of light propagation down the length of the double cone. The feasibility of this mechanism for polarization sensitivity has been examined here with specific reference to the retina of a representative animal, the green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Transmission electron micrographs of thin sections from a sunfish retina were analyzed in order to develop simple models of waveguiding down the long axis of a sunfish double cone. The results of the computations indicate that the mechanism is feasible only if there are refractive index gradients in the photoreceptors of sunfish. Isolated receptors were thus examined with scanning microinterferometry to demonstrate the presence of such gradients. In the course of the investigation, the literature pertaining to vertebrate polarization sensitivity and retinal anatomy were reviewed to delimit the generality of the conclusions drawn from sunfish photoreceptors. As a result of this analysis, it should be concluded that much future research is needed to clarify what (if any) role optical polarization plays in the sensory

  4. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  5. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less

  6. Making An Impact: Shatter Cones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Lisa M.; Plautz, Michael R.; Crews, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, a group of geologists discovered a large number of shatter cones in southwestern Montana. Shatter cones are a type of metamorphosed rock often found in impact structures (the remains of a crater after a meteor impact and years of Earth activity). Scientists have discovered only 168 impact craters around the world. If rocks could talk,…

  7. A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod-cone opponency.

    PubMed

    Joesch, Maximilian; Meister, Markus

    2016-04-14

    In bright light, cone-photoreceptors are active and colour vision derives from a comparison of signals in cones with different visual pigments. This comparison begins in the retina, where certain retinal ganglion cells have 'colour-opponent' visual responses-excited by light of one colour and suppressed by another colour. In dim light, rod-photoreceptors are active, but colour vision is impossible because they all use the same visual pigment. Instead, the rod signals are thought to splice into retinal circuits at various points, in synergy with the cone signals. Here we report a new circuit for colour vision that challenges these expectations. A genetically identified type of mouse retinal ganglion cell called JAMB (J-RGC), was found to have colour-opponent responses, OFF to ultraviolet (UV) light and ON to green light. Although the mouse retina contains a green-sensitive cone, the ON response instead originates in rods. Rods and cones both contribute to the response over several decades of light intensity. Remarkably, the rod signal in this circuit is antagonistic to that from cones. For rodents, this UV-green channel may play a role in social communication, as suggested by spectral measurements from the environment. In the human retina, all of the components for this circuit exist as well, and its function can explain certain experiences of colour in dim lights, such as a 'blue shift' in twilight. The discovery of this genetically defined pathway will enable new targeted studies of colour processing in the brain.

  8. Functional significance of the taper of vertebrate cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are commonly distinguished based on the shape of their outer segments: those of cones taper, whereas the ones from rods do not. The functional advantages of cone taper, a common occurrence in vertebrate retinas, remain elusive. In this study, we investigate this topic using theoretical analyses aimed at revealing structure–function relationships in photoreceptors. Geometrical optics combined with spectrophotometric and morphological data are used to support the analyses and to test predictions. Three functions are considered for correlations between taper and functionality. The first function proposes that outer segment taper serves to compensate for self-screening of the visual pigment contained within. The second function links outer segment taper to compensation for a signal-to-noise ratio decline along the longitudinal dimension. Both functions are supported by the data: real cones taper more than required for these compensatory roles. The third function relates outer segment taper to the optical properties of the inner compartment whereby the primary determinant is the inner segment’s ability to concentrate light via its ellipsoid. In support of this idea, the rod/cone ratios of primarily diurnal animals are predicted based on a principle of equal light flux gathering between photoreceptors. In addition, ellipsoid concentration factor, a measure of ellipsoid ability to concentrate light onto the outer segment, correlates positively with outer segment taper expressed as a ratio of characteristic lengths, where critical taper is the yardstick. Depending on a light-funneling property and the presence of focusing organelles such as oil droplets, cone outer segments can be reduced in size to various degrees. We conclude that outer segment taper is but one component of a miniaturization process that reduces metabolic costs while improving signal detection. Compromise solutions in the various retinas and retinal regions occur between

  9. Differential encoding of spatial information among retinal on cone bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Purgert, Robert J; Lukasiewicz, Peter D

    2015-09-01

    The retina is the first stage of visual processing. It encodes elemental features of visual scenes. Distinct cone bipolar cells provide the substrate for this to occur. They encode visual information, such as color and luminance, a principle known as parallel processing. Few studies have directly examined whether different forms of spatial information are processed in parallel among cone bipolar cells. To address this issue, we examined the spatial information encoded by mouse ON cone bipolar cells, the subpopulation excited by increments in illumination. Two types of spatial processing were identified. We found that ON cone bipolar cells with axons ramifying in the central inner plexiform layer were tuned to preferentially encode small stimuli. By contrast, ON cone bipolar cells with axons ramifying in the proximal inner plexiform layer, nearest the ganglion cell layer, were tuned to encode both small and large stimuli. This dichotomy in spatial tuning is attributable to amacrine cells providing stronger inhibition to central ON cone bipolar cells compared with proximal ON cone bipolar cells. Furthermore, background illumination altered this difference in spatial tuning. It became less pronounced in bright light, as amacrine cell-driven inhibition became pervasive among all ON cone bipolar cells. These results suggest that differential amacrine cell input determined the distinct spatial encoding properties among ON cone bipolar cells. These findings enhance the known parallel processing capacity of the retina. PMID:26203104

  10. Molecular mechanism of spontaneous pigment activation in retinal cones.

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Alapakkam P; Baylor, Denis A

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous current and voltage fluctuations (dark noise) in the photoreceptor cells of the retina limit the ability of the visual system to detect dim light. We recorded the dark current noise of individual salamander L cones. Previous work showed that the dark noise in these cells arises from thermal activation of the visual pigment. From the temperature dependence of the rate of occurrence of elementary noise events, we found an Arrhenius activation energy E(a) of 25 +/- 7 kcal/mol (mean +/- SD). This E(a) is similar to that reported for the thermal isomerization of 11-cis retinal in solution, suggesting that the cone pigment noise results from isomerization of the retinal chromophore. E(a) for the cone noise is similar to that previously reported for the "photon-like" noise of rods, but the preexponential factor is five orders of magnitude higher. To test the hypothesis that thermal isomerization can only occur in molecules whose Schiff base linkage is unprotonated, we changed the pH of the solution bathing the cone outer segment. This had little effect on the rate of occurrence of elementary noise events. The rate was also unchanged when the cone was exposed to Ringer solution made up from heavy water, whose solvent isotope effect should reduce the probability, that the Schiff base nitrogen is naked. PMID:12080111

  11. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  12. Multiple cone pathways are involved in photic regulation of retinal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Sheng-Nan; Zhang, Zhijing; Ribelayga, Christophe P.; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Dao-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter in the retina and plays a central role in the light adaptive processes of the visual system. The sole source of retinal dopamine is dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs). We and others have previously demonstrated that DACs are activated by rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) upon illumination. However, it is still not clear how each class of photosensitive cells generates light responses in DACs. We genetically isolated cone function in mice to specifically examine the cone-mediated responses of DACs and their neural pathways. In addition to the reported excitatory input to DACs from light-increment (ON) bipolar cells, we found that cones alternatively signal to DACs via a retrograde signalling pathway from ipRGCs. Cones also produce ON and light-decrement (OFF) inhibitory responses in DACs, which are mediated by other amacrine cells, likely driven by type 1 and type 2/3a OFF bipolar cells, respectively. Dye injections indicated that DACs had similar morphological profiles with or without ON/OFF inhibition. Our data demonstrate that cones utilize specific parallel excitatory and inhibitory circuits to modulate DAC activity and efficiently regulate dopamine release and the light-adaptive state of the retina. PMID:27356880

  13. Alcohol intoxication impairs mesopic rod and cone temporal processing in social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; King, Andrea; Cao, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related driving accidents and fatalities occur most frequently at nighttime and at dawn, i.e. a mesopic lighting condition in which visual processing depends on both rod and cone photoreceptors. The temporal functions of the rod and cone pathways are critical for driving in this lighting condition. However, how alcohol influences the temporal functions in the rod and cone pathways at mesopic light levels is inconclusive. To address this, the present study investigated whether an acute intoxicating dose of alcohol impairs rod- and/or cone-mediated critical fusion frequency (CFF, the lowest frequency of which an intermittent or flickering light stimulus is perceived as steady). Methods In Experiment I, we measured the CFFs for three types of visual stimuli (rod stimulus alone, cone stimulus alone, and the mixture of both stimuli types), under three illuminant light levels (dim illuminance: 2Td; low illuminance: 20Td; and medium illuminance 80Td) in moderate-heavy social drinkers before and after they consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol (0.8g/kg) compared with a placebo beverage. In Experiment II, we examined if the illuminance level (dark versus light) of the visual area surrounding the test stimuli alters alcohol’s effect on the temporal processing of rods and cones. Results The results showed that compared with placebo, alcohol significantly reduced CFFs of all stimulus types at all illuminance levels. Furthermore, alcohol intoxication produced a larger impairment on rod-pathway-mediated CFFs under light versus dark surround. Conclusions These results indicate that alcohol intake slows down rod and cone-pathway-mediated temporal processing. Further research may elucidate if this effect may play a role in alcohol-related injury and accidents, which often occur under low light conditions. PMID:26247196

  14. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed Central

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and “double” cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship Dsc = 0.4 Da, where Dsc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and Da is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact. PMID:27532050

  15. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed

    Osinski, Gordon R; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and "double" cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship D sc = 0.4 D a, where D sc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and D a is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact.

  16. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed

    Osinski, Gordon R; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and "double" cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship D sc = 0.4 D a, where D sc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and D a is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact. PMID:27532050

  17. Scatter corrections for cone beam optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, Tim; Holmes, Oliver; Schreiner, L. John

    2009-05-01

    Cone beam optical computed tomography (OptCT) employing the VISTA scanner (Modus Medical, London, ON) has been shown to have significant promise for fast, three dimensional imaging of polymer gel dosimeters. One distinct challenge with this approach arises from the combination of the cone beam geometry, a diffuse light source, and the scattering polymer gel media, which all contribute scatter signal that perturbs the accuracy of the scanner. Beam stop array (BSA), beam pass array (BPA) and anti-scatter polarizer correction methodologies have been employed to remove scatter signal from OptCT data. These approaches are investigated through the use of well-characterized phantom scattering solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. BSA corrected scatter solutions show good agreement in attenuation coefficient with the optically absorbing dye solutions, with considerable reduction of scatter-induced cupping artifact at high scattering concentrations. The application of BSA scatter corrections to a polymer gel dosimeter lead to an overall improvement in the number of pixel satisfying the (3%, 3mm) gamma value criteria from 7.8% to 0.15%.

  18. Selective stimulation of penumbral cones reveals perception in the shadow of retinal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Brainard, David H

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven.

  19. Selective Stimulation of Penumbral Cones Reveals Perception in the Shadow of Retinal Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven. PMID:25897842

  20. RP cone-rod degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Heckenlively, J R

    1987-01-01

    A group of patients with progressive retinal degeneration and visual field loss, who meet the basic definition of RP were investigated to better define the relationship of the findings on the ERG with clinical characteristics such as visual field size, presence or absence of scotomata or pseudo-altitudinal defects on visual field, amount of night blindness; and presence or absence of macular or optic nerve changes. These studies suggest that cone-rod degeneration patients of the RP type go through the following stages; early, the ERG has a definite cone-rod pattern where the rod ERG is larger than the cone ERG while both are abnormal. As the disease advances, there is more of a reduction in the scotopic ERG such that both the rod and cone ERGs become nearly equal. As the disease further progresses the ERG becomes non-recordable on single-flash technique, but there is good residual rod function and the final rod threshold remains good until the visual field is reduced, typically less than 10 degrees with the IV-4 isopter. Finally with advanced disease the patient becomes night blind and generally becomes very difficult to distinguished from patients who have advanced rod-cone degeneration. While it may seem logical to find that visual field size correlates with various ERG parameters; this has not been as consistent a finding in patients with rod-cone degeneration in the author's experience. The analysis shows several new pieces of information about visual field changes in cone-rod degeneration; enlarged blind spots are seen earlier in cases which have recordable cone-rod patterns (group I), and pseudo-altitudinal changes are more likely to occur in autosomal recessive patients. Patients with macular lesions and central scotomata had larger amplitudes than patients with normal appearing maculae and no central scotomata. Patients with temporal optic atrophy had an earlier onset of symptoms and significant correlation with both photopic a- and b-waves and bright flash

  1. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  2. Cone outer segment shedding in the goldfish retina characterized with the /sup 3/H-fucose technique

    SciTech Connect

    Balkema, G.W. Jr.; Bunt-Milam, A.H.

    1982-09-01

    After an intravitreal injection of /sup 3/H-fucose, red- and blue-sensitive cone outer segments (OSs) in the goldfish retina became heavily labeled, green-sensitive cone OSs showed light labeling, and rod OSs showed virtually no labeling. Fish were maintained in white light (light/dark: 12 hr/12 hr; 6 to 10 weeks) and were injected with /sup 3/H-fucose 24 hr before sacrifice. After light onset, only phagosomes with no label were found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); after light offset, phagosomes with heavy, light, or no label were found in the RPE. A broad peak of cone OS shedding derived from all cone types was found beginning 2 hr after light offset and returning to baseline levels after 12 hr, with a maximum at 4 to 6 hr. When the white light was replaced with red light during the final 24 hr (irradiance matched to the white light at 625 nm), the green cones showed a reduction in shedding by 62%, the rods showed a 48% reduction in shedding, and the number of heavily labeled phagosomes was reduced by 24% (a value that may reflect normal and red cone shedding and a reduction in blue cone shedding). The results suggest that chromatic stimulation during the light period may influence the shedding response of a given class of cone OS. Finally, the /sup 3/H-fucose technique is useful for determination of the photoreceptor OS from which a given phagosome in the RPE originates in this species.

  3. In Vivo Two-Photon Fluorescence Kinetics of Primate Rods and Cones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Robin; Schwarz, Christina; Williams, David R.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The retinoid cycle maintains vision by regenerating bleached visual pigment through metabolic events, the kinetics of which have been difficult to characterize in vivo. Two-photon fluorescence excitation has been used previously to track autofluorescence directly from retinoids and pyridines in the visual cycle in mouse and frog retinas, but the mechanisms of the retinoid cycle are not well understood in primates. Methods We developed a two-photon fluorescence adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope dedicated to in vivo imaging in anesthetized macaques. Using pulsed light at 730 nm, two-photon fluorescence was captured from rods and cones during light and dark adaptation through the eye's pupil. Results The fluorescence from rods and cones increased with light exposure but at different rates. During dark adaptation, autofluorescence declined, with cone autofluorescence decreasing approximately 4 times faster than from rods. Rates of autofluorescence decrease in rods and cones were approximately 4 times faster than their respective rates of photopigment regeneration. Also, subsets of sparsely distributed cones were less fluorescent than their neighbors immediately following bleach at 565 nm and they were comparable with the S cone mosaic in density and distribution. Conclusions Although other molecules could be contributing, we posit that these fluorescence changes are mediated by products of the retinoid cycle. In vivo two-photon ophthalmoscopy provides a way to monitor noninvasively stages of the retinoid cycle that were previously inaccessible in the living primate eye. This can be used to assess objectively photoreceptor function in normal and diseased retinas. PMID:26903225

  4. The current state of knowledge about shatter cones: Introduction to the special issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, David; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are a fracture phenomenon that is exclusively associated with shock metamorphism and has also been produced in the laboratory in several shock experiments. The occurrence of shatter cones is the only accepted meso- to macroscopic recognition criterion for impact structures. Shatter cones exhibit a number of geometric characteristics (orientation, apical angles, striation angles, sizes) that can be best described as varied, from case to case. Possible links between geometric properties with impact or crater parameters have remained controversial and the lack of understanding of the mechanism of formation of shatter cones does not offer a physical framework to discuss or understand them. A database of shatter cone occurrences has been produced for this introduction paper to the special issue of Meteoritics and Planetary Science on shatter cones. Distribution of shatter cones with respect to crater size and lithology suggests that shatter cones do not occur in impact craters less than a few kilometers in diameter, with a few, currently questionable exceptions. All pertinent hypotheses of formation are presented and discussed. Several may be discarded in light of the most recent observations. The branching fracture mechanism and the interference models proposed, respectively, by Sagy et al. (2002) and Baratoux and Melosh (2003) require further evaluation. New observations, experiments, or theoretical considerations presented in this special issue promise an important step forward, based on a renewed effort to resolve the enigmatic origin of these important features.

  5. Cone bipolar cells in the retina of the microbat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Butz, Elisabeth; Peichl, Leo; Müller, Brigitte

    2015-04-15

    We studied the retinal cone bipolar cells of Carollia perspicillata, a microchiropteran bat of the phyllostomid family. Microchiroptera are strongly nocturnal, with small eyes and rod-dominated retinae. However, they also possess a significant cone population (2-4%) comprising two spectral types, which are hence the basis for daylight and color vision. We used antibodies against the calcium-binding protein recoverin and the carbohydrate epitope 15 (CD15) as reliable markers for certain cone bipolar cells. Dye injections of recoverin- or CD15-prelabeled cone bipolar cells in vertical slices revealed the morphology of the axon terminal system of individual bipolar cells. Seven distinct cone bipolar cell types were identified. They differed in the morphology and stratification level of their axon terminal system in the inner plexiform layer and in immunoreactivity for recoverin and/or CD15. Additional immunocytochemical markers were used to assess the functional ON/OFF subdivision of the inner plexiform layer. In line with the extended thickness of the ON sublayer of the inner plexiform layer in the microbat retina, more ON than OFF cone bipolar cell types were found, namely, four versus three. Most likely, in the bats' predominantly dark environment, ON signals have greater importance for contrast perception. We conclude that the microbat retina conforms to the general mammalian blueprint, in which light signals of intensities above rod sensitivity are detected by cones and transmitted to various types of ON and OFF cone bipolar cells. PMID:25521284

  6. Evolutionary transformation of rod photoreceptors in the all-cone retina of a diurnal garter snake.

    PubMed

    Schott, Ryan K; Müller, Johannes; Yang, Clement G Y; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Chan, Natalie; Xu, Mengshu; Morrow, James M; Ghenu, Ana-Hermina; Loew, Ellis R; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-01-12

    Vertebrate retinas are generally composed of rod (dim-light) and cone (bright-light) photoreceptors with distinct morphologies that evolved as adaptations to nocturnal/crepuscular and diurnal light environments. Over 70 years ago, the "transmutation" theory was proposed to explain some of the rare exceptions in which a photoreceptor type is missing, suggesting that photoreceptors could evolutionarily transition between cell types. Although studies have shown support for this theory in nocturnal geckos, the origins of all-cone retinas, such as those found in diurnal colubrid snakes, remain a mystery. Here we investigate the evolutionary fate of the rods in a diurnal garter snake and test two competing hypotheses: (i) that the rods, and their corresponding molecular machinery, were lost or (ii) that the rods were evolutionarily modified to resemble, and function, as cones. Using multiple approaches, we find evidence for a functional and unusually blue-shifted rhodopsin that is expressed in small single "cones." Moreover, these cones express rod transducin and have rod ultrastructural features, providing strong support for the hypothesis that they are not true cones, as previously thought, but rather are modified rods. Several intriguing features of garter snake rhodopsin are suggestive of a more cone-like function. We propose that these cone-like rods may have evolved to regain spectral sensitivity and chromatic discrimination as a result of ancestral losses of middle-wavelength cone opsins in early snake evolution. This study illustrates how sensory evolution can be shaped not only by environmental constraints but also by historical contingency in forming new cell types with convergent functionality. PMID:26715746

  7. Evolutionary transformation of rod photoreceptors in the all-cone retina of a diurnal garter snake

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Ryan K.; Müller, Johannes; Yang, Clement G. Y.; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Chan, Natalie; Xu, Mengshu; Morrow, James M.; Ghenu, Ana-Hermina; Loew, Ellis R.; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate retinas are generally composed of rod (dim-light) and cone (bright-light) photoreceptors with distinct morphologies that evolved as adaptations to nocturnal/crepuscular and diurnal light environments. Over 70 years ago, the “transmutation” theory was proposed to explain some of the rare exceptions in which a photoreceptor type is missing, suggesting that photoreceptors could evolutionarily transition between cell types. Although studies have shown support for this theory in nocturnal geckos, the origins of all-cone retinas, such as those found in diurnal colubrid snakes, remain a mystery. Here we investigate the evolutionary fate of the rods in a diurnal garter snake and test two competing hypotheses: (i) that the rods, and their corresponding molecular machinery, were lost or (ii) that the rods were evolutionarily modified to resemble, and function, as cones. Using multiple approaches, we find evidence for a functional and unusually blue-shifted rhodopsin that is expressed in small single “cones.” Moreover, these cones express rod transducin and have rod ultrastructural features, providing strong support for the hypothesis that they are not true cones, as previously thought, but rather are modified rods. Several intriguing features of garter snake rhodopsin are suggestive of a more cone-like function. We propose that these cone-like rods may have evolved to regain spectral sensitivity and chromatic discrimination as a result of ancestral losses of middle-wavelength cone opsins in early snake evolution. This study illustrates how sensory evolution can be shaped not only by environmental constraints but also by historical contingency in forming new cell types with convergent functionality. PMID:26715746

  8. Achromatic vector vortex beams from a glass cone.

    PubMed

    Radwell, N; Hawley, R D; Götte, J B; Franke-Arnold, S

    2016-01-01

    The reflection of light is governed by the laws first described by Augustin-Jean Fresnel: on internal reflection, light acquires a phase shift, which depends on its polarization direction with respect to the plane of incidence. For a conical reflector, the cylindrical symmetry is echoed in an angular variation of this phase shift, allowing us to create light modes with phase and polarization singularities. Here we observe the phase and polarization profiles of light that is back reflected from a solid glass cone and, in the case of circular input light, discover that not only does the beam contain orbital angular momentum but can trivially be converted to a radially polarized beam. Importantly, the Fresnel coefficients are reasonably stable across the visible spectrum, which we demonstrate by measuring white light polarization profiles. This discovery provides a highly cost-effective technique for the generation of broadband orbital angular momentum and radially polarized beams. PMID:26861191

  9. Achromatic vector vortex beams from a glass cone

    PubMed Central

    Radwell, N.; Hawley, R. D.; Götte, J. B.; Franke-Arnold, S.

    2016-01-01

    The reflection of light is governed by the laws first described by Augustin-Jean Fresnel: on internal reflection, light acquires a phase shift, which depends on its polarization direction with respect to the plane of incidence. For a conical reflector, the cylindrical symmetry is echoed in an angular variation of this phase shift, allowing us to create light modes with phase and polarization singularities. Here we observe the phase and polarization profiles of light that is back reflected from a solid glass cone and, in the case of circular input light, discover that not only does the beam contain orbital angular momentum but can trivially be converted to a radially polarized beam. Importantly, the Fresnel coefficients are reasonably stable across the visible spectrum, which we demonstrate by measuring white light polarization profiles. This discovery provides a highly cost-effective technique for the generation of broadband orbital angular momentum and radially polarized beams. PMID:26861191

  10. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cone photoreceptors through simultaneous inhibition of BMP, TGFβ and Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Flamier, Anthony; Abdouh, Mohamed; Tétreault, Nicolas; Barabino, Andrea; Wadhwa, Shashi; Bernier, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Cone photoreceptors are required for color discrimination and high-resolution central vision and are lost in macular degenerations, cone and cone/rod dystrophies. Cone transplantation could represent a therapeutic solution. However, an abundant source of human cones remains difficult to obtain. Work performed in model organisms suggests that anterior neural cell fate is induced 'by default' if BMP, TGFβ and Wnt activities are blocked, and that photoreceptor genesis operates through an S-cone default pathway. We report here that Coco (Dand5), a member of the Cerberus gene family, is expressed in the developing and adult mouse retina. Upon exposure to recombinant COCO, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiated into S-cone photoreceptors, developed an inner segment-like protrusion, and could degrade cGMP when exposed to light. Addition of thyroid hormone resulted in a transition from a unique S-cone population toward a mixed M/S-cone population. When cultured at confluence for a prolonged period of time, COCO-exposed hESCs spontaneously developed into a cellular sheet composed of polarized cone photoreceptors. COCO showed dose-dependent and synergistic activity with IGF1 at blocking BMP/TGFβ/Wnt signaling, while its cone-inducing activity was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to BMP, TGFβ or Wnt-related proteins. Our work thus provides a unique platform to produce human cones for developmental, biochemical and therapeutic studies and supports the hypothesis that photoreceptor differentiation operates through an S-cone default pathway during human retinal development. PMID:26443633

  11. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cone photoreceptors through simultaneous inhibition of BMP, TGFβ and Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Flamier, Anthony; Abdouh, Mohamed; Tétreault, Nicolas; Barabino, Andrea; Wadhwa, Shashi; Bernier, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Cone photoreceptors are required for color discrimination and high-resolution central vision and are lost in macular degenerations, cone and cone/rod dystrophies. Cone transplantation could represent a therapeutic solution. However, an abundant source of human cones remains difficult to obtain. Work performed in model organisms suggests that anterior neural cell fate is induced 'by default' if BMP, TGFβ and Wnt activities are blocked, and that photoreceptor genesis operates through an S-cone default pathway. We report here that Coco (Dand5), a member of the Cerberus gene family, is expressed in the developing and adult mouse retina. Upon exposure to recombinant COCO, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiated into S-cone photoreceptors, developed an inner segment-like protrusion, and could degrade cGMP when exposed to light. Addition of thyroid hormone resulted in a transition from a unique S-cone population toward a mixed M/S-cone population. When cultured at confluence for a prolonged period of time, COCO-exposed hESCs spontaneously developed into a cellular sheet composed of polarized cone photoreceptors. COCO showed dose-dependent and synergistic activity with IGF1 at blocking BMP/TGFβ/Wnt signaling, while its cone-inducing activity was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to BMP, TGFβ or Wnt-related proteins. Our work thus provides a unique platform to produce human cones for developmental, biochemical and therapeutic studies and supports the hypothesis that photoreceptor differentiation operates through an S-cone default pathway during human retinal development.

  12. Melanopsin changes in neonatal albino rat independent of rods and cones.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells employ the photopigment melanopsin and provide light information to brain areas responsible for the regulation of circadian rhythms. The expression of melanopsin is regulated by environmental illumination, but it remains to be clarified whether the rods and cones are involved. Here, we examined the influence of 5 days of constant light and dark conditions on melanopsin mRNA and protein expression in newborn albino rats, in which functional rods and cones have not yet been developed. We found that the melanopsin mRNA level was unaffected, whereas the melanopsin protein level was more than two-fold higher in the darkness-adapted group than in pups raised in constant light. In pups raised during 12 : 12 h light/dark cycles, the melanopsin protein level was significantly higher during the day than at night. Our findings indicate that melanopsin protein changes are independent of input from the rods and cones.

  13. Journey of water in pine cones

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system. PMID:25944117

  14. Journey of water in pine cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-05-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system.

  15. Contribution of human short-wave cones to luminance and motion detection.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Stromeyer, C F

    1989-01-01

    1. Human short-wave S cone signals are important for colour vision and here we examine whether the S cone signals also contribute to motion and luminance. 2. Detection was measured with moving patterns that selectively stimulated S cones-violet sine-wave gratings of 1 cycle deg-1 on an intense yellowish field. For rates up to 12 Hz, detection was governed by non-directional mechanisms, possibly of a chromatic nature, as shown by three findings: moving gratings had to be suprathreshold for their direction to be identified; the threshold ratio of counterphase flickering versus moving gratings was low; and direction-selective adaptation was essentially absent. 3. Evidence for less sensitive, directional mechanisms includes the following: at high velocity, the direction of movement of the violet gratings can be identified just slightly above the detection threshold; directional adaptation was strong with a suprathreshold test pattern; velocity was seen veridically for clearly suprathreshold patterns; and a counterphase flickering test, added in spatial-temporal quadrature phase to a similar suprathreshold mask, had identical detection and direction-identification thresholds. 4. Interactions of long-wave L cone and S cone signals in direction-selective mechanisms were measured with an orange counterphase grating and a violet counterphase test, both flickering at the same rate and presented in spatial quadrature phase on the yellowish adapting field. Direction identification thresholds, measured as a function of the temporal phase of two gratings, demonstrated both that the S cone signal lags considerably behind the L cone signal (an effect that strongly varies with S cone light adaptation), and more strikingly, the S cone signal summates with a negative sign and thus is effectively inverted in direction-selective mechanisms. 5. Quantitatively similar temporal phase functions were obtained with uniform violet and orange flicker when a luminance discrimination criterion

  16. Inside the cone of protection

    SciTech Connect

    Stahmann, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Although lightning cones of protection and cones of attraction have been used for over 100 years, much confusion still remains as to their effectiveness, particularly as applied to personnel protection. At Kennedy Space Center, a 1:1 cone of protection with a straight side is standard for structure or equipment protection. However, at the launch pad, where a 400-foot lightning lightning rod on top of an insulating mast is used for pad lightning protection, the idea developed that personnel within a 400-foot radius of this mast would be safe from lightning and those outside it would not. Since it is obvious that a person 395 feet (120.4 m.) from the mast is only slightly safer than one at 405 feet (123.5 m.), an investigation was initiated to calculate the probabilities of a person being struck by lightning as he moves closer to the mast inside the cone of protection. Since the risk does not go to zero outside the structure, the risk level can then be estimated. To arrive at the expected strike frequency, it was necessary to measure the strike frequencies at KSC. Krider and others have found a mean area density of cloud-to-ground lightning at KSC of about 4.6 + or - 3.1 flashes per sq km per month in the summer. An overall frequency is estimated as about 20 flashes per sq km per year. With these data, the risk of exposure at various distances from the lightning mast can be calculated. Assuming continuous exposure during thunderstorms, this risk varies from about one strike per person in 1,400 years near the tower to one stroke per person in 300 years at about 400 foot (122 m.).

  17. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, Robert . E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

    2005-10-15

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

  18. Bursting the Taylor cone bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    A soap bubble fixed on a surface and placed in an electric field will take on the shape of a cone rather than constant curvature (dome) when the electrical field is not present. The phenomenon was introduced by J. Zeleny (1917) and studied extensively by C.T. Wilson & G.I. Taylor (1925). We revisit the Taylor cone problem by studying the deformation and bursting of soap bubbles in a point charge electric field. A single bubble takes on the shape of a cone in the electric field and a high-speed camera equipped with a micro-lens is used to observe the unsteady dynamics at the tip. Rupture occurs as a very small piece of the tip is torn away from the bubble toward the point charge. Based on experiments, a theoretical model is developed that predicts when rupture should occur. This study may help in the design of foam-removal techniques in engineering and provide a better understanding of an electrified air-liquid interface.

  19. Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Heidi; Carroll, Joseph; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen; Williams, David R

    2005-10-19

    Using high-resolution adaptive-optics imaging combined with retinal densitometry, we characterized the arrangement of short- (S), middle- (M), and long- (L) wavelength-sensitive cones in eight human foveal mosaics. As suggested by previous studies, we found males with normal color vision that varied in the ratio of L to M cones (from 1.1:1 to 16.5:1). We also found a protan carrier with an even more extreme L:M ratio (0.37:1). All subjects had nearly identical S-cone densities, indicating independence of the developmental mechanism that governs the relative numerosity of L/M and S cones. L:M cone ratio estimates were correlated highly with those obtained in the same eyes using the flicker photometric electroretinogram (ERG), although the comparison indicates that the signal from each M cone makes a larger contribution to the ERG than each L cone. Although all subjects had highly disordered arrangements of L and M cones, three subjects showed evidence for departures from a strictly random rule for assigning the L and M cone photopigments. In two retinas, these departures corresponded to local clumping of cones of like type. In a third retina, the L:M cone ratio differed significantly at two retinal locations on opposite sides of the fovea. These results suggest that the assignment of L and M pigment, although highly irregular, is not a completely random process. Surprisingly, in the protan carrier, in which X-chromosome inactivation would favor L- or M-cone clumping, there was no evidence of clumping, perhaps as a result of cone migration during foveal development. PMID:16237171

  20. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation.

  1. Imaging Ca2+ dynamics in cone photoreceptor axon terminals of the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Schubert, Timm; Baden, Tom; Wissinger, Bernd; Euler, Thomas; Paquet-Durand, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Retinal cone photoreceptors (cones) serve daylight vision and are the basis of color discrimination. They are subject to degeneration, often leading to blindness in many retinal diseases. Calcium (Ca(2+)), a key second messenger in photoreceptor signaling and metabolism, has been proposed to be indirectly linked with photoreceptor degeneration in various animal models. Systematically studying these aspects of cone physiology and pathophysiology has been hampered by the difficulties of electrically recording from these small cells, in particular in the mouse where the retina is dominated by rod photoreceptors. To circumvent this issue, we established a two-photon Ca(2+) imaging protocol using a transgenic mouse line that expresses the genetically encoded Ca(2+) biosensor TN-XL exclusively in cones and can be crossbred with mouse models for photoreceptor degeneration. The protocol described here involves preparing vertical sections ("slices") of retinas from mice and optical imaging of light stimulus-evoked changes in cone Ca(2+) level. The protocol also allows "in-slice measurement" of absolute Ca(2+) concentrations; as the recordings can be followed by calibration. This protocol enables studies into functional cone properties and is expected to contribute to the understanding of cone Ca(2+) signaling as well as the potential involvement of Ca(2+) in photoreceptor death and retinal degeneration. PMID:25993489

  2. Imaging Ca2+ dynamics in cone photoreceptor axon terminals of the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Schubert, Timm; Baden, Tom; Wissinger, Bernd; Euler, Thomas; Paquet-Durand, Francois

    2015-05-06

    Retinal cone photoreceptors (cones) serve daylight vision and are the basis of color discrimination. They are subject to degeneration, often leading to blindness in many retinal diseases. Calcium (Ca(2+)), a key second messenger in photoreceptor signaling and metabolism, has been proposed to be indirectly linked with photoreceptor degeneration in various animal models. Systematically studying these aspects of cone physiology and pathophysiology has been hampered by the difficulties of electrically recording from these small cells, in particular in the mouse where the retina is dominated by rod photoreceptors. To circumvent this issue, we established a two-photon Ca(2+) imaging protocol using a transgenic mouse line that expresses the genetically encoded Ca(2+) biosensor TN-XL exclusively in cones and can be crossbred with mouse models for photoreceptor degeneration. The protocol described here involves preparing vertical sections ("slices") of retinas from mice and optical imaging of light stimulus-evoked changes in cone Ca(2+) level. The protocol also allows "in-slice measurement" of absolute Ca(2+) concentrations; as the recordings can be followed by calibration. This protocol enables studies into functional cone properties and is expected to contribute to the understanding of cone Ca(2+) signaling as well as the potential involvement of Ca(2+) in photoreceptor death and retinal degeneration.

  3. Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Schubert, Timm; Baden, Tom; Wissinger, Bernd; Euler, Thomas; Paquet-Durand, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Retinal cone photoreceptors (cones) serve daylight vision and are the basis of color discrimination. They are subject to degeneration, often leading to blindness in many retinal diseases. Calcium (Ca2+), a key second messenger in photoreceptor signaling and metabolism, has been proposed to be indirectly linked with photoreceptor degeneration in various animal models. Systematically studying these aspects of cone physiology and pathophysiology has been hampered by the difficulties of electrically recording from these small cells, in particular in the mouse where the retina is dominated by rod photoreceptors. To circumvent this issue, we established a two-photon Ca2+ imaging protocol using a transgenic mouse line that expresses the genetically encoded Ca2+ biosensor TN-XL exclusively in cones and can be crossbred with mouse models for photoreceptor degeneration. The protocol described here involves preparing vertical sections (“slices”) of retinas from mice and optical imaging of light stimulus-evoked changes in cone Ca2+ level. The protocol also allows “in-slice measurement” of absolute Ca2+ concentrations; as the recordings can be followed by calibration. This protocol enables studies into functional cone properties and is expected to contribute to the understanding of cone Ca2+ signaling as well as the potential involvement of Ca2+ in photoreceptor death and retinal degeneration. PMID:25993489

  4. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation. PMID:27446708

  5. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation. PMID:27446708

  6. A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod-cone opponency.

    PubMed

    Joesch, Maximilian; Meister, Markus

    2016-04-14

    In bright light, cone-photoreceptors are active and colour vision derives from a comparison of signals in cones with different visual pigments. This comparison begins in the retina, where certain retinal ganglion cells have 'colour-opponent' visual responses-excited by light of one colour and suppressed by another colour. In dim light, rod-photoreceptors are active, but colour vision is impossible because they all use the same visual pigment. Instead, the rod signals are thought to splice into retinal circuits at various points, in synergy with the cone signals. Here we report a new circuit for colour vision that challenges these expectations. A genetically identified type of mouse retinal ganglion cell called JAMB (J-RGC), was found to have colour-opponent responses, OFF to ultraviolet (UV) light and ON to green light. Although the mouse retina contains a green-sensitive cone, the ON response instead originates in rods. Rods and cones both contribute to the response over several decades of light intensity. Remarkably, the rod signal in this circuit is antagonistic to that from cones. For rodents, this UV-green channel may play a role in social communication, as suggested by spectral measurements from the environment. In the human retina, all of the components for this circuit exist as well, and its function can explain certain experiences of colour in dim lights, such as a 'blue shift' in twilight. The discovery of this genetically defined pathway will enable new targeted studies of colour processing in the brain. PMID:27049951

  7. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Specialization and Pit Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Patitucci, Teresa N.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Costakos, Deborah M.; Connor, Thomas B.; Wirostko, William J.; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. Methods. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. Results. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Conclusions. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. PMID:24845642

  8. Calcium regulates vesicle replenishment at the cone ribbon synapse.

    PubMed

    Babai, Norbert; Bartoletti, Theodore M; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2010-11-24

    Cones release glutamate-filled vesicles continuously in darkness, and changing illumination modulates this release. Because sustained release in darkness is governed by vesicle replenishment rates, we analyzed how cone membrane potential regulates replenishment. Synaptic release from cones was measured by recording postsynaptic currents in Ambystoma tigrinum horizontal or OFF bipolar cells evoked by depolarization of simultaneously voltage-clamped cones. We measured replenishment after attaining a steady state between vesicle release and replenishment using trains of test pulses. Increasing Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) by changing the test step from -30 to -10 mV increased replenishment. Lengthening -30 mV test pulses to match the Ca(2+) influx during 25 ms test pulses to -10 mV produced similar replenishment rates. Reducing Ca(2+) driving force by using test steps to +30 mV slowed replenishment. Using UV flashes to reverse inhibition of I(Ca) by nifedipine accelerated replenishment. Increasing [Ca(2+)](i) by flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+) also accelerated replenishment. Replenishment, but not the initial burst of release, was enhanced by using an intracellular Ca(2+) buffer of 0.5 mm EGTA rather than 5 mm EGTA, and diminished by 1 mm BAPTA. This suggests that although release and replenishment exhibited similar Ca(2+) dependencies, release sites are <200 nm from Ca(2+) channels but replenishment sites are >200 nm away. Membrane potential thus regulates replenishment by controlling Ca(2+) influx, principally by effects on replenishment mechanisms but also by altering releasable pool size. This in turn provides a mechanism for converting changes in light intensity into changes in sustained release at the cone ribbon synapse. PMID:21106825

  9. Fundamental conical defects: The d-cone, its e-cone, and its p-cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider well-known surface disclinations by cutting, joining, and folding pieces of paper card. The resulting shapes have a discrete, folded vertex whose geometry is described easily by Gauss's mapping, in particular, we can relate the degree of angular excess, or deficit, to the size of fold line rotations by the area enclosed by the vector diagram of these rotations. This is well known for the case of a so-called "d-cone" of zero angular deficit, and we formulate the same for a general disclination. This method allows us to observe kinematic properties in a meaningful way without needing to consider equilibrium. Importantly, the simple vector nature of our analysis shows that some disclinations are primitive; and that other types, such as d-cones, are amalgamations of them.

  10. Fundamental conical defects: The d-cone, its e-cone, and its p-cone.

    PubMed

    Seffen, Keith A

    2016-07-01

    We consider well-known surface disclinations by cutting, joining, and folding pieces of paper card. The resulting shapes have a discrete, folded vertex whose geometry is described easily by Gauss's mapping, in particular, we can relate the degree of angular excess, or deficit, to the size of fold line rotations by the area enclosed by the vector diagram of these rotations. This is well known for the case of a so-called "d-cone" of zero angular deficit, and we formulate the same for a general disclination. This method allows us to observe kinematic properties in a meaningful way without needing to consider equilibrium. Importantly, the simple vector nature of our analysis shows that some disclinations are primitive; and that other types, such as d-cones, are amalgamations of them. PMID:27575208

  11. Isolating prompt photons with narrow cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, S.; Fontannaz, M.; Guillet, J. Ph.; Pilon, E.

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the isolation of prompt photons in hadronic collisions by means of narrow isolation cones and the QCD computation of the corresponding cross sections. We reconsider the occurence of large perturbative terms with logarithmic dependence on the cone size and their impact on the fragmentation scale dependence. We cure the apparent perturbative violation of unitarity for small cone sizes, which had been noticed earlier in next-to-leading-order (NLO) calculations, by resumming the leading logarithmic dependence on the cone size. We discuss possible implications regarding the implementation of some hollow cone variants of the cone criterion, which simulate the experimental difficulty to impose isolation inside the region filled by the electromagnetic shower that develops in the calorimeter.

  12. Cone Penetrometer Off-Surface Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, T.R.; French, p.J.; Huffman, R.K.; Hebert, P.S.

    1999-10-20

    Cone penetrometer technology accounts for approximately 50 percent of the subsurface drilling done at the Savannah River Site. This technology provides a means of collecting data for use in the characterization of the subsurface. The cone penetrometer consists of a steel cone attached to a pipe column that is hydraulically inserted into the ground. To allow researchers to accurately measure subsurface properties, without the inherent problems of cone penetrometer equipment, the Savannah River Technology Center has developed the Cone Penetrometer Off-Surface Sensor (CPOSS). The CPOSS design consists of a knife-blade mechanism mounted along the surface of a module capable of attaching to existing cone penetrometer equipment and being deployed at depths of up to 200 feet. CPOSS development is the subject of this report.

  13. Hydrodynamics Studies of Direct-Drive Cone-in-Shell, Fast-Ignitor Targets on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Boehly, T.R.; Delettrez, J.A.; Hatchett, S.P.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Li, C.K.; Miller, J.E.; Petrasso, R.D.; Seguin, F.H.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Stephens, R.B.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Sangster, T.C.

    2007-12-12

    Experiments have been performed on the OMEGA Laser Facility to study the hydrodynamics of directly driven cone-in-shell, fast-ignitor targets. A 35 degree or 70 degree opening-angle gold cone was inserted into spherical plastic shells of ~24-um thickness and ~870-um diameter, which were imploded with up to 21 kJ of 351-nm laser light. A backlighter was used on some experiments to compare the fuel assembly of targets with or without a high-pressure fill gas. The shock breakthrough to the inside of the cone, where the ultrafast laser propagates in integrated fast-ignitor experiments, was studied using a streaked optical pyrometer. No plasma was seen inside the cone before the assembled core reached peak compression.

  14. Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G H; Fenwick, J C; Calderone, J B; Deeb, S S

    1999-04-15

    Genetically driven alterations in the complement of retinal photopigments are fundamental steps in the evolution of vision. We sought to determine how a newly added photopigment might impact vision by studying a transgenic mouse that expresses a human cone photopigment. Electroretinogram (ERG) measurements indicate that the added pigment works well, significantly changing spectral sensitivity without deleteriously affecting the operation of the native cone pigments. Visual capacities of the transgenic mice were established in behavioral tests. The new pigment was found to provide a significant expansion of the spectral range over which mice can perceive light, thus underlining the immediate utility of acquiring a new photopigment. The transgenic mouse also has the receptor basis for a novel color vision capacity, but tests show that potential was not realized. This failure likely reflects limitations in the organizational arrangement of the mouse retina.

  15. Cone opsins, colour blindness and cone dystrophy: Genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J C; Michaelides, M; Hardcastle, A J

    2016-05-25

    X-linked cone photoreceptor disorders caused by mutations in the OPN1LW (L) and OPN1MW (M) cone opsin genes on chromosome Xq28 include a range of conditions from mild stable red-green colour vision deficiencies to severe cone dystrophies causing progressive loss of vision and blindness. Advances in molecular genotyping and functional analyses of causative variants, combined with deep retinal phenotyping, are unravelling genetic mechanisms underlying the variability of cone opsin disorders.

  16. Ionic emission from Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Reina, Sergio

    Electrified Taylor cones have been seen as an efficient way to generate thrust for space propulsion. Especially the pure ionic regime (PIR) combines a very high specific impulse (thrust per unit mass) and efficiency, which is very important to reduce fuel transportation costs. The PIR has been primarily based on electrosprays of liquid metals [Swatik and Hendricks 1968, Swatik 1969]. However, emissions dominated by or containing exclusively ions have also been observed from nonmetallic purely ionic substances, initially sulfuric acid [Perel et al. 1969], and more recently room temperature molten salts referred to as ionic liquids (ILs) [Romero-Sanz et al. 2003]. The recent use of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) with ILs, becoming this "new" source to be known as ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) [Lozano and Martinez-Sanchez 2005], has shown important differences on the emission from Taylor cones with the traditional hollow capillary. This new source seems to be more flexible than the capillary [Paulo, Sergio, carlos], although its low emission level (low thrust) is an important drawback from the space propulsion point of view. Throughout the thesis I have studied some aspects of the ionic emission from ionic liquid Taylor cones and the influence of the properties of the liquids and the characteristic of source on the emission. I have unraveled the reason why ILIS emits such low currents (˜200 nA) and found a way to solve this problem increasing the current up to capillary levels (˜1000 nA) [Castro and Fernandez de la Mora 2009]. I have also tried to reduce ion evaporation while reducing the emitted droplet size in order to increase the thrust generated while keeping the efficiency relatively high and I have measured the energy of evaporation of several cations composing ionic liquids, mandatory step to understand ionic evaporation.

  17. The 9-methyl group of retinal is essential for rapid Meta II decay and phototransduction quenching in red cones.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Maureen E; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Crouch, Rosalie K; Govardovskii, Victor I; Cornwall, M Carter

    2009-08-01

    Cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina terminate their response to light much faster than rod photoreceptors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this rapid response termination in cones are poorly understood. The experiments presented here tested two related hypotheses: first, that the rapid decay rate of metarhodopsin (Meta) II in red-sensitive cones depends on interactions between the 9-methyl group of retinal and the opsin part of the pigment molecule, and second, that rapid Meta II decay is critical for rapid recovery from saturation of red-sensitive cones after exposure to bright light. Microspectrophotometric measurements of pigment photolysis, microfluorometric measurements of retinol production, and single-cell electrophysiological recordings of flash responses of salamander cones were performed to test these hypotheses. In all cases, cones were bleached and their visual pigment was regenerated with either 11-cis retinal or with 11-cis 9-demethyl retinal, an analogue of retinal lacking the 9-methyl group. Meta II decay was four to five times slower and subsequent retinol production was three to four times slower in red-sensitive cones lacking the 9-methyl group of retinal. This was accompanied by a significant slowing of the recovery from saturation in cones lacking the 9-methyl group after exposure to bright (>0.1% visual pigment photoactivated) but not dim light. A mathematical model of the turn-off process of phototransduction revealed that the slower recovery of photoresponse can be explained by slower Meta decay of 9-demethyl visual pigment. These results demonstrate that the 9-methyl group of retinal is required for steric chromophore-opsin interactions that favor both the rapid decay of Meta II and the rapid response recovery after exposure to bright light in red-sensitive cones.

  18. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1991-05-28

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form an output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated. 6 figures.

  19. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  20. A simple retinal mechanism contributes to perceptual interactions between rod- and cone-mediated responses in primates.

    PubMed

    Grimes, William N; Graves, Logan R; Summers, Mathew T; Rieke, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception across a broad range of light levels is shaped by interactions between rod- and cone-mediated signals. Because responses of retinal ganglion cells, the output cells of the retina, depend on signals from both rod and cone photoreceptors, interactions occurring in retinal circuits provide an opportunity to link the mechanistic operation of parallel pathways and perception. Here we show that rod- and cone-mediated responses interact nonlinearly to control the responses of primate retinal ganglion cells; these nonlinear interactions, surprisingly, were asymmetric, with rod responses strongly suppressing subsequent cone responses but not vice-versa. Human psychophysical experiments revealed a similar perceptual asymmetry. Nonlinear interactions in the retinal output cells were well-predicted by linear summation of kinetically-distinct rod- and cone-mediated signals followed by a synaptic nonlinearity. These experiments thus reveal how a simple mechanism controlling interactions between parallel pathways shapes circuit output and perception. PMID:26098124

  1. An ADAM9 mutation in canine cone-rod dystrophy 3 establishes homology with human cone-rod dystrophy 9

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Anguish, Lynne J.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation in a canine cone-rod dystrophy (crd3) that segregates as an adult onset disorder in the Glen of Imaal Terrier breed of dog. Methods Glen of Imaal Terriers were ascertained for crd3 phenotype by clinical ophthalmoscopic examination, and in selected cases by electroretinography. Blood samples from affected cases and non-affected controls were collected and used, after DNA extraction, to undertake a genome-wide association study using Affymetrix Version 2 Canine single nucleotide polymorphism chips and 250K Sty Assay protocol. Positional candidate gene analysis was undertaken for genes identified within the peak-association signal region. Retinal morphology of selected crd3-affected dogs was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results A peak association signal exceeding genome-wide significance was identified on canine chromosome 16. Evaluation of genes in this region suggested A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain, family member 9 (ADAM9), identified concurrently elsewhere as the cause of human cone-rod dystrophy 9 (CORD9), as a strong positional candidate for canine crd3. Sequence analysis identified a large genomic deletion (over 20 kb) that removed exons 15 and 16 from the ADAM9 transcript, introduced a premature stop, and would remove critical domains from the encoded protein. Light and electron microscopy established that, as in ADAM9 knockout mice, the primary lesion in crd3 appears to be a failure of the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium to appropriately invest photoreceptor outer segments. By electroretinography, retinal function appears normal in very young crd3-affected dogs, but by 15 months of age, cone dysfunction is present. Subsequently, both rod and cone function degenerate. Conclusions Identification of this ADAM9 deletion in crd3-affected dogs establishes this canine disease as orthologous to CORD9 in humans, and offers opportunities for further characterization of the disease

  2. Identification of appropriate cone length to avoid positive cone margin in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Naotake; Nishio, Shin; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify key factors for predicting positive cone margin and appropriate cone length. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the margin status of patients who received conization with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, along with other factors such as patient age, parity, preoperative cytology, size of disease, type of transformation zone, and cone length from patient records. Cut-off value of cone length was analyzed in women younger than 40 years old because we design conization with minimum length especially for women who wish for future pregnancy. Cut-off value of cone length was defined as length corresponds to estimated probability of positive cone margin equal to 0.1 by logistic regression analysis with variables selected by stepwise methods. Results Among 300 patients, 75 patients had positive cone margin. Multivariable analysis revealed that squamous cell carcinoma at preoperative cytology (p=0.001), 2 or more quadrant disease (p=0.011), and shorter cone length (p<0.001) were risk factors for positive cone margin. Stepwise methods identified cone length and size of lesion as important variables. With this condition, cut-off value of cone length was estimated as 15 mm in single quadrant disease and 20 mm in 2 or more quadrant disease, respectively. Conclusion We identified the independent risk factors of positive cone margin and identified the cut-off value of cone length to avoid positive cone margin in women younger than 40 years old. Conization should be performed not only according to colposcopic findings including type of transformation zone but size of disease and cone length. PMID:27401478

  3. The structure and emplacement of cinder cone fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the structure and emplacement of cinder cone fields. Terrestrial cinder cone fields occur in volcanic provinces upon the flanks of major volcanoes or within relatively flat-lying volcanic fields. Measurements of cone shape and distribution were made in three volcano cone fields and three platform cone fields, and it was found that modal average values of cone basal diameter are on the order of 300 to 400 m within volcano cone fields and 900 to 1000 m within platform cone fields. The average morphometric parameters for the six fields indicate that cone diameter is positively correlated with cone separation distance, and that the size and spacing of cinder cones formed on the flanks of volcanoes is less than the size and spacing of cones constructed in volcanic fields.

  4. Structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Bullard, Rebekah; Allen, Paige; Chao, Chien-Chung; Douglas, Jessica; Das, Pradipta; Morgan, Sarah E; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain β sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences.

  5. Panoramic cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Jenghwa; Zhou Lili; Wang Song; Clifford Chao, K. S.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the main imaging tool for image-guided radiotherapy but its functionality is limited by a small imaging volume and restricted image position (imaged at the central instead of the treatment position for peripheral lesions to avoid collisions). In this paper, the authors present the concept of ''panoramic CBCT,'' which can image patients at the treatment position with an imaging volume as large as practically needed. Methods: In this novel panoramic CBCT technique, the target is scanned sequentially from multiple view angles. For each view angle, a half scan (180 deg. + {theta}{sub cone} where {theta}{sub cone} is the cone angle) is performed with the imaging panel positioned in any location along the beam path. The panoramic projection images of all views for the same gantry angle are then stitched together with the direct image stitching method (i.e., according to the reported imaging position) and full-fan, half-scan CBCT reconstruction is performed using the stitched projection images. To validate this imaging technique, the authors simulated cone-beam projection images of the Mathematical Cardiac Torso (MCAT) thorax phantom for three panoramic views. Gaps, repeated/missing columns, and different exposure levels were introduced between adjacent views to simulate imperfect image stitching due to uncertainties in imaging position or output fluctuation. A modified simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (modified SART) was developed to reconstruct CBCT images directly from the stitched projection images. As a gold standard, full-fan, full-scan (360 deg. gantry rotation) CBCT reconstructions were also performed using projection images of one imaging panel large enough to encompass the target. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and geometric distortion were evaluated to quantify the quality of reconstructed images. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of scattering on the image quality and

  6. Cone penetrometer demonstration standard startup review checklist

    SciTech Connect

    KRIEG, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    Startup readiness for the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm will be verified through the application of a Standard Startup Review Checklist. This is a listing of those items essential to demonstrating readiness to start the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm.

  7. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  8. Mechanochemical regulation of growth cone motility

    PubMed Central

    Kerstein, Patrick C.; Nichol IV, Robert H.; Gomez, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal growth cones are exquisite sensory-motor machines capable of transducing features contacted in their local extracellular environment into guided process extension during development. Extensive research has shown that chemical ligands activate cell surface receptors on growth cones leading to intracellular signals that direct cytoskeletal changes. However, the environment also provides mechanical support for growth cone adhesion and traction forces that stabilize leading edge protrusions. Interestingly, recent work suggests that both the mechanical properties of the environment and mechanical forces generated within growth cones influence axon guidance. In this review we discuss novel molecular mechanisms involved in growth cone force production and detection, and speculate how these processes may be necessary for the development of proper neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:26217175

  9. Unique characteristics of cones in Central Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Rina; Kurita, Kei

    2015-06-01

    Martian magmatism within recent several hundreds of millions years is still controversial. Central Elysium Planitia (CEP) is suspected as a site of the latest magmatism on Mars, but hot debates have been caused as for the origin of this flat plain. Cones in CEP are expected to be a key to resolve this controversy. In previous works, there are 2 models proposed for the origin of CEP cones: volcanic rootless cone (e.g. Jaeger et al., 2007) and periglacial pingo (e.g. Burr et al., 2002; Page et al., 2009). In this study, we described detail morphology, distribution and size of CEP cones by using high-resolution images and topographic data. CEP cones are classified into 3 morphological types: Single Cone (SC), Double Cone (DC), and Lotus Fruit Cone (LC). DC has an inner cone in the summit crater of the outer cone, and LC has several inner cones in the summit crater of the outer cone. Several cones have moat structure around the edifice with peripheral rise. DCs and LCs are located in very flat areas of Athabasca Valles in the vicinity of Cerberus Fossae, while SCs distribute in the entire region of CEP. We compared CEP cones with terrestrial rootless cones and pingos in aerial photos. In Lake Myvatn, Iceland, there exist rootless cones which resemble DCs and LCs in CEP. Based on the similarities with terrestrial analogies, we concluded that the most feasible origin of CEP cones is rootless cones.

  10. Primate Short-Wavelength Cones Share Molecular Markers with Rods

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Cheryl M.; Huang, Jing; Possin, Daniel E.; Hendrickson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Macaca, Callithrix jacchus marmoset monkey, Pan troglodytes chim- panzee and human retinas were examined to define if short wavelength (S) cones share molecular markers with L&M cone or rod photoreceptors. S cones showed consistent differences in their immunohistochemical staining and expression levels compared to L&M cones for “rod” Arrestin1 (S-Antigen), “cone” Arrestin4, cone alpha transducin, and Calbindin. Our data verify a similar pattern of expression in these primate retinas and provide clues to the structural divergence of rods and S cones versus L&M cones, suggesting S cone retinal function is “intermediate” between them. PMID:24664680

  11. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  12. LSP Calculations of Cone-Wire Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R J; Cottrill, L A; Key, M H; Kruer, W L; Langdon, A B; Lasinski, B F; McCandless, B C; Myatt, J F; Park, H S; Remington, B A; Snavely, R A; Still, C H; Tabak, M; Welch, D R; Wilks, S C

    2005-06-13

    Recent experiments at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) in Japan [1] and at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the United Kingdom [2] have shown good coupling of short-pulse high-intensity laser light into high-energy electrons channeled down a narrow fiber. Such target configurations are being considered as backlighter targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We will report on LSP calculations of these cone-wire experiments and other candidate target configurations. These calculations also give insight into the transport of MeV-electrons, which remains the critical issue for the achievement of fast ignition [3]. The LSP code uses a direct implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in 2 or 3 dimensions to solve for beam particle transport, while treating the background particles as a fluid [4]. We have modified LSP to produce K{alpha} photons in a non-interfering manner and will show calculated absolute K{alpha} yields for the experiments reported by Key [2].

  13. Giant scattering cones in obscured quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obied, Georges; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Liu, Guilin

    2016-03-01

    We analyse Hubble Space Telescope observations of scattering regions in 20 luminous obscured quasars at 0.24 < z < 0.65 (11 new observations and nine archival ones) observed at rest frame ˜3000 Å. We find spectacular 5-10 kpc-scale scattering regions in almost all cases. The median scattering efficiency at this wavelength (the ratio of observed to estimated intrinsic flux) is 2.3, and 73 per cent of the observed flux at this wavelength is due to scattered light, which if unaccounted for may strongly bias estimates of quasar hosts' star formation rates. Modelling these regions as illuminated dusty cones, we estimate the radial density distributions of the interstellar medium as well as the geometric properties of circumnuclear quasar obscuration - inclinations and covering factors. Small derived opening angles (median half-angle and standard deviation 27° ± 9°) are inconsistent with a 1:1 type 1/type 2 ratio. We suggest that quasar obscuration is patchy and that the observer has an ˜40 per cent chance of seeing a type 1 source even through the obscuration. We estimate median density profile of the scattering medium to be nH = 0.04-0.5 (1 kpc/r)2 cm-3, depending on the method. Quasars in our sample likely exhibit galaxy-wide winds, but if these consist of optically thick clouds then only a small fraction of the wind mass ( ≲ 10 per cent) contributes to scattering.

  14. Extrafoveal Cone Packing in Eyes With a History of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Akula, James D.; Soni, Garima; Swanson, Matthew J.; Bush, Jennifer N.; Moskowitz, Anne; Swanson, Emily A.; Favazza, Tara L.; Tavormina, Jena L.; Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hansen, Ronald M.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the density and packing geometry of the extrafoveal cone photoreceptors in eyes with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We used a multimodal combination of adaptive optics (AO) scanning light ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Cones were identified in subjects (aged 14–26 years) with a history of ROP that was either severe and treated by laser ablation of avascular peripheral retina (TROP; n = 5) or mild and spontaneously resolved, untreated (UROP; n = 5), and in term-born controls (CT; n = 8). The AO-SLO images were obtained at temporal eccentricities 4.5°, 9°, 13.5°, and 18° using both confocal and offset apertures with simultaneous, colocal OCT images. Effects of group, eccentricity, and aperture were evaluated and the modalities compared. Results In the SLO images, cone density was lower and the packing pattern less regular in TROP, relative to CT and UROP retinae. Although SLO image quality appeared lower in TROP, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error did not differ among the groups. In TROP eyes, cone discrimination was easier in offset aperture images. There was no evidence of cone loss in the TROP OCT images. Conclusions Low cone density in TROP confocal SLO images may have resulted from lower image quality. Since AO correction in these eyes was equivalent to that of the control group, and OCT imaging showed no significant cone loss, the optical properties of the inner retina or properties of the cones themselves are likely altered in a way that affects photoreceptor imaging. PMID:26868749

  15. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  16. Gravity duals of boundary cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Joan

    2016-09-01

    The replica trick defines Rényi entropies as partition functions on conically singular geometries. We discuss their gravity duals: regular bulk solutions to the Einstein equations inducing conically singular metrics at the boundary. When the conical singularity is supported on a flat or spherical surface, these solutions are rewritings of the hyperbolic black hole. For more general shapes, these solutions are new. We construct them perturbatively in a double expansion in the distance and strength of the conical singularity, and extract the vacuum polarisation due to the cone. Recent results about the structure of logarithmic divergences of Rényi entropies are reproduced — in particular, f b ≠ f c . We discuss in detail the dynamical resolution of the singularity in the bulk. This resolution is in agreement with a previous proposal, and indicates a non-minimal settling to the `splitting problem': an apparent ambiguity in the holographic entropy formula of certain theories with higher derivatives.

  17. Elastic cone for Chinese calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fenglei; Li, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    The brush plays an important role in creating Chinese calligraphy. We regard a single bristle of a writing brush as an elastic rod and the brush tuft absorbing ink as an elastic cone, which naturally deforms according to the force exerted on it when painting on a paper, and the brush footprint is formed by the intersection region between the deformed tuft and the paper plane. To efficiently generate brush strokes, this paper introduces interpolation and texture mapping approach between two adjacent footprints, and automatically applies bristle-splitting texture to the stroke after long-time painting. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective and reliable. Users can create realistic calligraphy in real time.

  18. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  19. AAV-Mediated Cone Rescue in a Naturally Occurring Mouse Model of CNGA3-Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L.; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A.; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  20. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  1. Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Cone Photoreceptor Viability.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongwei; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the retina, TH signaling plays a central role in cone opsin expression. TH signaling inhibits S opsin expression, stimulates M opsin expression, and promotes dorsal-ventral opsin patterning. TH signaling has also been associated with cone photoreceptor viability. Treatment with thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) or induction of high T3 by deleting the hormone-inactivating enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) causes cone death in mice. This effect is reversed by deletion of the TH receptor (TR) gene. Consistent with the T3 treatment effect, suppressing TH signaling preserves cones in mouse models of retinal degeneration. The regulation of cone survival by TH signaling appears to be independent of its regulatory role in cone opsin expression. The mechanism by which TH signaling regulates cone viability remains to be identified. The current understanding of TH signaling regulation in photoreceptor viability suggests that suppressing TH signaling locally in the retina may represent a novel strategy for retinal degeneration management. PMID:26427466

  2. Distribution and specificity of S-cone ("blue cone") signals in subcortical visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Lee, Barry B

    2014-03-01

    We review here the distribution of S-cone signals and properties of S-cone recipient receptive fields in subcortical pathways. Nearly everything we know about S-cone signals in the subcortical visual system comes from the study of visual systems in cats and primates (monkeys); in this review, we concentrate on results from macaque and marmoset monkeys. We discuss segregation of S-cone recipient (blue-on and blue-off) receptive fields in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and describe their receptive field properties. We treat in some detail the question of detecting weak S-cone signals as an introduction for newcomers to the field. Finally, we briefly consider the question on how S-cone signals are distributed among nongeniculate targets. PMID:24555883

  3. Distribution and specificity of S-cone ("blue cone") signals in subcortical visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Lee, Barry B

    2014-03-01

    We review here the distribution of S-cone signals and properties of S-cone recipient receptive fields in subcortical pathways. Nearly everything we know about S-cone signals in the subcortical visual system comes from the study of visual systems in cats and primates (monkeys); in this review, we concentrate on results from macaque and marmoset monkeys. We discuss segregation of S-cone recipient (blue-on and blue-off) receptive fields in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and describe their receptive field properties. We treat in some detail the question of detecting weak S-cone signals as an introduction for newcomers to the field. Finally, we briefly consider the question on how S-cone signals are distributed among nongeniculate targets.

  4. Nonlinear Resonance Cones and Converging Plasma Blobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agmon, Nathan; Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter; Wise, Joe; Katz, Cami; Ha, Chis; Baker, Bob

    2013-10-01

    Electric field resonance cones have been shown to create density disturbances in cold, magnetized plasmas. Two circular antennas in the LAPTAG experimental plasma device were used to create converging, nonlinear resonance cones. The nonlinear electrostatic field is produced by large amplitude RF (ERF/nkTe >> 1). A movable probe, powered by a computerized motor and consisting of three mutually orthogonal electric dipoles, is used to measure the electric field of the cones which become distorted at large amplitudes. A 2D movable Langmuir probe was used to determine localized density perturbations after turn-off of the RF power. A density blob moving at 3-5 times the ion sound speed has been observed to propagate away (for at least 20 cm) from the focus of the cone. Two ring antennas produced colliding blobs. The physics of the collision will be described. Work performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility supported by DOE and NSF.

  5. Some inversion formulas for the cone transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzioglu, Fatma

    2015-11-01

    Several novel imaging applications have lead recently to a variety of Radon type transforms, where integration is made over a family of conical surfaces. We call them cone transforms (in 2D they are also called V-line or broken ray transforms). Most prominently, they are present in the so called Compton camera imaging that arises in medical diagnostics, astronomy, and lately in homeland security applications. Several specific incarnations of the cone transform have been considered separately. In this paper, we address the most general (and overdetermined) cone transform, obtain integral relations between cone and Radon transforms in {{{R}}}n, and a variety of inversion formulas. In many applications (e.g., in homeland security), the signal to noise ratio is very low. So, if overdetermined data is collected (as in the case of Compton imaging), attempts to reduce the dimensionality might lead to essential elimination of the signal. Thus, our main concentration is on obtaining formulas involving overdetermined data.

  6. Homologies among Coniferophyte cones: further observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauvogel-Stamm, Léa; Galtier, Jean

    1998-04-01

    A reinvestigation of the Triassic conifer pollen cone of Darneya shows evidence that clusters of pollen sacs are attached (adnate), at regular intervals, to the upper side of the stalk and that the distribution of stomata is restricted to the apical part of the abaxial side of the peltate scale. These features and others, such as the commissure visible on the stalk and the scale, suggest a dual nature of the male scale complex of Darneya which therefore is interpreted as an abaxial bract fused with an adaxial fertile shoot bearing several clusters of pollen sacs. This conifer pollen cone is thus considered as a compound strobilus (inflorescence) homologous with the female cone of the conifers and therefore with the cones, both male and female, of the cordaites.

  7. The cytoskeletons of isolated, neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Weeks, P R

    1987-06-01

    We have examined by electron microscopy the cytoskeletons of growth cones isolated from neonatal rat forebrain by the method of Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie [Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie (1984) Neuroscience 13, 119-136]. When fixed in suspension with conventional fixatives, isolated growth cones contain a central region filled with a branching system of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and a cortical region immediately beneath the plasma membrane that is relatively free of organelles and is composed of an amorphous granular cytoplasm. The filopodia of isolated growth cones are also devoid of organelles and contain a cytoplasm that is similar in appearance to that in the cortical region. No microtubules or neurofilaments have been found in these growth cones. When isolated growth cones were prepared for electron microscopy by a method which preserves actin filaments [Boyles, Anderson and Hutcherson (1985) J. Histochem. Cytochem. 33, 1116-1128], microfilaments were found throughout the cortical cytoplasm. In the filopodia, the microfilaments were bundled together and oriented longitudinally. Filopodial microfilament bundles often extended into the body of the growth cone and could traverse it completely. Inclusion of Triton X-100 (1% v/v) in the fixative solubilized the membranes and soluble cytoplasmic proteins of growth cones, allowing an unobscured view of the microfilament cytoskeleton including the core bundle of microfilaments in filopodia. Suspended within the cytoskeleton were the coats of coated vesicles. These were particularly numerous at the broad bases of filopodia. Microfilaments bound heavy meromyosin and were cytochalasin B (2.0 X 10(-7) M) sensitive. Individual microfilaments branched and within filopodia they were extensively cross-linked by thin (7 nm) filaments. Microtubules and neurofilaments were not seen in these cytoskeletons despite the fact that the fixative contained a Ca2+ chelator. When growth cones were preincubated in taxol (14 microM) their

  8. DEFORMATION OF SCORIA CONE BY CONDUIT PRESSURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Gaffney; B. Damjanac; D. Krier; G. Valentine

    2005-08-26

    A simplified mechanical model is used to simulate the deformation of a scoria cone due to pressurization of magma in a feeder conduit. The scoria cone is modeled as consisting of a cone of stabilized scoria with an axial region of loose scoria (height h{sub 1}), all overlying a vertically oriented cylindrical conduit intruded into rhyolite tuff country rock. For our analyses, the conduit is filled with basalt magma, usually with the upper length (h{sub 2}) solidified. The style of deformation of the cone depends on both h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}. If magma is prevented from hydrofracturing out of the conduit (as, for example, might be the case if the magma is surrounded by a solidified, but plastically deformable layer acting as a gasket backed up by the brittle country rock) pressures in the magma can build to 10s of MPa. When h{sub 1} is 100 m, not unusual for a small isolated basaltic cinder cone, the magma pressure needed to destabilize the cone when molten magma extends all the way to the original ground surface (h{sub 2} = 0) is only about one-third of the pressure when the upper part of the conduit is solidified (h{sub 2} = 25m). In the former case, almost the entire upper third of the cone is at failure in tension when the configuration becomes unstable. In the latter case, small portions of the surface of the cone are failing in tension when instability occurs, but a large volume in the central core of the cone is failing in shear or compressions. These results may provide insight into the status of volcanic plumbing, either past or present, beneath scoria cones. Field observations at the Lathrop Wells volcano in southern Nevada identify structures at the outer edge just below the crater rim that appear to be inward-dipping listric normal faults. This may indicate that, near the end of its active stage, the cone was close to failing in this fashion. A companion paper suggests that such a failure could have been quite energetic had it occurred.

  9. Laser scattering induced holograms in lithium niobate. [observation of diffraction cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnusson, R.; Gaylord, T. K.

    1974-01-01

    A 3.0-mm thick poled single crystal of lithium niobate doped with 0.1 mole% iron was exposed to a single beam and then to two intersecting beams of an argon ion laser operating at 515-nm wavelength. Laser scattering induced holograms were thus written and analyzed. The presence of diffraction cones was observed and is shown to result from the internally recorded interference pattern resulting from the interference of the original incident laser beam with light scattered from material inhomogeneities. This phenomenon is analyzed using Ewald sphere construction techniques which reveal the geometrical relationships existing for the diffraction cones.

  10. Substrate Deformation Predicts Neuronal Growth Cone Advance

    PubMed Central

    Athamneh, Ahmad I.M.; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.; Raman, Arvind; Suter, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Although pulling forces have been observed in axonal growth for several decades, their underlying mechanisms, absolute magnitudes, and exact roles are not well understood. In this study, using two different experimental approaches, we quantified retrograde traction force in Aplysia californica neuronal growth cones as they develop over time in response to a new adhesion substrate. In the first approach, we developed a novel method, to our knowledge, for measuring traction forces using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a cantilever that was modified with an Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM)-coated microbead. In the second approach, we used force-calibrated glass microneedles coated with apCAM ligands to guide growth cone advance. The traction force exerted by the growth cone was measured by monitoring the microneedle deflection using an optical microscope. Both approaches showed that Aplysia growth cones can develop traction forces in the 100–102 nN range during adhesion-mediated advance. Moreover, our results suggest that the level of traction force is directly correlated to the stiffness of the microneedle, which is consistent with a reinforcement mechanism previously observed in other cell types. Interestingly, the absolute level of traction force did not correlate with growth cone advance toward the adhesion site, but the amount of microneedle deflection did. In cases of adhesion-mediated growth cone advance, the mean needle deflection was 1.05 ± 0.07 μm. By contrast, the mean deflection was significantly lower (0.48 ± 0.06 μm) when the growth cones did not advance. Our data support a hypothesis that adhesion complexes, which can undergo micron-scale elastic deformation, regulate the coupling between the retrogradely flowing actin cytoskeleton and apCAM substrates, stimulating growth cone advance if sufficiently abundant. PMID:26445437

  11. Arrestin 1 and Cone Arrestin 4 Have Unique Roles in Visual Function in an All-Cone Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Janise D.; Pak, Joseph S.; Shin, Jung-a; Brown, Bruce M.; Kim, Moon K.; Aung, Moe H.; Lee, Eun-Jin; Pardue, Machelle T.; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies discovered cone phototransduction shutoff occurs normally for Arr1−/− and Arr4−/−; however, it is defective when both visual arrestins are simultaneously not expressed (Arr1−/−Arr4−/−). We investigated the roles of visual arrestins in an all-cone retina (Nrl−/−) since each arrestin has differential effects on visual function, including ARR1 for normal light adaptation, and ARR4 for normal contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. Methods We examined Nrl−/−, Nrl−/−Arr1−/−, Nrl−/−Arr4−/−, and Nrl−/−Arr1−/−Arr4−/− mice with photopic electroretinography (ERG) to assess light adaptation and retinal responses, immunoblot and immunohistochemical localization analysis to measure retinal expression levels of M- and S-opsin, and optokinetic tracking (OKT) to measure the visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Results Study results indicated that Nrl−/− and Nrl−/−Arr4−/− mice light adapted normally, while Nrl−/−Arr1−/− and Nrl−/−Arr1−/−Arr4−/− mice did not. Photopic ERG a-wave, b-wave, and flicker amplitudes followed a general pattern in which Nrl−/−Arr4−/− amplitudes were higher than the amplitudes of Nrl−/−, while the amplitudes of Nrl−/−Arr1−/− and Nrl−/−Arr1−/−Arr4−/− were lower. All three visual arrestin knockouts had faster implicit times than Nrl−/− mice. M-opsin expression is lower when ARR1 is not expressed, while S-opsin expression is lower when ARR4 is not expressed. Although M-opsin expression is mislocalized throughout the photoreceptor cells, S-opsin is confined to the outer segments in all genotypes. Contrast sensitivity is decreased when ARR4 is not expressed, while visual acuity was normal except in Nrl−/−Arr1−/−Arr4−/−. Conclusions Based on the opposite visual phenotypes in an all-cone retina in the Nrl−/−Arr1−/− and Nrl−/−Arr4−/− mice, we conclude that ARR1 and ARR4 perform unique

  12. Cone Tracing for Furry Object Rendering.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hao; Chai, Menglei; Hou, Qiming; Ren, Zhong; Zhou, Kun

    2014-08-01

    We present a cone-based ray tracing algorithm for high-quality rendering of furry objects with reflection, refraction and defocus effects. By aggregating many sampling rays in a pixel as a single cone, we significantly reduce the high supersampling rate required by the thin geometry of fur fibers. To reduce the cost of intersecting fur fibers with cones, we construct a bounding volume hierarchy for the fiber geometry to find the fibers potentially intersecting with cones, and use a set of connected ribbons to approximate the projections of these fibers on the image plane. The computational cost of compositing and filtering transparent samples within each cone is effectively reduced by approximating away in-cone variations of shading, opacity and occlusion. The result is a highly efficient ray tracing algorithm for furry objects which is able to render images of quality comparable to those generated by alternative methods, while significantly reducing the rendering time. We demonstrate the rendering quality and performance of our algorithm using several examples and a user study. PMID:26357369

  13. Crowding in the S-cone pathway.

    PubMed

    Coates, Daniel R; Chung, Susana T L

    2016-05-01

    The spatial extent of interference from nearby object or contours (the critical spacing of "crowding") has been thoroughly characterized across the visual field, typically using high contrast achromatic stimuli. However, attempts to link this measure with known properties of physiological pathways have been inconclusive. The S-cone pathway, with its ease of psychophysical isolation and known anatomical characteristics, offers a unique tool to gain additional insights into crowding. In this study, we measured the spatial extent of crowding in the S-cone pathway at several retinal locations using a chromatic adaptation paradigm. S-cone crowding was evident and extensive, but its spatial extent changed less markedly as a function of retinal eccentricity than the extent found using traditional achromatic stimuli. However, the spatial extent agreed with that of low contrast achromatic stimuli matched for isolated resolvability. This suggests that common cortical mechanisms mediate the crowding effect in the S-cone and achromatic pathway, but contrast is an important factor. The low contrast of S-cone stimuli makes S-cone vision more acuity-limited than crowding-limited.

  14. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  15. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  16. Ret-PCP2 colocalizes with PKC in a subset of primate ON cone bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Pyroja; Fina, Marie; Feddersen, Rod; Vardi, Noga

    2010-01-01

    Purkinje cell protein 2 (PCP2), a member of the family of guanine dissociation inhibitors and a strong interactor with the G-protein subunit Gαo, localizes to retinal ON bipolar cells. The retina-specific splice variant of PCP2, Ret-PCP2, accelerates the light response of rod bipolar cells by modulating the mGluR6 transduction cascade. All ON cone bipolar cells express mGluR6 and Gα o, but only a subset expresses Ret-PCP2. Here we test the hypothesis that Ret-PCP2 contributes to shaping the various temporal bandwidths of ON cone bipolar cells in monkey retina. We found that the retinal splice variants in monkey and mouse are similar and longer than the cerebellar variants. Ret-PCP2 is strongly expressed by diffuse cone bipolar type 4 cells (DB4; marked with anti-PKCα), and weakly expressed by midget bipolar dendrites (labeled by antibodies against Gα o, Gγ13, or mGluR6). Ret-PCP2 is absent from diffuse cone bipolar type 6 (DB6; marked with anti-CD15) and blue cone bipolar cells (marked with anti-CCK precursor). Thus, cone bipolar cells that terminate in stratum 3 of the inner plexiform layer (DB4) express more Ret-PCP2 than those that terminate in stratum 3+4 (midget bipolar cells), and these in turn express more than those that terminate in stratum 5 (DB6 and blue cone bipolar cells). This expression pattern approximates the arborization of ganglion cells (GC) with different temporal band-widths: parasol GCs stratifying near stratum 3 are faster than midget GCs stratifying in strata 3+4, and these are probably faster than the sluggish GCs that arborize in stratum 5. PMID:20127818

  17. Development of a Cone Penetrometer for Measuring Spectral Characteristics of Soils in Situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Landris T., Jr.; Malone, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    A patent was recently granted to the U.S. Army for an adaptation of a soil cone penetrometer that can be used to measure the spectral characteristics (fluorescence or reflectance) of soils adjacent to the penetrometer rod. The system can use a variety of light sources and spectral analytical equipment. A laser induced fluorescence measuring system has proven to be of immediate use in mapping the distribution of oil contaminated soil at waste disposal and oil storage areas. The fiber optic adaptation coupled with a cone penetrometer permits optical characteristics of the in-situ soil to be measured rapidly, safely, and inexpensively. The fiber optic cone penetrometer can be used to gather spectral data to a depth of approximately 25 to 30 m even in dense sands or stiff clays and can investigate 300 m of soil per day. Typical detection limits for oil contamination in sand is on the order of several hundred parts per million.

  18. Dephosphorylation during bleach and regeneration of visual pigment in carp rod and cone membranes.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Hiromi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    On absorption of light by vertebrate visual pigment, the chromophore, 11-cis retinal, is isomerized to all-trans retinal to activate the phototransduction cascade, which leads to a hyperpolarizing light response. Activated pigment is inactivated by phosphorylation on the protein moiety, opsin. Isomerized all-trans retinal is ultimately released from opsin, and the pigment is regenerated by binding to 11-cis retinal. In this pigment regeneration cycle, the phosphates incorporated should be removed in order that the pigment regains the capability of activating the phototransduction cascade. However, it is not clear yet how pigment dephosphorylation takes place in the regeneration cycle. First in this study, we tried to estimate the dephosphorylation activity in living carp rods and cones and found that the activity, which is present mainly in the cytoplasm in both rods and cones, is three times higher in cones than in rods. Second, we examined at which stage the dephosphorylation takes place; before or after the release of all-trans retinal, during pigment regeneration, or after pigment regeneration. For this purpose we prepared three types of phosphorylated substrates in purified carp rod and cone membranes: phosphorylated bleaching intermediate, phosphorylated opsin, and phosphorylated and regenerated pigment. We also examined the effect of pigment regeneration on the dephosphorylation. The results showed that the dephosphorylation does not show substrate preference in the regeneration cycle and suggested that the dephosphorylation takes place constantly. The results also suggest that, under bright light, some of the regenerated visual pigment remains phosphorylated to reduce the light sensitivity in cones.

  19. Cone of skin exists in rat: A "hypertrophic scarring free" animal.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yanhai; Yu, Xiaoping; Lu, Shuliang

    2016-08-01

    Cone of skin is deemed to be related to hypertrophic scarring and absent in such traditionally "hypertrophic scarring and keloid free" animals as rat. The purpose of our study is to determine whether the cone of skin exists in rat. If it was, why it was ignored, and what was the meaning of it. The depilation of left dorsum of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats was performed using a wax/rosin mixture. Skin samples were harvested on 0 d, 3 d, 9 d, 15 d, 21 d, 27 d, 33 d, and 39 d after depilation and stained by hematoxylin and eosin methods. Light microscopic observation of the dermis-fat interface was studied at 25× magnification. It was observed that, "dome" like fat tissue bulged up into the dermis from 3 d to 27 d and hair follicle bulged down into the "dome" like fat tissue from 15 d to 27 d and a "cone" like structure was seen. Cone of skin exists in rat in certain stages of hair follicle cycle, which is a valuable addition to the scientific literature and might be a challenge to the relation between cone of skin and hypertrophic scarring. Anat Rec, 299:1140-1144, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27125905

  20. Circuitry to explain how the relative number of L and M cones shapes color experience.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian P; Touch, Phanith; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2016-06-01

    The wavelength of light that appears unique yellow is surprisingly consistent across people even though the ratio of middle (M) to long (L) wavelength sensitive cones is strikingly variable. This observation has been explained by normalization to the mean spectral distribution of our shared environment. Our purpose was to reconcile the nearly perfect alignment of everyone's unique yellow through a normalization process with the striking variability in unique green, which varies by as much as 60 nm between individuals. The spectral location of unique green was measured in a group of volunteers whose cone ratios were estimated with a technique that combined genetics and flicker photometric electroretinograms. In contrast to unique yellow, unique green was highly dependent upon relative cone numerosity. We hypothesized that the difference in neural architecture of the blue-yellow and red-green opponent systems in the presence of a normalization process creates the surprising dependence of unique green on cone ratio. We then compared the predictions of different theories of color vision processing that incorporate L and M cone ratio and a normalization process. The results of this analysis reveal that-contrary to prevailing notions--postretinal contributions may not be required to explain the phenomena of unique hues. PMID:27366885

  1. Ecophysiological variables influencing Aleppo pine seed and cone production: a review.

    PubMed

    Ayari, Abdelaziz; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2014-04-01

    The most interesting factors associated with seed and cone production of Aleppo pine were largely reviewed to identify broad patterns and potential effectiveness of reforestation efforts and planning. Aleppo pine cone production and seed yields are relatively variable, with differences between spatial and temporal influences. These differences are considered, mainly between (i) year, (ii) stand characteristics and (iii) individual tree measurements. Annual variability among populations was recorded for cone production per tree, based on influencing factors such as genetic characteristics, wetness, nutrient availability, insect pests and disease. In addition, some factors may affect Aleppo pine tree growth directly but may be affecting seed and cone production indirectly. Therefore, reduced stand density results in less competition among Aleppo pine trees and accompanying understory flora, which subsequently increases the stem diameter and other tree dimensions, including seed production. This review suggests that reforestation planning, particularly thinning, will result in improved tree morphology that will increase Aleppo pine seed and cone crops. Wildfire intensity and stand conditions such as light and soil nutrient status are also examined.

  2. Circuitry to explain how the relative number of L and M cones shapes color experience

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Touch, Phanith; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The wavelength of light that appears unique yellow is surprisingly consistent across people even though the ratio of middle (M) to long (L) wavelength sensitive cones is strikingly variable. This observation has been explained by normalization to the mean spectral distribution of our shared environment. Our purpose was to reconcile the nearly perfect alignment of everyone's unique yellow through a normalization process with the striking variability in unique green, which varies by as much as 60 nm between individuals. The spectral location of unique green was measured in a group of volunteers whose cone ratios were estimated with a technique that combined genetics and flicker photometric electroretinograms. In contrast to unique yellow, unique green was highly dependent upon relative cone numerosity. We hypothesized that the difference in neural architecture of the blue-yellow and red-green opponent systems in the presence of a normalization process creates the surprising dependence of unique green on cone ratio. We then compared the predictions of different theories of color vision processing that incorporate L and M cone ratio and a normalization process. The results of this analysis reveal that—contrary to prevailing notions--postretinal contributions may not be required to explain the phenomena of unique hues. PMID:27366885

  3. Matrix theory interpretation of discrete light cone quantization string worldsheets

    PubMed

    Grignani; Orland; Paniak; Semenoff

    2000-10-16

    We study the null compactification of type-IIA string perturbation theory at finite temperature. We prove a theorem about Riemann surfaces establishing that the moduli spaces of infinite-momentum-frame superstring worldsheets are identical to those of branched-cover instantons in the matrix-string model conjectured to describe M theory. This means that the identification of string degrees of freedom in the matrix model proposed by Dijkgraaf, Verlinde, and Verlinde is correct and that its natural generalization produces the moduli space of Riemann surfaces at all orders in the genus expansion. PMID:11030892

  4. Matrix theory interpretation of discrete light cone quantization string worldsheets

    PubMed

    Grignani; Orland; Paniak; Semenoff

    2000-10-16

    We study the null compactification of type-IIA string perturbation theory at finite temperature. We prove a theorem about Riemann surfaces establishing that the moduli spaces of infinite-momentum-frame superstring worldsheets are identical to those of branched-cover instantons in the matrix-string model conjectured to describe M theory. This means that the identification of string degrees of freedom in the matrix model proposed by Dijkgraaf, Verlinde, and Verlinde is correct and that its natural generalization produces the moduli space of Riemann surfaces at all orders in the genus expansion.

  5. Sodium-dependent calcium extrusion and sensitivity regulation in retinal cones of the salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, K; Yau, K W

    1989-01-01

    1. Membrane current was recorded from an isolated, dark-adapted salamander cone by sucking its inner segment into a tight-fitting glass pipette containing Ringer solution. The outer segment of the cell was exposed to a bath solution that could be changed rapidly. 2. After removing Na+ from the bath Ringer solution for a short period of time in darkness (the 'loading period'), a transient inward current was observed upon restoring it in bright light. A similar but longer-lasting current was observed when Na+ was restored in the light after a large Ca2+ influx was induced through the light-sensitive conductance in darkness. 3. The above transient current was not observed if Li+ or guanidinium was substituted for Na+ in the light, or if Ba2+ was substituted for Ca2+ during the dark loading period. However, a current was observed if Sr2+ was the substituting ion for Ca2+ during loading. These observations suggested that the current was associated with an electrogenic Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux at the cone outer segment. 4. The saturated amplitude of the exchange current was 12-25 pA with a mean around 16 pA. This is very comparable to that measured in the outer segment of a salamander rod under similar conditions. 5. By comparing a known Ca2+ load in a cone outer segment to the subsequent charge transfer through the exchange, we estimated that the stoichiometry of the exchange was near 3Na+:1Ca2+. 6. With a small Ca2+ load, or in the presence of Cs+ around the inner segment, the final temporal decline of the Na+-Ca2+ exchange current was roughly exponential, with a mean time constant of about 100 ms. This decline is about four times faster than that measured in rods. We interpret the shorter time constant in cones to reflect a faster rate of decline of intracellular free Ca2+ in their outer segments resulting from the exchange activity. 7. In the absence of external Na+, and hence any Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux, the absolute sensitivity of a cone to a dim flash was

  6. Regulated plasmalemmal expansion in nerve growth cones.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, R O; Miller, V E; Pfenninger, K H

    1991-03-01

    To study the mechanisms underlying plasmalemmal expansion in the nerve growth cone, a cell-free assay was developed to quantify membrane addition, using ligand binding and sealed growth cone particles isolated by subcellular fractionation from fetal rat brain. Exposed versus total binding sites of 125I-wheat germ agglutinin were measured in the absence or presence of saponin, respectively, after incubation with various agents. Ca2(+)-ionophore A23187 in the presence of Ca2+ increases the number of binding sites (Bmax) but does not change their affinity (KD), indicating that new receptors appear on the plasma membrane. Similarly, membrane depolarization by high K+ or veratridine significantly induces, in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner, the externalization of lectin binding sites from an internal pool. Morphometric analysis of isolated growth cones indicates that A23187 and high K+ treatment cause a significant reduction in a specific cytoplasmic membrane compartment, thus confirming the lectin labeling results and identifying the plasmalemmal precursor. The isolated growth cones take up gamma-amino-butyric acid and serotonin, but show no evidence for Ca2(+)-dependent transmitter release so that transmitter exocytosis is dissociated from plasmalemmal expansion. The data demonstrate that plasmalemmal expansion in the growth cone is a regulated process and identify an internal pool of precursor membrane.

  7. Regulated plasmalemmal expansion in nerve growth cones

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    To study the mechanisms underlying plasmalemmal expansion in the nerve growth cone, a cell-free assay was developed to quantify membrane addition, using ligand binding and sealed growth cone particles isolated by subcellular fractionation from fetal rat brain. Exposed versus total binding sites of 125I-wheat germ agglutinin were measured in the absence or presence of saponin, respectively, after incubation with various agents. Ca2(+)-ionophore A23187 in the presence of Ca2+ increases the number of binding sites (Bmax) but does not change their affinity (KD), indicating that new receptors appear on the plasma membrane. Similarly, membrane depolarization by high K+ or veratridine significantly induces, in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner, the externalization of lectin binding sites from an internal pool. Morphometric analysis of isolated growth cones indicates that A23187 and high K+ treatment cause a significant reduction in a specific cytoplasmic membrane compartment, thus confirming the lectin labeling results and identifying the plasmalemmal precursor. The isolated growth cones take up gamma-amino-butyric acid and serotonin, but show no evidence for Ca2(+)-dependent transmitter release so that transmitter exocytosis is dissociated from plasmalemmal expansion. The data demonstrate that plasmalemmal expansion in the growth cone is a regulated process and identify an internal pool of precursor membrane. PMID:1999470

  8. Whiskers, cones and pyramids created in sputtering by ion bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    A thorough study of the role which foreign atoms play in cone formation during sputtering of metals revealed many experimental facts. Two types of cone formation were distinquished, deposit cones and seed cones. Twenty-six combinations of metals for seed cone formation were tested. The sputtering yield variations with composition for combinations which form seed cones were measured. It was demonstrated that whisker growth becomes a common occurrence when low melting point material is sputter deposited on a hot nonsputtered high melting point electrode.

  9. miRNAs 182 and 183 are necessary to maintain adult cone photoreceptor outer segments and visual function.

    PubMed

    Busskamp, Volker; Krol, Jacek; Nelidova, Dasha; Daum, Janine; Szikra, Tamas; Tsuda, Ben; Jüttner, Josephine; Farrow, Karl; Scherf, Brigitte Gross; Alvarez, Claudia Patricia Patino; Genoud, Christel; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Stadler, Michael; Seeliger, Mathias; Stoffel, Markus; Filipowicz, Witold; Roska, Botond

    2014-08-01

    The outer segments of cones serve as light detectors for daylight color vision, and their dysfunction leads to human blindness conditions. We show that the cone-specific disruption of DGCR8 in adult mice led to the loss of miRNAs and the loss of outer segments, resulting in photoreceptors with significantly reduced light responses. However, the number of cones remained unchanged. The loss of the outer segments occurred gradually over 1 month, and during this time the genetic signature of cones decreased. Reexpression of the sensory-cell-specific miR-182 and miR-183 prevented outer segment loss. These miRNAs were also necessary and sufficient for the formation of inner segments, connecting cilia and short outer segments, as well as light responses in stem-cell-derived retinal cultures. Our results show that miR-182- and miR-183-regulated pathways are necessary for cone outer segment maintenance in vivo and functional outer segment formation in vitro. PMID:25002228

  10. GABA release from mouse axonal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2000-01-01

    Using developing hypothalamic neurons from transgenic mice that express high levels of green fluorescent protein in growing axons, and an outside-out patch from mature neuronal membranes that contain neurotransmitter receptors as a sensitive detector, we found that GABA is released by a vesicular mechanism from the growth cones of developing axons prior to synapse formation. A low level of GABA release occurs spontaneously from the growth cone, and this is substantially increased by evoked action potentials. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine can enhance protein kinase C (PKC) activity even prior to synapse formation; PKC activation caused a substantial increase in spontaneous GABA release from the growth cone, probably acting at the axon terminal. These data indicate that GABA is secreted from axons during a stage of neuronal development when GABA is excitatory, and that neuromodulators could alter GABA release from the growing axon, potentially enabling other developing neurons of different transmitter phenotype to modulate the early actions of GABA. PMID:10718743

  11. Pure bending of a solid cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renton, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    The problems of torsion, axial loading and shear of a solid cone were solved around the turn of the century by Michell and Föppl. Surprisingly, no solution to the problem of the elastic response of a cone to the only other possible resultant applied to its apex seems to have been published until now. The method used here is based on certain theoretical considerations related to the author's work on generalizing the engineering theory of beams. This means that the result is derived rather than being the result of a trial-and-error process. A comparison is made with the usual engineering theory as modified for variable bending stiffness. The two analyses give the same results at the limit as the cone angle tends to zero.

  12. Understanding Cone Photoreceptor Cell Death in Achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Livia S; Vandenberghe, Luk H

    2016-01-01

    Colour vision is only achieved in the presence of healthy and functional cone photoreceptors found in the retina. It is an essential component of human vision and usually the first complaint patients undergoing vision degeneration have is the loss of daylight colour vision. Therefore, an understanding of the biology and basic mechanisms behind cone death under the degenerative state of retinal dystrophies and how the activation of the apoptotic pathway is triggered will provide valuable knowledge. It will also have broader applications for a spectrum of visual disorders and will be critical for future advances in translational research. PMID:26427416

  13. Basaltic Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M

    1964-01-17

    A basaltic cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top.

  14. Basaltic Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M

    1964-01-17

    A basaltic cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top. PMID:17753148

  15. Synaptic Transmission from Horizontal Cells to Cones Is Impaired by Loss of Connexin Hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Lauw J.; Sun, Ziyi; Steijaert, Marvin N.; Bolte, Petra; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Klooster, Jan; Claassen, Yvonne; Shields, Colleen R.; Ten Eikelder, Huub M. M.; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Zoidl, Georg; McMahon, Douglas G.; Kamermans, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells generate the inhibitory surround of bipolar cells, an essential step in contrast enhancement. For the last decades, the mechanism involved in this inhibitory synaptic pathway has been a major controversy in retinal research. One hypothesis suggests that connexin hemichannels mediate this negative feedback signal; another suggests that feedback is mediated by protons. Mutant zebrafish were generated that lack connexin 55.5 hemichannels in horizontal cells. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were made from isolated horizontal cells and cones in flat mount retinas. Light-induced feedback from horizontal cells to cones was reduced in mutants. A reduction of feedback was also found when horizontal cells were pharmacologically hyperpolarized but was absent when they were pharmacologically depolarized. Hemichannel currents in isolated horizontal cells showed a similar behavior. The hyperpolarization-induced hemichannel current was strongly reduced in the mutants while the depolarization-induced hemichannel current was not. Intracellular recordings were made from horizontal cells. Consistent with impaired feedback in the mutant, spectral opponent responses in horizontal cells were diminished in these animals. A behavioral assay revealed a lower contrast-sensitivity, illustrating the role of the horizontal cell to cone feedback pathway in contrast enhancement. Model simulations showed that the observed modifications of feedback can be accounted for by an ephaptic mechanism. A model for feedback, in which the number of connexin hemichannels is reduced to about 40%, fully predicts the specific asymmetric modification of feedback. To our knowledge, this is the first successful genetic interference in the feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. It provides direct evidence for an unconventional role of connexin hemichannels in the inhibitory synapse between horizontal cells and cones. This is an important step in resolving a

  16. Measurements of growth cone adhesion to culture surfaces by micromanipulation

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Neurons were grown on plastic surfaces that were untreated, or treated with polylysine, laminin, or L1 and their growth cones were detached from their culture surface by applying known forces with calibrated glass needles. This detachment force was taken as a measure of the force of adhesion of the growth cone. We find that on all surfaces, lamellipodial growth cones require significantly greater detachment force than filopodial growth cones, but this differences is, in general, due to the greater area of lamellipodial growth cones compared to filopodial growth cones. That is, the stress (force/unit area) required for detachment was similar for growth cones of lamellipodial and filopodial morphology on all surfaces, with the exception of lamellipodial growth cones on L1-treated surfaces, which had a significantly lower stress of detachment than on other surfaces. Surprisingly, the forces required for detachment (760-3,340 mudynes) were three to 15 times greater than the typical resting axonal tension, the force exerted by advancing growth cones, or the forces of retraction previously measured by essentially the same method. Nor did we observe significant differences in detachment force among growth cones of similar morphology on different culture surfaces, with the exception of lamellipodial growth cones on L1-treated surfaces. These data argue against the differential adhesion mechanism for growth cone guidance preferences in culture. Our micromanipulations revealed that the most mechanically resistant regions of growth cone attachment were confined to quite small regions typically located at the ends of filopodia and lamellipodia. Detached growth cones remained connected to the substratum at these regions by highly elastic retraction fibers. The closeness of contact of growth cones to the substratum as revealed by interference reflection microscopy (IRM) did not correlate with our mechanical measurements of adhesion, suggesting that IRM cannot be used as a

  17. Successful gene therapy in the RPGRIP1-deficient dog: a large model of cone-rod dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lhériteau, Elsa; Petit, Lolita; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Libeau, Lyse; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Guihal, Caroline; François, Achille; Guyon, Richard; Provost, Nathalie; Lemoine, Françoise; Papal, Samantha; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    For the development of new therapies, proof-of-concept studies in large animal models that share clinical features with their human counterparts represent a pivotal step. For inherited retinal dystrophies primarily involving photoreceptor cells, the efficacy of gene therapy has been demonstrated in canine models of stationary cone dystrophies and progressive rod-cone dystrophies but not in large models of progressive cone-rod dystrophies, another important cause of blindness. To address the last issue, we evaluated gene therapy in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1)-deficient dog, a model exhibiting a severe cone-rod dystrophy similar to that seen in humans. Subretinal injection of AAV5 (n = 5) or AAV8 (n = 2) encoding the canine Rpgrip1 improved photoreceptor survival in transduced areas of treated retinas. Cone function was significantly and stably rescued in all treated eyes (18-72% of those recorded in normal eyes) up to 24 months postinjection. Rod function was also preserved (22-29% of baseline function) in four of the five treated dogs up to 24 months postinjection. No detectable rod function remained in untreated contralateral eyes. More importantly, treatment preserved bright- and dim-light vision. Efficacy of gene therapy in this large animal model of cone-rod dystrophy provides great promise for human treatment.

  18. The role of collapsing and cone rafting on eruption style changes and final cone morphology: Los Morados scoria cone, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Karoly; Risso, Corina; Nullo, Francisco; Kereszturi, Gabor

    2011-06-01

    Payún Matru Volcanic Field is a Quaternary monogenetic volcanic field that hosts scoria cones with perfect to breached morphologies. Los Morados complex is a group of at least four closely spaced scoria cones (Los Morados main cone and the older Cones A, B, and C). Los Morados main cone was formed by a long lived eruption of months to years. After an initial Hawaiian-style stage, the eruption changed to a normal Strombolian, conebuilding style, forming a cone over 150 metres high on a northward dipping (˜4°) surface. An initial cone gradually grew until a lava flow breached the cone's base and rafted an estimated 10% of the total volume. A sudden sector collapse initiated a dramatic decompression in the upper part of the feeding conduit and triggered violent a Strombolian style eruptive stage. Subsequently, the eruption became more stable, and changed to a regular Strombolian style that partially rebuilt the cone. A likely increase in magma flux coupled with the gradual growth of a new cone caused another lava flow outbreak at the structurally weakened earlier breach site. For a second time, the unstable flank of the cone was rafted, triggering a second violent Strombolian eruptive stage which was followed by a Hawaiian style lava fountain stage. The lava fountaining was accompanied by a steady outpour of voluminous lava emission accompanied by constant rafting of the cone flank, preventing the healing of the cone. Santa Maria is another scoria cone built on a nearly flat pre-eruption surface. Despite this it went through similar stages as Los Morados main cone, but probably not in as dramatic a manner as Los Morados. In contrast to these examples of large breached cones, volumetrically smaller cones, associated to less extensive lava flows, were able to heal raft/collapse events, due to the smaller magma output and flux rates. Our evidence shows that scoria cone growth is a complex process, and is a consequence of the magma internal parameters (e.g. volatile

  19. Funnel cone for focusing intense ion beams on a target

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.

    2009-10-05

    We describe a funnel cone for concentrating an ion beam on a target. The cone utilizes the reflection characteristic of ion beams on solid walls to focus the incident beam andincrease beam intensity on target. The cone has been modeled with the TRIM code. A prototype has been tested and installed for use in the 350-keV K+ NDCX target chamber.

  20. Performance analysis of cone detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Many algorithms have been proposed to help clinicians evaluate cone density and spacing, as these may be related to the onset of retinal diseases. However, there has been no rigorous comparison of the performance of these algorithms. In addition, the performance of such algorithms is typically determined by comparison with human observers. Here we propose a technique to simulate realistic images of the cone mosaic. We use the simulated images to test the performance of three popular cone detection algorithms, and we introduce an algorithm which is used by astronomers to detect stars in astronomical images. We use Free Response Operating Characteristic (FROC) curves to evaluate and compare the performance of the four algorithms. This allows us to optimize the performance of each algorithm. We observe that performance is significantly enhanced by up-sampling the images. We investigate the effect of noise and image quality on cone mosaic parameters estimated using the different algorithms, finding that the estimated regularity is the most sensitive parameter. PMID:26366758

  1. Final design report for cone penetrometer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    The final design report documents the completion of the design review meetings for acceptance of the cone penetrometer from the vendor. All design comments have been dispositioned and closed. Open items dealt with completion of the safety assessment,operational procedures, operational testing and readiness review.

  2. Slow Cone Reflectance Changes during Bleaching Determined by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Living Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Masakazu; Miyagawa, Suguru; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takao; Lohmann, Tibor Karl; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujikado, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the reflectance of human cone photoreceptors by an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) during photobleaching. A custom-built AO-SLO with an observation light of 840-nm was used to measure the cone densities and the reflectance changes during bleaching by 630 nm red light emitting diodes. Measurements were made at 1° and 3° temporal to the fovea within an area of 1° × 1° in 8 eyes of 8 normal subjects. After dark-adaptation, images of the cone mosaics were recorded continuously for 5-min before, 5-min during, and after 5-min of light stimulation with a sampling rate of 5-Hz. The first positive peak (P1) was observed at 72.2 ± 15.0-s and a second positive peak (P2) at 257.5 ± 34.5-s at 1°. The increase of the reflectance of P1 was significantly larger at 1° (34.4 ± 13.9%) than at 3° (26.0 ± 10.5%; P = 0.03, Wilcoxon’s signed rank test). The average cone density at 1° (51123.13 ± 1401.23 cells/mm2) was significantly larger than that at 3° (30876.13 ± 1459.28 cells/mm2; P <0.001, Wilcoxon’s signed rank test). The changes in the reflectance of the cones during bleaching by red light had two peaks. The two peaks may be caused by regeneration of cone photopigment during bleaching. PMID:26121666

  3. Slow Cone Reflectance Changes during Bleaching Determined by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Living Human Eyes.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masakazu; Miyagawa, Suguru; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takao; Lohmann, Tibor Karl; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujikado, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the reflectance of human cone photoreceptors by an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) during photobleaching. A custom-built AO-SLO with an observation light of 840-nm was used to measure the cone densities and the reflectance changes during bleaching by 630 nm red light emitting diodes. Measurements were made at 1° and 3° temporal to the fovea within an area of 1° × 1° in 8 eyes of 8 normal subjects. After dark-adaptation, images of the cone mosaics were recorded continuously for 5-min before, 5-min during, and after 5-min of light stimulation with a sampling rate of 5-Hz. The first positive peak (P1) was observed at 72.2 ± 15.0-s and a second positive peak (P2) at 257.5 ± 34.5-s at 1°. The increase of the reflectance of P1 was significantly larger at 1° (34.4 ± 13.9%) than at 3° (26.0 ± 10.5%; P = 0.03, Wilcoxon's signed rank test). The average cone density at 1° (51123.13 ± 1401.23 cells/mm2) was significantly larger than that at 3° (30876.13 ± 1459.28 cells/mm2; P <0.001, Wilcoxon's signed rank test). The changes in the reflectance of the cones during bleaching by red light had two peaks. The two peaks may be caused by regeneration of cone photopigment during bleaching.

  4. Visual Cone Arrestin 4 Contributes to Visual Function and Cone Health

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Janise D.; Pak, Joseph S.; Brown, Bruce M.; Kim, Moon K.; Aung, Moe H.; Eom, Yun Sung; Shin, Jung-a; Lee, Eun-Jin; Pardue, Machelle T.; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Visual arrestins (ARR) play a critical role in shutoff of rod and cone phototransduction. When electrophysiological responses are measured for a single mouse cone photoreceptor, ARR1 expression can substitute for ARR4 in cone pigment desensitization; however, each arrestin may also contribute its own, unique role to modulate other cellular functions. Methods A combination of ERG, optokinetic tracking, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis was used to investigate the retinal phenotypes of Arr4 null mice (Arr4−/−) compared with age-matched control, wild-type mice. Results When 2-month-old Arr4−/− mice were compared with wild-type mice, they had diminished visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, yet enhanced ERG flicker response and higher photopic ERG b-wave amplitudes. In contrast, in older Arr4−/− mice, all ERG amplitudes were significantly reduced in magnitude compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, in older Arr4−/− mice, the total cone numbers decreased and cone opsin protein immunoreactive expression levels were significantly reduced, while overall photoreceptor outer nuclear layer thickness was unchanged. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that Arr4−/− mice display distinct phenotypic differences when compared to controls, suggesting that ARR4 modulates essential functions in high acuity vision and downstream cellular signaling pathways that are not fulfilled or substituted by the coexpression of ARR1, despite its high expression levels in all mouse cones. Without normal ARR4 expression levels, cones slowly degenerate with increasing age, making this a new model to study age-related cone dystrophy. PMID:26284544

  5. Low-conductance HCN1 ion channels augment the frequency response of rod and cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Andrew J; Wu, Samuel M

    2009-05-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels are expressed in several tissues throughout the body, including the heart, the CNS, and the retina. HCN channels are found in many neurons in the retina, but their most established role is in generating the hyperpolarization-activated current, I(h), in photoreceptors. This current makes the light response of rod and cone photoreceptors more transient, an effect similar to that of a high-pass filter. A unique property of HCN channels is their small single-channel current, which is below the thermal noise threshold of measuring electronics. We use nonstationary fluctuation analysis (NSFA) in the intact retina to estimate the conductance of single HCN channels, revealing a conductance of approximately 650 fS in both rod and cone photoreceptors. We also analyze the properties of HCN channels in salamander rods and cones, from the biophysical to the functional level, showing that HCN1 is the predominant isoform in both cells, and demonstrate how HCN1 channels speed up the light response of both rods and cones under distinct adaptational conditions. We show that in rods and cones, HCN channels increase the natural frequency response of single cells by modifying the photocurrent input, which is limited in its frequency response by the speed of a molecular signaling cascade. In doing so, HCN channels form the first of several systems in the retina that augment the speed of the visual response, allowing an animal to perceive visual stimuli that change more quickly than the underlying photocurrent. PMID:19420251

  6. The role of 11-cis-retinyl esters in vertebrate cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Babino, Darwin; Perkins, Brian D.; Kindermann, Aljoscha; Oberhauser, Vitus; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A cycle of cis-to-trans isomerization of the chromophore is intrinsic to vertebrate vision where rod and cone photoreceptors mediate dim- and bright-light vision, respectively. Daylight illumination can greatly exceed the rate at which the photoproduct can be recycled back to the chromophore by the canonical visual cycle. Thus, an additional supply pathway(s) must exist to sustain cone-dependent vision. Two-photon microscopy revealed that the eyes of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) contain high levels of 11-cis-retinyl esters (11-REs) within the retinal pigment epithelium. HPLC analyses demonstrate that 11-REs are bleached by bright light and regenerated in the dark. Pharmacologic treatment with all-trans-retinylamine (Ret-NH2), a potent and specific inhibitor of the trans-to-cis reisomerization reaction of the canonical visual cycle, impeded the regeneration of 11-REs. Intervention with 11-cis-retinol restored the regeneration of 11-REs in the presence of all-trans-Ret-NH2. We used the XOPS:mCFP transgenic zebrafish line with a functional cone-only retina to directly demonstrate that this 11-RE cycle is critical to maintain vision under bright-light conditions. Thus, our analyses reveal that a dark-generated pool of 11-REs helps to supply photoreceptors with the chromophore under the varying light conditions present in natural environments.—Babino, D., Perkins, B. D., Kindermann, A., Oberhauser, V., von Lintig, J. The role of 11-cis-retinyl esters in vertebrate cone vision. PMID:25326538

  7. Simulated and empiric wind pollination patterns of conifer ovulate cones

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Karl J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel analyses of conifer ovulate cones indicate that the total geometry of the cone enhances the probability of pollen entrapment. Aerodynamic characteristics of cone scale-bract complexes are such that suspended pollen is directed toward the micropyles of attached ovules. Within the taxa examined, there appears to be a preferential entrapment by ovulate cones of pollen of the same species. The data are interpreted as evidence for an aerodynamic reciprocity between wind-suspended pollen and the structure of ovulate cones which increases the frequency of pollination and the potential for fertilization. Images PMID:16593147

  8. Roles of ON Cone Bipolar Cell Subtypes in Temporal Coding in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena; Cohn, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In the visual system, diverse image processing starts with bipolar cells, which are the second-order neurons of the retina. Thirteen subtypes of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different features of image signaling and to initiate distinct signal-processing streams. Although morphologically identified, the functional roles of each bipolar cell subtype in visual signal encoding are not fully understood. Here, we investigated how ON cone bipolar cells of the mouse retina encode diverse temporal image signaling. We recorded bipolar cell voltage changes in response to two different input functions: sinusoidal light and step light stimuli. Temporal tuning in ON cone bipolar cells was diverse and occurred in a subtype-dependent manner. Subtypes 5s and 8 exhibited low-pass filtering property in response to a sinusoidal light stimulus, and responded with sustained fashion to step-light stimulation. Conversely, subtypes 5f, 6, 7, and XBC exhibited bandpass filtering property in response to sinusoidal light stimuli, and responded transiently to step-light stimuli. In particular, subtypes 7 and XBC were high-temporal tuning cells. We recorded responses in different ways to further examine the underlying mechanisms of temporal tuning. Current injection evoked low-pass filtering, whereas light responses in voltage-clamp mode produced bandpass filtering in all ON bipolar cells. These findings suggest that cone photoreceptor inputs shape bandpass filtering in bipolar cells, whereas intrinsic properties of bipolar cells shape low-pass filtering. Together, our results demonstrate that ON bipolar cells encode diverse temporal image signaling in a subtype-dependent manner to initiate temporal visual information-processing pathways. PMID:24966376

  9. Characterizing the Human Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic via Dynamic Photopigment Densitometry

    PubMed Central

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Hofer, Heidi; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Densitometry is a powerful tool for the biophysical assessment of the retina. Until recently, this was restricted to bulk spatial scales in living humans. The application of adaptive optics (AO) to the conventional fundus camera and scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) has begun to translate these studies to cellular scales. Here, we employ an AOSLO to perform dynamic photopigment densitometry in order to characterize the optical properties and spectral types of the human cone photoreceptor mosaic. Cone-resolved estimates of optical density and photosensitivity agree well with bulk estimates, although show smaller variability than previously reported. Photopigment kinetics of individual cones derived from their selective bleaching allowed efficient mapping of cone sub-types in human retina. Estimated uncertainty in identifying a cone as long vs middle wavelength was less than 5%, and the total time taken per subject ranged from 3–9 hours. Short wavelength cones were delineated in every subject with high fidelity. The lack of a third cone-type was confirmed in a protanopic subject. In one color normal subject, cone assignments showed 91% correspondence against a previously reported cone-typing method from more than a decade ago. Combined with cone-targeted stimulation, this brings us closer in studying the visual percept arising from a specific cone type and its implication for color vision circuitry. PMID:26660894

  10. Prospects for retinal cone-targeted gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, John J; Hauswirth, William W

    2008-06-01

    Gene therapy strategies that target therapeutic genes to retinal cones are a worthy goal both because cone photoreceptor diseases are severely vision limiting and because many retinal diseases that do not affect cones directly eventually lead to cone loss, the reason for eventual blindness. Human achromatopsia is a genetic disease of cones that renders them nonfunctional but otherwise intact. Thus, animal models of achromatopsia were used in conjunction with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors whose serotype efficiently transduces cones and with a promoter that limits transgene expression to cones. In the Gnat2(cpfl3) mouse model of one genetic form of human achromatopsia, we were able to demonstrate recovery of normal cone function and visual acuity after a single subretinal treatment of vector that supplied wild-type Gnat2 protein to cones. This validates the overall strategy of targeting cones using recombinant viral vectors and justifies a more complete examination of animal models of cone disease as a prelude to considering a clinical gene therapy trial. PMID:18596991

  11. Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2015-03-01

    All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness.

  12. Micro focusing of fast electrons with opened cone targets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Feng; Liu Xiaoxuan; Ding Wenjun; Du Fei; Li Yutong; Ma Jinglong; Liu Xiaolong; Chen Liming; Lu Xin; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Wang Zhaohua; Wei Zhiyi; Liu Bicheng; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2012-01-15

    Using opened reentrant cone silicon targets, we have demonstrated the effect of micro focusing of fast electrons generated in intense laser-plasma interactions. When an intense femtosecond laser pulse is focused tightly onto one of the side walls of the cone, fast electron beam emitted along the side wall is observed. When a line focus spot, which is long enough to irradiate both of the side walls of the cone simultaneously, is used, two electron beams emitted along each side wall, respectively, are observed. The two beams should cross each other near the open tip of the cone, resulting in micro focusing. We use a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell code to simulate the electron emission both in opened and closed cone targets. The simulation results of the opened cone targets are in agreement with the experimental observation while the results of the closed cone targets do not show the micro focusing effect.

  13. WE-G-18A-03: Cone Artifacts Correction in Iterative Cone Beam CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H; Folkerts, M; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Wang, X; Bai, T; Lu, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: For iterative reconstruction (IR) in cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging, data truncation along the superior-inferior (SI) direction causes severe cone artifacts in the reconstructed CBCT volume images. Not only does it reduce the effective SI coverage of the reconstructed volume, it also hinders the IR algorithm convergence. This is particular a problem for regularization based IR, where smoothing type regularization operations tend to propagate the artifacts to a large area. It is our purpose to develop a practical cone artifacts correction solution. Methods: We found it is the missing data residing in the truncated cone area that leads to inconsistency between the calculated forward projections and measured projections. We overcome this problem by using FDK type reconstruction to estimate the missing data and design weighting factors to compensate the inconsistency caused by the missing data. We validate the proposed methods in our multi-GPU low-dose CBCT reconstruction system on multiple patients' datasets. Results: Compared to the FDK reconstruction with full datasets, while IR is able to reconstruct CBCT images using a subset of projection data, the severe cone artifacts degrade overall image quality. For head-neck case under a full-fan mode, 13 out of 80 slices are contaminated. It is even more severe in pelvis case under half-fan mode, where 36 out of 80 slices are affected, leading to inferior soft-tissue delineation. By applying the proposed method, the cone artifacts are effectively corrected, with a mean intensity difference decreased from ∼497 HU to ∼39HU for those contaminated slices. Conclusion: A practical and effective solution for cone artifacts correction is proposed and validated in CBCT IR algorithm. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01)

  14. X-linked cone dystrophy caused by mutation of the red and green cone opsins.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jessica C; Webb, Tom R; Kanuga, Naheed; Robson, Anthony G; Holder, Graham E; Stockman, Andrew; Ripamonti, Caterina; Ebenezer, Neil D; Ogun, Olufunmilola; Devery, Sophie; Wright, Genevieve A; Maher, Eamonn R; Cheetham, Michael E; Moore, Anthony T; Michaelides, Michel; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    X-linked cone and cone-rod dystrophies (XLCOD and XLCORD) are a heterogeneous group of progressive disorders that solely or primarily affect cone photoreceptors. Mutations in exon ORF15 of the RPGR gene are the most common underlying cause. In a previous study, we excluded RPGR exon ORF15 in some families with XLCOD. Here, we report genetic mapping of XLCOD to Xq26.1-qter. A significant LOD score was detected with marker DXS8045 (Z(max) = 2.41 [theta = 0.0]). The disease locus encompasses the cone opsin gene array on Xq28. Analysis of the array revealed a missense mutation (c. 529T>C [p. W177R]) in exon 3 of both the long-wavelength-sensitive (LW, red) and medium-wavelength-sensitive (MW, green) cone opsin genes that segregated with disease. Both exon 3 sequences were identical and were derived from the MW gene as a result of gene conversion. The amino acid W177 is highly conserved in visual and nonvisual opsins across species. We show that W177R in MW opsin and the equivalent W161R mutation in rod opsin result in protein misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. We also demonstrate that W177R misfolding, unlike the P23H mutation in rod opsin that causes retinitis pigmentosa, is not rescued by treatment with the pharmacological chaperone 9-cis-retinal. Mutations in the LW/MW cone opsin gene array can, therefore, lead to a spectrum of disease, ranging from color blindness to progressive cone dystrophy (XLCOD5). PMID:20579627

  15. Establishment of a cone photoreceptor transplantation platform based on a novel cone-GFP reporter mouse line

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Sheila; Nickerson, Philip E.; Comanita, Lacrimioara; Daftarian, Narsis; El-Sehemy, Ahmed; Tsai, En Leh Samuel; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Yan, Keqin; Thurig, Sherry; Touahri, Yacine; Dixit, Rajiv; Aavani, Tooka; De Repentingy, Yves; Baker, Adam; Tsilfidis, Catherine; Biernaskie, Jeff; Sauvé, Yves; Schuurmans, Carol; Kothary, Rashmi; Mears, Alan J.; Wallace, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    We report successful retinal cone enrichment and transplantation using a novel cone-GFP reporter mouse line. Using the putative cone photoreceptor-enriched transcript Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 136 (Ccdc136) GFP-trapped allele, we monitored developmental reporter expression, facilitated the enrichment of cones, and evaluated transplanted GFP-labeled cones in wildtype and retinal degeneration mutant retinas. GFP reporter and endogenous Ccdc136 transcripts exhibit overlapping temporal and spatial expression patterns, both initiated in cone precursors of the embryonic retina and persisting to the adult stage in S and S/M opsin+ cones as well as rod bipolar cells. The trapped allele does not affect cone function or survival in the adult mutant retina. When comparing the integration of GFP+ embryonic cones and postnatal Nrl−/− ‘cods’ into retinas of adult wildtype and blind mice, both cell types integrated and exhibited a degree of morphological maturation that was dependent on donor age. These results demonstrate the amenability of the adult retina to cone transplantation using a novel transgenic resource that can advance therapeutic cone transplantation in models of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26965927

  16. The S-cone contribution to luminance depends on the M- and L-cone adaptation levels: silent surrounds?

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Caterina; Woo, Wen Ling; Crowther, Elizabeth; Stockman, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Under dim background conditions, the S-cones make little or no contribution to luminance (A. Eisner & D. I. MacLeod, 1980; W. Verdon & A. J. Adams, 1987), yet under conditions of intense long-wavelength adaptation, a small but robust contribution to luminance--as defined by heterochromatic flicker photometry (A. Stockman, D. I. MacLeod, & D. D. DePriest, 1987, 1991) or motion (J. Lee & C. F. Stromeyer, 1989)--can be found. Here, by using selective adaptation and/or tritanopic metamers to isolate the S-cone response, we investigate the dependence of the S-cone luminance input on changes in background wavelength and radiance. Interestingly, the S-cone luminance input disappears completely when no adapting background is present, even though the same S-cone stimulus makes a clear contribution to luminance when a background is present. The dependence of the S-cone luminance input on the wavelength and radiance of the adapting background is surprising. We find that the S-cone signal can be measured on fields of 491 nm and longer wavelengths that exceed a criterion background radiance. These criterion radiances roughly follow an L + M spectral sensitivity, which suggests that the S-cone luminance input is silent unless the L- and M-cones are excited above a certain level. We hypothesize that the L + M cone signals produced by the steady adapting backgrounds somehow "gate" the S-cone luminance signals, perhaps by being modulated by them.

  17. Local Protein Synthesis in Axonal Growth Cones

    PubMed Central

    Šatkauskas, Saulius

    2007-01-01

    While initially thought to be essentially a developmental characteristic observed in artificial in vitro models, local protein synthesis in growth cones has been described in the adult, and more interestingly, during nerve regeneration. This emerging field is under intense investigation, revealing new functions of localized protein synthesis that include axon guidance, growth cone adaptation and sensitivity modulation at intermediate targets or axon regeneration. Here, we will review these functions and provide a short survey of the current knowledge on mechanisms of mRNA transport and regulation of localized protein synthesis. In addition, we will consider what lessons can be learned from localized protein synthesis in dendrites and what developments can be expected next in the field. This latter question relates to the crucial point of which technical strategy to adopt for an ideal and pertinent analysis of the phenomenon. PMID:19262143

  18. k-cones and kirigami metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2016-09-01

    We are inspired by the tensile buckling of a thin sheet with a slit to create a foldable planar metamaterial. The buckled shape comprises two pairs of identical e-cones connected to the slit, which we refer to as a k-cone. We approximate this shape as discrete vertices that can be folded out of plane as the slit is pulled apart. We determine their kinematics and we calculate generic shape properties using a simple elastic model of the folded shape. We then show how the folded sheet may be tessellated as a unit cell within a larger sheet, which may be constructed a priori by cutting and folding the latter in a regular way, in order to form a planar kirigami structure with a single degree of freedom.

  19. Instantons on Calabi-Yau cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The Hermitian Yang-Mills equations on certain vector bundles over Calabi-Yau cones can be reduced to a set of matrix equations; in fact, these are Nahm-type equations. The latter can be analysed further by generalising arguments of Donaldson and Kronheimer used in the study of the original Nahm equations. Starting from certain equivariant connections, we show that the full set of instanton equations reduce, with a unique gauge transformation, to the holomorphicity condition alone.

  20. Light adaptation alters the source of inhibition to the mouse retinal OFF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mazade, Reece E.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems must avoid saturation to encode a wide range of stimulus intensities. One way the retina accomplishes this is by using both dim-light-sensing rod and bright-light-sensing cone photoreceptor circuits. OFF cone bipolar cells are a key point in this process, as they receive both excitatory input from cones and inhibitory input from AII amacrine cells via the rod pathway. However, in addition to AII amacrine cell input, other inhibitory inputs from cone pathways also modulate OFF cone bipolar cell light signals. It is unknown how these inhibitory inputs to OFF cone bipolar cells change when switching between rod and cone pathways or whether all OFF cone bipolar cells receive rod pathway input. We found that one group of OFF cone bipolar cells (types 1, 2, and 4) receive rod-mediated inhibitory inputs that likely come from the rod-AII amacrine cell pathway, while another group of OFF cone bipolar cells (type 3) do not. In both cases, dark-adapted rod-dominant light responses showed a significant contribution of glycinergic inhibition, which decreased with light adaptation and was, surprisingly, compensated by an increase in GABAergic inhibition. As GABAergic input has distinct timing and spatial spread from glycinergic input, a shift from glycinergic to GABAergic inhibition could significantly alter OFF cone bipolar cell signaling to downstream OFF ganglion cells. Larger GABAergic input could reflect an adjustment of OFF bipolar cell spatial inhibition, which may be one mechanism that contributes to retinal spatial sensitivity in the light. PMID:23926034

  1. Internal Reflection Sensor for the Cone Penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Job Bello

    1998-05-29

    The objectives of this project are to design, assemble, test, and demonstrate a prototype Internal Reflection Sensor (IRS) for the cone penetrometer. The sensor will ultimately be deployed during site characterization with the goal of providing real-time, in situ detection of NonAqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. In the first phase of this program, we have designed and assembled an IRS module that interfaces directly to a standard cone penetrometer system. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the sensor responds in real-time to a wide variety of free phase NAPLs without interference from natural materials such as water and soil of various types or dissolved contaminants. In a preliminary field test, the sensor was able to locate NAPLs at thin, discrete depths in a soil test pit when deployed with a cone penetrometer. Ruggedness of the device was tested with a series of penetrometer pushes to the depth of refusal at a clean location. There was no visible damage to the sensor and its performance did not change in the course of these experiments. Based on the successes of the Phase I program, it is recommended that the project proceed to full-scale demonstration in Phase II.

  2. Long polymers near wedges and cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2015-12-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo study of N -step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d =2 ), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d =3 , of sizes ranging up to N =106 steps. We find that the critical exponent γα, which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α , is in good agreement with the theory for d =2 . We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γα, as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions.

  3. Long polymers near wedges and cones.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2015-12-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo study of N-step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d=2), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d=3, of sizes ranging up to N=10(6) steps. We find that the critical exponent γ(α), which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α, is in good agreement with the theory for d=2. We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γ(α), as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions. PMID:26764719

  4. Numerical Simulation of Taylor Cone-Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Ronne

    The Taylor cone-jet is a particular type of electrohydrodynamic phenomenon where electrostatic stresses and surface tension effects shape the interface of the jet in a peculiar conical shape. A thin jet is issued from the cone apex that further breaks up into a fine aerosol. Due to its monodispersive properties, this fine aerosol has found a number of applications, ranging from mass spectrometry, colloidal space propulsion, combustion, nano-fabrication, coating/painting, and many others. In this study, a general non-dimensional analysis is performed to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. In accordance with the observations of Gamero-Castano (2010), noting that droplet electric potential is insensitive to the flow rate conditions, a particular set of characteristic parameters is proposed, based on the terminal jet diameter. In order to solve the non-dimensional set of governing equations and boundary conditions, a numerical method combining the Boundary Element Method and the Finite Volume Method is developed. Results of electric current have shown good agreement with numerical and experimental data available in the literature. The main feature of the algorithm developed is related to the decoupling of the electrostatic from the hydrodynamic problem, allowing us to accurately prescribe the far field electric potential boundary conditions away from the hydrodynamic computational domain used to solve the hydrodynamics of the transition region near the cone apex.

  5. Cusp formation in drops inside Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Alvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Barrero, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Here, we report the formation of cusp in insulating drops inside compound Taylor cones. The action of the electrical shear stress acting on the outer interface, which is transmitted by viscous forces inside the Taylor cone, tends to deform the drop of insulating liquid placed inside. For appropriate values of the capillary number, the insulating drop develops a steady cusp angle which depends on both the capillary number and the conducting to insulating viscosity ratio. A self-similar analysis has been developed to qualitatively describe the flow inside these compounds Taylor cones. Any perturbation of the cusp gives rise to an intermittent emission of tiny droplets; this effect may recall the tip-streaming observed by G.I. Taylor in his four-roll mill device. This emission can be stabilized by an appropriate control of the injected flow rate of the insulating liquid. When the capillary number increases, the cusped interface turns into a spout which flows coated by the conducting liquid forming the electrified coaxial jet which has been successfully employed for the production of nanocapsules, coaxial nanofibers and nanotubes (Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; JACS 126, 5376, 2004).

  6. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  7. Sedimentary Biosignatures of Social Organization in Cone-Forming Filamentous Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, M. M.; Gong, J.; Zeng, Z.; Sneed, J.; Wehner, M.; Sparks, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    -moving bacteria during the evening. This diel cycle, together with preferential movement of relatively coarse sand grains that protrude above surrounding finer grains, efficiently sorts the underlying sediment such that mature mats are composed of large stabilized centers resting on small piles of coarser sand. Because these cone-forming mats sort sand grains by applying a shear stress at the sediment surface, growth of similar bacteria on sand surfaces should result in the preferential aggregation of equant coarse light mineral grains into cones and the formation of finer heavy mineral lags in interconical spaces. We observe these patterns of sorting by grain size, aspect ratio, and density around cones in Moodies Group fossil mats. These patterns could not have been produced by hydraulic sorting alone, and instead suggest the following conclusions. Cone-constructing Moodies microorganisms were 1) filamentous, 2) moved by gliding motility, and 3) moved as socially organized groups. In addition, it seems probable that these organisms 4) periodically reversed the direction of their movement on a time scale much more rapid than the time between deposition of sand beds, possibly as part of a diel cycle.

  8. Growth cone behavior and production of traction force

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The growth cone must push its substrate rearward via some traction force in order to propel itself forward. To determine which growth cone behaviors produce traction force, we observed chick sensory growth cones under conditions in which force production was accommodated by movement of obstacles in the environment, namely, neurites of other sensory neurons or glass fibers. The movements of these obstacles occurred via three, different, stereotyped growth cone behaviors: (a) filopodial contractions, (b) smooth rearward movement on the dorsal surface of the growth cone, and (c) interactions with ruffling lamellipodia. More than 70% of the obstacle movements were caused by filopodial contractions in which the obstacle attached at the extreme distal end of a filopodium and moved only as the filopodium changed its extension. Filopodial contractions were characterized by frequent changes of obstacle velocity and direction. Contraction of a single filopodium is estimated to exert 50-90 microdyn of force, which can account for the pull exerted by chick sensory growth cones. Importantly, all five cases of growth cones growing over the top of obstacle neurites (i.e., geometry that mimics the usual growth cone/substrate interaction), were of the filopodial contraction type. Some 25% of obstacle movements occurred by a smooth backward movement along the top surface of growth cones. Both the appearance and rate of movements were similar to that reported for retrograde flow of cortical actin near the dorsal growth cone surface. Although these retrograde flow movements also exerted enough force to account for growth cone pulling, we did not observe such movements on ventral growth cone surfaces. Occasionally obstacles were moved by interaction with ruffling lamellipodia. However, we obtained no evidence for attachment of the obstacles to ruffling lamellipodia or for directed obstacle movements by this mechanism. These data suggest that chick sensory growth cones move forward by

  9. Biochemical pharmacology of isolated neuronal growth cones: implications for synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, R O

    1990-01-01

    The neuronal growth cone is critical to the establishment of neuronal polarity through its motile, pathfinding and target recognition properties exhibited during synaptogenesis. Subcellular fractionation procedures yielding milligram quantities of isolated growth cones has allowed for biochemical and pharmacological investigation of intrinsic growth cone components that are likely to be involved in regulation of growth cone function in neuronal development. These 'mapping' studies of growth cone components are prerequisites to elucidating the mechanisms by which extracellular factors influence the motility, adhesion and directed growth of the growth cone. For example, neurotransmitters and polypeptide growth factors which have been shown in other systems to modulate growth cone behavior are presumed to act through receptors on the growth cone, inducing second-messenger molecule formation and consequent modification and regulation of proteins effecting the response(s) of the growth cone (i.e. proteins involved in motility, adhesion and membrane turnover). In a relatively short period of time, work with the isolated growth cone preparation has identified, in independent studies, many of the elements involved in this proposed scheme of events, including transmitter receptors, second-messenger cascades, and second-messenger post-translational modifications. An obvious future goal will be to analyze in more detail the intracellular events, and the relationships between them, in the growth cone and how they transmit extracellular signals into responses such as motility and adhesivity which underly the growth cone's synaptogenic properties. It is to be expected that much of this information will come forth from experimentation with the isolated growth cone preparation.

  10. Activation and quenching of the phototransduction cascade in retinal cones as inferred from electrophysiology and mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Luba; Firsov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To experimentally identify and quantify factors responsible for the lower sensitivity of retinal cones compared to rods. Methods Electrical responses of frog rods and fish (Carassius) cones to short flashes of light were recorded using the suction pipette technique. A fast solution changer was used to apply a solution that fixed intracellular Ca2+ concentration at the prestimulus level, thereby disabling Ca2+ feedback, to the outer segment (OS). The results were analyzed with a specially designed mathematical model of phototransduction. The model included all basic processes of activation and quenching of the phototransduction cascade but omitted unnecessary mechanistic details of each step. Results Judging from the response versus intensity curves, Carassius cones were two to three orders of magnitude less sensitive than frog rods. There was a large scatter in sensitivity among individual cones, with red-sensitive cones being on average approximately two times less sensitive than green-sensitive ones. The scatter was mostly due to different signal amplification, since the kinetic parameters of the responses among cones were far less variable than sensitivity. We argue that the generally accepted definition of the biochemical amplification in phototransduction cannot be used for comparing amplification in rods and cones, since it depends on an irrelevant factor, that is, the cell’s volume. We also show that the routinely used simplified parabolic curve fitting to an initial phase of the response leads to a few-fold underestimate of the amplification. We suggest a new definition of the amplification that only includes molecular parameters of the cascade activation, and show how it can be derived from experimental data. We found that the mathematical model with unrestrained parameters can yield an excellent fit to experimental responses. However, the fits with wildly different sets of parameters can be virtually indistinguishable, and therefore cannot

  11. Cone beam optical computed tomography-based gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, Timothy Russell

    The complex dose distributions delivered by modern, conformal radiation therapy techniques present a considerable challenge in dose verification. Traditional measurement tools are difficult and laborious to use, since complete verification requires that the doses be determined in three dimensions (3D). The difficulty is further complicated by a required target accuracy of +/- 5% for the dose delivery. Gel dosimetry is an attractive option for realizing a tissue-equivalent, 3D dose verification tool with high resolution readout capabilities. However, much important work remains to be completed prior to its acceptance in the clinic. The careful development of easily accessible, fast optical readout tools such as cone beam optical computed tomography (CT) in combination with stable and reliable low-toxicity gel dosimeters is one key step in this process. In this thesis, the performance capabilities and limitations of the two main classes of cone beam optical CT-based absorbing and scattering gel dosimetry are characterized, and their measurement improved through careful matching of dosimeter and scanner performance. These systems are then applied to the evaluation of clinically relevant complex dose distributions. Three-dimensional quality assurance assessments of complex treatment plan dose distributions are shown to be feasible using an optically absorbing Fricke-xylenol-orange-gelatin-based gel dosimeter. Better than 95% voxel agreement is achieved between the plan and the delivery, using 3% dose difference and 3 mm spatial distance-to-agreement gamma function comparison criteria. Small field dose delivery evaluations are demonstrated to be viable using an optically scattering N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based polymer gel, with the same comparison criteria. Full treatment process quality assurance is also possible using a NIPAM dosimeter in-phantom, but is limited in its accuracy due to the inherent difficulty of managing the effects of stray light pertubation in

  12. Modelling and control of double-cone dielectric elastomer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Among various dielectric elastomer devices, cone actuators are of large interest for their multi-degree-of-freedom design. These objects combine the common advantages of dielectric elastomers (i.e. solid-state actuation, self-sensing capability, high conversion efficiency, light weight and low cost) with the possibility to actuate more than one degree of freedom in a single device. The potential applications of this feature in robotics are huge, making cone actuators very attractive. This work focuses on rotational degrees of freedom to complete existing literature and improve the understanding of such aspect. Simple tools are presented for the performance prediction of the device: finite element method simulations and interpolating relations have been used to assess the actuator steady-state behaviour in terms of torque and rotation as a function of geometric parameters. Results are interpolated by fit relations accounting for all the relevant parameters. The obtained data are validated through comparison with experimental results: steady-state torque and rotation are determined at a given high voltage actuation. In addition, the transient response to step input has been measured and, as a result, the voltage-to-torque and the voltage-to-rotation transfer functions are obtained. Experimental data are collected and used to validate the prediction capability of the transfer function in terms of time response to step input and frequency response. The developed static and dynamic models have been employed to implement a feedback compensator that controls the device motion; the simulated behaviour is compared to experimental data, resulting in a maximum prediction error of 7.5%.

  13. Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejections that Caused Particularly Large Geomagnetic Storms Using ENLIL Heliosphere Cone Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; MacNeice, P.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-01-01

    In our previous paper we reported the results of modeling of 14 selected well -observed strong halo coronal mass ejection (CME) events using the WSA -ENLIL cone model combination. Cone model input parameters were obtained from white light coronagraph images of the CME events using the analytical method developed by Xie et al. This work verified that coronagraph input gives reasonably good results for the CME arrival time prediction. In contrast to Taktakishvili et al., where we started the analysis by looking for clear CME signatures in the data and then proceeded to model the interplanetary consequences at 1 AU, in the present paper we start by generating a list of observed geomagnetic storm events and then work our way back to remote solar observations and carry out the corresponding CME modeling. The approach used in this study is addressing space weather forecasting and operational needs. We analyzed 36 particularly strong geomagnetic storms, then tried to associate them with particular CMEs using SOHO/LASCO catalogue, and finally modeled these CMEs using WSA-ENLIL cone model. Recently, Pulkkinen et al. developed a novel method for automatic determination of cone model parameters. We employed both analytical and automatic methods to determine cone model input parameters. We examined the CME arrival times and magnitude of impact at 1 AU for both techniques. The results of the simulations are compared with the ACE satellite observations. This comparison demonstrated that WSA -ENLIL model combination with coronagraph input gives reasonably good results for the CME arrival times for this set of 'geoeffective" CME events as well.

  14. Immuno-histochemical analysis of rod and cone reaction to RPE65 deficiency in the inferior and superior canine retina.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daniela; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Schlegel, Patrice; Rolling, Fabienne; Lorenz, Birgit; Haverkamp, Silke; Stieger, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the RPE65 gene are associated with autosomal recessive early onset severe retinal dystrophy. Morphological and functional studies indicate early and dramatic loss of rod photoreceptors and early loss of S-cone function, while L and M cones remain initially functional. The Swedish Briard dog is a naturally occurring animal model for this disease. Detailed information about rod and cone reaction to RPE65 deficiency in this model with regard to their location within the retina remains limited. The aim of this study was to analyze morphological parameters of cone and rod viability in young adult RPE65 deficient dogs in different parts of the retina in order to shed light on local disparities in this disease. In retinae of affected dogs, sprouting of rod bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes was dramatically increased in the inferior peripheral part of affected retinae, while central inferior and both superior parts did not display significantly increased sprouting. This observation was correlated with photoreceptor cell layer thickness. Interestingly, while L/M cone opsin expression was uniformly reduced both in the superior and inferior part of the retina, S-cone opsin expression loss was less severe in the inferior part of the retina. In summary, in retinae of young adult RPE65 deficient dogs, the degree of rod bipolar and horizontal cell sprouting as well as of S-cone opsin expression depends on the location. As the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is pigmented similar to the RPE in the inferior part of the canine retina, and the kinetics of photoreceptor degeneration in humans seems to be similar to what has been observed in the inferior peripheral retina in dogs, this area should be studied in future gene therapy experiments in this model.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of three disinfecting agents on Resilon cones and their effect on surface topography: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Mahesh Martur; Meharwade, Prasanna Mahadevasa; Srinivasan, Raghu; Bhandary, Shreetha; Nasreen, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and 2% peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfecting Resilon cones and to evaluate topographical changes microscopically under scanning electron microscope (SEM) after rapid chemical disinfection. Materials and Methods: Resilon cones were disinfected in an ultraviolet (UV) light chamber for 20 min and contaminated by immersing in a microbial suspension of Enterococcus faecalis for 30 min. The contaminated cones were then immersed in the 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 2% PAA for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min, separately. The cones were then incubated at 37°C in thioglycollate broth for 7 days and examined for turbidity. The samples showing turbidity were subcultured on blood agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Gram staining was done to confirm that the cultured bacteria were E. faecalis. Surface changes of disinfected Resilon cones were evaluated under SEM. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann–Whitney U-test. Result: In eliminating E. faecalis, 5.25% NaOCl was most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. Topographic examination of tested Resilon cones revealed some surface deposits after disinfection with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX, whereas 2% PAA caused surface erosion. Conclusion: In disinfecting Resilon cones, 5.25% NaOCl is most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. PMID:27099418

  16. Immuno-Histochemical Analysis of Rod and Cone Reaction to RPE65 Deficiency in the Inferior and Superior Canine Retina

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniela; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Schlegel, Patrice; Rolling, Fabienne; Lorenz, Birgit; Haverkamp, Silke; Stieger, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the RPE65 gene are associated with autosomal recessive early onset severe retinal dystrophy. Morphological and functional studies indicate early and dramatic loss of rod photoreceptors and early loss of S-cone function, while L and M cones remain initially functional. The Swedish Briard dog is a naturally occurring animal model for this disease. Detailed information about rod and cone reaction to RPE65 deficiency in this model with regard to their location within the retina remains limited. The aim of this study was to analyze morphological parameters of cone and rod viability in young adult RPE65 deficient dogs in different parts of the retina in order to shed light on local disparities in this disease. In retinae of affected dogs, sprouting of rod bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes was dramatically increased in the inferior peripheral part of affected retinae, while central inferior and both superior parts did not display significantly increased sprouting. This observation was correlated with photoreceptor cell layer thickness. Interestingly, while L/M cone opsin expression was uniformly reduced both in the superior and inferior part of the retina, S-cone opsin expression loss was less severe in the inferior part of the retina. In summary, in retinae of young adult RPE65 deficient dogs, the degree of rod bipolar and horizontal cell sprouting as well as of S-cone opsin expression depends on the location. As the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is pigmented similar to the RPE in the inferior part of the canine retina, and the kinetics of photoreceptor degeneration in humans seems to be similar to what has been observed in the inferior peripheral retina in dogs, this area should be studied in future gene therapy experiments in this model. PMID:24466015

  17. M-cone opsin gene number does not correlate with variation in L/M-cone sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Knau, H; Kremers, J; Schmidt, H-J; Wolf, S; Wissinger, B; Sharpe, L T

    2002-07-01

    Molecular genetic studies demonstrate that the human cone opsin gene array on the q-arm of the X-chromosome typically consists of one long-wave-sensitive (L) cone opsin gene and from one to several middle-wave-sensitive (M) cone opsin genes. Although the presence of the single L-cone opsin gene and at least one M-cone opsin gene is essential for normal red-green colour discrimination, the function of the additional M-cone opsin genes is still unclear. To investigate whether any variations in phenotype correlate with differences in the number of M-cone opsin genes, we selected 13 normal trichromat males, for whom four independent molecular techniques have exactly determined their number of M-cone opsin genes, ranging from one to four. Their phenotype was characterized by estimating their foveal L- to M-cone ratio from heterochromatic flicker photometric (HFP) thresholds, by measuring the wavelength corresponding to their 'unique yellow', and by determining their L- and M-cone modulation thresholds (CMTs). No correlation was found between these psychophysical measures and the number of M-cone opsin genes. Although, we found a reasonably good correlation between the L/M-cone ratios based on HFP and on CMT, we did not find any correlation between the estimated L/M-cone ratios and the settings of 'unique yellow'. Our results accord with previous molecular genetic studies that suggest that only the first two genes in the X-linked opsin gene array are expressed.

  18. Comparison of cone and cone shell configuration for depth sensitive fluorescence measurements in turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Liu, Quan

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a novel cone shell illumination and detection configurations using combination of axicon lenses for depth sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy. The probe was demonstrated experimentally to be able to selectively detecting fluorescence from different depths from a two-layered turbid agar phantom. In addition to enhanced contrast of subsurface fluorescence measurement as compared to a conventional cone configuration implemented by a microscope objective lens, the axicon lenses based setup eliminated the need of moving the objective lens up or down to achieve depth sensitive measurements, which effectively improves the consistency of optical coupling thus would be preferred in a clinical setting.

  19. Tantalum cones and bone defects in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Boureau, F; Putman, S; Arnould, A; Dereudre, G; Migaud, H; Pasquier, G

    2015-04-01

    Management of bone loss is a major challenge in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The development of preformed porous tantalum cones offers new possibilities, because they seem to have biological and mechanical qualities that facilitate osseointegration. Compared to the original procedure, when metaphyseal bone defects are too severe, a single tantalum cone may not be enough and we have developed a technique that could extend the indications for this cone in these cases. We used 2 cones to fill femoral bone defects in 7 patients. There were no complications due to wear of the tantalum cones. Radiological follow-up did show any migration or loosening. The short-term results confirm the interest of porous tantalum cones and suggest that they can be an alternative to allografts or megaprostheses in case of massive bone defects.

  20. Pulsar average waveforms and hollow cone beam models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of pulsar average waveforms at radio frequencies from 40 MHz to 15 GHz is presented. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the observer sees one cut of a hollow-cone beam pattern and that stationary properties of the emission vary over the cone. The distributions of apparent cone widths for different observed forms of the average pulse profiles (single, double/unresolved, double/resolved, triple and multiple) are in modest agreement with a model of a circular hollow-cone beam with random observer-spin axis orientation, a random cone axis-spin axis alignment, and a small range of physical hollow-cone parameters for all objects.

  1. Heating distribution comparison between asymmetric and symmetric blunt cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. A.; Kolodziej, P.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was performed to compare the heating distribution between symmetric and asymmetric large-angle blunt cones, with cone angles of 100, 120, and 140 deg. These hot-wall data were obtained from models made from typical thermal protection insulation for proposed aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. Experimental data are compared with predictions using a boundary-layer integral matrix procedure with kinetics to determine how well the heating distribution over an asymmetric cone could be approximated using axisymmetric solutions for a cone and spherical segment. In addition, a relationship between the stagnation-point heat-transfer rate and the bow-shock standoff distance for these cones is discussed. The heat-distribution data from the symmetric and asymmetric cones were very similar. Numerical results compared well with the measured wall temperatures at the stagnation point but slightly underpredicted them over the conical portion of the models.

  2. Partial cone calix[4]arene-crown-6-ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G.; Sachleben, R.A.; Descazeaud, T.; Bryan, J.C.; Moyer, B.A.

    1997-12-31

    Partial cone calix[4] arene crown ethers represents a new category of lariat ethers. In general, calix arene crown ethers have been previously shown to be efficient extractants for metal cations. Appropriately substituted cone and 1, 3-alt conformers of calix crowns exhibit selectivities for Na{sup +} and Cs{sup +}, respectively. The partial cone conformers have not been as throughly studied. We have developed an efficient method of synthesis of partial cone calix[4]arene-crown ethers and have synthesized a variety of partial cone calix[4]arene crowns. Solution and solid-state structures of representative examples have been determined by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Relative affinities of these partial cone calix[4]arene crowns for alkali metal ions have been investigated by solvent extraction techniques.

  3. Mathematical Model of the Role of RdCVF in the Coexistence of Rods and Cones in a Healthy Eye.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Erika T; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Wirkus, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the essential components and processes for coexistence of rods and cones is at the forefront of retinal research. The recent discovery on RdCVF's mechanism and mode of action for enhancing cone survival brings us a step closer to unraveling key questions of coexistence and codependence of these neurons. In this work, we build from ecological and enzyme kinetic work on functional response kinetics and present a mathematical model that allows us to investigate the role of RdCVF and its contribution to glucose intake. Our model results and analysis predict a dual role of RdCVF for enhancing and repressing the healthy coexistence of the rods and cones. Our results show that maintaining RdCVF above a threshold value allows for coexistence. However, a significant increase above this value threatens the existence of rods as the cones become extremely efficient at uptaking glucose and begin to take most of it for themselves. We investigate the role of natural glucose intake and that due to RdCVF in both high and low nutrient levels. Our analysis reveals that under low nutrient levels coexistence is not possible regardless of the amount of RdCVF present. With high nutrient levels coexistence can be achieved with a relative small increase in glucose uptake. By understanding the contributions of rods to cones survival via RdCVF in a non-diseased retina, we hope to shed light on degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.

  4. Cone-like rectification properties of cGMP-gated channels in transmutated retinal photoreceptors of nocturnal geckoes.

    PubMed

    Vellani, Vittorio; Giacomoni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Photoreceptors of nocturnal geckoes are scotopic, with rod-shaped outer segments, and sensitivities to light similar to the one of retinal rods from other species of lower vertebrates. However, these cells are not rods, but they originated from cones of ancestral diurnal geckoes with pure-cone retinas, after being forced to adapt to a nocturnal behavior. Several interesting adaptations of these rod-like cones have been studied to date; molecular biology and functional studies confirmed that several proteins of the phototransductive cascade display structural and functional properties that indicate their origin from cones rather than from rods. In this paper, we investigate, with whole cell voltage clamp in the photoreceptor detached outer segment preparation, the voltage rectification properties of cGMP-gated channels in three species, Gekko gecko, Tarentola mauritanica, and Hemidactylus frenatus. We show that the current-voltage properties in the physiological voltage range are reminiscent of the ones of cGMP-gated channels from cones rather than from rods of other cold-blooded vertebrates. The origin and the relevance of the mechanisms investigated are discussed. PMID:25506076

  5. Cone-Like Rectification Properties of cGMP-Gated Channels in Transmutated Retinal Photoreceptors of Nocturnal Geckoes

    PubMed Central

    Giacomoni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Photoreceptors of nocturnal geckoes are scotopic, with rod-shaped outer segments, and sensitivities to light similar to the one of retinal rods from other species of lower vertebrates. However, these cells are not rods, but they originated from cones of ancestral diurnal geckoes with pure-cone retinas, after being forced to adapt to a nocturnal behavior. Several interesting adaptations of these rod-like cones have been studied to date; molecular biology and functional studies confirmed that several proteins of the phototransductive cascade display structural and functional properties that indicate their origin from cones rather than from rods. In this paper, we investigate, with whole cell voltage clamp in the photoreceptor detached outer segment preparation, the voltage rectification properties of cGMP-gated channels in three species, Gekko gecko, Tarentola mauritanica, and Hemidactylus frenatus. We show that the current-voltage properties in the physiological voltage range are reminiscent of the ones of cGMP-gated channels from cones rather than from rods of other cold-blooded vertebrates. The origin and the relevance of the mechanisms investigated are discussed. PMID:25506076

  6. Cone Photoreceptors Develop Normally in the Absence of Functional Rod Photoreceptors in a Transgenic Swine Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez de Castro, Juan P.; Scott, Patrick A.; Fransen, James W.; Demas, James; DeMarco, Paul J.; Kaplan, Henry J.; McCall, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Human and swine retinas have morphological and functional similarities. In the absence of primate models, the swine is an attractive model to study retinal function and disease, with its cone-rich visual streak, our ability to manipulate their genome, and the differences in susceptibility of rod and cone photoreceptors to disease. We characterized the normal development of cone function and its subsequent decline in a P23H rhodopsin transgenic (TgP23H) miniswine model of autosomal dominant RP. Methods. Semen from TgP23H miniswine 53-1 inseminated domestic swine and produced TgP23H and Wt hybrid littermates. Retinal function was evaluated using ERGs between postnatal days (P) 14 and 120. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses were recorded to full-field stimuli at several intensities. Retinal morphology was assessed using light and electron microscopy. Results. Scotopic retinal function matures in Wt pigs up to P60, but never develops in TgP23H pigs. Wt and TgP23H photopic vision matures similarly up to P30 and diverges at P60 where TgP23H cone vision declines. There are fewer TgP23H RGCs with visually evoked responses at all ages and their response to light is compromised. Photoreceptor morphological changes mirror these functional changes. Conclusions. Lack of early scotopic function in TgP23H swine suggests it as a model of an aggressive form of RP. In this mammalian model of RP, normal cone function develops independent of rod function. Therefore, its retina represents a system in which therapies to rescue cones can be developed to prolong photopic visual function in RP patients. PMID:24618325

  7. Interferometric measuring system for cone inspection on shop-floor level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübler, Till; Drabarek, Pawel

    2015-05-01

    Small and precise cones are one of the most important functional surfaces for valve seats of today's modern common rail injection systems for Diesel engines. We have investigated two concepts of interferometric systems for industrial examination of small-size conical geometries: white-light-interferometer with an endoscopic probe and a special formmeasuring- machine with an interferometric stylus. Endoscopic probes are critical for small and deep drillings, and the optical layout becomes very complex and expensive. To increase the universality of small size cone measuring systems, we followed the concept of a special scanning form measuring machine using a single-measuring-point interferometric stylus. We have performed first measurements and repeatability tests on the shop floor. Based on standard capability evaluation (Cgk and Cg) we have achieved the following measuring system capabilities: angle T< 0.07°, roundness T<0.3 μm, Pt Value <0.3 μm.

  8. Cone excitation ratios correlate with color discrimination performance in the horse (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Hall, Carol A; Cassaday, Helen J; Vincent, Chris J; Derrington, Andrew M

    2006-11-01

    Six horses (Equus caballus) were trained to discriminate color from grays in a counterbalanced sequence in which lightness cues were irrelevant. Subsequently, the pretrained colors were presented in a different sequence. Two sets of novel colors paired with novel grays were also tested. Performance was just as good in these transfer tests. Once the horse had learned to select the chromatic from the achromatic stimulus, regardless of the specific color, they were immediately able to apply this rule to novel stimuli. In terms of the underlying visual mechanisms, the present study showed for the first time that the spectral sensitivity of horse cone photopigments, measured as cone excitation ratios, was correlated with color discrimination performance, measured as accuracy, repeated errors, and latency of approach.

  9. Cone-shell Raman spectroscopy (CSRS) for depth-sensitive measurements in layered tissue.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khan Mohammad; Majumder, Shovan Kumar; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-11-01

    We report the development of a depth-sensitive Raman spectroscopy system using the configuration of cone-shell excitation and cone detection. The system uses a 785 nm diode laser and three identical axicons for Raman excitation of the target sample in the form of a hollow conic section. The Raman scattered light from the sample, passed through the same (but solid) conic section, is collected for detection. Apart from its ability of probing larger depths (~ few mm), an important attraction of the system is that the probing depths can be varied by simply varying the separation between axicons in the excitation arm. Furthermore, no adjustment is required in the sample arm, which is a significant advantage for noncontact, depth-sensitive measurement. Evaluation of the performance of the developed setup on nonbiological phantom and biological tissue sample demonstrated its ability to recover Raman spectra of layers located at depths of ~2-3 mm beneath the surface.

  10. Mapping nonlinear receptive field structure in primate retina at single cone resolution.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Field, Greg D; Li, Peter H; Greschner, Martin; Gunning, Deborah E; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Paninski, Liam; Simoncelli, Eero P; Chichilnisky, E J

    2015-01-01

    The function of a neural circuit is shaped by the computations performed by its interneurons, which in many cases are not easily accessible to experimental investigation. Here, we elucidate the transformation of visual signals flowing from the input to the output of the primate retina, using a combination of large-scale multi-electrode recordings from an identified ganglion cell type, visual stimulation targeted at individual cone photoreceptors, and a hierarchical computational model. The results reveal nonlinear subunits in the circuity of OFF midget ganglion cells, which subserve high-resolution vision. The model explains light responses to a variety of stimuli more accurately than a linear model, including stimuli targeted to cones within and across subunits. The recovered model components are consistent with known anatomical organization of midget bipolar interneurons. These results reveal the spatial structure of linear and nonlinear encoding, at the resolution of single cells and at the scale of complete circuits.

  11. The trip of the tip: understanding the growth cone machinery.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Van Vactor, David

    2009-05-01

    The central component in the road trip of axon guidance is the growth cone, a dynamic structure that is located at the tip of the growing axon. During its journey, the growth cone comprises both 'vehicle' and 'navigator'. Whereas the 'vehicle' maintains growth cone movement and contains the cytoskeletal structural elements of its framework, a motor to move forward and a mechanism to provide traction on the 'road', the 'navigator' aspect guides this system with spatial bias to translate environmental signals into directional movement. The understanding of the functions and regulation of the vehicle and navigator provides new insights into the cell biology of growth cone guidance.

  12. Dynamics on the cone: Closed orbits and superintegrability

    SciTech Connect

    Brihaye, Y.; Kosiński, P.

    2014-05-15

    The generalization of Bertrand’s theorem to the case of the motion of point particle on the surface of a cone is presented. The superintegrability of such models is discussed. The additional integrals of motion are analysed for the case of Kepler and harmonic oscillator potentials. -- Highlights: •Bertrand’s theorem is generalized to the case of the motion on a cone. •The superintegrability of the dynamics on a cone is discussed. •The W-algebra of integrals of motion for Kepler and harmonic oscillator problems on a cone is derived.

  13. Associating color appearance with the cone chromaticity space.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C

    2005-07-01

    A cone chromaticity space, a transform of a colorimetric specification system into coordinates that represent cone excitations, does not provide color appearance information. Boynton and Olson (Color Research and Application 12, 94-105, 1987) gathered color naming for the 424 Optical Society of America Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) color samples. Here, a computational algorithm was developed that converts OSA-UCS sample values into L, M, S cone excitations based on the 1964 CIE 10 degrees Standard Observer. This makes it possible to plot the cone chromaticities associated with the eight color names used by Boynton and Olsen's observers to describe the non-dark appearing colors.

  14. Psychophysical definition of S-cone stimuli in the macaque

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Nathan; Colby, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We used the perceptual reports of nonhuman primates to perform psychophysical calibrations of S-cone isolating stimuli. S-cone stimuli were calibrated separately at several spatial locations for each monkey. To do this we exploited the effect of transient tritanopia, which causes a selective decrease of sensitivity in the observer's S-cone channel. At the start of each transient tritanopia trial monkeys were visually adapted to a bright yellow background. This type of adaptation is known to induce transient tritanopia. Calibrated S-cone isolating stimuli were determined by finding a near S-cone stimulus whose detection threshold was maximally elevated during transient tritanopia. At the start of each control trial, monkeys were adapted to a bright white background. In these trials, monkeys' detection thresholds for near S-cone stimuli were unchanged. We found that S-cone isolating stimuli could be determined at most locations tested in each monkey. Calibrated S-cone stimuli were particular to both spatial location and animal. To understand the visual system as a whole in vivo requires physiological methods not possible in human subjects. The present results open the door to novel behavioral and physiological experiments by showing that S-cone isolating stimuli can be calibrated in monkeys. PMID:23412341

  15. Cone beam optical computed tomography for gel dosimetry I: scanner characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, Tim; Holmes, Oliver; Schreiner, L. John

    2010-05-01

    The ongoing development of easily accessible, fast optical readout tools promises to remove one of the barriers to acceptance of gel dosimetry as a viable tool in cancer clinics. This paper describes the characterization of a number of basic properties of the Vista™ cone beam CCD-based optical scanner, which can obtain high resolution reconstructed data in less than 20 min total imaging and reconstruction time. The suitability of a filtered back projection cone beam reconstruction algorithm is established for optically absorbing dosimeters using this scanner configuration. The system was then shown to be capable of imaging an optically absorbing media-filled 1 L polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) jar dosimeter to a reconstructed voxel resolution of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm3. At this resolution, more than 60% of the imaged volume in the dosimeter exhibits minimal spatial distortion, a measurement accuracy of 3-4% and the mean to standard deviation signal-to-noise ratio greater than 100 over an optical absorption range of 0.06-0.18 cm-1. An inter-day scan precision of 1% was demonstrated near the upper end of this range. Absorption measurements show evidence of stray light perturbation causing artifacts in the data, which if better managed would improve the accuracy of optical readout. Cone beam optical attenuation measurements of scattering dosimeters, on the other hand, are nonlinearly affected by angled scatter stray light. Scatter perturbation leads to significant cupping artifacts and other inaccuracies that greatly limit the readout of scattering polymer gel dosimeters with cone beam optical CT.

  16. Cone Beam Computed Tomography - Know its Secrets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mohan; Shanavas, Muhammad; Sidappa, Ashwin; Kiran, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an advanced imaging modality that has high clinical applications in the field of dentistry. CBCT proved to be a successful investigative modality that has been used for dental and maxillofacial imaging. Radiation exposure dose from CBCT is 10 times less than from conventional CT scans during maxillofacial exposure. Furthermore, CBCT is highly accurate and can provide a three-dimensional volumetric data in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. This article describes the basic technique, difference in CBCT from CT and main clinical applications of CBCT. PMID:25859112

  17. Bistatic scattering from a cone frustum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, W.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The bistatic scattering from a perfectly conducting cone frustum is investigated using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). The first-order GTD edge-diffraction solution has been extended by correcting for its failure in the specular region off the curved surface and in the rim-caustic regions of the endcaps. The corrections are accomplished by the use of transition functions which are developed and introduced into the diffraction coefficients. Theoretical results are verified in the principal plane by comparison with the moment method solution and experimental measurements. The resulting solution for the scattered fields is accurate, easy to apply, and fast to compute.

  18. Microcomputed tomography and shock microdeformation studies on shatter cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaag, Patrice Tristan; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Hipsley, Christy Anna

    2016-08-01

    One of the aspects of impact cratering that are still not fully understood is the formation of shatter cones and related fracturing phenomena. Yet, shatter cones have been applied as an impact-diagnostic criterion for decades without the role of shock waves and target rock defects in their formation having been elucidated ever. We have tested the application of the nondestructive microcomputed tomography (μCT) method to visualize the interior of shatter cones in order to possibly resolve links between fracture patterns and shatter cone surface features (striations and intervening "valleys"). Shatter-coned samples from different impact sites and in different lithologies were investigated for their μCT suitability, with a shatter cone in sandstone from the Serra da Cangalha impact structure (Brazil) remaining as the most promising candidate because of the fracture resolution achieved. To validate the obtained CT data, the scanned specimen was cut into three orthogonal sets of thin sections. Scans with 13 μm resolution were obtained. μCT scans and microscopic analysis unraveled an orientation of subplanar fractures and related fluid inclusion trails, and planar fracture (PF) orientations in the interior of shatter cones. Planar deformation features (PDF) were observed predominantly near the shatter cone surface. Previously undescribed varieties of feather features (FF), in the form of lamellae emanating from curviplanar and curved fractures, as well as an "arrowhead"-like FF development with microlamellae originating from both sides of a PF, were observed. The timing of shatter cone formation was investigated by establishing temporal relations to the generation of various shock microscopic effects. Shatter cones are, thus, generated post- or syn-formation of PF, FF, subplanar fractures, and PDF. The earliest possible time for shatter cone formation is during the late stage of the compressional phase, that is, shock wave passage, of an impact event.

  19. 3D imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended time periods using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Lee, Sangyeol; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Wang, Qiang; Herde, Ashley E.; Besecker, Jason; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (AO-OCT) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive method for 3D imaging of the microscopic retina. The purpose of this study is to advance AO-OCT technology by enabling repeated imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended periods of time (days). This sort of longitudinal imaging permits monitoring of 3D cone dynamics in both normal and diseased eyes, in particular the physiological processes of disc renewal and phagocytosis, which are disrupted by retinal diseases such as age related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. For this study, the existing AO-OCT system at Indiana underwent several major hardware and software improvements to optimize system performance for 4D cone imaging. First, ultrahigh speed imaging was realized using a Basler Sprint camera. Second, a light source with adjustable spectrum was realized by integration of an Integral laser (Femto Lasers, λc=800nm, ▵λ=160nm) and spectral filters in the source arm. For cone imaging, we used a bandpass filter with λc=809nm and ▵λ=81nm (2.6 μm nominal axial resolution in tissue, and 167 KHz A-line rate using 1,408 px), which reduced the impact of eye motion compared to previous AO-OCT implementations. Third, eye motion artifacts were further reduced by custom ImageJ plugins that registered (axially and laterally) the volume videos. In two subjects, cone photoreceptors were imaged and tracked over a ten day period and their reflectance and outer segment (OS) lengths measured. High-speed imaging and image registration/dewarping were found to reduce eye motion to a fraction of a cone width (1 μm root mean square). The pattern of reflections in the cones was found to change dramatically and occurred on a spatial scale well below the resolution of clinical instruments. Normalized reflectance of connecting cilia (CC) and OS posterior tip (PT) of an exemplary cone was 54+/-4, 47+/-4, 48+/-6, 50+/-5, 56+/-1% and 46+/-4, 53+/-4, 52+/-6, 50+/-5, 44

  20. CNGB3-Achromatopsia Clinical Trial With CNTF: Diminished Rod Pathway Responses With No Evidence of Improvement in Cone Function

    PubMed Central

    Zein, Wadih M.; Jeffrey, Brett G.; Wiley, Henry E.; Turriff, Amy E.; Tumminia, Santa J.; Tao, Weng; Bush, Ronald A.; Marangoni, Dario; Wen, Rong; Wei, Lisa L.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects rod photoreceptors from retinal degenerative disease in multiple nonhuman models. Thus far, CNTF has failed to demonstrate rod protection in trials for human retinitis pigmentosa. Recently, CNTF was found to improve cone photoreceptor function in a canine CNGB3 achromatopsia model. This study explores whether this finding translates to humans with CNGB3 achromatopsia. Methods. A five-subject, open-label Phase I/II study was initiated by implanting intraocular microcapsules releasing CNTF (nominally 20 ng/d) into one eye each of CNGB3 achromat participants. Fellow eyes served as untreated controls. Subjects were followed for 1 year. Results. Pupil constriction in treated eyes gave evidence of intraocular CNTF release. Additionally, scotopic ERG responses were reduced, and dark-adapted psychophysical absolute thresholds were increased, attributable to diminished rod or rod pathway activity. Optical coherence tomography revealed that the cone-rich fovea underwent structural changes as the foveal hyporeflective zone (HRZ) became diminished in CNTF-treated eyes. No objectively measurable enhancement of cone function was found by assessments of visual acuity, mesopic increment sensitivity threshold, or the photopic ERG. Careful measurements of color hue discrimination showed no change. Nonetheless, subjects reported beneficial changes of visual function in the treated eyes, including reduced light sensitivity and aversion to bright light, which may trace to decreased effective ambient light from the pupillary constriction; further they noted slowed adaptation to darkness, consistent with CNTF action on rod photoreceptors. Conclusions. Ciliary neurotrophic factor did not measurably enhance cone function, which reveals a species difference between human and canine CNGB3 cones in response to CNTF. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01648452.) PMID:25205868

  1. Real Gas/Blunt Cone. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, George S.; Eitelberg, Georg

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter recent activity in real-gas database definition and code validation will be summarized. In the Phase I report of the Working Group (WG) 181, aerothermodynamic problems were classified, for purpose of discussion, into seven types: aerodynamic parameters, viscous/shock interaction, boundary-layer transition, forebody-heating/heat-transfer, radiation and ablation, lee and base-region flow, and low-density flow. Several of these problem types were the subject of various chapters of the Phase 1 report describing real-gas effects and ground test facility issues. In this chapter some background and objectives outlined in the real-Gas effects Chapter V of the Phase 1 report will be reviewed. The results of the blunt cone test campaign developed under the auspices of the WG18 activity to study real-gas phenomena will be summarized, including the experimental and computational programs, issues and questions, and recommendations. Further, recent progress in other real-gas areas beyond the blunt cone test campaign will be discussed. Finally, a summary in which the present status of our understanding of real-gas issues will be presented.

  2. The Double Cone: A Mechanical Paradox or a Geometrical Constraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Italian National Plan "Lauree Scientifiche" (PLS) in collaboration with secondary schools, we have investigated the mechanical paradox of the double cone. We have calculated the geometric condition for obtaining an upward movement. Based on this result, we have built a mechanical model with a double cone made of aluminum…

  3. Galileo Spacecraft Scan Platform Celestial Pointing Cone Control Gain Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In, C-H. C.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    During September and October 1991, pictures of the Gaspra asteroid and neighboring stars were taken by the Galileo Optical Navigation (OPNAV) Team for the purpose of navigation the spacecraft for a successful Gaspra encounter. The star tracks in these pictures showed that the scan platform celestial pointing cone controller performed poorly in compensating for wobble-induced cone offsets.

  4. Implosion of indirectly driven reentrant cone shell target

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Stephens; S.P. Hatchett; R.E. Turner; K.A. Tanaka; R. Kodama

    2003-10-31

    In an x-ray driven reentrant cone fast ignition target the x-ray spectrum contains a high energy component that casuses preheating of the reentrant cone and mixing of the gold into the collapsing shell. Direct laser drive might avoid this problem.

  5. The dynamics of a steady Taylor cone electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Martin; Rutgers, Maarten A.

    1998-11-01

    A liquid drop at the tip of a needle will become conical if a high voltage is supplied to the needle. This is known as a Zeleny^1-Taylor^2 cone. Due to the finite conductivity of most liquids, a thin liquid jet will emerge from the cone tip. This jet can be thinner than 1 micrometer and move with speeds in excess of 10 m/s! The jet breaks up due to a Rayleigh instability into a stream of monodisperse droplets. The particles themselves carry charge and can cause the droplet stream to break up into a diverging conical spray. De La Mora^3 has calculated the relation between the liquid and spray cone angles, but less in known about the dynamics with which the droplets move from the initial jet into the final electrospray cone. We have observed electrosprayed droplets in a regime where the Taylor cone oscillates axisymmetrically, leading to an interrupted spray. By periodically driving the volume of the Taylor cone, and illuminating the spray stroboscopically at the same frequency, we can essentially `freeze' the evolution of a packet of droplets in the spray cone. We clearly observe the disintegration of the initial jet of droplets into a growing spherical cloud. The expanding clouds can be inscribed in the cone of an uninterrupted electrospray. ^1J. Zeleny, Phys. Rev. 3:69, (1914), ^2G.I. Taylor, J. Fluid Mech. 2:1, (1965) ^3J.F. De La Mora, J. Fluid Mech. 243:561, (1992)

  6. Dosimetry characteristics of metallic cones for intraoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nyerick, C E; Ochran, T G; Boyer, A L; Hogstrom, K R

    1991-07-01

    Dosimetry data were obtained on the first dedicated linear accelerator of its type designed for electron intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) within an operating room. The linear accelerator uses a high dose rate, 9 Gy.min-1, to reduce the treatment time. Its chrome-plated brass treatment cones, designed with straight ends and 22.5 degrees beveled ends, are not mechanically attached to the collimator head, but are aligned using a laser projection system. Dosimetry measurements were made for each combination of energy (6, 9, 12, 15, and 16 MeV), cone size (diameters range from 5 to 12 cm), and cone type (22.5 degrees beveled or straight). From these data, depth-dose curves, cone output, and air-gap correction factors were generated that allow the calculation of the monitor setting for delivering a prescribed dose at any depth for any irradiation condition (energy, cone, air gap). Isodose data were measured for every cone using film in a solid water phantom. Scatter off the inside wall of the cone resulted in peripheral dose horns near the surface that were energy and cone dependent, being as large as 120%.

  7. Dosimetry characteristics of metallic cones for intraoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nyerick, C.E.; Ochran, T.G.; Boyer, A.L.; Hogstrom, K.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Dosimetry data were obtained on the first dedicated linear accelerator of its type designed for electron intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) within an operating room. The linear accelerator uses a high dose rate, 9 Gy.min-1, to reduce the treatment time. Its chrome-plated brass treatment cones, designed with straight ends and 22.5 degrees beveled ends, are not mechanically attached to the collimator head, but are aligned using a laser projection system. Dosimetry measurements were made for each combination of energy (6, 9, 12, 15, and 16 MeV), cone size (diameters range from 5 to 12 cm), and cone type (22.5 degrees beveled or straight). From these data, depth-dose curves, cone output, and air-gap correction factors were generated that allow the calculation of the monitor setting for delivering a prescribed dose at any depth for any irradiation condition (energy, cone, air gap). Isodose data were measured for every cone using film in a solid water phantom. Scatter off the inside wall of the cone resulted in peripheral dose horns near the surface that were energy and cone dependent, being as large as 120%.

  8. Scoria Cone Construction Mechanism, Lathrop Wells Volcano, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G. Valentine; D. Krier; F. Perry; G. Heiken

    2005-01-18

    Scoria cones are commonly assumed to have been constructed by the accumulation of ballistically-ejected clasts from discrete and relatively coarse-grained Strombolian bursts and subsequent avalanching such that the cone slopes are at or near the angle of repose for loose scoria. The cone at the hawaiitic Lathrop Wells volcano, southern Nevada, contains deposits that are consistent with the above processes during early cone-building phases; these early deposits are composed mainly of coarse lapilli and fluidal bombs and are partially welded, indicating relatively little cooling during flight. However, the bulk of the cone is comprised of relatively fine-grained (ash and lapilli), planar beds with no welding, even within a few tens of meters of the vent. This facies is consistent with deposition by direct fallout from sustained eruption columns of relatively well-fragmented material, primarily mantling cone slopes and with a lesser degree of avalanching than is commonly assumed. A laterally extensive fallout deposit (up to 20 km from the vent) is inferred to have formed contemporaneously with these later cone deposits. This additional mechanism for construction of scoria cones may also be important at other locations, particularly where the magmas are relatively high in volatile content and where conditions promote the formation of abundant microlites in the rising mafic magma.

  9. Two-Step Reactivation of Dormant Cones in Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Sang Joon; Scott, Patrick A.; Lu, Xiaoqin; Emery, Douglas; Liu, Yongqin; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, Michael R.; Ross, Jason W.; Kaplan, Henry J.; Dean, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Most Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) mutations arise in rod photoreceptor genes, leading to diminished peripheral and nightime vision. Using a pig model of autosomal-dominant RP, we show glucose becomes sequestered in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and thus is not transported to photoreceptors. The resulting starvation for glucose metabolites impairs synthesis of cone visual pigment -rich outer segments (OS), and then their mitochondrial-rich inner segments dissociate. Loss of these functional structures diminishes cone-dependent high-resolution central vision, which is utilized for most daily tasks. By transplanting wild-type rods, to restore glucose transport, or directly replacing glucose in the subretinal space, to bypass its retention in the RPE, we can regenerate cone functional structures, reactivating the dormant cells. Beyond providing metabolic building blocks for cone functional structures, we show glucose induces thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) to regulate Akt signaling, thereby shunting metabolites toward aerobic glucose metabolism and regenerating cone OS synthesis. PMID:27050517

  10. Unsupervised Learning of Cone Spectral Classes from Natural Images

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Noah C.; Manning, Jeremy R.; Brainard, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The first step in the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision was the expression of a third cone class not present in ancestral mammals. This observation motivates a fundamental question about the evolution of any sensory system: how is it possible to detect and exploit the presence of a novel sensory class? We explore this question in the context of primate color vision. We present an unsupervised learning algorithm capable of both detecting the number of spectral cone classes in a retinal mosaic and learning the class of each cone using the inter-cone correlations obtained in response to natural image input. The algorithm's ability to classify cones is in broad agreement with experimental evidence about functional color vision for a wide range of mosaic parameters, including those characterizing dichromacy, typical trichromacy, anomalous trichromacy, and possible tetrachromacy. PMID:24967877

  11. Unsupervised learning of cone spectral classes from natural images.

    PubMed

    Benson, Noah C; Manning, Jeremy R; Brainard, David H

    2014-06-01

    The first step in the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision was the expression of a third cone class not present in ancestral mammals. This observation motivates a fundamental question about the evolution of any sensory system: how is it possible to detect and exploit the presence of a novel sensory class? We explore this question in the context of primate color vision. We present an unsupervised learning algorithm capable of both detecting the number of spectral cone classes in a retinal mosaic and learning the class of each cone using the inter-cone correlations obtained in response to natural image input. The algorithm's ability to classify cones is in broad agreement with experimental evidence about functional color vision for a wide range of mosaic parameters, including those characterizing dichromacy, typical trichromacy, anomalous trichromacy, and possible tetrachromacy. PMID:24967877

  12. Unsupervised learning of cone spectral classes from natural images.

    PubMed

    Benson, Noah C; Manning, Jeremy R; Brainard, David H

    2014-06-01

    The first step in the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision was the expression of a third cone class not present in ancestral mammals. This observation motivates a fundamental question about the evolution of any sensory system: how is it possible to detect and exploit the presence of a novel sensory class? We explore this question in the context of primate color vision. We present an unsupervised learning algorithm capable of both detecting the number of spectral cone classes in a retinal mosaic and learning the class of each cone using the inter-cone correlations obtained in response to natural image input. The algorithm's ability to classify cones is in broad agreement with experimental evidence about functional color vision for a wide range of mosaic parameters, including those characterizing dichromacy, typical trichromacy, anomalous trichromacy, and possible tetrachromacy.

  13. Two-Step Reactivation of Dormant Cones in Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Sang Joon; Scott, Patrick A; Lu, Xiaoqin; Emery, Douglas; Liu, Yongqin; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, Michael R; Ross, Jason W; Kaplan, Henry J; Dean, Douglas C

    2016-04-12

    Most retinitis pigmentosa (RP) mutations arise in rod photoreceptor genes, leading to diminished peripheral and nighttime vision. Using a pig model of autosomal-dominant RP, we show glucose becomes sequestered in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and, thus, is not transported to photoreceptors. The resulting starvation for glucose metabolites impairs synthesis of cone visual pigment-rich outer segments (OSs), and then their mitochondrial-rich inner segments dissociate. Loss of these functional structures diminishes cone-dependent high-resolution central vision, which is utilized for most daily tasks. By transplanting wild-type rods, to restore glucose transport, or directly replacing glucose in the subretinal space, to bypass its retention in the RPE, we can regenerate cone functional structures, reactivating the dormant cells. Beyond providing metabolic building blocks for cone functional structures, we show glucose induces thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) to regulate Akt signaling, thereby shunting metabolites toward aerobic glucose metabolism and regenerating cone OS synthesis. PMID:27050517

  14. Cinder cone growth modeled after Northeast crater, Mount Etna, Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Settle, M.; Chouet, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    The structure, physical properties of ejecta, ballistics, and growth of Northeast crater, a young pyroclastic cone that originated in 1911 near the summit of Mount Etna, Sicily, were studied in order to form a model of volcano cinder cone growth. Four stages of growth were discerned: (1) a simple cone; (2) a cone with an outward-dipping talus slope; (3) destruction of rounded rim by the inward migration of the upper edge of the talus pile; and (4) extension of limits of talus pile beyond the ballistic limit of ejecta trajectories. The model is used to predict the features of lunar and Martian cones, assuming that they erupted under conditions qualitatively similar to Etna's Northeast crater.

  15. Shatter cones formed in large-scale experimental explosion craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.; Davis, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    In 1968, a series of 0.5-ton and 100-ton TNT explosion experiments were conducted in granitic rock near Cedar City, Utah, as part of a basic research program on cratering and shock wave propagation. Of special interest was the formation of an important type of shock metamorphic feature, shatter cones. A description is presented of the first reported occurrence of shatter cones in high explosion trials. A background to shatter cone studies is presented and attention is given to the test program, geology and physical properties of the test medium, the observed cratering, and the formational pressures for shatter cones. The high explosion trials conducted demonstrate beyond any doubt, that shatter cones can be formed by shock wave processes during cratering and that average formational pressures in these crystalline rocks are in the 20-60 kb range.

  16. Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenbecker, James A.; Sahay, Manisha; Tait, Diane M.; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The topographical distribution of relative sensitivity to red and green lights across the retina was assayed using a custom-made wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram apparatus. There were increases in the relative sensitivity to red compared to green light in the periphery that correlate with observed increases in the relative amount of long (L) compared to middle (M) wavelength sensitive opsin mRNA. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that there is a dramatic increase in the ratio of L to M cones in the far periphery of the human retina. The central to far peripheral homogeneity in cone proportions has implications for understanding the developmental mechanisms that determine the identity of a cone as L or M and for understanding the circuitry for color vision in the peripheral retina. PMID:18598401

  17. Computer-aided detection of human cone photoreceptor inner segments using multi-scale circular voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    Cone photoreceptors are highly specialized cells responsible for the origin of vision in the human eye. Their inner segments can be noninvasively visualized using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) with nonconfocal split detection capabilities. Monitoring the number of cones can lead to more precise metrics for real-time diagnosis and assessment of disease progression. Cell identification in split detection AOSLO images is hindered by cell regions with heterogeneous intensity arising from shadowing effects and low contrast boundaries due to overlying blood vessels. Here, we present a multi-scale circular voting approach to overcome these challenges through the novel combination of: 1) iterative circular voting to identify candidate cells based on their circular structures, 2) a multi-scale strategy to identify the optimal circular voting response, and 3) clustering to improve robustness while removing false positives. We acquired images from three healthy subjects at various locations on the retina and manually labeled cell locations to create ground-truth for evaluating the detection accuracy. The images span a large range of cell densities. The overall recall, precision, and F1 score were 91±4%, 84±10%, and 87±7% (Mean±SD). Results showed that our method for the identification of cone photoreceptor inner segments performs well even with low contrast cell boundaries and vessel obscuration. These encouraging results demonstrate that the proposed approach can robustly and accurately identify cells in split detection AOSLO images.

  18. Apoptosis regulates ipRGC spacing necessary for rods and cones to drive circadian photoentrainment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Kuo; Chew, Kylie S.; McNeill, David S.; Keeley, Patrick W.; Ecker, Jennifer L.; Mao, Buqing Q.; Pahlberg, Johan; Kim, Bright; Lee, Sammy C. S.; Fox, Michael; Guido, William; Wong, Kwoon Y.; Sampath, Alapakkam P.; Reese, Benjamin E.; Kuruvilla, Rejji; Hattar, Samer

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The retina consists of ordered arrays of individual types of neurons for processing vision. Here we show that such order is necessary for intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to function as irradiance detectors. We found that during development, ipRGCs undergo proximity-dependent Bax-mediated apoptosis. Bax mutant mice exhibit disrupted ipRGC spacing and dendritic stratification with an increase in abnormally localized synapses. ipRGCs are the sole conduit for light input to circadian photoentrainment, and either their melanopsin-based photosensitivity or ability to relay rod-cone input is sufficient for circadian photoentrainment. Remarkably, the disrupted ipRGC spacing does not affect melanopsin-based circadian photoentrainment, but severely impairs rod/cone-driven photoentrainment. We demonstrate reduced rod-cone driven cFos activation and electrophysiological responses in ipRGCs, suggesting that impaired synaptic input to ipRGCs underlies the photoentrainment deficits. Thus, for irradiance detection, developmental apoptosis is necessary for the spacing and connectivity of ipRGCs that underlie their functioning within a neural network. PMID:23395376

  19. Enhanced Isochoric Heating in High Contrast Laser-Nano-Cone Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, T. E.; Rassuchine, J.; D'Humieres, E.; Sentoku, Y.; Baton, S.; Gillou, P.; Koenig, M.; Fuchs, J.; Audebert, P.; Kodama, R.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Bedaello, R.; Gremillet, L.; Rousseaux, C.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Hansen, S.

    2007-11-01

    We discuss the interaction of very high-contrast high-intensity laser pulses with sharp-tipped, nanofabricated Cu cone targets (see [1]), using frequency doubled light at the LULI 100 TW laser (λ=0.53 um, I=4x10^18 W/cm^2). Previous work at 1φ showed that pre-formed plasma, due to ASE, degraded the laser-cone coupling. At 2φ, high-resolution spectroscopy of Cu Kα emission shows high charge states, implying peak temperatures of up to 400 eV, comparable to the smallest reduced mass targets (50 μm dia x 20 μm thick). This implies a new confinement mechanism which, from 2D collisional PIC simulations, is due to self-generated resistive magnetic fields (up to 10 MG) which confine the hot electrons to the tip region of the cone. Supported by Access to Research Infrastructures in the EU Sixth Framework Programme (contract RII3-CT-2003-506350, Laserlab Europe), and UNR DOE/NNSA grant DE-FC52-01NV14050. [1] Y. Sentoku et al., Phys. Plasmas, 11 3083 (2004).

  20. S cones: Evolution, retinal distribution, development, and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, David M; Peichl, Leo

    2014-03-01

    S cones expressing the short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) class of visual pigment generally form only a minority type of cone photoreceptor within the vertebrate duplex retina. Hence, their primary role is in color vision, not in high acuity vision. In mammals, S cones may be present as a constant fraction of the cones across the retina, may be restricted to certain regions of the retina or may form a gradient across the retina, and in some species, there is coexpression of SWS1 and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class of pigment in many cones. During retinal development, SWS1 opsin expression generally precedes that of LWS opsin, and evidence from genetic studies indicates that the S cone pathway may be the default pathway for cone development. With the notable exception of the cartilaginous fishes, where S cones appear to be absent, they are present in representative species from all other vertebrate classes. S cone loss is not, however, uncommon; they are absent from most aquatic mammals and from some but not all nocturnal terrestrial species. The peak spectral sensitivity of S cones depends on the spectral characteristics of the pigment present. Evidence from the study of agnathans and teleost fishes indicates that the ancestral vertebrate SWS1 pigment was ultraviolet (UV) sensitive with a peak around 360 nm, but this has shifted into the violet region of the spectrum (>380 nm) on many separate occasions during vertebrate evolution. In all cases, the shift was generated by just one or a few replacements in tuning-relevant residues. Only in the avian lineage has tuning moved in the opposite direction, with the reinvention of UV-sensitive pigments. PMID:23895771

  1. S cones: Evolution, retinal distribution, development, and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, David M; Peichl, Leo

    2014-03-01

    S cones expressing the short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) class of visual pigment generally form only a minority type of cone photoreceptor within the vertebrate duplex retina. Hence, their primary role is in color vision, not in high acuity vision. In mammals, S cones may be present as a constant fraction of the cones across the retina, may be restricted to certain regions of the retina or may form a gradient across the retina, and in some species, there is coexpression of SWS1 and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class of pigment in many cones. During retinal development, SWS1 opsin expression generally precedes that of LWS opsin, and evidence from genetic studies indicates that the S cone pathway may be the default pathway for cone development. With the notable exception of the cartilaginous fishes, where S cones appear to be absent, they are present in representative species from all other vertebrate classes. S cone loss is not, however, uncommon; they are absent from most aquatic mammals and from some but not all nocturnal terrestrial species. The peak spectral sensitivity of S cones depends on the spectral characteristics of the pigment present. Evidence from the study of agnathans and teleost fishes indicates that the ancestral vertebrate SWS1 pigment was ultraviolet (UV) sensitive with a peak around 360 nm, but this has shifted into the violet region of the spectrum (>380 nm) on many separate occasions during vertebrate evolution. In all cases, the shift was generated by just one or a few replacements in tuning-relevant residues. Only in the avian lineage has tuning moved in the opposite direction, with the reinvention of UV-sensitive pigments.

  2. Radiological protection in computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M

    2015-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has sustained interest in radiological protection in computed tomography (CT), and ICRP Publications 87 and 102 focused on the management of patient doses in CT and multi-detector CT (MDCT) respectively. ICRP forecasted and 'sounded the alarm' on increasing patient doses in CT, and recommended actions for manufacturers and users. One of the approaches was that safety is best achieved when it is built into the machine, rather than left as a matter of choice for users. In view of upcoming challenges posed by newer systems that use cone beam geometry for CT (CBCT), and their widened usage, often by untrained users, a new ICRP task group has been working on radiological protection issues in CBCT. Some of the issues identified by the task group are: lack of standardisation of dosimetry in CBCT; the false belief within the medical and dental community that CBCT is a 'light', low-dose CT whereas mobile CBCT units and newer applications, particularly C-arm CT in interventional procedures, involve higher doses; lack of training in radiological protection among clinical users; and lack of dose information and tracking in many applications. This paper provides a summary of approaches used in CT and MDCT, and preliminary information regarding work just published for radiological protection in CBCT.

  3. Cone-based electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidlisecky, Adam

    Determining the 3-D spatial distribution of subsurface properties is a critical part of managing the clean-up of contaminated sites. Most standard hydrologic methods sample small regions immediately adjacent to wells or testing devices. This provides data which are not representative of the entire region of interest. Furthermore, at many contaminated sites invasive methods are not acceptable, due to the risks associated with contacting and spreading the contaminants. To address these issues, I have developed a minimally invasive technology that provides information about the 3-D distribution of electrical conductivity. This new technique, cone-based electrical resistivity tomography (C-bert), integrates the existing technologies of resistivity cone penetration testing (RCPT) with electrical resistivity tomography. Development of this tool included the creation of new software and modeling algorithms, the design of field equipment, field testing, and processing and interpretation of the resulting data. I present a 2.5-D forward modeling algorithm that incorporates an effective correction for the errors caused by boundary effects and source singularities. The algorithm includes an optimization technique for acquiring the Fourier coefficients required for the solution. A 3-D inversion algorithm is presented that has two major improvements over existing algorithms. First, it includes a 3-D version of the boundary correction/source singularity correction developed for the 2.5-D problem. Second, the algorithm can handle any type of acquisition geometry; this was a requirement for the development of C-bert. C-bert involves placing several permanent current electrodes in the subsurface and using electrodes mounted on a cone penetrometer and at the surface to measure the resultant potential field. In addition to these measurements, we obtain the standard suite of RCPT data, including high resolution resistivity logs. The RCPT data can be used to generate a realistic

  4. Transition on elliptic cones at Mach 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, Mark Bradford

    2000-10-01

    Flow visualizations of boundary layer transition on two sharp-nosed elliptic cones at Mach 8 are presented. The elliptic cone is a relevant three-dimensional flow field since it represents a generic hypersonic lifting vehicle shape. Experiments utilize carbon dioxide enhanced Filtered Rayleigh scattering to produce planar single-shot and motion picture images. CO2 is injected into the flow upstream of the tunnel stagnation chamber and subsequently condenses into nanoscale clusters during the nozzle expansion process. The clusters sublimate as they enter the hot boundary layer, and Rayleigh images capture the interface that exists between the regions of condensed (freestream) and sublimated (boundary layer) carbon dioxide. Boundary layers ranging from laminar to late-transitional in character are imaged using streamwise, spanwise, and planform laser sheet orientations. Characteristics of observed instabilities are quantified using pdf profiles, power spectrum analysis, and autocorrelation results derived from single-shot images. A new MHz-rate imaging system is also used to produce motion pictures images and volumetric reconstructions of the boundary layer. The pressure gradient and associated crossflow from the major axis to the minor axis of the cone causes increased growth and subsequent early transition of the centerline boundary layer. The convection velocity and temporal evolution of structures appearing on both the centerline and off-axis regions is studied using cross correlation procedures. Volumetric image sets of the centerline reveal hairpin structures characteristic of the early stages of subsonic turbulent spot formation. In the off-axis regions, planform single-shot images reveal a pattern of finger-like crests in the boundary layer. At higher Reynolds numbers the breakdown of these crests involves the formation of a series of chain-like structures. The behavior appears qualitatively similar to visualizations of crossflow vortex breakdown in

  5. Continuum model of light response in the retina.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shijie; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J; Dokos, Socrates

    2011-01-01

    A continuum model is presented of the retinal ON cone pathway to simulate the effects of light stimulation, motivated to provide validation of retinal response to electrical stimulation from vision implants. The model embodies four cell types involved in the direct pathway of light from cones to retinal ganglion cells. Center and surround mechanisms were incorporated through lateral inhibition via horizontal cells and convergence of inputs at the level of bipolar cells. Simulations were performed to investigate the network response to large and small spots of light. The results indicate the presence of surround suppression is correlated to spot size, consistent with experimental findings. PMID:22254458

  6. Water coning in fractured basement reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, S.E.D.M.; Darwich, T.D.; Asaad, Y.

    1995-11-01

    The problem of water coning in fractured basement reservoirs has been addressed in this work. The outcome of experimental and theoretical investigation to determine the critical production rate for single- and multi-fractured system, the capillary pressure effect, and the break-through time is presented. The results of the experimental work verify the presented theoretical relationship for different fluid viscosities, fracture angles, oil-water contacts (OWC), and rates for the case of single fracture system. The results also indicate that the capillary pressure effect may be generally neglected if the distance between the OWC and the fluid entry is sufficiently large compared to the capillary rise. The extension of the critical rate determination for a multi-fractured reservoir is also discussed. Finally, the main factors influencing the break-through time were investigated. The difference in viscosity between the oil and water phases has been fond to be the main factor affecting the breakthrough time.

  7. Nose-cone calorimeter: PHENIX forward upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvala, Ondrej

    2009-07-01

    PHENIX is a high rate experiment efficient at measuring rare processes, but has limited acceptance in azimuth and pseudorapidity ( η). The Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC), a W-Si sampling calorimeter in the region of 0.9< η<3, is one of the upgrades which will significantly increase coverage in both azimuth and pseudorapidity. The NCC will expand PHENIX’s precision measurements of electromagnetic probes in η, reconstruct jets, perform a wide scope of correlation measurements, and enhance triggering capabilities. The detector will significantly contribute to measurements of γ-jet correlations, quarkonia production, and low- x nuclear structure functions. This report discusses details of the detector design and its performance concerning a sample of the physics topics which will benefit from the NCC. In view of recent funding difficulties, outlook of the activities is discussed.

  8. Plasmonic corrugated cylinder-cone terahertz probe.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haizi; Zhong, Shuncong

    2014-08-01

    The spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) effect on the electromagnetic field distribution near the tip of a periodically corrugated metal cylinder-cone probe working at the terahertz regime was studied. We found that radially polarized terahertz radiation could be coupled effectively through a spoof SPP into a surface wave and propagated along the corrugated surface, resulting in more than 20× electric field enhancement near the tip of probe. Multiple resonances caused by the antenna effect were discussed in detail by finite element computation and theoretical analysis of dispersion relation for spoof SPP modes. Moreover, the key figures of merit such as the resonance frequency of the SPP can be flexibly tuned by modifying the geometry of the probe structure, making it attractive for application in an apertureless background-free terahertz near-field microscope. PMID:25121543

  9. Broadband unidirectional transmission realized by properties of the Dirac cone formed in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hua; Zhou, YunSong; Zheng, ZhiYuan

    2016-10-01

    An excellent unidirectional transmission device is proposed, which consists of a two-dimensional photonic crystal and a dielectric grating. The photonic crystal is designed to have a Dirac cone at the Γ point which allows the normal incident light to transmit while reflecting the oblique incidence in a broad frequency band. The aim of the dielectric grating is to diffract the normal incident light into other directions. Thus, when the incident light first passes through the grating and then incidents upon the photonic crystal, it will be blocked completely. While when the sequence is reversed it will be transmitted. This sequence selectivity of the transmission makes the photonic crystal/grating structure present an excellent unidirectional transmission effect. The simulation results show that in a broad frequency region, T 1 and T 2, the transmittances in forward and backward directions, satisfy T 1-T 2 > 80%, T 1/T 2 > 1000, and 10 log(1/T 2) > 20 simultaneously.

  10. Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Gross, Julia Christina; Burda, Hynek; Winklhofer, Michael; Peichl, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are a ubiquitous group of blue-light absorbing flavoproteins that in the mammalian retina have an important role in the circadian clock. In birds, cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a), localized in the UV/violet-sensitive S1 cone photoreceptors, is proposed to be the retinal receptor molecule of the light-dependent magnetic compass. The retinal localization of mammalian Cry1, homologue to avian Cry1a, is unknown, and it is open whether mammalian Cry1 is also involved in magnetic field sensing. To constrain the possible role of retinal Cry1, we immunohistochemically analysed 90 mammalian species across 48 families in 16 orders, using an antiserum against the Cry1 C-terminus that in birds labels only the photo-activated conformation. In the Carnivora families Canidae, Mustelidae and Ursidae, and in some Primates, Cry1 was consistently labeled in the outer segment of the shortwave-sensitive S1 cones. This finding would be compatible with a magnetoreceptive function of Cry1 in these taxa. In all other taxa, Cry1 was not detected by the antiserum that likely also in mammals labels the photo-activated conformation, although Western blots showed Cry1 in mouse retinal cell nuclei. We speculate that in the mouse and the other negative-tested mammals Cry1 is involved in circadian functions as a non-light-responsive protein. PMID:26898837

  11. Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Gross, Julia Christina; Burda, Hynek; Winklhofer, Michael; Peichl, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are a ubiquitous group of blue-light absorbing flavoproteins that in the mammalian retina have an important role in the circadian clock. In birds, cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a), localized in the UV/violet-sensitive S1 cone photoreceptors, is proposed to be the retinal receptor molecule of the light-dependent magnetic compass. The retinal localization of mammalian Cry1, homologue to avian Cry1a, is unknown, and it is open whether mammalian Cry1 is also involved in magnetic field sensing. To constrain the possible role of retinal Cry1, we immunohistochemically analysed 90 mammalian species across 48 families in 16 orders, using an antiserum against the Cry1 C-terminus that in birds labels only the photo-activated conformation. In the Carnivora families Canidae, Mustelidae and Ursidae, and in some Primates, Cry1 was consistently labeled in the outer segment of the shortwave-sensitive S1 cones. This finding would be compatible with a magnetoreceptive function of Cry1 in these taxa. In all other taxa, Cry1 was not detected by the antiserum that likely also in mammals labels the photo-activated conformation, although Western blots showed Cry1 in mouse retinal cell nuclei. We speculate that in the mouse and the other negative-tested mammals Cry1 is involved in circadian functions as a non-light-responsive protein. PMID:26898837

  12. Handling data redundancy in helical cone beam reconstruction with a cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiangyang; Hsieh Jiang

    2007-06-15

    A cone-angle-based window function is defined in this manuscript for image reconstruction using helical cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithms. Rather than defining the window boundaries in a two-dimensional detector acquiring projection data for computed tomographic imaging, the cone-angle-based window function deals with data redundancy by selecting rays with the smallest cone angle relative to the reconstruction plane. To be computationally efficient, an asymptotic approximation of the cone-angle-based window function is also given and analyzed in this paper. The benefit of using such an asymptotic approximation also includes the avoidance of functional discontinuities that cause artifacts in reconstructed tomographic images. The cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation provide a way, equivalent to the Tam-Danielsson-window, for helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithms to deal with data redundancy, regardless of where the helical pitch is constant or dynamically variable during a scan. By taking the cone-parallel geometry as an example, a computer simulation study is conducted to evaluate the proposed window function and its asymptotic approximation for helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm to handle data redundancy. The computer simulated Forbild head and thorax phantoms are utilized in the performance evaluation, showing that the proposed cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation can deal with data redundancy very well in cone beam image reconstruction from projection data acquired along helical source trajectories. Moreover, a numerical study carried out in this paper reveals that the proposed cone-angle-based window function is actually equivalent to the Tam-Danielsson-window, and rigorous mathematical proofs are being investigated.

  13. The traffic of particles in the axonic process of vertebrate cone-type photoreceptor cells.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, A; Kano, M; Tashiro, H; Tsukahara, Y

    1995-06-01

    Differential-interference-contrast microscopy with video enhancement displayed the movement of particles for the first time in the isolated axonic process of cone-type photoreceptor cells of Rana catesbiana. This movement was observed under visible light which visual pigments could absorb. The number of retrograde moving particles in an arbitrary area on the axonic process was twice that of those moving in the anterograde direction. The mean velocities were 1.03 +/- 0.55 microns/sec for anterograde particles and 0.41 +/- 0.30 microns/sec for retrograde particles, which are of the same order as those found in isolated neurons. PMID:7580814

  14. [Comparison of steady-state visually evoked potential evoked by different monochromatic light].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenghua; Yao, Dezhong

    2008-10-01

    The cone cell on the retina of human is the sensor of vision under illumination; it can be classified into three types: red cone cell, green cone cell, and blue cone cell. There is different property of absorbing light for each type of cone cell. In this work, a 10 Hz pulse was used to drive red, green and blue light emitting diodes respectively, and the different monochromatic light with the same luminance was obtained. The eyes of ten subjects were stimulated by different monochromatic light independently; an EGI system with 128 channels was used to record the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP). After applying the fast fourier transform (FFT) to the SSVEP data, we found that the distribution of the neural network in the initial vision cortex activated by the output of the different-typed cone cell remained mainly identical, but there was some difference in intensity between the three types of network: the activity by blue light is the strongest one, that by red light is in the middle, and that by green light is the weakest one. PMID:19024438

  15. NLO BFKL and Anomalous Dimensions of Light-Ray Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators of twist two are obtained by analytical continuation of the anomalous dimensions of corresponding local operators. I demonstrate that the asymptotics of these anomalous dimensions at the "BFKL point" j → 1 can be obtained by comparing the light-cone operator expansion with the high-energy expansion in Wilson lines.

  16. Magma supply rates inferred from cinder cone volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Borgia, A.; Neri, M.; Kervyn, M.

    2010-12-01

    Revisiting the question of how cinder cones grow suggests the possibility of inferring magma supply rates from cinder cones sizes. We start with a conceptual model of cinder cone growth: (1) Eruption volume flux increases rapidly and then decreases exponentially. (2) Cinder cones get steeper during the initiation of the eruption and then maintain a constant steepness. (3) The initial basal diameter varies with volume flux into the cone. Based on these constraints, we propose a general form for the relationship between cinder cone volume and magma supply rate: V = Q(exp(-t/b)/b - exp(-t/a)/a), where V is volume (in m3), Q is the maximum potential magma flux (in m3/s), t is time (in s), a is a damping factor (in s) controlling the decline in volume flux, and b is a factor controlling the initial increase in volume flux. Then we use the data available on the growth of cinder cones from four modern eruptions to show the relevance of our model and to constrain the supply curves. All four modern cones (Paricutin, Mexico which erupted 1943-1974; Tolbachik, Kamchatka which erupted in 1975-1976; Cono del Laghetto, Mount Etna, Italy which formed in 2001; and a small cone on the summit of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, which formed during the 2007 eruption) show the basic growth pattern: initial rapid growth followed by declining growth (Figure 1). The regression results yeild the following magma supply rates: The southern Tolbachik cones have the largest predicted magma supply at ~100 m3/s. Paricutin and Laghetto are around 9 m3/s. The Oldoinyo Lengai cone has a magma supply of ~0.5 m3/s. The northern Tolbachik cone has the lowest magma supply of ~0.1 m3/s. In contrast, the damping factor a is generally on the order of 107 (it varies from 8 x 106 at southern Tolbachik to 4 x 107 at northern Tolbachik). The parameter b controlling the initial increase is generally small (<1). The predicted magma supply does not seem to be very sensitive to either parameter. Thus we suggest that

  17. Cytoskeletal remodeling during growth cone-target interactions

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Reorganization of the cytoskeleton of neuronal growth cones in response to environmental cues underlies the process of axonal guidance. Most previous studies addressing cytoskeletal changes during growth cone pathfinding have focused on the dynamics of a single cytoskeletal component. We report here an investigation of homophilic growth cone- target interactions between Aplysia bag cell neurons using digitally enhanced video microscopy, which addresses dynamic interactions between actin filaments and microtubules. After physical contact of a growth cone with a physiological target, mechanical coupling occurred after a delay; and then the growth cone exerted forces on and displaced the target object. Subsequent to coupling, F-actin accumulation was observed at the target contact zone, followed by preferential microtubule extension to the same site. After successful target interactions, growth cones typically moved off highly adhesive poly-L- lysine substrates into native target cell surfaces. These events were associated with modulation of both the direction and rate of neurite outgrowth: growth cone migration was typically reoriented to a trajectory along the target interaction axis and rates of advance increased by about one order of magnitude. Directed microtubule movements toward the contact site appeared to be F-actin dependent as target site-specific microtubule extension and bundling could be reversibly randomized by micromolar levels of cytochalasin B in a characteristic manner. Our results suggest that target contacts can induce focal F-actin assembly and reorganization which, in turn, guides target site-directed microtubule redistribution. PMID:8509456

  18. L and M cone proportions in polymorphic New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Williams, Gary A

    2006-01-01

    Platyrrhine monkeys typically have only a single X-chromosome opsin gene. Alleles of this gene code for multiple versions of middle- to long-wavelength cone photopigments. X-chromosome inactivation provides heterozygous females with a retinal mosaic of cones containing either of two types of M and L pigment, thus establishing the photopigment basis for trichromatic color vision. This study examined the proportions of L and M cones created by this process. For that purpose, electroretinogram flicker photometry was used to obtain complete spectral sensitivity functions from 60 heterozygous female monkeys drawn from seven genera of platyrrhine monkeys. To obtain estimates of cone proportions, these functions were subsequently fit with linear combinations of L and M cone fundamentals that were derived from similar recordings made on conspecific animals having only one type of M/L pigment. Consistent with a random X-chromosome inactivation process, the average L:M cone weighting across the sample was close to unity. At the same time, there were significant individual variations in L:M cone proportions. The genesis of this variation and its implications for seeing are discussed. PMID:16961968

  19. Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse

    PubMed Central

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Colak, Dilek; Hengst, Ulrich; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    Local translation mediates axonal responses to Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and other guidance cues. However, only a subset of the axonal proteome is locally synthesized, while most proteins are trafficked from the soma. The reason why only specific proteins are locally synthesized is unknown. Here we show that local protein synthesis and degradation are linked events in growth cones. We find that growth cones exhibit high levels of ubiquitination and that local signaling pathways trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, a mediator of Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Inhibition of RhoA degradation is sufficient to remove the protein-synthesis requirement for Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In addition to RhoA, we find that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in growth cones. Thus, local protein degradation is a major feature of growth cones and creates a requirement for local translation to replenish proteins needed to maintain growth cone responses. PMID:25901863

  20. Comparison of Cone Model Parameters for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Jang, Soojeong; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, Hae-Yeon

    2013-11-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are a major cause of geomagnetic storms, hence their three-dimensional structures are important for space weather. We compare three cone models: an elliptical-cone model, an ice-cream-cone model, and an asymmetric-cone model. These models allow us to determine three-dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle [ γ] between sky plane and cone axis. We compare these parameters obtained from three models using 62 HCMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO from 2001 to 2002. Then we obtain the root-mean-square (RMS) error between the highest measured projection speeds and their calculated projection speeds from the cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with one another ( R > 0.8). The correlation coefficients between angular widths range from 0.1 to 0.48 and those between γ-values range from -0.08 to 0.47, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be the different assumptions and methods. The RMS errors between the highest measured projection speeds and the highest estimated projection speeds of the elliptical-cone model, the ice-cream-cone model, and the asymmetric-cone model are 376 km s-1, 169 km s-1, and 152 km s-1. We obtain the correlation coefficients between the location from the models and the flare location ( R > 0.45). Finally, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of these models in terms of space-weather application.

  1. Oscillatory flow in a cone-and-plate bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, C A; Tzou, M R; Ho, R W

    2005-08-01

    Motivated by biometric applications, we analyze oscillatory flow in a cone-and-plate geometry. The cone is rotated in a simple harmonic way on a stationary plate. Based on assuming that the angle between the cone and plate is small, we describe the flow analytically by a perturbation method in terms of two small parameters, the Womersley number and the Reynolds number, which account for the influences of the local acceleration and centripetal force, respectively. Working equations for the shear stresses induced both by laminar primary and secondary flows on the plate surface are presented. PMID:16121530

  2. Pulsar average wave forms and hollow-cone beam models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulsar wave forms have been analyzed from observations conducted over a wide radio-frequency range to assess the wave-form morphologies and to measure wave-form widths. The results of the analysis compare favorably with the predictions of a model with a hollow-cone beam of fixed dimensions and with random orientation of both the observer and the cone axis with respect to the pulsar spin axis. A class of three-component wave forms is included in the model by adding a central pencil beam to the hollow-cone hypothesis. The consequences of a number of discrepancies between observations and quantitative predictions of the model are discussed.

  3. Shock tunnel measurements of hypervelocity blunted cone drag

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, L.M.; Paull, A.; Mee, D.J.; Simmons, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Presented here are results obtained from an investigation into the effects of nose bluntness on slender cone drag in the hypervelocity flight regime. The results indicate that, for small cone angles, the drag of a blunt cone is reasonably well predicted by the Newtonian sine-square law modified for blunt bodies. This suggests the absence of any real gas effects on the total drag. The effect of nose bluntness at the smaller bluntness ratios is relatively small. This is encouraging for the design of a hypervelocity space plane or a centerbody for an axisymmetric scramjet where a slightly blunted nose is required to reduce stagnation point heating. 7 refs.

  4. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  5. The multifocal visual evoked potential and cone-isolating stimuli: implications for L- to M-cone ratios and normalization.

    PubMed

    Hood, Donald C; Yu, Alice L; Zhang, Xian; Albrecht, Johannes; Jägle, Herbert; Sharpe, Lindsay T

    2002-01-01

    Multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) were recorded with a pattern-reversing display that modulated only the long wavelength-sensitive (L) cones or only the middle wavelength-sensitive (M) cones. Outside the central 5.8 degrees (radius), the ratio of the amplitudes of the mfVEP responses to L- and M-cone modulation varied across the six subjects, ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. The responses from the central 1 degrees (radius) showed a substantially lower ratio, ranging from 0.8 to 1.1 (average of 0.9). The variation among individuals outside the central fovea is probably due to differences in the ratio of the L/M cone input to both magno- and parvocellular pathways. The substantially lower ratios for the central responses is consistent with an L/M cone ratio closer to 1.0 in the central 1 degrees and/or an adjustment in the gain of the L- versus M-cone contributions to the central parvocellular pathways. Taking into consideration evidence from other techniques, we believe it is unlikely that most individuals have a L/M cone ratio of 1.0 in the fovea. Instead, it appears that there is a change in gain before the mfVEP is generated in area 17.

  6. Shape measurement and vibration analysis of moving speaker cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Liu, Yuankun; Lehtonen, Petri

    2014-06-01

    Surface three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is needed for many fast processes such as structural testing of material, standing waves on loudspeaker cone, etc. Usually measurement is done from limited number of points using electrical sensors or laser distance meters. Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) enables fast shape measurement of the whole surface. Method is based on angled sinusoidal fringe pattern projection and image capturing. FTP requires only one image of the deformed fringe pattern to restore the 3-D shape of the measured object, which makes real-time or dynamic data processing possible. In our experiment the method was used for loudspeaker cone distortion measurement in dynamic conditions. For sound quality issues it is important that the whole cone moves in same phase and there are no partial waves. Our imaging resolution was 1280x1024 pixels and frame rate was 200 fps. Using our setup we found unwanted spatial waves in our sample cone.

  7. Conifer ovulate cones accumulate pollen principally by simple impaction

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, James E.; Henning, Kevin; Pennel, Christophe; Lahoubi, Mohamed; Patrick, Michael A.; Young, Phillipe G.; Tabor, Gavin R.

    2007-01-01

    In many pine species (Family Pinaceae), ovulate cones structurally resemble a turbine, which has been widely interpreted as an adaptation for improving pollination by producing complex aerodynamic effects. We tested the turbine interpretation by quantifying patterns of pollen accumulation on ovulate cones in a wind tunnel and by using simulation models based on computational fluid dynamics. We used computer-aided design and computed tomography to create computational fluid dynamics model cones. We studied three species: Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, and Cedrus libani. Irrespective of the approach or species studied, we found no evidence that turbine-like aerodynamics made a significant contribution to pollen accumulation, which instead occurred primarily by simple impaction. Consequently, we suggest alternative adaptive interpretations for the structure of ovulate cones. PMID:17986613

  8. 26. LONE CONE AND OLD ROAD GRADE TO LEFT SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LONE CONE AND OLD ROAD GRADE TO LEFT SEEN FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO LAUNDROMAT AT MOREFIELD CAMPGROUND STORE, FACING NW. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  9. On the dynamics of a particle on a cone

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K. Rembielinski, J.

    2013-02-15

    A detailed study of the classical and quantum mechanics of a free particle on a double cone and a particle bound to its tip by a harmonic oscillator potential is presented. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the classical and quantum free particle and harmonic oscillator on a double cone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the solutions of classical equations and show that the motion in a generator is unstable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify the observables and Hilbert space for the quantum particle on a double cone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The case of the quantization on the double cone is compared with a single-nappe case. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We solve the Schroedinger equations and discuss them in the context of the classical instabilities.

  10. Identification of cone mechanisms in monkey ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Gouras, Peter

    1968-01-01

    1. Blue, green, and red sensitive cone mechanisms have been studied in two types of on-centre ganglion cells in the Rhesus monkey's retina. 2. One type of cell receives signals from both green and red sensitive cone mechanisms, both of which excite in the centre and inhibit in the periphery of the cell's receptive field. These cells discharge transiently to maintained stimuli of any wave-length and are called phasic. 3. The second type of cell receives excitatory signals from only one cone mechanism, either blue, green or red sensitive, in the centre, and inhibition from another cone mechanism in the periphery of its receptive field. These cells discharge continuously to maintained stimuli of appropriate wave-length and are called tonic. 4. Tonic cells outnumber phasic cells although both are found adjacent to one another throughout the retina. Phasic cells are relatively more common toward the periphery and tonic cells relatively more common toward the fovea. PMID:4974745

  11. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  12. 128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone faced bridge on the bass lake carriage trail. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. 127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor from the bass lake carriage road. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. Supersonic flow around circular cones at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1951-01-01

    The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.

  15. Further observations on resonance cones in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemann, H.; Singh, N.

    1983-01-01

    Results on the angular distribution of the electrostatic potential of a pulsating point charge in a warm magnetized plasma permeated by an electron beam are presented. The theoretical formulation for a finite magnetic field is given, and the solution of the resonance cone dispersion relation is presented. Numerical results on the angular distribution of the potential are shown, and the propagation of waves outside the resonance cones is described. It is demonstrated that with the inclusions of a finite magnetic field, the field patterns of a point charge are qualitatively similar to those obtained for a uniaxial plasma. The Cerenkov radiation occurs at angles much smaller than the cold-cone angle, even with the finite magnetic field. When the beam velocity is well above the thermal velocity of the background electrons, a characteristic wave propagation occurs between the cold-cone angles.

  16. Microhabitats within venomous cone snails contain diverse actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S; Hughen, Ronald W; Light, Alan R; Concepcion, Gisela P; Olivera, Baldomero M; Schmidt, Eric W

    2009-11-01

    Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been reported on these organisms. A microhabitat approach was used in which dissected tissue from each snail was treated as an individual sample in order to explore bacteria in the tissues separately. Our results revealed a diverse, novel, and highly culturable cone snail-associated actinomycete community, with some isolates showing promising bioactivity in a neurological assay. This suggests that cone snails may represent an underexplored reservoir of novel actinomycetes of potential interest for drug discovery.

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the venomous cone snail Conus consors.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stöcklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription.

  18. Estimating individual cone fundamentals from their color-matching functions.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Casper F; Finlayson, Graham D; Connah, David

    2016-08-01

    Estimation of individual spectral cone fundamentals from color-matching functions is a classical and longstanding problem in color science. In this paper we propose a novel method to carry out this estimation based on a linear optimization technique, employing an assumption of a priori knowledge of the retinal absorptance functions. The result is an estimation of the combined lenticular and macular filtration for an individual, along with the nine coefficients in the linear combination that relates their color-matching functions to their estimated spectral-cone fundamentals. We test the method on the individual Stiles and Burch color-matching functions and derive cone-fundamental estimations for different viewing fields and matching experiment repetition. We obtain cone-fundamental estimations that are remarkably similar to those available in the literature. This suggests that the method yields results that are close to the true fundamentals.

  19. 124. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor porch, carriage road, and pasture. View looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Venomous Cone Snail Conus consors

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stöcklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription. PMID:23236512

  1. Cone monochromacy and visual pigment spectral tuning in wobbegong sharks.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Susan M; Davies, Wayne I L; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-12-23

    Much is known regarding the evolution of colour vision in nearly every vertebrate class, with the notable exception of the elasmobranchs. While multiple spectrally distinct cone types are found in some rays, sharks appear to possess only a single class of cone and, therefore, may be colour blind. In this study, the visual opsin genes of two wobbegong species, Orectolobus maculatus and Orectolobus ornatus, were isolated to verify the molecular basis of their monochromacy. In both species, only two opsin genes are present, RH1 (rod) and LWS (cone), which provide further evidence to support the concept that sharks possess only a single cone type. Examination of the coding sequences revealed substitutions that account for interspecific variation in the photopigment absorbance spectra, which may reflect the difference in visual ecology between these species.

  2. On the nonstationary Stokes system in a cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Vladimir; Rossmann, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    The authors consider the Dirichlet problem for the nonstationary Stokes system in a threedimensional cone. They obtain existence and uniqueness results for solutions in weighted Sobolev spaces and prove a regularity assertion for the solutions.

  3. Aberrant lacrimal gland and pleomorphic adenoma within the muscle cone.

    PubMed

    Mueller, E C; Borit, A

    1979-04-01

    Aberrant lacrimal gland tissue within the muscle cone formed a pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor). Histopathologically, the lesion was identical to similar neoplasms originating from lacrimal and other salivary glands as well as from other serous glands of the body.

  4. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  5. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other. PMID:24718656

  6. The midget-parvocellular pathway of marmoset retina: a quantitative light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Telkes, Ildiko; Lee, Sammy C S; Jusuf, Patricia R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2008-10-10

    The midget-parvocellular pathway in foveal retina of primates shows a "private line" (one-to-one) connectivity with cone photoreceptors. The connectivity of this pathway outside the fovea is not well understood. Here, we studied the population of OFF midget bipolar cells across the retinae of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) by using light microscopy. Cone pedicles were labeled with peanut agglutinin, OFF midget bipolar cells were labeled with antibodies against CD15, and midget ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled from the lateral geniculate nucleus and subsequently photofilled. Each midget bipolar cell contacts a single cone in foveal retina, but outside the fovea midget bipolar cells contact multiple cones: one to two cones at 1 mm ( approximately 8 degrees); three to four cones at 3-4 mm ( approximately 25 degrees); and five or more cones beyond 6 mm (>50 degrees). Throughout this eccentricity range, all medium (M) and long (L) wavelength sensitive cones make similar number of contacts with midget bipolar cells, but short wavelength sensitive (S) cones make little or no contact. By calculating the numerical convergence between midget bipolar and midget ganglion cells, we estimate that midget ganglion cells receive input from up to 25 cones at approximately 5 degrees, and from more than 65 cones at approximately 50 degrees. No obvious differences were seen between the retinae of animals with di- or trichromatic color vision. The finding that the one-to-one connectivity is restricted to the fovea predicts that in marmosets spectral mixing of M/L cone inputs will occur peripheral to 10 degrees of visual angle. PMID:18683219

  7. Cones perform a non-linear transformation on natural stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Endeman, D; Kamermans, M

    2010-01-01

    Visual information in natural scenes is distributed over a broad range of intensities and contrasts. This distribution has to be compressed in the retina to match the dynamic range of retinal neurons. In this study we examined how cones perform this compression and investigated which physiological processes contribute to this operation. M- and L-cones of the goldfish were stimulated with a natural time series of intensities (NTSI) and their responses were recorded. The NTSI displays an intensity distribution which is skewed towards the lower intensities and has a long tail into the high intensity region. Cones transform this skewed distribution into a more symmetrical one. The voltage responses of the goldfish cones were compared to those of a linear filter and a non-linear biophysical model of the photoreceptor. The results show that the linear filter under-represents contrasts at low intensities compared to the actual cone whereas the non-linear biophysical model performs well over the whole intensity range used. Quantitative analysis of the two approaches indicates that the non-linear biophysical model can capture 91 ± 5% of the coherence rate (a biased measure of information rate) of the actual cone, where the linear filter only reaches 48 ± 8%. These results demonstrate that cone photoreceptors transform an NTSI in a non-linear fashion. The comparison between current clamp and voltage clamp recordings and analysis of the behaviour of the biophysical model indicates that both the calcium feedback loop in the outer segment and the hydrolysis of cGMP are the major components that introduce the specific non-linear response properties found in the goldfish cones. PMID:20008463

  8. Elliptic Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H

    1958-01-01

    To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for elliptic cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of elliptic cones.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Shatter Cones Development in Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    Shatter cones are the characteristic forms of rock fractures in impact structures. They have been used for decades as unequivocal fingerprints of meteoritic impacts on Earth. The abundant data about shapes, apical angles, sizes and distributions of shatter cones for many terrestrial impact structures should provide insights for the determination of impact conditions and characteristics of shock waves produced by high-velocity projectiles in geologic media. However, previously proposed models for the formation of shatter cones do not agree with observations. For example, the widely accepted Johnson-Talbot mechanism requires that the longitudinal stress drops to zero between the arrival of the elastic precursor and the main plastic wave. Unfortunately, observations do not support such a drop. A model has been also proposed to explain the striated features on the surface of shatter cones but can not invoked for their conical shape. The mechanism by which shatter cones form thus remains enigmatic to date. In this paper we present a new model for the formation of shatter cones. Our model has been tested by means of numerical simulations using the hydrocodes SALE 2D enhanced with the Grady-Kipp-Melosh fragmentation model.

  10. Organizational motifs for ground squirrel cone bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Light, Adam C; Zhu, Yongling; Shi, Jun; Saszik, Shannon; Lindstrom, Sarah; Davidson, Laura; Li, Xiaoyu; Chiodo, Vince A; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Wei; DeVries, Steven H

    2012-09-01

    In daylight vision, parallel processing starts at the cone synapse. Cone signals flow to On and Off bipolar cells, which are further divided into types according to morphology, immunocytochemistry, and function. The axons of the bipolar cell types stratify at different levels in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and can interact with costratifying amacrine and ganglion cells. These interactions endow the ganglion cell types with unique functional properties. The wiring that underlies the interactions among bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells is poorly understood. It may be easier to elucidate this wiring if organizational rules can be established. We identify 13 types of cone bipolar cells in the ground squirrel, 11 of which contact contiguous cones, with the possible exception of short-wavelength-sensitive cones. Cells were identified by antibody labeling, tracer filling, and Golgi-like filling following transduction with an adeno-associated virus encoding for green fluorescent protein. The 11 bipolar cell types displayed two organizational patterns. In the first pattern, eight to 10 of the 11 types came in pairs with partially overlapping axonal stratification. Pairs shared morphological, immunocytochemical, and functional properties. The existence of similar pairs is a new motif that might have implications for how signals first diverge from a cone to bipolar cells and then reconverge onto a costratifying ganglion cell. The second pattern is a mirror symmetric organization about the middle of the IPL involving at least seven bipolar cell types. This anatomical symmetry may be associated with a functional symmetry in On and Off ganglion cell responses.

  11. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene.

    PubMed

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton's law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the "Chern number" occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton's law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases. PMID:26667580

  12. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases.

  13. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases. PMID:26667580

  14. Cone Photoreceptor Sensitivities and Unique Hue Chromatic Responses: Correlation and Causation Imply the Physiological Basis of Unique Hues

    PubMed Central

    Pridmore, Ralph W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95–1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision. PMID:24204755

  15. Functional Optical Coherence Tomography Enables In Vivo Physiological Assessment of Retinal Rod and Cone Photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Lu, Rongwen; Wang, Benquan; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Curcio, Christine A.; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-04-01

    Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (<4 ms) after retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have demonstrated the feasibility of functional OCT mapping of rod and cone photoreceptors, promising a new method for early disease detection and improved treatment of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other eye diseases that can cause photoreceptor damage.

  16. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    SciTech Connect

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-08-03

    The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of

  17. Theseus Nose and Pod Cones Being Unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Crew members are seen here unloading the nose and pod cones of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  18. Towards cone-beam CT thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kapoor, Ankur; Kadoury, Samuel; Xu, Sheng; Noordhoek, Niels; Radaelli, Alessandro; Carelsen, Bart; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-03-01

    Temperature monitoring and therefore the final treatment zone achieved during a cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided ablation can prevent overtreatment and undertreatment. A novel method is proposed to detect changes in consecutive CBCT images obtained from projection reconstructions during an ablation procedure. The possibility is explored of using this method to generate thermometry maps from CBCT images, which can be used as an input function for ablation treatment planning. This novel method uses a baseline and an intermittent CBCT scan, which are routinely acquired to confirm the needle position and monitor progress of the ablation. Accurate registration is required and assumed in vitro and ex vivo. A Wronskian change detector algorithm is applied on the compensated images to obtain a difference image between the intermittent and baseline scans. Finally, a thermal map created by applying a calibration determined experimentally is used to obtain the corresponding temperature at each pixel or voxel. We applied Wronskian change detector to detect the difference of two CBCT images, which have low signal to noise ratio, and calibrate Wronskian change model to temperature data using a gel phantom. We tested the temperature mapping with water and gel phantoms as well as pig shoulder. The experimental results show this method can detect temperature change within 5°C for a voxel size of 1mm3 (within clinical relevancy), and by consequence delineate the ablation zone. The preliminary experimental results show that CBCT thermometry is possible and promising, but may require pre-processing, such as registration for motion compensation between the baseline and intermittent scans. Further, quantitative evaluations have to be conducted for validation prior to clinical assessment and translation. CBCT is a widely available technology that could make thermometry clinically practical as an enabling component of iterative ablation treatment planning.

  19. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  20. Detailed topographical, distributional, and material analyses of rootless cones in Myvatn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Rina; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Kurita, Kei

    2016-05-01

    Unique types of rootless cones have been found both on Earth and on Mars. They have inner cones inside their summit craters, and we call them double cones (DCs) and multiple cones. Though previous studies have mentioned their existence, there are no quantitative data on their topography, distribution, or constituent materials. Having this information available as a comparative reference could promote our understanding of Martian cones. For this study, we conducted a field campaign on terrestrial cones in Myvatn, Iceland. To provide high-quality reference data about the morphology of rootless cones, we performed kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. In the study area DCs and multiple cones are located in the vicinity of the lake (Lake Myvatn) within 15 km of a fissure vent. There are no such cones on the paleo-riverbed. In crosscut outcrops of DCs on Geitey Island, a clearly recognizable structural boundary between the inner and outer cones shows that the inner cone was formed by a separate explosion episode. We propose a probable formation scenario for DCs here. We posit that the inner cones of DCs are formed by delayed explosions due to percolation of water through the lacustrine sediments. These unique characteristics of rootless cones are useful in the interpretation of Martian cones.

  1. Comparison of cone beam artifacts reduction: two pass algorithm vs TV-based CS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2015-03-01

    In a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), the severity of the cone beam artifacts is increased as the cone angle increases. To reduce the cone beam artifacts, several modified FDK algorithms and compressed sensing based iterative algorithms have been proposed. In this paper, we used two pass algorithm and Gradient-Projection-Barzilai-Borwein (GPBB) algorithm to reduce the cone beam artifacts, and compared their performance using structural similarity (SSIM) index. In two pass algorithm, it is assumed that the cone beam artifacts are mainly caused by extreme-density(ED) objects, and therefore the algorithm reproduces the cone beam artifacts(i.e., error image) produced by ED objects, and then subtract it from the original image. GPBB algorithm is a compressed sensing based iterative algorithm which minimizes an energy function for calculating the gradient projection with the step size determined by the Barzilai- Borwein formulation, therefore it can estimate missing data caused by the cone beam artifacts. To evaluate the performance of two algorithms, we used testing objects consisting of 7 ellipsoids separated along the z direction and cone beam artifacts were generated using 30 degree cone angle. Even though the FDK algorithm produced severe cone beam artifacts with a large cone angle, two pass algorithm reduced the cone beam artifacts with small residual errors caused by inaccuracy of ED objects. In contrast, GPBB algorithm completely removed the cone beam artifacts and restored the original shape of the objects.

  2. Schiff base protonation changes in Siberian hamster ultraviolet cone pigment photointermediates.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Victoria L; Szundi, Istvan; Lewis, James W; Yan, Elsa C Y; Kliger, David S

    2012-03-27

    Molecular structure and function studies of vertebrate ultraviolet (UV) cone visual pigments are needed to understand the molecular evolution of these photoreceptors, which uniquely contain unprotonated Schiff base linkages between the 11-cis-retinal chromophore and the opsin proteins. In this study, the Siberian hamster ultraviolet cone pigment (SHUV) was expressed and purified in an n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside suspension for optical characterization. Time-resolved absorbance measurements, over a spectral range from 300 to 700 nm, were taken for the purified pigment at time delays from 30 ns to 4.64 s after photoexcitation using 7 ns pulses of 355 nm light. The resulting data were fit globally to a sum of exponential functions after noise reduction using singular-value decomposition. Four exponentials best fit the data with lifetimes of 1.4 μs, 210 μs, 47 ms, and 1 s. The first photointermediate species characterized here is an equilibrated mixture similar to the one formed after rhodopsin's Batho intermediate decays into equilibrium with its successor, BSI. The extremely large red shift of the SHUV Batho component relative to the pigment suggests that SHUV Batho has a protonated Schiff base and that the SHUV cone pigment itself has an unprotonated Schiff base. In contrast to SHUV Batho, the portion of the equilibrated mixture's spectrum corresponding to SHUV BSI is well fit by a model spectrum with an unprotonated Schiff base. The spectra of the next two photointermediate species revealed that they both have unprotonated Schiff bases and suggest they are analogous to rhodopsin's Lumi I and Lumi II species. After decay of SHUV Lumi II, the correspondence with rhodopsin photointermediates breaks down and the next photointermediate, presumably including the G protein-activating species, is a mixture of protonated and unprotonated Schiff base photointermediate species.

  3. ERM proteins regulate growth cone responses to Sema3A

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, C. David; Carcea, Ioana; McNickle, Daniel G.; Dickson, Tracey C.; Ge, Yongchao; Salton, Stephen R.J.; Benson, Deanna L.

    2008-01-01

    Axonal growth cones initiate and sustain directed growth in response to cues in their environment. A variety of events such as receptor internalization, kinase activation, and actin rearrangement can be stimulated by guidance cues and are essential for mediating targeted growth cone behavior. Surprisingly little is known about how such disparate actions are coordinated. Our data suggest that ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERMs), a family of highly homologous, multifunctional proteins may be able to coordinate growth cone responses to the guidance cue, Sema3A. We show that active ERMs concentrate asymmetrically in neocortical growth cones, are rapidly and transiently inactivated by Sema3A, and are required for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse and guidance. The FERM domain of active ERMs regulates internalization of the Sema3A receptor, Npn1 and its co-receptor, L1CAM, while the ERM C-terminal domain binds and caps F-actin. Our data support a model in which ERMs can coordinate membrane and actin dynamics in response to Sema3A. PMID:18651636

  4. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P.; Eskew, Rhea T.

    2014-01-01

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L−M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S− thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L–M, L- and M-cone noises than were S− thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S− thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S− detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. PMID:25391300

  5. Strong topological metal material with multiple Dirac cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Huiwen; Pletikosić, I.; Gibson, Q. D.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new, cleavable, strong topological metal, Zr2Te2P , which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator B i2T e2Se . Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the Fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone with a largely linear dispersion over a 2 eV energy range. A third surface TRS-protected Dirac cone is predicted, and observed using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, making Zr2Te2P the first system, to our knowledge, to realize TRS-protected Dirac cones at M ¯ points. The high anisotropy of this Dirac cone is similar to the one in the hypothetical Dirac semimetal Bi O2 . We propose that if EF can be tuned into the pseudogap where the Dirac dispersions exist, it may be possible to observe ultrahigh carrier mobility and large magnetoresistance in this material.

  6. Glycine receptors are functionally expressed on bullfrog retinal cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Ge, L-H; Lee, S-C; Liu, J; Yang, X-L

    2007-04-25

    Using immunocytochemical and whole cell recording techniques, we examined expression of glycine receptors on bullfrog retinal cone photoreceptors. Immunofluorescence double labeling experiments conducted on retinal sections and isolated cell preparations showed that terminals and inner segments of cones were immunoreactive to both alpha1 and beta subunits of glycine receptors. Moreover, application of glycine induced a sustained inward current from isolated cones, which increased in amplitude in a dose-dependent manner, with an EC50 (concentration of glycine producing half-maximal response) of 67.3+/-4.9 microM, and the current was blocked by the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine, but not 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA) of 200 microM, a blocker of the glycine recognition site at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The glycine-induced current reversed in polarity at a potential close to the calculated chloride equilibrium potential, and the reversal potential was changed as a function of the extracellular chloride concentration. These results suggest that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are functionally expressed in bullfrog cones, which may mediate signal feedback from glycinergic interplexiform cells to cones in the outer retina. PMID:17346892

  7. Lipid rafts mediate chemotropic guidance of nerve growth cones.

    PubMed

    Guirland, Carmine; Suzuki, Shingo; Kojima, Masami; Lu, Bai; Zheng, James Q

    2004-04-01

    Axon guidance requires signal transduction of extracellular cues through the plasma membrane for directional motility. Here we present evidence that cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) mediate specific guidance responses of nerve growth cones. Disruption of lipid rafts by various approaches targeting cholesterol or gangliosides selectively abolished growth cone attraction and repulsion in BDNF and netrin-1 gradients, respectively, without affecting glutamate-induced attraction. Interestingly, local raft disruption on one side of the growth cone in bath BDNF or netrin-1 produced opposite turning responses to that induced by the gradients. Raft manipulation also blocked Semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone repulsion, inhibition, and collapse. Finally, guidance responses appeared to involve raft-dependent activation of p42/p44 MAPK and ligand-induced receptor recruitment to lipid rafts. Together with the observation of asymmetric receptor-raft associations at the growth cone in guidance gradients, our findings indicate that localized signaling through membrane rafts plays a role in mediating guidance actions of extracellular cues on developing axons. PMID:15066264

  8. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  9. AN IONIZATION CONE IN THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 5253

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Martin, Crystal L.

    2011-11-01

    There are few observational constraints on how the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies depends on galactic parameters. Here we report on the first major detection of an ionization cone in NGC 5253, a nearby starburst galaxy. This high-excitation feature is identified by mapping the emission-line ratios in the galaxy using [S III] {lambda}9069, [S II] {lambda}6716, and H{alpha} narrowband images from the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. The ionization cone appears optically thin, which suggests the escape of ionizing photons. The cone morphology is narrow with an estimated solid angle covering just 3% of 4{pi} steradians, and the young, massive clusters of the nuclear starburst can easily generate the radiation required to ionize the cone. Although less likely, we cannot rule out the possibility of an obscured active galactic nucleus source. An echelle spectrum along the minor axis shows complex kinematics that are consistent with outflow activity. The narrow morphology of the ionization cone supports the scenario that an orientation bias contributes to the difficulty in detecting Lyman continuum emission from starbursts and Lyman break galaxies.

  10. Inferring conduit process from population studies of cinder cone craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, Karen G.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most observable aspects of magma conduits is of course their exit to the Earth's surface: the volcanic crater. The craters resulting from small mostly-monogenetic volcanic eruptions vary in considerable in size and shape, even after accounting for variation in size. Presumably, these variations tell us something about the state of the conduit at least in the ending stages of eruption. But what? This work explores the statistical properties of crater populations in Guatemala and elsewhere and speculates on the conduit processes that may explain the complex behavior. Crater depths are strongly correlated with cone slopes even when normalized by cone diameter, which suggests the importance of the impact of the volatile content (which may influence slope through fragmentation and the resulting grain size) and the duration of eruption (which may influence whether the cone is built to its maximum slope) despite erosion acting to reduce observed crater depths (cone slopes are known to decrease with erosion but cone diameters increase).

  11. Strong topological metal material with multiple Dirac cones

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ji, Huiwen; Valla, T.; Pletikosic, I.; Gibson, Q. D.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Cava, R. J.

    2016-01-25

    We report a new, cleavable, strong topological metal, Zr2Te2P, which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the Fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone with a largely linear dispersion over a 2 eV energy range. A third surface TRS-protected Dirac cone is predicted, and observed using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, making Zr2Te2Pmore » the first system, to our knowledge, to realize TRS-protected Dirac cones at M¯ points. The high anisotropy of this Dirac cone is similar to the one in the hypothetical Dirac semimetal BiO2. As a result, we propose that if EF can be tuned into the pseudogap where the Dirac dispersions exist, it may be possible to observe ultrahigh carrier mobility and large magnetoresistance in this material.« less

  12. Discrimination of cone contrast changes as evidence for colour constancy in cerebral achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, A C; Bramwell, D I; Heywood, C; Cowey, A

    1998-11-01

    One proposed mechanism for underpinning colour constancy is computation of the relative activity of cones within one class--cone ratios, or cone contrasts--between surfaces in a fixed scene undergoing a change in illuminant. Although there is evidence that cone ratios do determine colour appearance under many conditions, the site or sites of their computation is unknown. Here, we report that a cerebrally achromatopsic observer, MS, displayed evidence of colour constancy in asymmetric colour matching tasks and was able to discriminate changes in cone ratios for simple, but not complex scenes. We hypothesise that the site of local cone-ratio computation is therefore early in the visual system, probably retinal.

  13. Skeletal dosimetry in cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B. R. B.; Ding, G. X.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

    2009-07-15

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a relatively new patient imaging technique that has proved invaluable for treatment target verification and patient positioning during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). It has been shown that CBCT results in additional dose to bone that may amount to 10% of the prescribed dose. In this study, voxelized human phantoms, FAX06 (adult female) and MAX06 (adult male), are used together with phase-space data collected from a realistic model of a CBCT imager to calculate dose in the red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSCs), the two organs at risk within the bone spongiosa, during simulated head and neck, chest and pelvis CBCT scans. The FAX06/MAX06 phantoms model spongiosa based on micro-CT images, filling the relevant phantom voxels, which are 0.12x0.12x0.12 cm{sup 3}, with 17x17x17 {mu}m{sup 3} microvoxels to form a micromatrix of trabecular bone and bone marrow. FAX06/MAX06 have already been implemented in an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code to simulate radiation transport in the phantoms; however, this study required significant modifications of the code to allow use of phase-space data from a simulated CBCT imager as a source and to allow scoring of total dose, RBM dose and BSC dose on a voxel-by-voxel basis. In simulated CBCT scans, the BSC dose is significantly greater than the dose to other organs at risk. For example, in a simulated head and neck scan, the average BSC dose is 25% higher than the average dose to eye lens ({approx}8.3 cGy), and 80% greater than the average dose to brain (5.7 cGy). Average dose to RBM, on the other hand, is typically only {approx}50% of the average BSC dose and less than the dose to other organs at risk (54% of the dose to eye lens and 76% of dose to brain in a head and neck scan). Thus, elevated dose in bone due to CBCT results in elevated BSC dose. This is potentially of concern when using CBCT in conjunction with radiotherapy treatment.

  14. Cones of positive maps and their duality relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, Łukasz; Størmer, Erling; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-06-01

    The structure of cones of positive and k-positive maps acting on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space is investigated. Special emphasis is given to their duality relations to the sets of superpositive and k-superpositive maps. We characterize k-positive and k-superpositive maps with regard to their properties under taking compositions. A number of results obtained for maps are also rephrased for the corresponding cones of block positive, k-block positive, separable, and k-entangled operators due to the Jamiołkowski-Choi isomorphism. Generalizations to a situation where no such simple isomorphism is available are also made, employing the idea of mapping cones. As a side result to our discussion, we show that extreme entanglement witnesses, which are optimal, should be of special interest in entanglement studies.

  15. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but spaceweather prediction. Several models(such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observated by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of 33 FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. It was demonstrated that the correlation coefficient for the speeds by using these both methods is 0.97.

  16. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  17. Wind tunnel experiments on two blunt cones at Ma6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchi; Li, Cunbiao; State Key LaboratoryTurbulence; Complex Systems Team

    2015-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments are performed on two 5° half-angle blunt cones over Mach 6 flow for 0° and 10° angle of attack. The temperature distributions on both windward and leeward sides are obtained by temperature sensitive painting (TSP) technique and the fluctuation pressure is measured by PCB pressure sensors for 7 meridian lines between the central meridian lines of the windward and the leeward by 30° step. Boundary layer transition is implied by the temperature distribution and power spectral evolution of the fluctuation pressure. It is found there exists a streamwise high-temperature strip near the central meridian line of the leeward side and transition is most likely to occur along the strip (earlier than the windward side and 0° angle of attack). Besides, the radius of the cone tip has an effective influence on the transition location. Transition is more likely to occur on the cone with the sharper tip.

  18. Optimization of pyrolysis properties using TGA and cone calorimeter test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Hee; Yoon, Kyung-Beom

    2013-04-01

    The present paper describes an optimization work to obtain the properties related to a pyrolysis process in the solid material such as density, specific heat, conductivity of virgin and char, heat of pyrolysis and kinetic parameters used for deciding pyrolysis rate. A repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the pyrolysis-related properties. In the previous study all properties obtained only using a cone calorimeter but in this paper both the cone calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) are used for precisely optimizing the pyrolysis properties. In the TGA test a very small mass is heated up and conduction and heat capacity in the specimen is negligible so kinetic parameters can first be optimized. Other pyrolysis-related properties such as virgin/char specific heat and conductivity and char density are also optimized in the cone calorimeter test with the already decided parameters in the TGA test.

  19. Spin-Cherenkov effect and magnonic Mach cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming; Kákay, Attila; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    We report on the Cherenkov-type excitation of spin waves (SWs) in ferromagnets. Our micromagnetic simulations show that a localized magnetic field pulse moving sufficiently fast along the surface of a ferromagnet generates a SW boom, with a Mach-type cone of propagating wave fronts. The SWs are formed when the velocity of the source exceeds the propagation speed of SWs. Unlike the single cone of the usual Cherenkov effect, we find that the magnetic Mach cone consists of two wave fronts with different wave numbers. In patterned thin strips, this magnetic analog of the Cherenkov effect should enable the excitation of SWs with well-defined and velocity-dependent frequency. It thereby provides a promising route towards tunable SW generation, with important potential for applications in magnonic devices.

  20. Concrescence: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alluri, LeelaSubhashini Choudary; Mallela, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    Concrescence is a form of twinning, formed by the confluence of cementum of two teeth at the root level. The diagnosis of concrescence has largely relied on the conventional 2D imaging. The 2D imaging has inherent limitations such as distortion and superimposition. Cone-Beam CT eliminates these limitations. The aim of this article was to describe a case of dental abnormality using Cone-Beam CT imaging modality. Volumetric data demonstrated confluence of left mandibular third molar with a paramolar, a supernumerary tooth. To our knowledge, this is the second case in the dental literature reported demonstrating the use of Cone-Beam CT in the diagnosis of concrescence. PMID:27800194

  1. The oral cone of Anomalocaris is not a classic ``peytoia''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Allison C.; Bergström, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The Cambro-Ordovician anomalocaridids are large ecdysozoans commonly regarded as ancestors of the arthropods and apex predators. Predation is indicated partly by the presence of an unusual "peytoia"-type oral cone, which is a tetraradial outer ring of 32 plates, four of which are enlarged and in perpendicular arrangement. This oral cone morphology was considered a highly consistent and defining characteristic of well-known Burgess Shale taxa. It is here shown that Anomalocaris has a different oral cone, with only three large plates and a variable number of smaller and medium plates. Its functional morphology suggests that suction, rather than biting, was used for food ingestion, and that anomalocaridids in general employed a range of different scavenging and predatory feeding strategies. Removing anomalocaridids from the position of highly specialized trilobite predators forces a reconsideration of the ecological structure of the earliest marine animal communities in the Cambrian.

  2. X-ray cone beam CT system calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.

    1993-12-01

    Recently x-ray cone beam computed tomography (CT) has become of interest for nondestructive testing (NDT) of advanced materials. Such a technique takes advantage of the cone beam geometry, to reduce the acquisition time and increase the resolution. Performances of CT systems rely mainly on geometric precision and measurement quality. Inaccurate geometry or incorrect data produce artifacts and blurring which limit the spatial resolution. A precise geometric calibration procedure is required and some corrections must be applied to the raw attenuation data in order to obtain accurate measurements. An x-ray cone beam CT system has been developed at the LETI. This machine was designed to control small parts limited to a few centimeters, with a high spatial resolution close to 30 microns. This paper introduces the machine setup and describes the calibration computing resources involved in the system. Then, we discuss the performances on experimental data.

  3. Evolution of a Hybrid Roller Cone/PDC core bit

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, R.; Laney, R.; George, D.; Clemens, G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource, as presently being accomplished by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), requires that sufficient quantities of good quality core be obtained at a reasonable cost. The use of roller cone core bits, with tungsten carbide inserts, was initiated by the Deep Sea Drilling Program. These bits were modified for continental drilling in deep, hot, granitic rock for the LASL HDR Geothermal Site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico in 1974. After the advent of monocrystalline diamond Stratapax pads, a prototype hybrid roller cone/Stratapax core bit was fabricated by Smith Tool, and tested at Fenton Hill in 1978. During the drilling for a deeper HDR reservoir system in 1979 and 1980, six of the latest generation of these bits, now called Hybrid Roller Cone/Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter (PDC) core bits, were successfully used in granitic rock at depths below 11,000 ft.

  4. CONE - An STS-based cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. S.; Vento, D. M.; Hanna, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the CONE program is presented which includes a definition of the technology addressed by CONE and a baseline experiment set, a description of the experimental and support subsystems, interface requirements between the STS and the experiment carrier (Hitchhiker M), and the reusability and expansion capacity for additional experiment flights. CONE evaluates three primary technologies: the active thermodynamic vent system, the passive thermodynamic vent system, and liquid acquisition device performance. The cryogenic fluid management technology database that the system offers will allow for efficient subcritical cryogenic system designs for operation in a low-gravity environment. This system maximizes the balance between existing component technology and the need for the development of a cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) test bed to investigate and demonstrate methods of storage and handling arenas.

  5. THz radiation properties of silver V-cone antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Huang, Mengya; Hu, Mingzhe

    2012-12-01

    In the present article, silver cone antenna and its arrays are designed according to the requirement of wide bandwidth terahertz irradiation property. Coordinate transformation method is employed to analyze the solution process of the integrate equation of the irradiated electromagnetic field. And CST microwave studio software is employed to simulate the terahertz irradiation properties of Ag cone antenna arrays. Theoretical analysis and simulation results both manifest that the single Ag cone antenna with micrometer scale size can irradiate a wide bandwidth THz wave with the gain of 22.7dBi, while its corresponding antenna arrays with proper configuration can further improve the radiation pattern and enhance the gain to 42.5dBi. The theoretical analysis and CST simulation results will be useful for the guidance of experimental investigation of terahertz irradiation sources.

  6. [The forms and frequency of renal parenchymal cones].

    PubMed

    Kara, Murat; Tuma, Jan

    2014-02-12

    The renal parenchymal cone (RPC) is an important differential diagnosis to the real kidney tumors. It is defined as at least 15 mm large part of the normal renal parenchyma which protrudes into the space of the renal sinus. If the RPC is solely formed from renal cortical tissue, it is called "Column of Bertin" renal parenchymal cones (CB-RPC). If the renal medulla is part of RPC, together with the renal cortex, it is called lobular renal parenchymal cones (L-RPC). The aim of this prospective study was to determine the frequency of CB-RPC and the L-RPC. 200 kidneys from 100 patients were evaluated. At least one RPC was found in 53 patients. 27 RPC were on both sides. CB-RPC was present in 27,5% of the kidneys, a L-RPC in 12,5%. The high frequency of RPC underlines its importance in the diagnosis of focal renal parenchymal changes.

  7. Dirac cones in transition metal doped boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Cao, Xuewei; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    The transition metal (TM) doped zinc blende boron nitride (c-BN) is studied by using the first principle calculation. TM atoms fill in the interstitials in c-BN and form two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The generalized gradient approximation and projector augmented wave method are used. The calculated density of states and band structures show that d electrons of TM atoms form impurity bands in the gap of c-BN. When the TM-BN system is in ferromagnetic or non-magnetic state, Dirac cones emerge at the K point in Brillouin zone. When TM is Ti and Co, the Dirac cones are spin polarized and very close to the Fermi level, which makes them promising candidates of Dirac half-metal [H. Ishizuka and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237207 (2012)]. While TM is Ni and Cu, the system is non-magnetic and Dirac cones located above the Fermi level.

  8. Dirac cones in transition metal doped boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Min; Shao, Bin; Cao, Xuewei; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-01

    The transition metal (TM) doped zinc blende boron nitride (c-BN) is studied by using the first principle calculation. TM atoms fill in the interstitials in c-BN and form two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The generalized gradient approximation and projector augmented wave method are used. The calculated density of states and band structures show that d electrons of TM atoms form impurity bands in the gap of c-BN. When the TM-BN system is in ferromagnetic or non-magnetic state, Dirac cones emerge at the K point in Brillouin zone. When TM is Ti and Co, the Dirac cones are spin polarized and very close to the Fermi level, which makes them promising candidates of Dirac half-metal [H. Ishizuka and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237207 (2012)]. While TM is Ni and Cu, the system is non-magnetic and Dirac cones located above the Fermi level.

  9. Retinal cone photoreceptors of the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus: development, topography, opsin expression and spectral tuning.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Patrick; Glösmann, Martin; Peichl, Leo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of photoreceptor properties was performed in the retina of the nocturnal deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, using pigmented (wildtype) and albino animals. The aim was to establish whether the deer mouse is a more suitable model species than the house mouse for photoreceptor studies, and whether oculocutaneous albinism affects its photoreceptor properties. In retinal flatmounts, cone photoreceptors were identified by opsin immunostaining, and their numbers, spectral types, and distributions across the retina were determined. Rod photoreceptors were counted using differential interference contrast microscopy. Pigmented P. maniculatus have a rod-dominated retina with rod densities of about 450.000/mm(2) and cone densities of 3000-6500/mm(2). Two cone opsins, shortwave sensitive (S) and middle-to-longwave sensitive (M), are present and expressed in distinct cone types. Partial sequencing of the S opsin gene strongly supports UV sensitivity of the S cone visual pigment. The S cones constitute a 5-15% minority of the cones. Different from house mouse, S and M cone distributions do not have dorsoventral gradients, and coexpression of both opsins in single cones is exceptional (<2% of the cones). In albino P. maniculatus, rod densities are reduced by approximately 40% (270.000/mm(2)). Overall, cone density and the density of cones exclusively expressing S opsin are not significantly different from pigmented P. maniculatus. However, in albino retinas S opsin is coexpressed with M opsin in 60-90% of the cones and therefore the population of cones expressing only M opsin is significantly reduced to 5-25%. In conclusion, deer mouse cone properties largely conform to the general mammalian pattern, hence the deer mouse may be better suited than the house mouse for the study of certain basic cone properties, including the effects of albinism on cone opsin expression. PMID:24260509

  10. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-09-17

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformation of the Dirac cone often reveals intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. Dirac cones and exceptional points are connected: it was theoretically suggested that certain non-Hermitian perturbations can deform a Dirac cone and spawn a ring of exceptional points. Here we experimentally demonstrate such an 'exceptional ring' in a photonic crystal slab. Angle-resolved reflection measurements of the photonic crystal slab reveal that the peaks of reflectivity follow the conical band structure of a Dirac cone resulting from accidental degeneracy, whereas the complex eigenvalues of the system are deformed into a two-dimensional flat band enclosed by an exceptional ring. This deformation arises from the dissimilar radiation rates of dipole and quadrupole resonances, which play a role analogous to the loss and gain in parity-time symmetric systems. Our results indicate that the radiation existing in any open system can fundamentally alter its physical properties in ways previously expected only in the presence of material loss and gain. PMID:26352476

  11. Anion sensitivity and spectral tuning of cone visual pigments in situ.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, J; Harosi, F I

    1992-01-01

    We tested the effect of anions on the absorbance spectrum of native visual pigments as measured by microspectrophotometry in individual cone outer segments of four species of fish and one species of amphibian. In all species tested, the long-wavelength-absorbing cone pigments were anion sensitive, and their lambda max could be tuned over a range of 55 nm depending on the identity of the anion present. Cl- and Br- were the only anions that produced native pigment spectra by red shifting lambda max from its value under anion-free conditions. Lyotropic anions such as NO3-, SCN-, BF4-, and ClO4- caused substantial and graded blue shifts of lambda max. The apparent Kd of binding sites on the pigment for Cl- and for ClO4- was approximately 2 mM. Taken together with previous findings on three visual pigments from the reptilian, avian, and amphibian classes, our results support the hypothesis that all long-wavelength-absorbing vertebrate visual pigments are spectrally tuned in part through the binding of a chloride ion. We propose that the site of anion tuning is near the protonated Schiff base of the chromophore, whose counterion may be complex and include Cl- as an exchangeable anion. This counterion configuration may resemble the one present in the light-driven Cl- pump halorhodopsin. PMID:1409622

  12. Cone beam CT evaluation of the presence of anatomic accessory canals in the jaws

    PubMed Central

    Eshak, M; Brooks, S; Abdel-Wahed, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence, location and anatomical course of accessory canals of the jaws using cone beam CT. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 4200 successive cone beam CT scans, for patients of both genders and ages ranging from 7 to 88 years, was performed. They were exposed at the School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. After applying the exclusion criteria (the presence of severe ridge resorption, pre-existing implants, a previously reported history of craniofacial malformations or syndromes, a previous history of trauma or surgery, inadequate image quality and subsequent scans from the same individuals), 4051 scans were ultimately included in this study. Results: Of the 4051 scans (2306 females and 1745 males) that qualified for inclusion in this study, accessory canals were identified in 1737 cases (42.9%; 1004 females and 733 males). 532 scans were in the maxilla (13.1%; 296 females and 236 males) and 1205 in the mandible (29.8%; 708 females and 497 males). Conclusions: A network of accessory canals bringing into communication the inner and outer cortical plates of the jaws was identified. In light of these findings, clinicians should carefully assess for the presence of accessory canals prior to any surgical intervention to decrease the risk for complications. PMID:24670010

  13. Mapping nonlinear receptive field structure in primate retina at single cone resolution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peter H; Greschner, Martin; Gunning, Deborah E; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Paninski, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The function of a neural circuit is shaped by the computations performed by its interneurons, which in many cases are not easily accessible to experimental investigation. Here, we elucidate the transformation of visual signals flowing from the input to the output of the primate retina, using a combination of large-scale multi-electrode recordings from an identified ganglion cell type, visual stimulation targeted at individual cone photoreceptors, and a hierarchical computational model. The results reveal nonlinear subunits in the circuity of OFF midget ganglion cells, which subserve high-resolution vision. The model explains light responses to a variety of stimuli more accurately than a linear model, including stimuli targeted to cones within and across subunits. The recovered model components are consistent with known anatomical organization of midget bipolar interneurons. These results reveal the spatial structure of linear and nonlinear encoding, at the resolution of single cells and at the scale of complete circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05241.001 PMID:26517879

  14. Scattering-compensated cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Rong, Junyan; Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Wenlei; Liao, Qimei; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) opens new possibilities to perform molecular imaging with x-ray. It is a dual modality imaging technique based on the principle that some nanophosphors can emit near-infrared (NIR) light when excited by x-rays. The x-ray scattering effect is a great issue in both CT and XLCT reconstruction. It has been shown that if the scattering effect compensated, the reconstruction average relative error can be reduced from 40% to 12% in the in the pencil beam XLCT. However, the scattering effect in the cone beam XLCT has not been proved. To verify and reduce the scattering effect, we proposed scattering-compensated cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography using an added leading to prevent the spare x-ray outside the irradiated phantom in order to decrease the scattering effect. Phantom experiments of two tubes filled with Y2O3:Eu3+ indicated that the proposed method could reduce the scattering by a degree of 30% and can reduce the location error from 1.8mm to 1.2mm. Hence, the proposed method was feasible to the general case and actual experiments and it is easy to implement.

  15. Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The KM3NeT Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Detection of high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources will open a new window on the Universe. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter containing the telescope. A novel multi-PMT digital optical module (DOM) was developed to contain 31 3-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to maximize the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone which collects photons that would otherwise miss the photocathode. Results for various angles of incidence with respect to the PMT surface indicate an increase in collection efficiency by 30% on average for angles up to 45° with respect to the perpendicular. Ray-tracing calculations could reproduce the measurements, allowing to estimate an increase in the overall photocathode sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, by 27% (for a single PMT). Prototype DOMs, being built by the KM3NeT consortium, will be equipped with these expansion cones.

  16. Neuroendocrine effects of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Russel J.

    1991-09-01

    The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

  17. Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.

    PubMed

    Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S

    2012-08-01

    We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit. PMID:23005852

  18. Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.

    PubMed

    Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S

    2012-08-01

    We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit.

  19. Does the Dirac Cone Exist in Silicene on Metal Substrates?

    PubMed Central

    Quhe, Ruge; Yuan, Yakun; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Shi, Junjie; Yu, Dapeng; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the Dirac cone due to a strong band hybridization is revealed to be a common feature for epitaxial silicene on metal substrates according to our first-principles calculations for silicene on Ir, Cu, Mg, Au, Pt, Al, and Ag substrates. The destroyed Dirac cone of silicene, however, can be effectively restored with linear or parabolic dispersion by intercalating alkali metal atoms between silicene and the metal substrates, offering an opportunity to study the intriguing properties of silicene without further transfer of silicene from the metal substrates. PMID:24969493

  20. Comparison of cone directionality determined by psychophysical and reflectometric techniques

    PubMed Central

    He, J.C.; Marcos, S; Burns, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    We measured the directionality of the cones using both a psychophysical (Stiles-Crawford I) technique and an optical technique. Both sets of measurements were made in the same subjects using as similar stimuli as possible. Both types of measurements gave similar estimates of the location in the pupil towards which the cones were optimally aligned. However, the two measurements gave very dissimilar estimates of the width of the directional sensitivity. On average optical measurements were half as broad as psychophysical measurements in the fovea, but there were substantial individual differences. At 2 deg retinal eccentricty the difference between techniques was even more marked. PMID:10517020

  1. Configuration of singular optical cones in gyrotropic crystals with dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Merkulov, V. S.

    2015-02-15

    Optical conic singularities in crystals with linear dichroism and natural optical activity at the point of intersection of dispersion curves for the main refractive indices are considered. The possible existence of singularities like a nodal point, tangency point, triple point, and cusps of the first and second order is demonstrated. Forty-nine different types of irreducible fourth-order optical cones obtained by sequential bifurcations of eight main singular cones are established. The classification is based on the concept of roughness of systems depending on parameters.

  2. Cone snail venomics: from novel biology to novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, Jutty Rajan; Brust, Andreas; Jin, Ai-Hua; Alewood, Paul F; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Peptide neurotoxins from cone snails called conotoxins are renowned for their therapeutic potential to treat pain and several neurodegenerative diseases. Inefficient assay-guided discovery methods have been replaced by high-throughput bioassays integrated with advanced MS and next-generation sequencing, ushering in the era of 'venomics'. In this review, we focus on the impact of venomics on the understanding of cone snail biology as well as the application of venomics to accelerate the discovery of new conotoxins. We also discuss the continued importance of medicinal chemistry approaches to optimize conotoxins for clinical use, with a descriptive case study of MrIA featured.

  3. Does the Dirac cone exist in silicene on metal substrates?

    PubMed

    Quhe, Ruge; Yuan, Yakun; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Shi, Junjie; Yu, Dapeng; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2014-06-27

    Absence of the Dirac cone due to a strong band hybridization is revealed to be a common feature for epitaxial silicene on metal substrates according to our first-principles calculations for silicene on Ir, Cu, Mg, Au, Pt, Al, and Ag substrates. The destroyed Dirac cone of silicene, however, can be effectively restored with linear or parabolic dispersion by intercalating alkali metal atoms between silicene and the metal substrates, offering an opportunity to study the intriguing properties of silicene without further transfer of silicene from the metal substrates.

  4. The Pupillary Light Reflex in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jason C.; Moss, Heather E.; McAnany, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) on rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated pupillary light reflexes (PLRs). Methods Pupillary light reflexes elicited by full-field, brief-flash stimuli were recorded in 13 IIH patients and 13 normal controls. Subjects were dark-adapted for 10 minutes and the PLR was recorded in response to short-wavelength flashes (0.001 cd/m2: rod condition; 450 cd/m2: melanopsin condition). Subjects were then exposed to a rod-suppressing field and 10 cd/m2 long-wavelength flashes were presented (cone condition). Pupillary light reflexes were quantified as the maximum transient constriction (rod and cone conditions) and the post-illumination pupil constriction (melanopsin condition), relative to the baseline pupil size. Diagnostic power was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The IIH patients had significantly smaller PLRs under the melanopsin (P < 0.001) and rod (P = 0.04) paradigms; a trend for reduced cone-mediated PLRs was also found (P = 0.08). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated areas under the curves (AUC) of 0.83 (melanopsin-meditated; P = 0.001), 0.71 (rod-mediated; P = 0.07), and 0.77 (cone-mediated; P = 0.02). The AUC (0.90, P < 0.001), sensitivity (85%), and specificity (85%) were high for ROC analysis performed on the mean of the rod, cone, and melanopsin PLRs. Conclusions Pupillary light reflex reductions in IIH patients indicate compromised RGC function. PLR measurement, particularly under rod- and melanopsin-mediated conditions, may be a useful adjunct to standard clinical measures of visual function in IIH. PMID:26746015

  5. Die Fledermaus: Regarding Optokinetic Contrast Sensitivity and Light-Adaptation, Chicks Are Mice with Wings

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qing; Stell, William K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Through adaptation, animals can function visually under an extremely broad range of light intensities. Light adaptation starts in the retina, through shifts in photoreceptor sensitivity and kinetics plus modulation of visual processing in retinal circuits. Although considerable research has been conducted on retinal adaptation in nocturnal species with rod-dominated retinas, such as the mouse, little is known about how cone-dominated avian retinas adapt to changes in mean light intensity. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the optokinetic response to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS) in the chick retina as a function of spatial frequency and temporal frequency at different mean light intensities. We found that: 1) daytime, cone-driven CS was tuned to spatial frequency; 2) nighttime, presumably rod-driven CS was tuned to temporal frequency and spatial frequency; 3) daytime, presumably cone-driven CS at threshold intensity was invariant with temporal and spatial frequency; and 4) daytime photopic CS was invariant with clock time. Conclusion/Significance Light- and dark-adaptational changes in CS were investigated comprehensively for the first time in the cone-dominated retina of an avian, diurnal species. The chick retina, like the mouse retina, adapts by using a “day/night” or “cone/rod” switch in tuning preference during changes in lighting conditions. The chick optokinetic response is an attractive model for noninvasive, behavioral studies of adaptation in retinal circuitry in health and disease. PMID:24098693

  6. Horizontal Cells of the Primate Retina: Cone Specificity Without Spectral Opponency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, Dennis M.; Lee, Barry B.; Stafford, Donna K.; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C.

    1996-02-01

    The chromatic dimensions of human color vision have a neural basis in the retina. Ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, exhibit spectral opponency; they are excited by some wavelengths and inhibited by others. The hypothesis that the opponent circuitry emerges from selective connections between horizontal cell interneurons and cone photoreceptors sensitive to long, middle, and short wavelengths (L-, M-, and S-cones) was tested by physiologically and anatomically characterizing cone connections of horizontal cell mosaics in macaque monkeys. H1 horizontal cells received input only from L- and M-cones, whereas H2 horizontal cells received a strong input from S-cones and a weaker input from L- and M-cones. All cone inputs were the same sign, and both horizontal cell types lacked opponency. Despite cone type selectivity, the horizontal cell cannot be the locus of an opponent transformation in primates, including humans.

  7. Filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization in Drosophila visual circuit development.

    PubMed

    Özel, Mehmet Neset; Langen, Marion; Hassan, Bassem A; Hiesinger, P Robin

    2015-10-29

    Filopodial dynamics are thought to control growth cone guidance, but the types and roles of growth cone dynamics underlying neural circuit assembly in a living brain are largely unknown. To address this issue, we have developed long-term, continuous, fast and high-resolution imaging of growth cone dynamics from axon growth to synapse formation in cultured Drosophila brains. Using R7 photoreceptor neurons as a model we show that >90% of the growth cone filopodia exhibit fast, stochastic dynamics that persist despite ongoing stepwise layer formation. Correspondingly, R7 growth cones stabilize early and change their final position by passive dislocation. N-Cadherin controls both fast filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization. Surprisingly, loss of N-Cadherin causes no primary targeting defects, but destabilizes R7 growth cones to jump between correct and incorrect layers. Hence, growth cone dynamics can influence wiring specificity without a direct role in target recognition and implement simple rules during circuit assembly.

  8. Increased efficiency of short-pulse laser-generated proton beams from novel flat-top cone targets

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Albright, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Letzring, S.; Shimada, T.; Fernandez, J. C.; Hegelich, B. M.; D'Humieres, E.; Rassuchine, J.; Bakeman, M.; Renard-LeGalloudec, N.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E.; Gaillard, S. A.; Schollmeier, M.; Nuernberg, F.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.

    2008-05-15

    Ion-driven fast ignition (IFI) may have significant advantages over electron-driven FI due to the potentially large reduction in the amount of energy required for the ignition beam and the laser driver. Recent experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident facility employing novel Au flat-top cone targets have produced a fourfold increase in laser-energy to ion-energy efficiency, a 13-fold increase in the number of ions above 10 MeV, and a few times increase in the maximum ion energy compared to Au flat-foil targets. Compared to recently published scaling laws, these gains are even greater. If the efficiency scales with intensity in accordance to flat-foil scaling, then, with little modification, these targets can be used to generate the pulse of ions needed to ignite thermonuclear fusion in the fast ignitor scheme. A proton energy of at least 30 MeV was measured from the flat-top cone targets, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that the maximum cutoff energy may be as high as 40-45 MeV at modest intensity of 1x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} with 20 J in 600 fs. Simulations indicate that the observed energy and efficiency increase can be attributed to the cone target's ability to guide laser light into the neck to produce hot electrons and transport these electrons to the flat-top of the cone where they can be heated to much higher temperatures, creating a hotter, denser sheath. The PIC simulations also elucidate the critical parameters for obtaining superior proton acceleration such as the dependence on laser contrast/plasma prefill, as well as longitudinal and transverse laser pointing, and cone geometry. These novel cones have the potential to revolutionize inertial confinement fusion target design and fabrication via their ability to be mass produced. In addition, they could have an impact on the general physics community studying basic electron and radiation transport phenomena or as better sources of particle beams to study equations of state

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of the standard dynamics model in coning motion at Mach 0.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jermey, C.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted on the Standard Dynamics Model (a simplified generic fighter aircraft shape) undergoing coning motion at Mach 0.6. Six component force and moment data are presented for a range of angle of attack, sideslip, and coning rates. At the relatively low non-dimensional coning rate employed (omega b/2V less than or equal to 0.04), the lateral aerodynamic characteristics generally show a linear variation with coning rate.

  10. Variability in human cone topography assessed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianjiao; Godara, Pooja; Blanco, Ernesto R.; Griffin, Russell L; Wang, Xiaolin; Curcio, Christine A.; Zhang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess between- and within-individual variability of macular cone topography in the eyes of young adults. Design Observational case series. Methods Cone photoreceptors in 40 eyes of 20 subjects aged 19–29 years with normal maculae were imaged using a research adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Refractive errors ranged from −3.0 D to 0.63 D and differed by <0.50 D in fellow eyes. Cone density was assessed on a two-dimensional sampling grid over the central 2.4 mm × 2.4 mm. Between-individual variability was evaluated by coefficient of variation (CV). Within-individual variability was quantified by maximum difference and root-mean-square (RMS). Cones were cumulated over increasing eccentricity. Results Peak densities of foveal cones are 168,162 ± 23,529 cones/mm2 (mean ± SD) (CV = 0.14). The number of cones within the cone-dominated foveola (0.8–0.9 mm diameter) is 38,311 ± 2,319 (CV = 0.06). The RMS cone density difference between fellow eyes is 6.78%, and the maximum difference is 23.6%. Mixed model statistical analysis found no difference in the association between eccentricity and cone density in the superior/nasal (p=0.8503), superior/temporal (p=0.1551), inferior/nasal (p=0.8609), and inferior/temporal (p=0.6662) quadrants of fellow eyes. Conclusions New instrumentation imaged the smallest foveal cones, thus allowing accurate assignment of foveal centers and assessment of variability in macular cone density in a large sample of eyes. Though cone densities vary significantly in the fovea, the total number of foveolar cones are very similar both between- and within-subjects. Thus, the total number of foveolar cones may be an important measure of cone degeneration and loss. PMID:25935100

  11. Changes of cone electroretinograms to colour flash stimuli after successful retinal detachment surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, M; Yamamoto, S

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine the changes in the short wavelength (S) and mixed long (L) and middle (M) wavelength sensitive cone (L,M-cone) electroretinograms (ERGs) after successful retinal detachment surgery.
METHODS—Cone ERGs elicited by different colour flashes were recorded from 19 eyes with unilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated successfully by conventional buckling surgery. Ganzfeld colour flashes on a bright white background were used to elicit S-cone and L,M-cone ERGs. The ratio (operated eye/fellow eye) of the S-cone b-wave elicited by a 450 nm stimulus and the ratio (operated eye/fellow eye) of the L,M-cone b-wave elicited by a 633 nm stimulus were evaluated preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery.
RESULTS—Preoperatively, no significant difference was observed between the ratio of the S-cone ERG amplitudes and the ratio of the L,M-cone ERG amplitudes. Postoperatively, the ratio of the L,M-cone ERGs increased significantly over the preoperative value (p=0.001) but the ratio of the S-cone ERG did not improve. There were significant differences between the ratios of the S-cone and the L,M-cone ERGs at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The postoperative recovery of the S-cone ERG was significantly greater in eyes treated within 4 weeks after the onset of the detachment than in eyes treated later than 4 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that the impairment of the L,M-cone system caused by retinal detachment may be reversible. However, the S-cone system may have more profound permanent damage.

 PMID:11264128

  12. Characterization of Zebrafish Green Cone Photoresponse Recorded with Pressure-Polished Patch Pipettes, Yielding Efficient Intracellular Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Marco; Benedusi, Mascia; Fasoli, Anna; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The phototransduction enzymatic cascade in cones is less understood than in rods, and the zebrafish is an ideal model with which to investigate vertebrate and human vision. Therefore, here, for the first time, the zebrafish green cone photoresponse is characterized also to obtain a firm basis for evaluating how it is modulated by exogenous molecules. To this aim, a powerful method was developed to obtain long-lasting recordings with low access resistance, employing pressure-polished patch pipettes. This method also enabled fast, efficient delivery of molecules via a perfusion system coupled with pulled quartz or plastic perfusion tubes, inserted very close to the enlarged pipette tip. Sub-saturating flashes elicited responses in different cells with similar rising phase kinetics but with very different recovery kinetics, suggesting the existence of physiologically distinct cones having different Ca2+ dynamics. Theoretical considerations demonstrate that the different recovery kinetics can be modelled by simulating changes in the Ca2+-buffering capacity of the outer segment. Importantly, the Ca2+-buffer action preserves the fast response rising phase, when the Ca2+-dependent negative feedback is activated by the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+. PMID:26513584

  13. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: Evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoe, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  14. Characterization of Zebrafish Green Cone Photoresponse Recorded with Pressure-Polished Patch Pipettes, Yielding Efficient Intracellular Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Aquila, Marco; Benedusi, Mascia; Fasoli, Anna; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The phototransduction enzymatic cascade in cones is less understood than in rods, and the zebrafish is an ideal model with which to investigate vertebrate and human vision. Therefore, here, for the first time, the zebrafish green cone photoresponse is characterized also to obtain a firm basis for evaluating how it is modulated by exogenous molecules. To this aim, a powerful method was developed to obtain long-lasting recordings with low access resistance, employing pressure-polished patch pipettes. This method also enabled fast, efficient delivery of molecules via a perfusion system coupled with pulled quartz or plastic perfusion tubes, inserted very close to the enlarged pipette tip. Sub-saturating flashes elicited responses in different cells with similar rising phase kinetics but with very different recovery kinetics, suggesting the existence of physiologically distinct cones having different Ca2+ dynamics. Theoretical considerations demonstrate that the different recovery kinetics can be modelled by simulating changes in the Ca2+-buffering capacity of the outer segment. Importantly, the Ca2+-buffer action preserves the fast response rising phase, when the Ca2+-dependent negative feedback is activated by the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+. PMID:26513584

  15. Mach cone shocks in a two-dimensional Yukawa solid using a complex plasma

    PubMed

    Samsonov; Goree; Thomas; Morfill

    2000-05-01

    Mach cones were studied experimentally in a two-dimensional Yukawa solid consisting of charged micrometer particles suspended as a layer in a plasma. These cones were V-shaped shocks produced spontaneously by a supersonic particle moving below the main two-dimensional particle layer. The cones had a double structure. The first cone was compressional and particles moved forward, and it was followed by a second cone, which was rarefactional, where particles moved backward. Over the limited range of speed V attained by the supersonic particles in this experiment, the angle mu of the cone was found to obey the Mach cone rule sin mu = c/V, where c is the medium's sound speed. The cones caused only elastic deformations in the crystal lattice, except in a narrow track behind the cone's vertex. The wings of the cones can be analyzed as linear shocks in two dimensions. Using spatially resolved measurements of the particle number density and velocity and applying the Hugoniot relations for shocks in two dimensions, we found that the pressure inside the first Mach cone was greater than in the undisturbed medium by a factor of 1.3-1.6. The cone angle was also used to measure the charge in this experiment. PMID:11031610

  16. Rootless Cone? Pingo? or Mud Volcano? in Central Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, R.; Kurita, K.

    2011-03-01

    It is possible that Mars has experienced recent (~100 Ma) magmatism. In central Elysium Planitia, the identification of cone-like landforms are discussed: rootless cones, pingos, or mud volcanos. From their morphology, the landforms are thought to be rootless cones.

  17. The eddy-eliminating method of guide cone in the closed sump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Cheng, L.; Xia, C. Z.; Zhou, J. R.; Yan, H. Q.; Jiang, H. Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the effect on eddy-eliminating method of guide cone in the closed sump, the simple factor analysis and CFD numerical simulation are applied to calculate the flow field of closed sump and select ω-shaped back wall. ω-shaped back wall is consistent with the stream line in the suction sump, on this basis, CFD numerical simulation is conducted with the eddy-eliminating of the triangle guide cone and traditional guide cone. The results show that, for eddy-eliminating measures, with the height of triangular guide cone from 0 to 0.407HZ/DL , the excessive triangle guide cone hinder water into the flared pipe. With the width of triangular guide cone from 0.5 to 1.0BZ/DL , increasing width of triangular guide cone may increase the pumping hydraulic performance and pumping efficiency. However with the width of triangular guide cone from 0.5 to 1.0 BZ/DL , too broad traditional guide cone hinder water into the flared pipe. In the design discharge, whether triangle guide cone or traditional guide cone have a little effect on the efficiency of the pumping station. But in terms of the eddy-eliminating on the bottom of suction sump, it is necessary to set up guide cone.

  18. Apparatus and process for an off-surface cone penetrometer sensor

    DOEpatents

    Smail, Timothy R.; French, Phillip J.; Huffman, Russell K.

    2003-04-29

    A cone penetrometer is provided having a pivoting arm which deploys a variable distance from the surface of the cone penetrometer. Sensors placed on the end of the deployable arm provide for data collection outside a compression zone created by the insertion of the cone penetrometer.

  19. Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Yu; Chung, Wen Sung; Yan, Hong Young; Tzeng, Chyng Shyan

    2008-07-01

    Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species were cloned and sequenced, lambda(max) of cone photoreceptors and the reflectance spectra of their body coloration were measured to test the hypothesis. The 14-nm spectral shift between green-light-sensitive photoreceptors of these two cyprinids is found to correlate well with differences in their reflective spectra. The spectral shift could result from differential expression of opsin genes and the interactive effects of the amino acid replacements in various minor sites. These results support our hypothesis that nuptial coloration is tied to color perception ability and opsin genes.

  20. Neuronal growth cones respond to laser-induced axonal damage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Shi, Linda Z.; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Miotke, Jill; Meyer, Ronald L.; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that damage to neurons results in release of substances that inhibit axonal growth, release of chemical signals from damaged axons that attract axon growth cones has not been observed. In this study, a 532 nm 12 ns laser was focused to a diffraction-limited spot to produce site-specific damage to single goldfish axons in vitro. The axons underwent a localized decrease in thickness (‘thinning’) within seconds. Analysis by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy indicated that there was no gross rupture of the cell membrane. Mitochondrial transport along the axonal cytoskeleton immediately stopped at the damage site, but recovered over several minutes. Within seconds of damage nearby growth cones extended filopodia towards the injury and were often observed to contact the damaged site. Turning of the growth cone towards the injured axon also was observed. Repair of the laser-induced damage was evidenced by recovery of the axon thickness as well as restoration of mitochondrial movement. We describe a new process of growth cone response to damaged axons. This has been possible through the interface of optics (laser subcellular surgery), fluorescence and electron microscopy, and a goldfish retinal ganglion cell culture model. PMID:21831892

  1. S-cones in thin shells under indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Ajdari, Amin; Lazarus, Arnaud; Vaziri, Ashkan; Reis, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    We perform a hybrid experimental and numerical investigation of the localization of deformation in indented thin spherical elastic shells. Past the initial linear response, an inverted cap develops as a Pogorelov circular ridge. For further indentation, this ridge looses axis-symmetry and sharp points of localized curvature form. We refer to these localized objects as s-cones (for shell-cones), in contrast with their developable cousins in plates (d-cones). We quantify the effect of systematically varying the indenter's radius of curvature (from point to plate load) on the formation and evolution of s-cones. In our precision desktop-scale experiments we use rapid prototyped elastomeric shells and rigid indenters of various shape. The mechanical response is measured through load-displacement compression tests and the deformation process is further characterized through digital imaging. In parallel, the experimental results are contrasted against nonlinear Finite Element simulations. Merging these two complementary approaches allows us to gain further physical insight towards rationalizing this geometrically nonlinear process.

  2. Cardiac cone-beam CT volume reconstruction using ART

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, T.; Manzke, R.; Proksa, R.; Grass, M.

    2005-04-01

    Modern computed tomography systems allow volume imaging of the heart. Up to now, approximately two-dimensional (2D) and 3D algorithms based on filtered backprojection are used for the reconstruction. These algorithms become more sensitive to artifacts when the cone angle of the x-ray beam increases as it is the current trend of computed tomography (CT) technology. In this paper, we investigate the potential of iterative reconstruction based on the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for helical cardiac cone-beam CT. Iterative reconstruction has the advantages that it takes the cone angle into account exactly and that it can be combined with retrospective cardiac gating fairly easily. We introduce a modified ART algorithm for cardiac CT reconstruction. We apply it to clinical cardiac data from a 16-slice CT scanner and compare the images to those obtained with a current analytical reconstruction method. In a second part, we investigate the potential of iterative reconstruction for a large area detector with 256 slices. For the clinical cases, iterative reconstruction produces excellent images of diagnostic quality. For the large area detector, iterative reconstruction produces images superior to analytical reconstruction in terms of cone-beam artifacts.

  3. Long-term results of the Wagner cone prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schraml, Annemarie; Hohenberger, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    The Wagner cone prosthesis is indicated in uncemented total hip replacement of cases with cylinder-shaped femurs, deformed femurs, femurs with increased antetorsion, and in conditions of intramedullary bony scar tissue after previous osteotomies. The objective of this study is to present long-term results. From January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995, 132 implantations were made with the Wagner cone prosthesis. We report the clinical and radiographic results of 94 cone prostheses with a mean observation period of 11.5 years. The Merle d’Aubigné score improved from a preoperative mean value of 8.8 to a postoperative mean of 16.3. The radiographic evaluation revealed 32 cases with cortical hypertrophy, 73 cases with atrophy of the proximal femur, and 18 cases with complete pedestal formation. Radiolucencies over Gruen zones 1 and 7 occurred in 42 cases; only zone 1 was affected in 24 cases. Complications included three deep infections, three acetabular revisions, five total joint revisions, one recurrent luxation, and three heterotopic ossifications. In spite of the fact that the examined cohort often included patients who had undergone multiple previous operations (a maximum of six) of the proximal femur or the acetabulum, the long-term results of the Wagner cone prostheses were very promising. PMID:17932669

  4. Growth Cone Biomechanics in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Jeffrey; Koch, Daniel; Rosoff, Will; Geller, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    The growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of an axon, integrates information about the local environment and modulates outgrowth and guidance, but little is known about effects of external mechanical cues and internal mechanical forces on growth-cone mediated guidance. We have investigated neurite outgrowth, traction forces and cytoskeletal substrate coupling on soft elastic substrates for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (from the peripheral nervous system) and hippocampal neurons (from the central) to see how the mechanics of the microenvironment affect different populations. We find that the biomechanics of DRG neurons are dramatically different from hippocampal, with DRG neurons displaying relatively large, steady traction forces and maximal outgrowth and forces on substrates of intermediate stiffness, while hippocampal neurons display weak, intermittent forces and limited dependence of outgrowth and forces on substrate stiffness. DRG growth cones have slower rates of retrograde actin flow and higher density of localized paxillin (a protein associated with substrate adhesion complexes) compared to hippocampal neurons, suggesting that the difference in force generation is due to stronger adhesions and therefore stronger substrate coupling in DRG growth cones.

  5. 95. VIEW OF ZINC FEEDER FROM SOUTHEAST. NOTE FEEDER CONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. VIEW OF ZINC FEEDER FROM SOUTHEAST. NOTE FEEDER CONE AND PIPING FROM VACUUM RECEIVER ON LEFT. PRECIPITATE PUMP MOTOR MOUNT VISIBLE BELOW FEEDER STAIRS, PUMP AND MOTOR MISSING. SUMPS ARE LOCATED UNDER THIS FLOOR, WITH ACCESS TO HATCH TO THE RIGHT OF FEEDER STAIR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  7. 63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust scrubber at building 202, June 18, 1955. NASA GRC drawing no. CD-101266. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Dirac cones in the spectrum of bond-decorated graphenes

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Heuvel, Willem Soncini, Alessandro

    2014-06-21

    We present a two-band model based on periodic Hückel theory, which is capable of predicting the existence and position of Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone of an infinite class of two-dimensional periodic carbon networks, obtained by systematic perturbation of the graphene connectivity by bond decoration, that is by inclusion of arbitrary π-electron Hückel networks into each of the three carbon–carbon π-bonds within the graphene unit cell. The bond decoration process can fundamentally modify the graphene unit cell and honeycomb connectivity, representing a simple and general way to describe many cases of graphene chemical functionalization of experimental interest, such as graphyne, janusgraphenes, and chlorographenes. Exact mathematical conditions for the presence of Dirac cones in the spectrum of the resulting two-dimensional π-networks are formulated in terms of the spectral properties of the decorating graphs. Our method predicts the existence of Dirac cones in experimentally characterized janusgraphenes and chlorographenes, recently speculated on the basis of density functional theory calculations. For these cases, our approach provides a proof of the existence of Dirac cones, and can be carried out at the cost of a back of the envelope calculation, bypassing any diagonalization step, even within Hückel theory.

  9. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Euler Cone Aperture in a Special Euler-Poinsot Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Monica

    2008-09-01

    We try to give a personal explanation to the difference between Euler and Chandler periods in Earth's rotation. Continuing to analyze the Euler-Poinsot motion in a special case (gyroscope), we address the question: is the aperture of the Euler cone nonzero?

  11. Engineering task plan HTI [Hanford Tank Initiative] cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A.

    1998-03-19

    The Hanford Cone Penetrometer Platform (CPP) will be used to insert instrumented and soil sampling probes into the soil adjacent to Tank AX-104 to assist in characterizing the waste plume. The scope, deliverables, roles and responsibilities, safety, and environmental considerations are presented in the task plan.

  12. Variability and Reliabiltiy in Axon Growth Cone Navigation Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnelo, Marta; Ricoult, Sébastien G.; Juncker, David; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Faisal, Aldo A.

    2015-03-01

    The nervous system's wiring is a result of axon growth cones navigating through specific molecular environments during development. In order to reach their target, growth cones need to make decisions under uncertainty as they are faced with stochastic sensory information and probabilistic movements. The overall system therefore exhibits features of whole organisms (perception, decision making, action) in the subset of a single cell. We aim to characterise growth cone navigation in defined nano-dot guidance cue environments, by using the tools of computational neuroscience to conduct ``molecular psychophysics.'' We start with a generative model of growth cone behaviour and we 1. characterise sensory and internal sources of noise contributing to behavioural variables, by combining knowledge of the underlying stochastic dynamics in cue sensing and the growth of the cytoskeleton. This enables us to 2. produce bottom-up lower limit estimates of behavioural response reliability and visualise it as probability distributions over axon growth trajectories. Given this information we can match our in silico model's ``psychometric'' decision curves with empirical data. Finally we use a Monte-Carlo approach to predict response distributions of axon trajectories from our model.

  13. Model based scatter correction for cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Jens; Bertram, Matthias; Rose, Georg; Aach, Til

    2005-04-01

    Scattered radiation is a major source of image degradation and nonlinearity in flat detector based cone-beam CT. Due to the bigger irradiated volume the amount of scattered radiation in true cone-beam geometry is considerably higher than for fan beam CT. This on the one hand reduces the signal to noise ratio, since the additional scattered photons contribute only to the noise and not to the measured signal, and on the other hand cupping and streak artifacts arise in the reconstructed volume. Anti-scatter grids composed of lead lamellae and interspacing material decrease the SNR for flat detector based CB-CT geometry, because the beneficial scatter attenuating effect is overcompensated by the absorption of primary radiation. Additionally, due to the high amount of scatter that still remains behind the grid, cupping and streak artifacts cannot be reduced sufficiently. Computerized scatter correction schemes are therefore essential for achieving artifact-free reconstructed images in cone-beam CT. In this work, a fast model based scatter correction algorithm is proposed, aiming at accurately estimating the level and spatial distribution of scattered radiation background in each projection. This will allow for effectively reducing streak and cupping artifacts due to scattering in cone-beam CT applications.

  14. The two-step development of a duplex retina involves distinct events of cone and rod neurogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Valen, Ragnhild; Eilertsen, Mariann; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rønnestad, Ivar; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2016-08-15

    Unlike in mammals, persistent postembryonic retinal growth is a characteristic feature of fish, which includes major remodeling events that affect all cell types including photoreceptors. Consequently, visual capabilities change during development, where retinal sensitivity to different wavelengths of light (photopic vision), -and to limited photons (scotopic vision) are central capabilities for survival. Differently from well-established model fish, Atlantic cod has a prolonged larval stage where only cone photoreceptors are present. Rods do not appear until juvenile transition (metamorphosis), a hallmark of indirect developing species. Previously we showed that whole gene families of lws (red-sensitive) and sws1 (UV-sensitive) opsins have been lost in cod, while rh2a (green-sensitive) and sws2 (blue-sensitive) genes have tandem duplicated. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of a two-step developing duplex retina in Atlantic cod. The study focuses on cone subtype dynamics and delayed rod neurogenesis and differentiation in all cod life stages. Using transcriptomic and histological approaches we show that different opsins disappear in a topographic manner during development where central to peripheral retina is a key axis of expressional change. Early cone differentiation was initiated in dorso-temporal retina different from previously described in fish. Rods first appeared during initiation of metamorphosis and expression of the nuclear receptor transcription factor nr2e3-1, suggest involvement in rod specification. The indirect developmental strategy thus allows for separate studies of cones and rods development, which in nature correlates with visual changes linked to habitat shifts. The clustering of key retinal genes according to life stage, suggests that Atlantic cod with its sequenced genome may be an important resource for identification of underlying factors required for development and function of photopic and scotopic vision. PMID:27374844

  15. Alouatta trichromatic color vision: cone spectra and physiological responses studied with microspectrophotometry and single unit retinal electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Saito, Cézar A; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K; Lee, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10-20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression.

  16. Alouatta trichromatic color vision: cone spectra and physiological responses studied with microspectrophotometry and single unit retinal electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Saito, Cézar A; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K; Lee, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10-20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression. PMID:25405863

  17. Alouatta Trichromatic Color Vision: Cone Spectra and Physiological Responses Studied with Microspectrophotometry and Single Unit Retinal Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.; Saito, Cézar A.; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K.; Lee, Barry B.

    2014-01-01

    The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10–20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression. PMID:25405863

  18. The two-step development of a duplex retina involves distinct events of cone and rod neurogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Valen, Ragnhild; Eilertsen, Mariann; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rønnestad, Ivar; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2016-08-15

    Unlike in mammals, persistent postembryonic retinal growth is a characteristic feature of fish, which includes major remodeling events that affect all cell types including photoreceptors. Consequently, visual capabilities change during development, where retinal sensitivity to different wavelengths of light (photopic vision), -and to limited photons (scotopic vision) are central capabilities for survival. Differently from well-established model fish, Atlantic cod has a prolonged larval stage where only cone photoreceptors are present. Rods do not appear until juvenile transition (metamorphosis), a hallmark of indirect developing species. Previously we showed that whole gene families of lws (red-sensitive) and sws1 (UV-sensitive) opsins have been lost in cod, while rh2a (green-sensitive) and sws2 (blue-sensitive) genes have tandem duplicated. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of a two-step developing duplex retina in Atlantic cod. The study focuses on cone subtype dynamics and delayed rod neurogenesis and differentiation in all cod life stages. Using transcriptomic and histological approaches we show that different opsins disappear in a topographic manner during development where central to peripheral retina is a key axis of expressional change. Early cone differentiation was initiated in dorso-temporal retina different from previously described in fish. Rods first appeared during initiation of metamorphosis and expression of the nuclear receptor transcription factor nr2e3-1, suggest involvement in rod specification. The indirect developmental strategy thus allows for separate studies of cones and rods development, which in nature correlates with visual changes linked to habitat shifts. The clustering of key retinal genes according to life stage, suggests that Atlantic cod with its sequenced genome may be an important resource for identification of underlying factors required for development and function of photopic and scotopic vision.

  19. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities

    PubMed Central

    Altimus, C.M.; Güler, A.D.; Alam, N.M.; Arman, A.C.; Prusky, G.T.; Sampath, A.P.; Hattar, S

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not well understood. We demonstrate in genetic mouse models lacking functional rods, or where rods are the only functional photoreceptors, that rods are solely responsible for photoentrainment at scotopic light intensities. Surprisingly, rods were also capable of driving circadian photoentrainment at photopic intensities where they were incapable of supporting a visually–guided behavior. Using animals in which cone photoreceptors were ablated, we demonstrate that rods signal through cones at high light intensities, but not low light intensities. Thus two distinct retinal circuits drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. PMID:20711184

  20. Possible Involvement of Cone Opsins in Distinct Photoresponses of Intrinsically Photosensitive Dermal Chromatophores in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shyh-Chi; Robertson, R. Meldrum; Hawryshyn, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    Dermal specialized pigment cells (chromatophores) are thought to be one type of extraretinal photoreceptors responsible for a wide variety of sensory tasks, including adjusting body coloration. Unlike the well-studied image-forming function in retinal photoreceptors, direct evidence characterizing the mechanism of chromatophore photoresponses is less understood, particularly at the molecular and cellular levels. In the present study, cone opsin expression was detected in tilapia caudal fin where photosensitive chromatophores exist. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed co-existence of different cone opsins within melanophores and erythrophores. By stimulating cells with six wavelengths ranging from 380 to 580 nm, we found melanophores and erythrophores showed distinct photoresponses. After exposed to light, regardless of wavelength presentation, melanophores dispersed and maintained cell shape in an expansion stage by shuttling pigment granules. Conversely, erythrophores aggregated or dispersed pigment granules when exposed to short- or middle/long-wavelength light, respectively. These results suggest that diverse molecular mechanisms and light-detecting strategies may be employed by different types of tilapia chromatophores, which are instrumental in pigment pattern formation. PMID:23940562