Science.gov

Sample records for light pollution levels

  1. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  2. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  3. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552

  4. Building Twilight "Light Sensors" to Study the Effects of Light Pollution on Fireflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thancharoen, Anchana; Branham, Marc A.; Lloyd, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Light pollution negatively affects many nocturnal organisms. We outline two experiments that can be conducted by students to examine the effects of light pollution on firefly behavior. Inexpensive electronic light sensors, which are easy to construct and calibrate, are used to sample light levels along transects in spaces where fireflies are…

  5. Light and noise pollution interact to disrupt interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R; Bernal, Ximena E

    2017-05-01

    Studies on the consequences of urbanization often examine the effects of light, noise, and heat pollution independently on isolated species providing a limited understanding of how these combined stressors affect species interactions. Here, we investigate how these factors interact to affect parasitic frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.) and their túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus) hosts. A survey of túngara frog calling sites revealed that frog abundance was not significantly correlated with urbanization, light, noise, or temperature. In contrast, frog-biting midges were sensitive to light pollution and noise pollution. Increased light intensity significantly reduced midge abundance at low noise levels. At high noise intensity, there were no midges regardless of light level. Two field experiments controlling light and noise levels to examine attraction of the midges to their host and their feeding behavior confirmed the causality of these field patterns. These findings demonstrate that both light and noise pollution disrupt this host-parasite interaction and highlight the importance of considering interactions among species and types of pollutants to accurately assess the impacts of urbanization on ecological communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  7. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J

    2015-06-02

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution.

  8. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution. PMID:26035530

  9. Dark Skies Rangers - Fighting light pollution and simulating dark skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa; Correia, Nelson; Guerra, Rita; Costa, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Dark Skies Rangers is an awareness program aimed at students of all ages to stimulate them to make an audit of light pollution in their school/district. The young light pollution fighters evaluate the level of light pollution, how much energy is being wasted, and produce a report to be delivered to the local authorities. They are also advised to promote a light pollution awareness campaign to the local community targeting not only the dark skies but also other implications such as effects in our health, to the flora and fauna, etc.

  10. Visualization and Analysis of Light Pollution: a Case Study in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Wong, H.

    2012-07-01

    The effects of light pollution problems in metropolitan areas are investigated in this study. Areas of Hong Kong are used as the source of three typical study cases. One case represents the regional scale, a second represents the district scale, and a third represents the street scale. Two light pollution parameters, Night Sky Brightness (NSB) and Street Light Level (SLL), are the focus of the analyses. Light pollution visualization approaches in relation to the different scales include various light pollution maps. They provide straightforward presentations of the light pollution situations in the study areas. The relationship between light pollution and several social-economic factors such as land use, household income, and types of outdoor lighting in the scale areas given, are examined. Results show that: (1) Land use may be one factor affecting light pollution in the regional scale; (2) A relatively strong correlation exists between light pollution and household income in the district scale; (3) The heaviest light pollution in the street scale is created by spotlights and also the different types of lighting from shops. The impact of the latter is in relation to the shop profile and size.

  11. [LIGHT POLLUTION AS THE HYGIENIC PROBLEM].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Gerasev, V F; Deynego, V N

    2015-01-01

    Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept--to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development.

  12. Light Pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy.

    PubMed

    Riegel, K W

    1973-03-30

    There have been major qualitative and quantitative changes in outdoor lighting technology in the last decade. The level of skylight caused by outdoor lighting systems is growing at a very high rate, about 20 percent per year nationwide. In addition, the spectral distribution of man-made light pollution may change in the next decade from one containing a few mercury lines to one containing dozens of lines and a significantly increased continuum level. Light pollution is presently damaging to some astronomical programs, and it is likely to become a major factor limiting progress in the next decade. Suitable sites in the United States for new dark sky observing facilities are very difficult to find. Some of the increase in outdoor illumination is due to the character of national growth and development. Some is due to promotional campaigns, in which questionable arguments involving public safety are presented. There are protective measures which might be adopted by the government; these would significantly aid observational astronomy, without compromising the legitimate outdoor lighting needs of society. Observatories should establish programs to routinely monitor sky brightness as a function of position, wavelength, and time. The astronomical community should establish a mechanism by which such programs can be supported and coordinated.

  13. Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Haim, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this "residual light pollution", cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment

  14. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  15. Communicating awareness of light pollution with the schools in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Jayanta

    2015-08-01

    Nepal is also highly polluted by the lights and other dusts partials, but lacks the formal education of light pollutions and effect of light for astronomy observations. When we get Sky Quality Meter (SQM) last year (2014) we have installed it in Kathmandu.This paper will highlight about installation SQM in Nepal, measurement of brightness of the night sky in magnitudes per square arc second. Research work of light pollution of Kathmandu will be more in focus. Highlight of the Astronomy programs by different Schools in Nepal along with the background of coverage of Astronomy education in the syllables of different education level. The various procedure , technique and idea used in providing the space education through different activities and program to school studentsThe paper will also deal with the Importance of light and use of artificial light. Beside it will also highlight the possibility of development of various observatories in Nepal because of its tremendous topography increasing the Astro tourism in Nepal.Hence the paper would focus on the light pollution of the city like Kathmandu and light system in Nepal and Astronomy education to its implementation along with its outreach to Nepalese society.

  16. Landcover change and light pollution in Kota Bandarlampung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohman, Akmal F.; Hafidz, Muhammad; Hazairin, Azra Q.; Riadini, Fitri

    2016-10-01

    Excessive emission of light or light pollution at night is one of the elements of environmental pollution. Indirectly light pollution causes increase of fossil fuel use, greenhouse gasses and pollution in the atmosphere. Direct effects of light pollution including: disturbance of animals life, human's psychology and environmental degradation. Light pollution in an area is related with the existence of built-up area and the lack of vegetation as a manifestation of economic and population growth. This research aims to know the relation of land cover changes with light pollution in Bandar Lampung and surrounding with 40 km radius over the last ten years. This research used satellite imagery to obtained data and later does the verification and accuracy tests on the field. The variables used in this research include light pollution radiance value, percentages in the built-up area and vegetation density. Light pollution radiance value is obtained from DMSP-OLS Version 4 satellite images, while the changes of built up and vegetation density data obtained from NDBI dan NDVI from Landsat 8 satellite images. The research area is divided into a grid with a size of 30"×30" which is the same as spatial resolution of DMSP. From sample grids, regression analysis between the percentage of light pollution radiance value with the percentage of NDVI and NDBI index on each grids. The percentages of built up areas and vegetation has 58 % of fair correlation with light emission.

  17. Light Pollution: The Global View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    It is only since recent years that the importance of the effects of outdoor lighting on the night-time environment and on the physical and mental health of humans is recognized on a wider scale. The related issue of light pollution is a particularly complex one, with potential conflicts of interest between the utilities, environmentalists, astronomers, the lighting industry and various government departments. Energy politics are always a sensitive issue, and light pollution is no exception to this rule. The effects of light pollution on flora, fauna -including humans and their widely varying night-time activities- are often subtle and need extensive field studies to be quantified in a sensible manner. The present conference, initiated by Commission 50 of the International Astronomical Union, is an attempt to bring together the astronomical community, the lighting industry, end-users, the utilities, and public authorities for a discussion and an exchange of ideas and information that will create goodwill among these groups and will thus contribute to making the global efforts to reduce pollution more efficient and effective. Radio frequency pollution was also discussed in the context of radio astronomy and its efforts to create radio-quiet zones in collaboration with the government authorities that allocate frequency bands to the various users -mainly the telecommunications industry- and to protect the major planned and present radio observatories of the world. The 3-day conference was attended by more than 130 representatives from 12 countries of all the above-mentioned groups, and a wide range of topics was discussed. Some of the highlights were: The presentation of the 1st world atlas of artificial night sky brightness (Cinzano et al.); the article by the International Darksky Association on their world-wide efforts to curb light pollution (Alvarez del Castillo et al.); the laws controlling light pollution implemented in Spain (Diaz et al.) and Chile (Sanhueza et

  18. Rules and Laws against Light Pollution in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sora, Mario

    1999-08-01

    Campo Catino astronomical observatory is engaged in fighting light pollution for many years. In Italy, after many years of unjustified inactivity by astronomers and amateurs, a movement of opinion is born intending to resolve this problem definitely. All that through this themes spread at cultural and technical level and, above all, obtaining municipal and regional rules approval and national law. In this field the Campo Catino astronomical observatory distinguishes itself particularly because it has contributed to edit the Bill (No. 751) proposed to the Italian parliament by Senator Lino Diana, (in 1992 and subsequently in 1994 and 1996), it is entitled: "Urgent measures about the fight against light pollution and the induction of power consumption by using external lighting." and, because, Campo Catino observatory has elaborated a rule already approved by several municipalities in Frosinone province (but utilized as example by other Italian municipalities as Florence, Civitavecchia and Piacenza). It proposes to reduce, by five years after its approval, the artificial lights spread high-up and energy consumptions by using appropriate criteria and products. In this presentation the author explains juridical and technical aspects concerning the rules and laws created to fight light pollution in Italy.

  19. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  20. Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, C; Petrakis, M; Psiloglou, B; Lianou, M

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.

  1. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of ‘city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. PMID:27072407

  2. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Estimation of light source colours for light pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Ziou, D; Kerouh, F

    2018-05-01

    The concept of the smart city raised several technological and scientific issues including light pollution. There are various negative impacts of light pollution on economy, ecology, and heath. This paper deals with the census of the colour of light emitted by lamps used in a city environment. To this end, we derive a light bulb colour estimator based on Bayesian reasoning, directional data, and image formation model in which the usual concept of reflectance is not used. All choices we made are devoted to designing an algorithm which can be run almost in real-time. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.

  5. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions.

  6. Dawn song in natural and artificial continuous day: Light pollution affects songbirds at high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-10-01

    In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  7. Direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect.

    PubMed

    Grenis, Kylee; Murphy, Shannon M

    2018-02-09

    Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels. Our novel findings suggest that light pollution can alter plant-insect interactions and thus may have important community-wide consequences. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be

  9. Light pollution in Valencia: public awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Morales-Rubio, A.

    2015-05-01

    Light pollution is caused by the direct and indirect light emission into the atmosphere from artificial night sources. The most decisive effect is the increasing of the luminance of the sky preventing stargazing. The fundamental actor for solving the problem is public awareness. Therefore, in accordance with authorities of the Valencian natural parks, municipalities and high schools, we have held a series of explanatory talks to the general public on the problem of light pollution, not only about the loss of the night and its impact on Astronomy, but also about the waste of energy and its impact on nocturnal wildlife and human health. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the need to preserve dark skies, popular astronomical observations have been also performed. An informative brochure on the problem of light pollution, with real cases involving natural parks, Valencia and its metropolitan area, has been published.

  10. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  11. Assessment of Light Pollution Impact on Protected Areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; He, G.; Ni, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The Protected Areas (PAs) with natural, ecological and cultural value play important role in biological processes, biodiversity and ecosystem service. During the past years of rapid urban expansion in China, the spatial range and intensity of light pollution unprecedented increase. Historically, optical remote sensing and field survey data had been used to reveal that human activities impacted on PAs for individual areas and few papers documented the issue of light pollution impact on PAs at national scale. Here, time series night-time light satellite images of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) were selected to assess the light pollution impacted on PAs in China. The method we proposed can be effectively applied to assess the impact of light pollution on PAs and the percent of dark PAs decreased by 35.38 % from 1992 to 2012 at nationwide. The trend of light pollution of most PAs in stable, however, light pollution of the local area is increase significantly, especially in northern Xinjiang, Gansu, Xizang, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Shandong. Considering the current status of light pollution encroach into PAs, two strategies of appropriate buffer zone and wide measured for light pollution are also recommend.

  12. The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Hopkins, John

    2013-11-01

    The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution have been a longstanding source of concern, accentuated by realized and projected growth in electrical lighting. As human communities and lighting technologies develop, artificial light increasingly modifies natural light regimes by encroaching on dark refuges in space, in time, and across wavelengths. A wide variety of ecological implications of artificial light have been identified. However, the primary research to date is largely focused on the disruptive influence of nighttime light on higher vertebrates, and while comprehensive reviews have been compiled along taxonomic lines and within specific research domains, the subject is in need of synthesis within a common mechanistic framework. Here we propose such a framework that focuses on the cross-factoring of the ways in which artificial lighting alters natural light regimes (spatially, temporally, and spectrally), and the ways in which light influences biological systems, particularly the distinction between light as a resource and light as an information source. We review the evidence for each of the combinations of this cross-factoring. As artificial lighting alters natural patterns of light in space, time and across wavelengths, natural patterns of resource use and information flows may be disrupted, with downstream effects to the structure and function of ecosystems. This review highlights: (i) the potential influence of nighttime lighting at all levels of biological organisation (from cell to ecosystem); (ii) the significant impact that even low levels of nighttime light pollution can have; and (iii) the existence of major research gaps, particularly in terms of the impacts of light at population and ecosystem levels, identification of intensity thresholds, and the spatial extent of impacts in the vicinity of artificial lights. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Light pollution and protection of optical telescope sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Huisong; Cen, Xuefen

    2002-03-01

    There is now great investment in astronomy as a science in China and other countries. We are currently looking forward to the fruits of the astronomical instruments. Unfortunately the light pollution influences optical/infrared observations on the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio. Astronomy has been retreated to mountains, deserts and into space. The only way is human being aiming for good lighting environments and protecting the telescope sites. The Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, the International Dark-sky Association, the IAU Commission 21 (The Light of the Night Sky) and 50 (Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites) have done many efforts in this field to control light pollution. Some countries (Japan, Chile) or local (Tucson, USA; Canarias, Spain) governments have issued guidelines for light pollution to keep dark sky for observatories. These guidelines could be used as references in China. If we do not solve the question of light pollution, the merely a few acceptable observatories in China have to be retreated.

  14. Light Pollution | CTIO

    Science.gov Websites

    important product so far is Cinzano et al.'s 'First World Atlas of the Artificial Night-Sky Brightness reduction of a factor of two in artificial night-sky brightness will extend the current lifetime of any again reached. A pragmatic, more pessimistic estimate of 7%/annum growth in artificial light pollution

  15. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  16. Light Pollution in Québec: Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Yvan

    2005-08-01

    Quebecers are among the worst light polluters in the world, producing 2 to 3 times more light than Americans or Europeans. Nevertheless, there is hope of losing this infamous title in the near future. Recently, there was a large increase in awareness both from the public and policy makers and action is now taken to preserve the dark sky elsewhere in Quebec. A Dark-Sky Preserve is now being put in place around Mont Mégantic Observatory. With a radius of 50 km, it will be will be, once completed, one of the largest in North America. In addition, the city of Sherbrooke is putting in place its own dark-sky policy to complement the protection provide by the preserve. These efforts are expected to stop the growth of light pollution at Mont Mégantic, which has doubled in the last 25 years. Even the cities of Montréal and Québec are taking action against the light pollution. This is a good example of how a few dedicated persons can change perceptions and fight efficiently against light pollution.

  17. The effects of deterioration and technological levels on pollutant emission factors for gasoline light-duty trucks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyu; Fan, Juwang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bixin; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Jiaoyu; Wang, Jingling; Zhou, Chunyao; Chen, Xuan

    2017-07-01

    Vehicle deterioration and technological change influence emission factors (EFs). In this study, the impacts of vehicle deterioration and emission standards on EFs of regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], and nitrogen oxides [NO x ]) for gasoline light-duty trucks (LDTs) were investigated according to the inspection and maintenance (I/M) data using a chassis dynamometer method. Pollutant EFs for LDTs markedly varied with accumulated mileages and emission standards, and the trends of EFs are associated with accumulated mileages. In addition, the study also found that in most cases, the median EFs of CO, HC, and NO x are higher than those of basic EFs in the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model; therefore, the present study provides correction factors for the IVE model relative to the corresponding emission standards and mileages. Currently, vehicle emissions are great contributors to air pollution in cities, especially in developing countries. Emission factors play a key role in creating emission inventory and estimating emissions. Deterioration represented by vehicle age and accumulated mileage and changes of emission standards markedly influence emission factors. In addition, the results provide collection factors for implication in the IVE model in the region levels.

  18. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  19. Starry Campus: Reducing Light Pollution at Smith College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenon, Alexandria

    2017-01-01

    This is the start of a program to teach Smith College students about the dangers posed by light pollution and inspire them to help make Smith a better dark sky area. This will focus both on general astronomy education to catch their interest and speciic light pollution information as well. My advisor is creating an initiative for dark skies education and preservation on college campuses, with this as the pilot program. College students can help both on campus and off when they will be able to take what they learn to inform their decisions about lighting when they move out on their own. The ultimate goal is to convince Smith College to make the changes it needs to reduce its light pollution as well as to motivate its students to learn more about astronomy and light pollution. I am developing an education and outreach program using venues such as house teas, lectures, and meetings to teach other students, the staff, and faculty about the issue. I am also working with existing clubs and organizations on campus such as the Green Team, the landscape studies department, and the Center for the Environment, Ecological Design, and Sustainability. This will help to develop campus lighting standards. These lighting standards will be proposed to the college, as there are no current standards in place for lighting around campus.

  20. Bridges, Lights, and Hubris: Examples of Excessive Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R.

    2000-12-01

    Recently many new lighting projects have been planned, frequently for the purpose of bringing attention to a tower or bridge, with the intent of promoting it as a tourist attraction. Examples of this form of light pollution are illustrated here. Many proceed with plans to mount new floodlights pointed upward with most of the light shining directly up into the sky. At least three of the more excessive among them have been tabled or aborted upon objections by members of the International Dark-Sky Association and other environmental groups. Opposition to the most ill-conceived of these plans centers on waste of money and energy, excessive fatalities among migratory birds, damage to the aesthetic beauty and study of the night sky, and (near seacoasts) damage to the nesting and hatching of sea turtles. Constructive opposition to lighting excess and glare may include the substitution of tracer lights, such as the ones that adorn the great suspension bridges of New York and San Francisco. Tracer lights using full-cutoff shielding outline a structure much as lights on a Christmas tree delineate its shape, but floodlights in the mix render a washed-out effect similar to a Christmas tree in broad daylight. The AAS Committee on Light Pollution, Radio Interference, and Space Debris encourages a greater role for the Society in coordinating opposition to such projects, which is too often local and inexperienced.

  1. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  2. Light Pollution - An international perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, or International Commission on Illumination) is the international organization devoted to worldwide cooperation and the exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of light and lighting, colour and vision, photobiology and image technology. Its actions and recommendations affect lighting worldwide, and artifiical lighitng has a profound impact on ground-based astronomy. The CIE establishes Technical Committees to research speicific aspects of lighting. The CIE will hold its biannual meeting in October 2017 in South Korea. I will report on astronomy and light pollution related information from that meeting.

  3. Light Pollution a tool for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxa, M.; Niarchos, P.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of Light Pollution exists most everywhere, and is still growing rapidly. The maintenance of dark skies at a prime astronomical location but as well elsewhere depends very much on the awareness of the public, and particularly with key decision makers responsible for developments, including lighting engineers. It is necessary to continually promote awareness of light pollution and its effects. Thus the preservation of the astronomical environment is strongly connected and requires effective education. We will present the educational project that the newly formed Commission for the prevention of Light Pollution, of the Hellenic Astronomical Society will support based on innovating teaching of Astronomy. The framework of the project will be to collaborate through our National Pedagogical Institute with all possible school networks so to efficiently introduce the topic to schools and to relate it with our national curriculum. The help of Astronomers and Lighting Engineers through the respective Commission will facilitate and will provide the natural environment for this educational project. The duration will be two years, and through the project we expect the students-teachers to act as "reporters" for this serious problem.

  4. [Light pollution. A connection between ecology and health].

    PubMed

    Jedidi, H; Depierreux, F; Jedidi, Z; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Light pollution is defined as the abnormal and disturbing nocturnal presence of light, its adverse consequences on flora, fauna, and, ecosystems, and its suspected or proven effects on human health. Light pollution is a quite recent and increasing phenomenon within our society; it leads to a major environmental damage not only on wildlife, but also on human health (cancers, obesity, fatigue, depression...). The solutions to this problem are however simple, efficient and, de facto, inexpensive because they involve a substantial energy saving.

  5. Measurement of Light Pollution of Iranian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son Hosseini, S.; Nasiri, S.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of Light pollution became important mainly since 1960, by growth of urban development and using more artificial lights and lamps at the nighttimes. Optical telescopes share the same range of wavelengths as are used to provide illumination of roadways, buildings and automobiles. The light glow that emanates from man made pollution will scatter off the atmosphere and affects the images taken by the observatory instruments. A method of estimating the night sky brightness produced by a city of known population and distance is useful in site testing of the new observatories, as well as in studying the likely future deterioration of existing sites. Now with planning the Iranian National Observatory that will house a 2-meter telescope and on the way of the site selection project, studying the light pollution is propounded in Iran. Thus, we need a site with the least light pollution, beside other parameters, i.e. seeing, meteorological, geophysical and local parameters. The seeing parameter is being measured in our 4 preliminary selected sites at Qom, Kashan, Kerman and Birjand since 2 years ago using an out of focus Differential Image Motion Monitor. These sites are selected among 33 candidate sites by studying the meteorological data obtained from the local synoptic stations and the Meteosat. We use the Walker's law to estimate the Sky glow of these sites having the population and the distances of the nearby regions. The results are corrected by the methods introduced by Treanor and Berry using the atmospheric extinction coefficients. The data obtained using an 11 inch telescope with a ST7 CCD camera for above sites are consistent with the estimated values of the light pollution mentioned above.

  6. Is light pollution getting better or worse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Awareness of light pollution is spreading, but with changing lighting technologies, emissions are shifting to wavelengths our current measuring devices cannot assess well. Community involvement is essential to evaluate changes in sky brightness.

  7. Session 21.7 - Education Programs Promoting Light Pollution Awareness and IYL2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2016-10-01

    By proclaiming the IYL2015, the United Nations recognized the importance of light and light based technology in the lives of the citizens of the world and for the development of global society on many levels. Light and application of light science and technology are vital for existing and future advances in many scientific areas and culture. Light is a key element in astronomy: as astronomers, it is what we study and makes our science possible, but it is also what threatens our observations when it is set-off from the ground (light pollution). The UN-designated year 2015 represented a magnificent and unique opportunity for the global astronomical community to disseminate these messages and raise the awareness of the importance and preservation of dark skies for heritage and the natural environment. As such, the International Year of Light served as a launching pad for several projects during 2015. Two other projects with equally as impressive programs are highlighted and begin the narrative for this section on public education and outreach programs on light pollution issues and solutions.

  8. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. PMID:25780232

  9. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    PubMed

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  10. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina

    PubMed Central

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-01-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380–780 nm; (400–700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution. PMID:26541085

  11. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (–5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness. PMID:26337732

  12. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-09-04

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (-5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness.

  13. Studying the Light Pollution around Urban Observatories: Columbus State University’s WestRock Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Brendon Andrew; Johnson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light pollution plays an ever increasing role in the operations of observatories across the world. This is especially true in urban environments like Columbus, GA, where Columbus State University’s WestRock Observatory is located. Light pollution’s effects on an observatory include high background levels, which results in a lower signal to noise ratio. Overall, this will limit what the telescope can detect, and therefore limit the capabilities of the observatory as a whole.Light pollution has been mapped in Columbus before using VIIRS DNB composites. However, this approach did not provide the detailed resolution required to narrow down the problem areas around the vicinity of the observatory. The purpose of this study is to assess the current state of light pollution surrounding the WestRock observatory by measuring and mapping the brightness of the sky due to light pollution using light meters and geographic information system (GIS) software.Compared to VIIRS data this study allows for an improved spatial resolution and a direct measurement of the sky background. This assessment will enable future studies to compare their results to the baseline established here, ensuring that any changes to the way the outdoors are illuminated and their effects can be accurately measured, and counterbalanced.

  14. Restless roosts: Light pollution affects behavior, sleep, and physiology in a free-living songbird.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; de Jong, Maaike; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Matson, Kevin D; Haussmann, Mark F; Meerlo, Peter; Visser, Marcel E; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2017-11-01

    The natural nighttime environment is increasingly polluted by artificial light. Several studies have linked artificial light at night to negative impacts on human health. In free-living animals, light pollution is associated with changes in circadian, reproductive, and social behavior, but whether these animals also suffer from physiologic costs remains unknown. To fill this gap, we made use of a unique network of field sites which are either completely unlit (control), or are artificially illuminated with white, green, or red light. We monitored nighttime activity of adult great tits, Parus major, and related this activity to within-individual changes in physiologic indices. Because altered nighttime activity as a result of light pollution may affect health and well-being, we measured oxalic acid concentrations as a biomarker for sleep restriction, acute phase protein concentrations and malaria infection as indices of immune function, and telomere lengths as an overall measure of metabolic costs. Compared to other treatments, individuals roosting in the white light were much more active at night. In these individuals, oxalic acid decreased over the course of the study. We also found that individuals roosting in the white light treatment had a higher probability of malaria infection. Our results indicate that white light at night increases nighttime activity levels and sleep debt and affects disease dynamics in a free-living songbird. Our study offers the first evidence of detrimental effects of light pollution on the health of free-ranging wild animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental tests of light-pollution impacts on nocturnal insect courtship and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Firebaugh, Ariel; Haynes, Kyle J

    2016-12-01

    Though a number of effects of artificial light pollution on behavior and physiology have been described, there is little understanding of their consequences for the growth and distribution of populations. Here, we document impacts of light pollution on aspects of firefly population ecology and underlying mating behaviors. Many firefly species have a unique communication system whereby bioluminescent flashes are used in courtship displays to find and attract mates. We performed a series of manipulative field experiments in which we quantified the effects of adding artificial nighttime lighting on abundances and total flashing activity of fireflies, courtship behaviors and mating between tethered females and free-flying males, and dispersal distances of marked individuals. We show that light pollution reduces flashing activities in a dark-active firefly species (Photuris versicolor) by 69.69 % and courtship behavior and mating success in a twilight-active species (Photinus pyralis). Though courtship behavior and mating success of Photinus pyralis was reduced by light pollution, we found no effects of light pollution on male dispersal in this species. Our findings suggest that light pollution is likely to adversely impact firefly populations, and contribute to wider discussions about the ecological consequences of sensory pollution.

  16. Light pollution from the ground, the air and the space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Aubé, M.; Bará, S.; Gallego, J.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lombraña, D.; Nievas, M.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.

    2015-05-01

    The sky brightness is one of the things that most harms astronomical observation, near cities and on mountain observatories. Currently there are several initiatives to control light pollution, but the sky brightness measurements are usually local. To exercise adequate control of light pollution is necessary measurements of light pollution sources and their relation to the spatiotemporal variation of the sky brightness. We use various approaches: data taken ashore with photometers SQM and relate emissions and detected with VIIRS and DMSP satellites. We also use multispectral data taken from the International Space Station to distinguish different types of lamps that contribute to light pollution. Finally we used a spectrograph SAND for temporal analysis of the evolution of the contribution of the lights in the sky brightness of a big city like Madrid. Also we have performed a citizen science program to classify the night time images taken from the ISS (Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2014, A&G, 55, 4, 36).

  17. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-05-05

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Light-pollution measurement with the Wide-field all-sky image analyzing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure light pollution in the capital of Czech Republic, Prague. As a measuring instrument is used calibrated consumer level digital single reflex camera with IR cut filter, therefore, the paper reports results of measuring and monitoring of the light pollution in the wavelength range of 390 - 700 nm, which most affects visual range astronomy. Combining frames of different exposure times made with a digital camera coupled with fish-eye lens allow to create high dynamic range images, contain meaningful values, so such a system can provide absolute values of the sky brightness.

  19. Enhanced light absorptivity of black carbon with air pollution development in urban Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Su, H.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosols on air quality and climate are dependent on BC light absorptivity. However, the light absorptivity of ambient BC-containing particles remains conflicting. In this work, we investigated the evolution of BC light absorptivity with pollution development in urban Beijing, China. We found that the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of ambient BC-containing particles measured during the campaign increased with BC mass concentration, which can be attributed to more coating materials on BC surface with pollution development. A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurement showed that the coating thickness (CT) of BC-containing particles increased by 48% with PM1 and BC mass concentration increasing from 10 μg m-3 and 0.3 μg m-3 to 230 μg m-3 and 12 μg m-3. Based on Mie calculation, the CT increase could led to light absorption enhancement (Eab) of BC-containing particles increasing by 22%, consistent with the increase of measured MAC. The relationship between growth rate of BC light absorptivity (kEab) and that of PM1 or rBC concentration (kPM1 or krBC) showed that kEab ≈ 4.8% kPM1 or kEab ≈ 2.5% krBC. The analysis of effective emission intensity (EEI) for BC revealed that the enhancement of BC light absorptivity with increasing pollution levels was dominated by regional transport. During the pollution period, 63% of BC over Beijing originated from regional sources. The aging of these regional BC during atmospheric transport controlled the increase of coating materials for BC-containing particles observed in Beijing. As a result of enhanced light absorptivity with pollution development, BC forcing efficiency could increase by 20% during polluted period. Our work identified the importance of BC on radiative forcing under polluted environment, which is determined by not only the increase of BC mass concentration, but also the enhancement of BC forcing efficiency due to more coating materials.

  20. Losing the Dark: A Planetarium PSA about Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins; Walker, Constance

    2015-03-01

    Losing the Dark is a six-minute PSA video created for fulldome theaters by Loch Ness Productions, the International Dark Sky Association Education Committee headed by Dr. Constance Walker of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Dome3, Adler Planetarium, and Babak Tafreshi (The World at Night). It explains light pollution, its effects, and ways to implement ``wise lighting`` practices to mitigate light pollution. The show is also made in flat-screen HD format for classical planetariums, non-dome theaters, and for presentatons by IDA speakers.

  1. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  2. Light pollution offshore: Zenithal sky glow measurements in the mediterranean coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ges, Xavier; Bará, Salvador; García-Gil, Manuel; Zamorano, Jaime; Ribas, Salvador J.; Masana, Eduard

    2018-05-01

    Light pollution is a worldwide phenomenon whose consequences for the natural environment and the human health are being intensively studied nowadays. Most published studies address issues related to light pollution inland. Coastal waters, however, are spaces of high environmental interest, due to their biodiversity richness and their economical significance. The elevated population density in coastal regions is accompanied by correspondingly large emissions of artificial light at night, whose role as an environmental stressor is increasingly being recognized. Characterizing the light pollution levels in coastal waters is a necessary step for protecting these areas. At the same time, the marine surface environment provides a stage free from obstacles for measuring the dependence of the skyglow on the distance to the light polluting sources, and validating (or rejecting) atmospheric light propagation models. In this work we present a proof-of-concept of a gimbal measurement system that can be used for zenithal skyglow measurements on board both small boats and large vessels under actual navigation conditions. We report the results obtained in the summer of 2016 along two measurement routes in the Mediterranean waters offshore Barcelona, travelling 9 and 31.7 km away from the coast. The atmospheric conditions in both routes were different from the ones assumed for the calculation of recently published models of the anthropogenic sky brightness. They were closer in the first route, whose results approach better the theoretical predictions. The results obtained in the second route, conducted under a clearer atmosphere, showed systematic differences that can be traced back to two expected phenomena, which are a consequence of the smaller aerosol content: the reduction of the anthropogenic sky glow at short distances from the sources, and the slower decay rate of brightness with distance, which gives rise to a relative excess of brightness at large distances from the

  3. Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird.

    PubMed

    Dorado-Correa, Adriana M; Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution.

  4. Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lars A; Sullivan, S Mazeika P

    2013-09-01

    Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1-0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6-2.0 lux; high, 2.1-4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10-12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.

  5. Night of Darkness Campaign: Make Light Pollution Something Everybody Cares About

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pas, Friedel

    2015-03-01

    To battle light pollution issues, influence the market so that customers request only good lighting. An important factor in doing this is to convince decision makers that light pollution is something the whole society cares about. This article gives an overview of an existing campaign that does this and emphasizes some important factors to consider in your campaign.

  6. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights.

    PubMed

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-21

    Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.

  7. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined effects of night warming and light pollution on predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colleen R; Barton, Brandon T; Zhu, Likai; Radeloff, Volker C; Oliver, Kerry M; Harmon, Jason P; Ives, Anthony R

    2017-10-11

    Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual predator, warming and light had non-additive effects in which together they caused much lower aphid abundances. These results are particularly relevant for agriculture near urban areas that experience both light pollution and warming from urban heat islands. Because warming and light pollution can have non-additive effects, predicting their possible combined consequences over broad spatial scales requires knowing how they co-occur. We found that night-time temperature change since 1949 covaried positively with light pollution, which has the potential to increase their non-additive effects on pea aphid control by 70% in US alfalfa. Our results highlight the importance of non-additive effects of multiple environmental factors on species and food webs, especially when these factors co-occur. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Sea turtles, light pollution, and citizen science: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afford, Heather; Teel, Susan; Nicholas, Mark; Stanley, Thomas; White, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    such as entanglement in fishing gear and ingestion of marine debris, as well as possible changes in sex ratios due to increasing temperatures related to human-induced global warming. Locally, light pollution from residential, commercial, and industrial neighborhoods from nearby cities impacts the entirety of Gulf Islands, which spans 160 miles along the Gulf Coast, from Florida to Mississippi, and includes critical habitat for threatened and endangered sea turtles. Because light pollution has been hypothesized to negatively impact sea turtle nesting and hatchling survival, Gulf Islands undertook an effort to understand the relationship between light pollution and sea turtles and create unique educational and outreach opportunities by launching a citizen science program called Turtle Teens Helping in the Seashore (Turtle THIS). At the onset, the Turtle THIS program had two primary goals: quantify the association between light pollution and sea turtle nesting and hatching events using rigorous scientific methods; and initiate a citizen science volunteer program to provide youth with hands-on science and environmental stewardship roles, where they also gain employable skills and career opportunities. With multiple scientific hypotheses to consider, the development of a citizen science program became crucial. Such circumstances allowed Turtle THIS to grow a volunteer and intern program, quantify hypothesized light effects on sea turtles through developed methods, and begin to gather preliminary findings.

  10. Light Pollution at Mount Wilson: Effect of Lighting Technology Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstang, R. H.

    2000-05-01

    In an earlier paper (Bull. AAS. 30, 838, 1998; Mem. Soc. Astr. Italia, in press, 2000) I studied the effects of population growth and of smog on the historical growth of light pollution at Mount Wilson. I have now done some very crude calculations to evaluate the effect of changes in lighting technology - the most important change being from incandescent lamps to mercury vapor lamps to high pressure sodium lamps in street lighting. I am greatly indebted to George Eslinger, lately Director of the Bureau of Public Lighting of the City of Los Angeles, for information on the numbers and types of street lights in that City. The ratio of numbers of lamps of different kinds throughout the Los Angeles basin at any given date has been assumed to be the same as in the City. The contributions to the photon output in the B and V photometric bands have been estimated. The calculations show a rate of increase of the V brightness greater than that obtained if lighting changes are neglected. The B brightness shows a maximum during the period when mercury vapor street lighting predominated. I hope to refine my calculations when additional information becomes available.

  11. A new force in the battle against light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, R.

    2009-02-01

    A powerful new force in the ever-growing army of those concerned enough to publicly express their opposition to light pollution is Daniel Nixon. Thirty-year-old Daniel, of Wickford, Essex, studied Graphic Design at South East Essex College, Southend, and graduated with a BA (Hons). He is now busily forging a career as a freelance graphic designer. From early on, a special aspect of Dan's work has been what might be termed an "art attack" on light pollution, and in 2008 July he won the coveted Green Award for the best ecological project at the New Designers' Exhibition at the Business Design Centre in London.

  12. Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

    2006-06-01

    Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  13. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    PubMed

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  14. Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate

    PubMed Central

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes. PMID:24236115

  15. Light pollution generated by laser guide star at Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueca, Sergio; Fuensalida, Jesus J.

    2004-11-01

    A new generation of instrument using a launching laser is been developed to correct the atmospheric image blurring and to establish optical communication with space. Then, light pollution generated by laser will be a serious operational problem in next years. This laser could affect astronomical works of adjacent telescopes when the laser lay across the field of view of the observing telescope, this is a kind of light pollution. This could be avoided with an adequate operational politic to detect possible interference between the laser and the astronomical telescopes. In this paper is analysed the mathematical probability of a cross-event happen.

  16. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Students' Opinions on the Light Pollution Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özyürek, Cengiz; Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of computer-animated concept cartoons and outdoor science activities on creating awareness among seventh graders about light pollution. It also aims to identify the views of the students on the activities that were carried out. This study used one group pre-test/post-test experimental design…

  18. Light pollution is greatest within migration passage areas for nocturnally-migrating birds around the world.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-19

    Excessive or misdirected artificial light at night (ALAN) produces light pollution that influences several aspects of the biology and ecology of birds, including disruption of circadian rhythms and disorientation during flight. Many migrating birds traverse large expanses of land twice every year at night when ALAN illuminates the sky. Considering the extensive and increasing encroachment of light pollution around the world, we evaluated the association of the annual mean ALAN intensity over land within the geographic ranges of 298 nocturnally migrating bird species with five factors: phase of annual cycle, mean distance between breeding and non-breeding ranges, range size, global hemisphere of range, and IUCN category of conservation concern. Light pollution within geographic ranges was relatively greater during the migration season, for shorter-distance migrants, for species with smaller ranges, and for species in the western hemisphere. Our results suggest that migratory birds may be subject to the effects of light pollution particularly during migration, the most critical stage in their annual cycle. We hope these results will spur further research on how light pollution affects not only migrating birds, but also other highly mobile animals throughout their annual cycle.

  19. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  20. ``Losing the Dark:'' A Planetarium PSA about Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Productions, L. N.; Walker, D. C.

    2013-04-01

    Losing the Dark is a PSA video being created for fulldome theaters by Loch Ness Productions under the direction of the International Dark Sky Association Education Committee headed by Dr. Constance Walker of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. It explains the problems with light pollution, its effects on life, and three ways in which people can implement “wise lighting” practices to mitigate light pollution. The show is also being produced in a flat-screen HD format for use in classical planetarium and non-dome theaters, for presentations by IDA speakers when addressing planning boards, etc. and will be posted on the IDA and other web sites. The final length is six minutes for both versions. Funding has been provided by The International Planetarium Society and the International Dark-Sky Association.

  1. Light Pollution in Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum: Effect on Different Visual Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity. PMID:23441205

  2. Light pollution in ultraviolet and visible spectrum: effect on different visual perceptions.

    PubMed

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity.

  3. Light Pollution: A Primer for Astronomers to Engage in Teaching and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Most astronomers are familiar with the basic problem of light pollution but may not have explored how to teach their students about the problem or to inform officials in their community in order to help mitigate the problem. Indeed, many professional and amateur astronomers leave their light-polluted community to observe the sky from dark research observatories and rural star parties,, and then return to take no action to alleviate and reduce the light pollution in their own community. This is not a sustainable approach, and eventually this will lead to fewer sites to do their observations.In this presentation we give the basics of the problem and provide information on effective solutions. A link will be provided to download a sample PowerPoint, with Notes providing guidance to edit it to include images of both good and bad lighting in their own community. This can be shown to students as part of introductory astronomy and observational techniques courses, so the students might be able to help their with the problem in their own communities. Indeed this may satisfy curriculum requirements as a component of sustainable development. It may also be presented to local planning and permitting officials to develop at least a simple outdoor lighting ordinance.

  4. All-sky brightness monitoring of light pollution with astronomical methods.

    PubMed

    Rabaza, O; Galadí-Enríquez, D; Estrella, A Espín; Dols, F Aznar

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a mobile prototype and a protocol to measure light pollution based on astronomical methods. The prototype takes three all-sky images using BVR filters of the Johnson-Cousins astronomical photometric system. The stars are then identified in the images of the Hipparcos and General Catalogue of Photometric Data II astronomical catalogues, and are used as calibration sources. This method permits the measurement of night-sky brightness and facilitates an estimate of which fraction is due to the light up-scattered in the atmosphere by a wide variety of man-made sources. This is achieved by our software, which compares the sky background flux to that of many stars of known brightness. The reduced weight and dimensions of the prototype allow the user to make measurements from virtually any location. This prototype is capable of measuring the sky distribution of light pollution, and also provides an accurate estimate of the background flux at each photometric band. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The International Globe at Night Citizen-Science Campaign: Shedding Light on Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    For 8 years now, the Globe at Night campaign has invited citizen-scientists worldwide to measure and record the brightness of their night sky by hunting for the faintest stars in a particular constellation. Students for science projects and scientists for research use the data to monitor levels of brightness or 'light pollution' around the world. They also use the Globe at Night data to understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife and human health, as well as our ability to enjoy a starry night sky. The dates of the campaign for 2014 have been extended to every month during the year. Ten days each month (when the Moon is not up between 8pm and 10pm) are the recommended times to take measurements for the campaign. However, one can participate at other times and dates, as long as the Moon is not in the night sky and it is more than an hour after sunset or more than an hour before sunrise. New in 2014 will be an Android app that will allow you to input visual measurements anytime the Moon is not up. Also possibly included will be an iPhone app that will take sky brightness measurements. The campaign dates and the 5 easy steps to participating in the campaign are listed at www.globeatnight.org. You do not need to register. Once on the report page, you enter your location, date and time (automatic for a smart device). You find the constellation of the month in the night sky. (Help is on the website.) Then you choose which chart looks most like what you see toward the constellation. Choose the icon for how clear or cloudy it is and hit the submit button and you are done! The fifth step is returning later to the website to compare your observations on the world map to others from around the globe. Included on the Globe at Night website are many helpful resources and tools from finding the constellations used in the campaign, to understanding concepts like light pollution, to games that test your expertise in choosing 'limiting magnitudes

  6. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  7. LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature.

    PubMed

    Pawson, S M; Bader, M K-F

    Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.

  8. Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kyba, Christopher C M; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

    2011-03-02

    The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this "ecological light pollution". We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.

  9. Teaching a College Course on Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    2003-05-01

    Most introductory astronomy classes mention light pollution as a problem for observers of the night sky. Cursory coverage leaves students with an acquaintance of the problem, but they are rarely taught to recognize and deal with the practical aspects of energy waste, glare, trespass and choice of alternative lighting fixtures. Recently, I ran a 10 week Honors seminar at the University of Denver entitled "Environmental and Social Consequences of Artificial Light" during winter term, 2003, which attracted a variety of arts, humanities and business majors. The course was facilitated greatly by the suite of online materials available at the International Darksky Association [IDA] website [www.darksky.org/resources/library.html], including the Lighting Code Handbook plus access to international, national and local lighting regulations and legislation. The students were assigned to review and summarize self-selected items by state, and present written summaries for in-class discussion purposes. We also had a guest lecture by a local IDA activist, Nancy Clanton, and considered involving other speakers from local CPTED and Planning departments. Slide mounted transparent diffraction gratings were distributed to help students observe spectra from different types of lights at night. After the students learned what the problems are, and the basic remedies, student-driven inquiry lead to a number of fascinating questions that I hope will help them to remain aware and active in this arena. Details are posted at my website [www.du.edu/ rstencel] but some of the key points include: (1) To whom does the night sky belong? Are economic interests sufficient to justify invasion of one's dark space? (2) Do we accept disruption of our circadian rhythms in the name of "progress", even if research now suggests linkage between melatonin problems and excessive levels of artificial lighting at night? (3) Does the loss of access to viewing the Milky Way pose risks to the imagination of younger

  10. Light-mediated 15N fractionation in Caribbean gorgonian octocorals: implications for pollution monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. M.; Kim, K.; Andras, J. P.; Sparks, J. P.

    2011-09-01

    The stable nitrogen isotope ratio ( δ 15N) of coral tissue is a useful recorder of anthropogenic pollution in tropical marine ecosystems. However, little is known of the natural environmentally induced fractionations that affect our interpretation of coral δ 15N values. In symbiotic scleractinians, light affects metabolic fractionation of N during photosynthesis, which may confound the identification of N pollution between sites of varied depth or turbidity. Given the superiority of octocorals for δ 15N studies, our goal was to quantify the effect of light on gorgonian δ 15N in the context of monitoring N pollution sources. Using field collections, we show that δ 15N declined by 1.4‰ over 20 m depth in two species of gorgonians, the common sea fan, Gorgonia ventalina, and the slimy sea plume, Pseudopterogorgia americana. An 8-week laboratory experiment with P. americana showed that light, not temperature causes this variation, whereby the lowest fractionation of the N source was observed in the highest light treatment. Finally, we used a yearlong reciprocal depth transplant experiment to quantify the time frame over which δ 15N changes in G. ventalina as a function of light regime . Over the year, δ 15N was unchanged and increased slightly in the deep control colonies and shallow colonies transplanted to the deep site, respectively. Within 6 months, colonies transplanted from deep to shallow became enriched by 0.8‰, mirroring the enrichment observed in the shallow controls, which was likely due to the combined effect of an increase in the source δ 15N and reduced fractionation. We conclude that light affects gorgonian δ 15N fractionation and should be considered in sampling designs for N pollution monitoring. However, these fractionations are small relative to differences observed between natural and anthropogenic N sources.

  11. Light pollution: measuring and modelling skyglow. An application in two Portuguese reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Raul Cerveira Pinto Sousa

    Outdoors human-made lighting at night causes sky glow, one of the effects of light pollution. Sky glow is rising with the growth of world population. Urban inhabitants are increasingly deprived from a starry sky. However, since light propagates to regions far from where it is produced, light pollution spreads to places where few or none artificial light at night existed, disturbing the quality of the night sky. In this work we assess for the first time the sky brightness of two regions in Portugal, the Peneda-Geres National Park, and the recently created Starlight Reserve Dark Sky® Alqueva. We used a portable unit, a Unihedron Sky Quality Meter-L (SQM-L), to measure the luminance of the night sky. We also tested the SQM-L in a laboratory to a more thorough analysis of the device, and to check the effect of polarization on the unit, suggested by our observations and other users. Our results suggest that the SQM-L is not affected by any measurable effect of polarization, but some guidelines to use the SQM-L in the field are provided based on our work. The data from the field measurement was used to compare to one light pollution propagation model (Kocifaj, 2007), using VIIRS DNB satellite upwards radiance as input to the model. The results obtained from the model are favourably compared to the field measurements. We proceeded to a set of tests with the model to find the best fit. Our best results were achieved by analysing the data by night rather than the global set of data. Our first results were used to apply to the classification of the region of Alqueva to a Starlight Tourism Destination. That classification was attained during the course of this work (December 2011). A guideline on the Peneda-Geres National Park was also implemented after our first results were provided. We believe we have achieved a set of results in a set of parallel issues all related to light pollution that we hope may contribute to the current knowledge on this area of research.

  12. Losing the Dark: Public Outreach about Light Pollution and Its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Petersen, Mark C.; Walker, Constance E.; Kardel, W. Scott; International Dark Sky Association Education Committee

    2015-01-01

    Losing the Dark is a PSA video available for public outreach through fulldome theaters as well as conventional venues (classroom, lecture hall, YouTube, Vimeo). It was created by Loch Ness Productions for the International Dark Sky Association. It explains problems caused by light pollution, which targets astronomy, health, and the environment. Losing the Dark also suggests ways people can implement "wise lighting" practices to help mitigate light pollution. The video is available free of charge for outreach professionals in planetarium facilities (both fulldome and classical), science centers, classroom, and other outreach venues, and has been translated into 13 languages. It is available via download, USB key (at cost), and through online venues. This paper summarizes the program's outreach to more than a thousand fulldome theaters, nearly 100,000 views via four sites on Youtube and Vimeo,a number of presentations at other museum and classroom facilities, and shares some preliminary metrics and commentary from users.

  13. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  14. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  15. Yeasts from Marine and Estuarine Waters with Different Levels of Pollution in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Allen N.; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C.

    1981-01-01

    Yeast counts were made at 24 marine and estuarine sites in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mean salinities of estuarine sites ranged from 14.2 to 27.4‰, and mean temperatures ranged from 25 to 28°C. Total coliform counts varied from 80% above 100,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 ml at heavily polluted sites to 100% below 100 CFU/100 ml at unpolluted sites. Total yeast counts above 100 CFU/100 ml were typical of heavily and moderately polluted water but atypical of lightly polluted and unpolluted water. Mean total yeast counts were 2,880 CFU/100 ml for heavily polluted sites, 202 CFU/100 ml for moderately polluted sites, and 3 CFU/100 ml for lightly polluted and unpolluted sites. Total yeast counts had a positive response to increased pollution levels, and Candida krusei and phenotypically similar yeasts as a group were prevalent in polluted estuarine water but rare in unpolluted seawater. The 549 strains of yeasts and yeast-like organisms isolated were grouped into 67 species, of which the 21 most prevalent made up 86% of the total yeast population. The prevalent genera in the polluted estuary were Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis, Hanseniaspora, Debaryomyces, and Trichosporon. PMID:16345683

  16. The Influence of Low Intensities of Light Pollution on Bat Communities in a Semi-Natural Context

    PubMed Central

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurelie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Le Bocq, Agathe; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals. PMID:25360638

  17. The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

    PubMed

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurelie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Le Bocq, Agathe; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

  18. A Survey of Light Pollution in the Rogue Valley, Southwest Oregon, By St. Mary’s School, Medford, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensel, Holly; Arianna Ashby, Colin Cai, Thomas Cox, Genna Dorrell, Gabe FitzPatrick, Meaghan FitzPatrick, Jason Mars Liu, Mitchell Moczygemba, Kieran Rooney, Emry Timmons,; Ray You, students, (St. Mary's. School)

    2015-01-01

    Rural areas in Oregon, including the Rogue Valley, are renowned for beautiful dark skies. Electric light came to Medford, Oregon, the largest town in the Rogue Valley, in 1894. During the past 100 years the Rogue Valley grew from 2,500 individuals in 1895 to a population of 76,462 and a metropolitan area population of 208,545, in 2012. The increased population density resulted in increased light pollution. A light pollution chart using DMSP, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, data was published in 2006, but did not show the spatial variation in detail. In the spring of 2014, the 9th grade physics students, astronomy students, and members of the Astronomy Club from St. Mary's School conducted the first detailed night sky survey. The purpose of the survey is to create a baseline of the variations in light pollution in the Rogue Valley.The project started with a talk by Steve Bosbach, former Texas IDA coordinator, on the topic of light pollution and how it affects our lives and the environment. Groups of students were given the tasks of measuring the night sky brightness in the Rogue Valley, doing a light audit in an area of their choice, and researching what light pollution is and its effects on the environment. From this they created a presentation for a final physics grade. The basis for this project, along with procedures can be found on the Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) website. The light audit and research portion were developed from the Dark Sky Rangers section (www.globeatnight.org/dsr/) of the website. In the fall of 2014, astronomy students and club members extended this study to the town of Ashland and the Sothern Oregon University campus, areas of the valley not surveyed in the Spring.This survey will increase awareness of light pollution in the Rogue Valley, as well as educate developers and city planners on the impact that light pollution has on the environment in Southern Oregon. It will help determine areas of concern and areas of dark

  19. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  20. Views of the Social Teacher Candidates about Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Suat; Bekdemir, Ünsal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the views of social studies of teacher candidates about light pollution. This research is designed by using qualitative research method. In the research, case studies--that is one of the qualitative research methods--is used. Case study is a kind of research that offers a rich perspective on analyzing the…

  1. What Astronomers and the AAS Need to be Doing to Curb Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. W. E.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomers and especially the AAS are doing apalling little in the war on light pollution. This is quite surprising, considering that optical groundbased astronomy may become nearly extinct in the 21st century if we don't get more serious about the loss of our night skies to artificial lighting. Part of the blame must be placed on astronomers throughout the 20th century (particularly before 1980), as very few of them seem to have set an example by starting an early crusade against bad outdoor night lighting (save for a handful of important individuals near large U.S. observatories, and a few connected with smaller observatories); this apathy of earlier generations of astronomers fueled the current general apathy within the AAS and aided the opening of the floodgates in terms of the disastrous lighting situation now upon us in terms of drowning out the night sky. There are possible solutions, and they need to be discussed and acted upon quickly. For example, the AAS should require that all members include a useful amount (say, \\$30) in annual membership fees to be directly transmitted to the International Dark Sky Association, and the AAS should make constant visible strides to educate the public and government officials of the absolute need to reduce outdoor lighting levels and to fully shield all outdoor lighting. There are many other areas of research into outdoor lighting that the AAS should fund or officially/strongly support, so that the astronomical community can better be educated (and can better educate the public) on the evils of bad and thoughtless outdoor-lighting practices; such research includes developing a comprehensive database of national statistics on numbers and types of different outdoor lamps, as a function of time (thus, historical), and also a comprehensive database including all local, state, and federal lighting laws and ordinances together with legal court cases (and their outcomes) involving outdoor night lighting. And professional

  2. Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.

    2006-05-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is

  3. [Light pollution, desynchronosis and aging: the state of problem and solutions].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, I A; Iliukha, V A; Khizhkin, E A; Uzenbaeva, L B; Il'ina, T N; Bukalev, A V; Goranskiĭ, A I; Matveeva, Iu P; Iunash, V D; Lotosh, T A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different light conditions (constant illumination, light deprivation, the standard regime of lighting and natural for Northwest Russia lighting in different seasons of the annual cycle) on indicators of biological age and homeostasis, the development of age-related pathology, oncogenesis and longevity of rats was investigated. Exposure to constant light on the studied parameters was evaluated at different ages--antenatal, early and late postnatal period. The data about influences of substances and hormones of pineal gland on biomarkers of aging, homeostasis, spontaneous oncogenesis and longevity in experimental animals was obtained. It has been established that the light pollution and disturbance of photoperiod lead to desynchronosys and as a result to premature aging of the organism and age associated diseases. Ways of preventing accelerated aging were outlined.

  4. Light Pollution and Space Billboards - What To Do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.

    1994-03-01

    Astronomy is faced with environmental threats to observational research, such as light pollution and space junk. Space billboards are the latest of these potential serious impacts. There are solutions to most of these issues, but we all have to work together to ensure a positive approach. The International Dark-Sky Association, a membership based non-profit organization offers a route for us all to participate. 1 Operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  5. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Mosses and the struggle for light in a nitrogen-polluted world.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Pearce, Imogen S K; Brooker, Rob W

    2005-01-01

    The impact of reduced light conditions as an indirect effect of nitrogen (N) deposition was determined on three mosses in a montane ecosystem, where sedge and grass cover increase due to N enrichment. Additionally, in the greenhouse we established the importance of low light to moss growth as an indirect N deposition effect relative to the direct toxic effects of N. The amount of light reaching the moss layer was strongly and negatively related to graminoid abundance. Mosses showed differing sensitivities to reduced light in the field. Racomitrium lanuginosum biomass was found to be highest under high-light conditions, Polytrichum alpinum at intermediate light levels, whilst that of Dicranum fuscescens was unrelated to light availability. Moreover, Racomitrium biomass decreased with increasing amounts of graminoid litter, whereas the other species were little affected. All three mosses responded differently to the combination of elevated N (20 vs 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) and reduced light (60 and 80% reduction) in the greenhouse. Racomitrium growth was strongly influenced by both light reduction and elevated N, in combination reducing shoot biomass up to 76%. There was a tendency for Dicranum growth to be modestly reduced by elevated N when shaded, causing up to 19% growth reduction. Polytrichum growth was not influenced by elevated N but was reduced up to 40% by shading. We conclude that competition for light, induced by vascular plants, can strongly influence moss performance even in unproductive low biomass ecosystems. The effects of reduced light arising from N pollution can be as important to mosses as direct toxicity from N deposition. Yet, different sensitivities of mosses to both toxic and shading effects of elevated N prevent generalisation and can lead to competitive species replacement within moss communities. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding moss-vascular plant interactions to allow interpretation and prediction of ecosystem

  7. Light Pollution in Natural Science Textbooks in Spanish Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contel, Teresa Muñoz; Ferrandis, Ignacio García; Ferrandis, Xavier García

    2016-01-01

    Light pollution has emerged with the industrial development in recent decades. It is becoming a significant environmental issue for cities today and it will probably become more important in the near future. However, very little research has been carried out on this issue in the field of science teaching, despite there being a general agreement…

  8. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-01-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects. 2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the ‘trespass’ of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting. 3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards ‘whiter’ light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths. 4. Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize

  9. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-12-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse

  10. Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A; Corsini, Giovanni U; Maggio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.

  11. Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W.; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A.; Corsini, Giovanni U.; Maggio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution. PMID:23462874

  12. Association between nighttime artificial light pollution and sea turtle nest density along Florida coast: A geospatial study using VIIRS remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Hu, Hongda; Huang, Yuxia

    2018-08-01

    Artificial lighting at night has becoming a new type of pollution posing an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on organisms. The objective of this research was to examine the potential association between nighttime artificial light pollution and nest densities of the three main sea turtle species along Florida beaches, including green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Sea turtle survey data was obtained from the "Florida Statewide Nesting Beach Survey program". We used the new generation of satellite sensor "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)" (version 1 D/N Band) nighttime annual average radiance composite image data. We defined light pollution as artificial light brightness greater than 10% of the natural sky brightness above 45° of elevation (>1.14 × 10 -11 Wm -2 sr -1 ). We fitted a generalized linear model (GLM), a GLM with eigenvectors spatial filtering (GLM-ESF), and a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach for each species to examine the potential correlation of nest density with light pollution. Our models are robust and reliable in terms of the ability to deal with data distribution and spatial autocorrelation (SA) issues violating model assumptions. All three models found that nest density is significantly negatively correlated with light pollution for each sea turtle species: the higher light pollution, the lower nest density. The two spatially extended models (GLM-ESF and GEE) show that light pollution influences nest density in a descending order from green turtles, to loggerheads, and then to leatherbacks. The research findings have an implication for sea turtle conservation policy and ordinance making. Near-coastal lights-out ordinances and other approaches to shield lights can protect sea turtles and their nests. The VIIRS DNB light data, having significant improvements over comparable data by its predecessor, the DMSP-OLS, shows promise for continued and improved research about ecological effects of

  13. Monitoring Light Pollution on the Starlight Reserve of Montsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, S. J.; Paricio, S.; Canal-Domingo, R.; Gustems, L.; Calvo, C. O.

    2015-05-01

    Montsec Mountains are a special protected place in Catalonia (NE of Iberian Peninsula). Since 2013 the site has been declared Starlight Reserve and Touristic Destination. In the last three years different projects took place in Montsec to evaluate the quality of night sky and the effects of Light Pollution of nearby (and not so nearby) municipalities. Using SQM techniques in RoadRunner configuration (installed on a car) we have evaluated all the region (1 600 km^2) and we determined the distribution of night sky brightness detecting some excellent areas with values around 21.5--22.0 mags. In addition we have evaluated the effects of the closest big city (Lleida with around 200 000 inhabitants) and we have estimated long distance effects of this city on the natural sky. The effect is detected on zenith up to 25 km away from the city. These data show the critical problem of the long-distance effects of LP on protected areas. To complete the monitoring of the region, a new SQM network is ongoing in cooperation with Parc Astronòmic Montsec and Catalan Service against Light Pollution. During 2014 six SQM permanent detectors are starting their measurements around the area of Montsec and major cities that affects this protected area. This data could be combined with meteorological data (clouds, humidity, etc) in some of the evaluation sites.

  14. Summaries of SpS17 Discussions IAU GA 2012 Special Session on Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Parks, Bob; McKenna, Dan; Sefako, Ramotholo; Smith, Malcolm; Galadí-Enríquez, David

    2015-03-01

    To address light pollution issues, IAU Commissions 41, 46, 50, and 55 are involved in getting the word out to the public and IAU members via cultural, educational, technical; however, efforts can always improve and evolve. To carry out a successful light pollution abatement program supported by the IAU, it takes a diversity of groups, professions, and disciplines with their collective knowledge and experience. In manifesting dark skies awareness effectively, we are stronger together than we are alone; therefore, combining efforts of Commissions 41, 46, 50 and 55 with organizations like the International Dark-Sky Association, Astronomers Without Borders, The World at Night and partnering with events like Earth Hour or GLOBE at Night is a good step forward.

  15. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Mobile Monitoring to Assess Spatial Variability in Urban Air Pollution Levels: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Measuring air pollution concentrations from a moving platform is not a new idea. Historically, however, most information on the spatial variability of air pollutants have been derived from fixed site networks operating simultaneously over space. While this approach has obvious advantages from a regulatory perspective, with the increasing need to understand ever finer scales of spatial variability in urban pollution levels, the use of mobile monitoring to supplement fixed site networks has received increasing attention. Here we present examples of the use of this approach: 1) to assess existing fixed-site fine particle networks in Seattle, WA, including the establishment of new fixed-site monitoring locations; 2) to assess the effectiveness of a regulatory intervention, a wood stove burning ban, on the reduction of fine particle levels in the greater Puget Sound region; and 3) to assess spatial variability of both wood smoke and mobile source impacts in both Vancouver, B.C. and Tacoma, WA. Deducing spatial information from the inherently spatio-temporal measurements taken from a mobile platform is an area that deserves further attention. We discuss the use of “fuzzy” points to address the fine-scale spatio-temporal variability in the concentration of mobile source pollutants, specifically to deduce the broader distribution and sources of fine particle soot in the summer in Vancouver, B.C. We also discuss the use of principal component analysis to assess the spatial variability in multivariate, source-related features deduced from simultaneous measurements of light scattering, light absorption and particle-bound PAHs in Tacoma, WA. With increasing miniaturization and decreasing power requirements of air monitoring instruments, the number of simultaneous measurements that can easily be made from a mobile platform is rapidly increasing. Hopefully the methods used to design mobile monitoring experiments for differing purposes, and the methods used to interpret those

  17. Worldwide Portals to Classroom Research on Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Buxner, S.

    2016-12-01

    Issues affecting society can provide stimulus for scientific research relevant to students' lives and, hence, of interest to them. These multi-disciplinary, non-traditional science topics often need foundational instruction for both students and instructors that steers students to and through research using Problem-Based or Project-Based Learning and provides more of a comfort zone for the instructor in terms of content and execution. A program created by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Education and Public Outreach staff (NOAO EPO) during the International Year of Light (2015) offers real-life challenges for students to solve and leads them to further research. The program is called the Quality Lighting Teaching (QLT) program (www.noao.edu/education/qltkit.php). For instructors, the impact of the program is amplified by providing professional development using tutorial videos created at NOAO on each of 6 activities and by conducting Q&A sessions via 14 Google+ Hangouts. Hangouts make communication possible with groups from 30 countries, which have received 88 QLT Kits. The central issue is poor quality lighting. It not only impedes astronomy research and seeing a starry night sky, but creates safety issues, affects human circadian sensitivities, disrupts ecosystems, and wastes billions of dollars/year in energy consumption. It also leads to excess carbon emissions. In this problem-based scenario, the city mayor (e.g., instructor) has received complaints from citizens about streetlights. Students are assembled into task forces to determine the underlying problems in the 6 complaint categories, as well as come up with feasible solutions. By exploring the concepts and practices of quality lighting, students will solve realistic cases on how light pollution affects wildlife, the night sky, our eyes, energy consumption, safety, and light trespass into buildings. The QLT Kit has all the materials for the explorations. Join us for our assessment of the

  18. Lamp-Lit Bridges as Dual Light-Traps for the Night-Swarming Mayfly, Ephoron virgo: Interaction of Polarized and Unpolarized Light Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Szaz, Denes; Horvath, Gabor; Barta, Andras; Robertson, Bruce A.; Farkas, Alexandra; Egri, Adam; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Racz, Gergely; Kriska, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo. PMID:25815748

  19. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    PubMed

    Szaz, Denes; Horvath, Gabor; Barta, Andras; Robertson, Bruce A; Farkas, Alexandra; Egri, Adam; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Racz, Gergely; Kriska, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  20. A Survey of Light Pollution in the Rogue Valley, Southwest Oregon, by St. Mary's School, Medford, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensel, Holly; Dorrell, Genna; Feng, James; Hicks, Sean; Mars Liu, Jason; Liu, Steven; Moczygemba, Mitchell; Sheng, Jason; Sternenburg, Leah; Than, Emi; Timmons, Emry; Wen, Jerry; Yaeger, Bella; You, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    The Rogue Valley in Southwest Oregon was known for its beautiful dark skies, but due to population growth the dark skies are vanishing. A light pollution chart using Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data was published in 2006, but did not show the spatial variation in detail. In the spring of 2014, the 9th grade physics students, astronomy students, and members of the Astronomy Club from St. Mary's School conducted the first detailed night sky survey. The purpose of the survey is to create a baseline of the variations in light pollution in the Rogue Valley.The project continued into 2015, incorporating suggestions made at the 2014 AAS Conference to improve the study by including more light meter data and community outreach. Students used light meters, Loss of the Night app, and the Dark Sky meter app. Students researched light pollution and its effects on the environment, measured night sky brightness in the Rogue Valley, and completed a light audit in an area of their choice. They created a presentation for a final physics grade. The basis for this project, along with procedures can be found on the GaN, Globe at Night, (www.globeatnight.org) website. The light audit and research portion were developed from the Dark Sky Rangers section of the website (www.globeatnight.org/dsr/).The 2014 survey and public outreach increased awareness of light pollution in the Rogue Valley and around the state of Oregon. Examples include a local senior project to change lighting at a baseball stadium and a 4-H club in Northeast Oregon starting a GaN survey in their area. GaN shows growth in the amount of data collected in Oregon from 8 data points in 2006 to 193 in 2014. The Rogue Valley magnitude data from the spring of 2015 indicates a drop from an average magnitude of 4 to an average magnitude of 2. This is due to hazy skies from smoke drifting into the valley from a Siberian wildfire. Data collection during the summer and fall was hampered due to smoke from local

  1. Coupling Light Emitting Diodes with Photocatalyst-Coated Optical Fibers Improves Quantum Yield of Pollutant Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Tugaoen, Heather; Brame, Jonathon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Li, Chuanhao; Schoepf, Jared; Hristovski, Kiril; Kim, Jae-Hong; Shang, Chii; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-11-21

    A photocatalyst-coated optical fiber was coupled with a 318 nm ultraviolet-A light emitting diode, which activated the photocatalysts by interfacial photon-electron excitation while minimizing photonic energy losses due to conventional photocatalytic barriers. The light delivery mechanism was explored via modeling of evanescent wave energy produced upon total internal reflection and photon refraction into the TiO 2 surface coating. This work explores aqueous phase LED-irradiated optical fibers for treating organic pollutants and for the first time proposes a dual-mechanistic approach to light delivery and photocatalytic performance. Degradation of a probe organic pollutant was evaluated as a function of optical fiber coating thickness, fiber length, and photocatalyst attachment method and compared against the performance of an equivalent catalyst mass in a completely mixed slurry reactor. Measured and simulated photon fluence through the optical fibers decreased as a function of fiber length, coating thickness, or TiO 2 mass externally coated on the fiber. Thinner TiO 2 coatings achieved faster pollutant removal rates from solution, and dip coating performed better than sol-gel attachment methods. TiO 2 attached to optical fibers achieved a 5-fold higher quantum yield compared against an equivalent mass of TiO 2 suspended in a slurry solution.

  2. Light Pollution Around Tucson, AZ And Its Effect On The Spatial Distribution Of Lesser Long-nosed Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fersch, Alisa; Walker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a well-known problem for astronomers. It is also gaining attention as an ecological issue. The federally endangered Lesser Long-Nosed Bat (Leptonycteris cursoae) resides for part of the year near Tucson, Arizona. It is possible that this species tends to avoid light. Excess artificial light would therefore interfere with the bats’ flight patterns and foraging habits. In order to test this hypothesis, we quantified night sky brightness with data from the citizen-science campaign GLOBE at Night. Using direct measurements taken with a Sky Quality Meter (SQM), we created a contour map of the artificial night sky brightness around Tucson. When this map is compared to the approximate flight paths of the lesser long-nosed bat, we can see that the bats do appear to be avoiding the brightest area of Tucson. We also used logistic regression to analyze what combination of ecological variables (ecoregion, vegetation cover, landform and light) best describes the observed spatial distribution of lesser long-nosed bats. Of the models that were tested, light alone was not a good predictor of the bat presence or absence. However, light in addition to vegetation and ecoregion was the best model. This information can be useful for making decisions about lighting codes in areas of the city that the bats tend to traverse. The contour map of light pollution in Tucson will be useful for both future astronomy and ecology studies and can also be used for public outreach about light pollution. Fersch was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  3. Influence on photosynthesis of starlight, moonlight, planetlight, and light pollution (reflections on photosynthetically active radiation in the universe).

    PubMed

    Raven, J A; Cockell, C S

    2006-08-01

    Photosynthesis on Earth can occur in a diversity of organisms in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range of 10 nmol of photons m(-2) s(-1) to 8 mmol of photons m(-2) s(-1). Similar considerations would probably apply to photosynthetic organisms on Earth-like planets (ELPs) in the continuously habitable zone of other stars. On Earth, starlight PAR is inadequate for photosynthetically supported growth. An increase in starlight even to reach the minimum theoretical levels to allow for photosynthesis would require a universe that was approximately ten million times older, or with a ten million times greater density of stars, than is the case for the present universe. Photosynthesis on an ELP using PAR reflected from a natural satellite with the same size as our Moon, but at the Roche limit, could support a low rate of photosynthesis at full Moon. Photosynthesis on an ELP-like satellite of a Jupiter-sized planet using light reflected from the planet could be almost 1% of the rate in full sunlight on Earth when the planet was full. These potential contributions to photosynthesis require that the contribution is compared with the rate of photosynthesis driven by direct radiation from the star. Light pollution on Earth only energizes photosynthesis by organisms that are very close to the light source. However, effects of light pollution on photosynthesis can be more widespread if the photosynthetic canopy is retained for more of the year, caused by effects on photoperiodism, with implications for the influence of civilizations on photosynthesis.

  4. Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Berge, Jørgen; Geoffroy, Maxime; Cohen, Jonathan H.; De La Torre, Pedro R.; Nornes, Stein M.; Singh, Hanumant; Sørensen, Asgeir J.; Daase, Malin; Johnsen, Geir

    2018-01-01

    Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms’ response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity. PMID:29326985

  5. Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Berge, Jørgen; Geoffroy, Maxime; Cohen, Jonathan H; De La Torre, Pedro R; Nornes, Stein M; Singh, Hanumant; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Daase, Malin; Johnsen, Geir

    2018-01-01

    Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.

  6. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  7. A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Piro, Fredrik Niclas; Madsen, Christian; Næss, Øyvind; Nafstad, Per; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore various contributors to people's reporting of self reported air pollution problems in area of living, including GIS-modeled air pollution, and to investigate whether those with respiratory or other chronic diseases tend to over-report air pollution problems, compared to healthy people. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Oslo Health Study (2000–2001) were linked with GIS-modeled air pollution data from the Norwegian Institute of Air Research. Multivariate regression analyses were performed. 14 294 persons aged 30, 40, 45, 60 or 75 years old with complete information on modeled and self reported air pollution were included. Results People who reported air pollution problems were exposed to significantly higher GIS-modeled air pollution levels than those who did not report such problems. People with chronic disease, reported significantly more air pollution problems after adjustment for modeled levels of nitrogen dioxides, socio-demographic variables, smoking, depression, dwelling conditions and an area deprivation index, even if they had a non-respiratory disease. No diseases, however, were significantly associated with levels of nitrogen dioxides. Conclusion Self reported air pollution problems in area of living are strongly associated with increased levels of GIS-modeled air pollution. Over and above this, those who report to have a chronic disease tend to report more air pollution problems in area of living, despite no significant difference in air pollution exposure compared to healthy people, and no associations between these diseases and NO2. Studies on the association between self reported air pollution problems and health should be aware of the possibility that disease itself may influence the reporting of air pollution. PMID:18307757

  8. On lamps, walls, and eyes: The spectral radiance field and the evaluation of light pollution indoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salvador; Escofet, Jaume

    2018-01-01

    Light plays a key role in the regulation of different physiological processes, through several visual and non-visual retinal phototransduction channels whose basic features are being unveiled by recent research. The growing body of evidence on the significance of these effects has sparked a renewed interest in the determination of the light field at the entrance pupil of the eye in indoor spaces. Since photic interactions are strongly wavelength-dependent, a significant effort is being devoted to assess the relative merits of the spectra of the different types of light sources available for use at home and in the workplace. The spectral content of the light reaching the observer eyes in indoor spaces, however, does not depend exclusively on the sources: it is partially modulated by the spectral reflectance of the walls and surrounding surfaces, through the multiple reflections of the light beams along all possible paths from the source to the observer. This modulation can modify significantly the non-visual photic inputs that would be produced by the lamps alone, and opens the way for controlling-to a certain extent-the subject's exposure to different regions of the optical spectrum. In this work we evaluate the expected magnitude of this effect and we show that, for factorizable sources, the spectral modulation can be conveniently described in terms of a set of effective filter-like functions that provide useful insights for lighting design and light pollution assessment. The radiance field also provides a suitable bridge between indoor and outdoor light pollution studies.

  9. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  10. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of graphite oxide for degrading organic pollutants under visible light.

    PubMed

    Oh, Junghoon; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-28

    Photocatalysts use sustainable solar light energy to trigger various catalytic reactions. Metal-free nanomaterials have been suggested as cost-effective and environmentally friendly photocatalysts. In this work, we propose thickness-controlled graphite oxide (GO) as a metal-free photocatalyst, which is produced by exfoliating thick GO particles via stirring and sonication. All GO samples exhibit photocatalytic activity for degrading an organic pollutant, rhodamine B under visible light, and the thickest sample shows the best catalytic performance. UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance absorption spectra indicate that thicker GO samples absorb more vis-NIR light than thinner ones. Density-functional theory calculations show that GO has a much smaller band gap than that of single-layer graphene oxide, and thus suggest that the largely-reduced band gap is responsible for this trend of light absorption.

  11. Effect of eccentricity and light level on the timing of light adaptation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Matesanz, Beatriz M; Gloriani, Alejandro H; Arranz, Isabel; Issolio, Luis; Mar, Santiago; Aparicio, Juan A

    2018-04-01

    We explored the complexity of the light adaptation process, assessing adaptation recovery (Ar) at different eccentricities and light levels. Luminance thresholds were obtained with transient background fields at mesopic and photopic light levels for temporal retinal eccentricities (0°-15°) with test/background stimulus size of 0.5°/1° using a staircase procedure in a two-channel Maxwellian view optical system. Ar was obtained in comparison with steady data [Vis. Res.125, 12 (2016)VISRAM0042-698910.1016/j.visres.2016.04.008]. Light level proportionally affects Ar only at fovea. Photopic extrafoveal thresholds were one log unit higher for transient conditions. Adaptation was equally fast at low light levels for different retinal locations with variations mainly affected by noise. These results evidence different timing in the mechanisms of adaptation involved.

  12. Aerosol chemical composition and light scattering during a winter season in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Jian; Wang, Han; Chai, Faihe; Wang, Shulan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate PM2.5 contributions to light scattering under different air pollution levels, PM2.5 and its major chemical components, PM10, size-segregated water-soluble ions, and aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) under dry conditions were measured at an urban site in Beijing in January 2013 when heavy pollution events frequently occurred. Measurements were categorized into three pollution levels including heavy-polluted (Air Quality Index (AQI) ≥ 200), light-polluted (200 > AQI ≥ 100) and clean periods (AQI < 100). The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 248 μg m-3 during the heavy-polluted period, which was 2.4 and 5.6 times of those during the light-polluted (104 μg m-3) and clean (44 μg m-3) periods, respectively. The concentrations of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ increased much more than those of OC and EC during the heavy-polluted period compared with those during the light-polluted and clean periods. Good correlations between PM2.5 and bsp were found (R2 > 0.95) during the different pollution levels. The mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM2.5 was 4.9 m2 g-1 during the heavy-polluted period, which was higher than those during the light-polluted (4.3 m2 g-1) and clean periods (3.6 m2 g-1). To further evaluate the impact of individual chemical components of PM2.5 on light scattering, a multiple linear regression equation of measured bsp against the mass concentration of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, Organic Matter (OM), EC, Fine Soil (FS), Coarse Matter (CM) and Other chemical compounds were performed. (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and OM were the dominant species contributing to bsp under both dry and ambient conditions. OM contributed more to bsp than the sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 did under the dry condition during all the pollution periods and this was also the case under the ambient condition during the light-polluted and clean periods. However, the total contributions of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 to bsp under the ambient condition was 55%, much more than the 29% contribution

  13. The temporal structure of pollution levels in developed cities.

    PubMed

    Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the need for mobility can cause significant pollution levels in cities, with important effects on health and quality of life. Any approach to the study of urban pollution and its effects requires an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability. It is a crucial dilemma to obtain proven methodologies that allow an increase in the quality of the prediction and the saving of resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. This work proposes a new analytical methodology in the study of temporal structure. As a result, a model for estimating annual levels of urban traffic noise was proposed. The average errors are less than one decibel in all acoustics indicators. A new working methodology of urban noise has begun. Additionally, a general application can be found for the study of the impacts of pollution associated with traffic, with implications for urban design and possibly in economic and sociological aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  15. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel withmore » a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.« less

  16. Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

  17. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m 3 for PM 2.5 and ΡΜ 10 , respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO 2 , NO x and SO 2 ) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    PubMed

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  20. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  1. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    PubMed

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  2. Session 21.2 - Measurement of Light at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the mercury vapor lamp for general lighting in the 1930s probably marked the beginning of significant light pollution. Lighting levels have increased slowly, year-to-year, with sky brightness levels increasing only slowly on timescales of a year; no measurement protocols or instruments existed to quantify this increase. However, on timescales of 10-20 years, or on generational timescales, the increases in night sky levels, particularly in urban areas, have been dramatic. Younger people speak with their parents or grandparents who remark how beautiful the sky used to be, and how many stars they could see when they when they were younger. Older people can themselves remember how many stars were visible in the sky when they were younger. Whole generations of children now grow up without ever seeing the Milky Way. Society has not had tools to easily measure sky brightness, and monitoring from space has only recently become available. A subtle increase of 10% sky brightness per year, for example, is not noticeable to the human eye on the time scale of a year, and has been tolerated by society. But such an increase compounds to an increase of a factor 2.6 in 10 years, 6.7 in 20 years, and a factor 45 in 40 years, corresponding to a dramatic increase in sky brightness, an almost complete loss in ability to see faint objects in the night sky, and rendering the sky unusable for most forms of astronomy. The most striking examples are the urban observatories found in many major cities that can no longer be used. Session 2 was primarily focused on measurement of light at night, with an emphasis on measurement of light pollution. It comprised of 6 papers that are summarized below. Over the last decade, our ability to measure light pollution has grown tremendously, and the instrumentation needed to produce reliable quantitative measurements has become much more affordable, and now includes consumer grade digital cameras and even smart phones. During this same

  3. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  4. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  5. Structural changes in the vascular bundles of light-exposed and shaded spruce needles suffering from Mg deficiency and ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Boxler-Baldoma, Carmen; Lütz, Cornelius; Heumann, Hans-Günther; Siefermann-Harms, Dorothea

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between structural changes of the vascular bundles and needle yellowing was examined for needles of damaged spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) growing at a Mg-deficient and ozone polluted mountain site in the Central Black Forest (840m a.s.l.). In the previous year's sun-exposed needles, the following sequence of events was observed: (1) rapid needle yellowing, (2) hypertrophy and anomalous divisions of cambium cells, (3) phloem collapse, and, (4) production of atypical xylem tracheids. Under defined shade (reduction of the photosynthetically active photon flux density of the ambient light by 85-90%), the needles remained green, while the phloem collapsed completely within the first 6 weeks of shading; subsequently, a reversal of the collapse was observed. Under both light conditions, the content of Mg not bound to chlorophyll (Mg(free)) was in the range of 0.1 mg g(-1) needle dry matter, and hardly changed throughout the investigation period. After Mg fertilization, the Mg(free) level of the previous year's needles increased to 0.2 mg g(-1) dry matter, the light-exposed needles remained green, and the vascular bundles developed no anomalies. The data show that the rapid needle yellowing of ozone-exposed Mg-deficient needles did not depend on the collapse of the phloem. Mg deficiency played a key role in the development of anomalous vascular bundles under light, and also appears to explain the transient changes in sieve cell structure under shade. The role of Mg deficiency, rather than ozone pollution, in the damage of the sieve cells was confirmed in a long-term ozone exposure experiment with young clonal spruce growing under defined conditions.

  6. The variation of cloud amount and light rainy days under heavy pollution over South China during 1960-2009.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chuanbo; Dan, Li

    2018-01-01

    The ground observation data was used to analyze the variation of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China during 1960-2009. The total cloud cover (TCC) decreases in this period, whereas the low cloud cover (LCC) shows the obvious opposite change with increasing trends. LCP defined as low cloud cover/total cloud cover has increased, and small rainy days (< 10 mm day -1 ) decreased significantly (passing 0.001 significance level) during the past 50 years, which is attributed to the enhanced levels of air pollution in the form of anthropogenic aerosols. The horizontal visibility and sunshine duration are used to depict the anthropogenic aerosol loading. When horizontal visibility declines to 20 km or sunshine duration decreases to 5 h per day, LCC increases 52% or more and LCP increases significantly. The correlation coefficients between LCC and horizontal visibility or sunshine duration are - 0.533 and - 0.927, and the values between LCP and horizontal visibility or sunshine duration are - 0.849 and - 0.641, which pass 0.001 significance level. The results indicated that aerosols likely impacted the long-term trend of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China.

  7. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  8. Mechanisms of low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova, Tatiana N.

    2006-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In particular a biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect than higher levels. This introductory review will cover some of the proposed cellular chromophores responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the near infrared) and photoactive porphyrins. Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initial effects of light, leading to increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of transcription factors. These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and

  9. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  10. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown. PMID:25780238

  11. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.

  12. Unexpected Attraction of Polarotactic Water-Leaving Insects to Matt Black Car Surfaces: Mattness of Paintwork Cannot Eliminate the Polarized Light Pollution of Black Cars

    PubMed Central

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles. PMID:25076137

  13. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    PubMed

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  14. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P; Poulos, Helen M; Goodale, Uromi M

    2015-08-15

    Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses' remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants' spectral reflectance, including 6h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of noise pollution level in a University campus in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thattai, D.; Sudarsan, J. S.; Sathyanathan, R.; Ramasamy, Visalatchi

    2017-07-01

    Noise comprises those sounds occurring around us that are not part of the environment under consideration. Noise is also a type of pollution and impacts on our health and wellness. The prevalence of noise is increasing in magnitude and severity because of growing population and urbanization. Noise pollution leads to many chronic and socially significant impacts. This study analyzes the level of noise at different points in SRM University. As the University encompasses a hospital also, it is more important to identify the sources of high noise levels and control them. As per Indian standards the desirable noise pollution for educational institutions and hospitals in daytime is 50 dbA. Noise levels were measured with a sound level meter at 19 points within the campus at three different timings (8-10 am, 12-2 pm, and 3-5 pm) over two cycles of measurements. The preliminary results show higher noise levels during morning and evening. Noise during Cycle 2 (latter half of semester) was 20% more compared to that of Cycle 1 (beginning of semester).

  16. Kerosene lighting contributes to household air pollution in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muyanja, D; Allen, J G; Vallarino, J; Valeri, L; Kakuhikire, B; Bangsberg, D R; Christiani, D C; Tsai, A C; Lai, P S

    2017-09-01

    The literature on the contribution of kerosene lighting to indoor air particulate concentrations is sparse. In rural Uganda, kitchens are almost universally located outside the main home, and kerosene is often used for lighting. In this study, we obtained longitudinal measures of particulate matter 2.5 microns or smaller in size (PM 2.5 ) from living rooms and kitchens of 88 households in rural Uganda. Linear mixed-effects models with a random intercept for household were used to test the hypotheses that primary reported lighting source and kitchen location (indoor vs outdoor) are associated with PM 2.5 levels. During initial testing, households reported using the following sources of lighting: open-wick kerosene (19.3%), hurricane kerosene (45.5%), battery-powered (33.0%), and solar (1.1%) lamps. During follow-up testing, these proportions changed to 29.5%, 35.2%, 18.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. Average ambient, living room, and kitchen PM 2.5 levels were 20.2, 35.2, and 270.0 μg/m 3 . Living rooms using open-wick kerosene lamps had the highest PM 2.5 levels (55.3 μg/m 3 ) compared to those using solar lighting (19.4 μg/m 3 ; open wick vs solar, P=.01); 27.6% of homes using open-wick kerosene lamps met World Health Organization indoor air quality standards compared to 75.0% in homes using solar lighting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Air Pollution and Serum Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Maayan Yitshak; Kloog, Itai; Liberty, Idit F.; Katra, Itzhak; Novack, Lena; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies demonstrated an adverse effect of chronic exposure to air pollution (AP) on metabolic syndrome and its components. In a population-based study, we investigated the association between exposure to ambient AP and serum glucose (SG), among subjects with normal glucose, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes mellitus (DM). We included 1,063,887 SG tests performed in 131,882 subjects (years 2001–2012). Exposure data included daily levels of SO2, NO2 and other pollutants of industrial, traffic, and nonanthropogenic sources. Demographical, clinical, and medications purchase data were assessed. Log-transformed SG levels were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for seasonal variables and personal characteristics. SG increases (%increase [95% CI]), among subjects with normal glucose, IFG, and DM, respectively, were associated with 6.36 ppb increase of NO2 measured 24 to 72 hours before the test (0.40% [0.31%; 0.50%], 0.56% [0.40%; 0.71%], and 1.08% [0.86%; 1.29%]); and with 1.17 ppb increase of SO2 measured 24 hours before the test (0.29% [0.22%; 0.36%], 0.20% [0.10%; 0.31%], and 0.33% [0.14%; 0.52%]). Among DM population, weakest association was observed among patients treated with Metformin (0.56% increase in SG [0.18%; 0.95%]). In conclusion, NO2 and SO2 exposure is associated with small but significantly increased levels of SG. Although DM patients were found to be more susceptible to the AP induced SG variations, Metformin treatment seem to have a protective effect. Given the chronic lifetime exposure to AP and the broad coverage of the population, even small associations such as those found in our study can be associated with detrimental health effects and may have profound public health implications. PMID:26166095

  20. Energy efficiency for the removal of non-polar pollutants during ultraviolet irradiation, visible light photocatalysis and ozonation of a wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Morales, Javier; Gómez, María José; Herrera-López, Sonia; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy; Rosal, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to assess the removal of a set of non-polar pollutants in biologically treated wastewater using ozonation, ultraviolet (UV 254 nm low pressure mercury lamp) and visible light (Xe-arc lamp) irradiation as well as visible light photocatalysis using Ce-doped TiO2. The compounds tracked include UV filters, synthetic musks, herbicides, insecticides, antiseptics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Raw wastewater and treated samples were analyzed using stir-bar sorptive extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (SBSE-CG × GC-TOF-MS). Ozone treatment could remove most pollutants with a global efficiency of over 95% for 209 μM ozone dosage. UV irradiation reduced the total concentration of the sixteen pollutants tested by an average of 63% with high removal of the sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), the synthetic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydronaphthalene (tonalide, AHTN) and several herbicides. Visible light Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis reached ~70% overall removal with particularly high efficiency for synthetic musks. In terms of power usage efficiency expressed as nmol kJ(-1), the results showed that ozonation was by far the most efficient process, ten-fold over Xe/Ce-TiO2 visible light photocatalysis, the latter being in turn considerably more efficient than UV irradiation. In all cases the efficiency decreased along the treatments due to the lower reaction rate at lower pollutant concentration. The use of photocatalysis greatly improved the efficiency of visible light irradiation. The collector area per order decreased from 9.14 ± 5.11 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for visible light irradiation to 0.16 ± 0.03 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis. The toxicity of treated wastewater was assessed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Ozonation reduced the toxicity of treated wastewater, while UV irradiation and visible light photocatalysis limited by 20-25% the algal growth due to

  1. [Concentrations and pollution assessment of soil heavy metals at different water-level altitudes in the draw-down areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye-Chun; Lei, Bo; Yang, San-Ming; Zhang, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 175 m trial impounding (2008 and 2009) of the Three Gorges Reservoir on soil heavy metals, three draw-down areas with similar geological environment and history of land-use in Zhongxian County were chosen. Altogether 36 surface soil samples (including 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer) from water-level altitude of 160 m and 170 m were obtained, and their heavy metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index were applied to assess the heavy metals pollution status and potential ecological risk, respectively. Results indicated that although the inundation period of 160 m was 224 d longer than that of 170 m, significant difference in concentrations of heavy metals were not found between the two water-level altitudes. Except for Cd, most of the heavy metals highly related with each other positively. According to the geoaccumulation index, the pollution extent of the heavy metals followed the order: As > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn = Pb > Cr. The I(geo) value of As, Cd and Cu were 0.45, 0.39 and 0.06, respectively, indicating that the soil was only lightly polluted by these heavy metals. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index followed the order: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. Cd with E(i) values of 59.10, had a medium potential for ecological risk,while As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn only had a light potential. Consequently, although As, Cd and Cu were the major heavy metals with potential ecological risk for surface soil pollution in the draw-down areas in Zhongxian County, the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  2. The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve and light pollution issues in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss the Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve, recognized by IDA in 2012, and how the reserve is managed and promoted to the public to make them aware of light pollution issues and in order to promote star-gazing and astro-tourism. AMIDSR is the world's largest Dark Sky Reserve recognized by IDA and has gold tier status. We will have a Starlight festival in October to promote the Reserve to the public.

  3. Light Levels, Refractive Development, and Myopia – a Speculative Review

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Thomas T.; Siegwart, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence in children indicates that time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. Studies in animal models (chick, macaque, tree shrew) have found that light levels (similar to being in the shade outdoors) that are mildly elevated compared to indoor levels, slow form-deprivation myopia and (in chick and tree shrew) lens-induced myopia. Normal chicks raised in low light levels (50 lux) with a circadian light on/off cycle often develop spontaneous myopia. We propose a model in which the ambient illuminance levels produce a continuum of effects on normal refractive development and the response to myopiagenic stimuli such that low light levels favor myopia development and elevated levels are protective. Among possible mechanisms, elevation of retinal dopamine activity seems the most likely. Inputs from intrinsically-photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) at elevated light levels may be involved, providing additional activation of retinal dopaminergic pathways. PMID:23680160

  4. Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Thomas W.; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.

  5. Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2009-09-01

    Levels of pollutants including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all pollutants to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most pollutants. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor pollutants levels and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. Levels of all pollutants measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the pollutants at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air pollution in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured pollutant concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people

  6. Variability of Surface pollutants and aerosol concentration over Abu Dhabi, UAE - sources, transport and current levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, Devulapalli V.; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-04-01

    pollutants are in contrast with the diurnal pattern of wind speed as evident from the previous observations. Wind rose diagram of pollutants reveal that the dominant source directions are scattered from northwesterly to southwesterly. Our results (2011-13) are compared with earlier observations from the same region (2007-08) and no alarming differences were observed in the pollutant levels. Our observations are discussed in the light of current understanding of pollutants sources over this region.

  7. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  8. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  9. Evaluation of noise pollution level in the operating rooms of hospitals: A study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Giv, Masoumeh Dorri; Sani, Karim Ghazikhanlou; Alizadeh, Majid; Valinejadi, Ali; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari

    2017-06-01

    Noise pollution in the operating rooms is one of the remaining challenges. Both patients and physicians are exposed to different sound levels during the operative cases, many of which can last for hours. This study aims to evaluate the noise pollution in the operating rooms during different surgical procedures. In this cross-sectional study, sound level in the operating rooms of Hamadan University-affiliated hospitals (totally 10) in Iran during different surgical procedures was measured using B&K sound meter. The gathered data were compared with national and international standards. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA, t -test, and Pearson's correlation test. Noise pollution level at majority of surgical procedures is higher than national and international documented standards. The highest level of noise pollution is related to orthopedic procedures, and the lowest one related to laparoscopic and heart surgery procedures. The highest and lowest registered sound level during the operation was 93 and 55 dB, respectively. Sound level generated by equipments (69 ± 4.1 dB), trolley movement (66 ± 2.3 dB), and personnel conversations (64 ± 3.9 dB) are the main sources of noise. The noise pollution of operating rooms are higher than available standards. The procedure needs to be corrected for achieving the proper conditions.

  10. Light at night pollution of the internal clock, a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan

    2015-10-01

    Light is the major synchronizer of the internal clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus. Retinal ganglion cells contain melanopsin, a photoreceptor with a peak sensitivity to blue wavelength (460-480 nm). Light signal is transmitted from the eye to the clock, then to the pineal gland which produces melatonin, considered as the hand of the clock. Even a weak intensity of light (LEDs, tablets, mobile phones, computers...) is able to block the secretion of melatonin, the hormone of darkness. Light is also able to phase advance or phase delay the circadian system according to the timing of exposure. This Phase Response Curve (PRC) is used to resynchronize the clock in various situations of circadian desynchronization. Exposure to Light at Night (LAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, including France, 75 % of the total workforce is estimated to be involved in atypical hours, far from the classical diurnal hours of work. Of interest, shift work and night work involve 15.4 % of the French workforce. A number of epidemiologic studies, peiformed mainly on nurses, showed an association between sustained night work (3 to 20 years) and an increased risk of breast cancer Health problems faced by flight attendants have also been reported, though other causes like exposure to radiations cannot be ruled out. Other deleterious effects are reported in this paper. The potential mechanisms of the deleterious effects of LAN on health are suppression of melatonin andsleep deprivation. The International Agencyfor Cancer Research (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as ( probably carcinogenic to humans". Countermeasures (e.g melatonin, bright light, use of psychotropic drugs) have been proposed as a means to improve adaptation to shift work and night work and to fight " clock pollution " and circadian desynchronization by LAN.

  11. Grass pollen counts, air pollution levels and allergic rhinitis severity.

    PubMed

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Rouve, Sarah; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Jankovski, Roger; Klossek, Jean-Michel; Thibaudon, Michel; Demoly, Pascal; Didier, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relation between allergic rhinitis severity and airborne pollen in combination with air pollutants. To model the risk of suffering from severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) as a function of both pollen count and air pollution levels in a large nationwide sample of patients whose SAR was diagnosed by a physician and confirmed by skin prick test positivity or specific immunolglobulin E to common aeroallergens. The severity of SAR symptoms was estimated with the Symptomatic Global Score (SGS) among 36,397 patients suffering from an untreated and uncomplicated SAR between May and August 2004 in metropolitan France. Patients who had an SGS in the upper third quartile were classified as suffering from severe SAR. A multilevel model relating SAR severity, pollen and air pollution was used to take into account the hierarchical data structure. 18.9% of the 17,567 urban patients retained for the analysis suffered from severe rhinitis. At the Lag0 (day of the visit), a rise of 60 grass pollen grains/m(3) increased the risk of suffering from a severe SAR form by 8% in the multileveled model after adjusting for potential confounders and air pollution levels. Results were also confirmed in the subsample of individuals with documented sensitization to grass pollen. Grass pollen count aggravated SAR in terms of symptoms in our nationwide sample. These findings confirm the need for proper treatment and preventive measures in SAR patients sensitized to grass pollen. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  13. Judgments of eye level in light and in darkness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoper, Arnold E.; Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1986-01-01

    Subjects judged eye level in the light and in the dark by raising and lowering themselves in a dental chair until a stationary target appeared to be at the level of their eyes. This method reduced the possibility of subjects' using visible landmarks as reference points for setting eye level during lighted trials, which may have contributed to artificially low estimates of the variability of this judgment in previous studies. Chair settings were 2.5 deg higher in the dark than in the light, and variability was approximately 66 percent greater in the dark than in the light. These results are discussed in terms of possible interactions of two separate systems, one sensitive to the orientations of visible surfaces and the other sensitive to bodily and gravitational information.

  14. Evaluating office lighting environments: Second-level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.L.; Fisher, W.S.; Gillette, G.L.

    1989-04-01

    Data from a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) of 912 work stations with lighting power density (LPD), photometric, and occupant-response measures were examined in a detailed, second-level analysis. Seven types of lighting systems were identified with different combinations of direct and indirect ambient lighting, and task lighting and daylight. The mean illuminances at the primary task location were within the IES target values for office task with a range of mean illuminances from 32 to 75 fc, depending on the lighting system. The median LPD was about 2.36 watts/sq ft, with about one-third the work stations having LPD's at or below 2.0more » watts/sq ft. Although a majority of the occupants (69%) were satisfied about their lighting, the highest percentage of those expressing dissatisfaction (37%) with lighting had an indirect fluorescent furniture-mounted (IFFM) system. The negative reaction of so many people to the IFFM system suggests that the combination of task lighting with an indirect ambient system had an important influence on lighting satisfaction, even though task illuminances tended to be higher with the IFFM system. Concepts of lighting quality, visual health, and control were explored, as well as average luminance to explain the negative reactions to the combination of indirect lighting with furniture-mounted lighting.« less

  15. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken.

  16. Air pollution and urinary n-acetyl-B-glucosaminidase levels in residents living near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Soo; Kim, Jae Yoon; Lee, Hyun Seung; Lee, Chul Gab; Song, Han Soo

    2016-01-01

    To identify adverse renal effects due to air pollution derived from a cement plant in Korea. Urinary n-acetyl-B-glucosaminidase (U-NAG) levels in residents living near a cement plant were compared to those in a group who lived farther away from the plant. From June to August 2013 and from August to November 2014, laboratory tests for U-NAG and heavy metal were conducted on 547 study participants. Based on the level of air pollution exposure, subjects were divided into the "less exposed group," (LEG) which consisted of 66 persons who lived more than 5 km away from the cement plant, the "more exposed group from the rural area" (MEG-R), which consisted of 272 persons, and the "more exposed group from downtown area" (MEG-D), which consisted of 209 persons who lived within a 1 km radius of the cement plant. U-NAG levels >5.67 U/L were defined as "higher U-NAG" levels. We compared the prevalence of higher U-NAG levels and estimated the adjusted odds ratio (OR) by air pollution exposure using a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further, we estimated the interaction between air pollution exposure and heavy metal exposure in renal toxicity. The OR of higher U-NAG levels by MEG-D and MEG-R compared to LEG was 2.13 (95 % CI 0.86-4.96) and 4.79 (95 CI 1.65-10.01), respectively. Urinary cadmium (U-Cd), urinary mercury (U-Hg), age, occupation, hypertension, and diabetes had a significant association with higher U-NAG levels. However, blood lead (B-Pb), sex, and smoking were not associated with higher U-NAG. Especially, concurrent exposure to heavy metals (U-Hg or/and U-Cd) and air pollution had an additive adverse effect. In the group with both 4 th quartile heavy metal exposure (U-Cd or/and U-Hg) and air pollution exposure, the OR in MEG-R and MEG-D was 6.49 (95 % 1.42-29.65) and 8.12 (95 % CI 1.74-37.92), respectively, after adjustment for age, occupation, hypertension, diabetes. U-NAG levels seem to be affected by air pollution exposure as well

  17. Coping with the New Era: Noise and Light Pollution, Hperactivity and Steroid Hormones. Towards an Evolutionary View of Bipolar Disorders.

    PubMed

    Carta, M G; Preti, A; Akiskal, H S

    2018-01-01

    Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer. A negative impact of light pollution on neurosteroids may also affect mood. People who carry the genetic risk of bipolar disorder may be at greater risk of full-blown bipolar disorder because of the impact of noise and light pollution on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. However, living in cities may also offers opportunities and might be selective for people with hyperthymic temperament, who may find themselves advantaged by increased energy prompted by increased stimulation produced by life in big cities. This might result in the spreading of the genetic risk of bipolar disorder in the coming decades. In this perspective the burden of poor quality of life, increased disability adjusted life years and premature mortality due to the increases of mood disorders is the negative side of a phenomenon that in its globality also shows adaptive aspects. The new lifestyle also influences those who adapt and show behaviors, reactions and responses that might resemble the disorder, but are on the adaptive side.

  18. Method to improve the survival of night-swarming mayflies near bridges in areas of distracting light pollution

    PubMed Central

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Pereszlényi, Ádám; Kriska, György

    2017-01-01

    Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo: when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis. With downstream-facing light-emitting diode beacon lights above two tributaries of the river Danube, we managed to guide egg-laying females to the water and prevent them from perishing outside the river near urban lights. By means of measuring the mayfly outflow from the river as a function of time and the on/off state of the beacons, we showed that the number of mayflies exiting the river's area was practically zero when our beacons were operating. Tributaries could be the sources of mayfly recolonization in case of water quality degradation of large rivers. The protection of mayfly populations in small rivers and safeguarding their aggregation and oviposition sites is therefore important. PMID:29291103

  19. Method to improve the survival of night-swarming mayflies near bridges in areas of distracting light pollution.

    PubMed

    Egri, Ádám; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Pereszlényi, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György

    2017-11-01

    Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo : when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis. With downstream-facing light-emitting diode beacon lights above two tributaries of the river Danube, we managed to guide egg-laying females to the water and prevent them from perishing outside the river near urban lights. By means of measuring the mayfly outflow from the river as a function of time and the on/off state of the beacons, we showed that the number of mayflies exiting the river's area was practically zero when our beacons were operating. Tributaries could be the sources of mayfly recolonization in case of water quality degradation of large rivers. The protection of mayfly populations in small rivers and safeguarding their aggregation and oviposition sites is therefore important.

  20. Assessment of light extinction at a European polluted urban area during wintertime: Impact of PM1 composition and sources.

    PubMed

    Vecchi, R; Bernardoni, V; Valentini, S; Piazzalunga, A; Fermo, P; Valli, G

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, results from receptor modelling performed on a well-characterised PM 1 dataset were combined to chemical light extinction data (b ext ) with the aim of assessing the impact of different PM 1 components and sources on light extinction and visibility at a European polluted urban area. It is noteworthy that, at the state of the art, there are still very few papers estimating the impact of different emission sources on light extinction as we present here, although being among the major environmental challenges at many polluted areas. Following the concept of the well-known IMPROVE algorithm, here a tailored site-specific approach (recently developed by our group) was applied to assess chemical light extinction due to PM 1 components and major sources. PM 1 samples collected separately during daytime and nighttime at the urban area of Milan (Italy) were chemically characterised for elements, major ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan. Chemical light extinction was estimated and results showed that at the investigated urban site it is heavily impacted by ammonium nitrate and organic matter. Receptor modelling (i.e. Positive Matrix Factorization, EPA-PMF 5.0) was effective to obtain source apportionment; the most reliable solution was found with 7 factors which were tentatively assigned to nitrates, sulphates, wood burning, traffic, industry, fine dust, and a Pb-rich source. The apportionment of aerosol light extinction (b ext,aer ) according to resolved sources showed that considering all samples together nitrate contributed at most (on average 41.6%), followed by sulphate, traffic, and wood burning accounting for 18.3%, 17.8% and 12.4%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  2. Spotlight on fish: light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Preuer, Torsten; Kloas, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational exposure to urban air pollution related to a decrease in cord blood vitamin d levels.

    PubMed

    Baïz, Nour; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Wark, John D; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Slama, Rémy; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the increased risk of several diseases. Exposure to air pollution has been suggested as a contributor to vitamin D deficiency. However, studies that have examined the effects of air pollution on vitamin D status are few and have never focused on prenatal life as an exposure window. Our aim was to investigate the associations between gestational exposure to urban air pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] cord blood serum level in 375 mother-child pairs of the EDEN birth cohort. The Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) pollution model, a validated dispersion model combining data on traffic conditions, topography, meteorology, and background pollution, was used to assess the concentrations of two major urban pollutants, particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), at the mother's home address during pregnancy. Cord blood samples were collected at birth and were analyzed for levels of 25(OH)D. Maternal exposure to ambient urban levels of NO(2) and PM(10) during the whole pregnancy was a strong predictor of low vitamin D status in newborns. After adjustment, log-transformed 25(OH)D decreased by 0.15 U (P = 0.05) and 0.41 U (P = 0.04) for a 10-μg/m(3) increase in NO(2) and PM(10) pregnancy levels, respectively. The association was strongest for third-trimester exposures (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.004 for NO(2) and PM(10), respectively). Gestational exposure to ambient urban air pollution, especially during late pregnancy, may contribute to lower vitamin D levels in offspring. This could affect the child's risk of developing diseases later in life.

  4. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliawati, W.; Utama, J. A.; Fauziah, H.

    2016-08-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing & understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting & applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling.

  5. Ultralow-light-level all-optical transistor in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Jietai, E-mail: jtjing@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Zhifan; Liu, Cunjin

    2014-04-14

    An all-optical transistor (AOT) is a device in which one light beam can efficiently manipulate another. It is the foundational component of an all-optical communication network. An AOT that can operate at ultralow light levels is especially attractive for its potential application in the quantum information field. Here, we demonstrate an AOT driven by a weak light beam with an energy density of 2.5 × 10{sup −5} photons/(λ{sup 2}/2π) (corresponding to 6  yJ/(λ{sup 2}/2π) and about 800 total photons) using the double-Λ four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. This makes it a promising candidate for ultralow-light-level optical communication and quantum information science.

  6. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI veterans cohort: risks based on modeled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lipfert, Frederick W; Wyzga, Ronald E; Baty, Jack D; Miller, J Philip

    2009-04-01

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4(2-)). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. Two-pollutant models show stronger risks associated with specific traffic-related pollutants than with traffic density per se, although traffic density retains statistical significance in most cases. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. However, we have not evaluated possible contributions from road dust or traffic noise. Stratification by traffic density level suggests the

  7. Geographic Differences in Persistent Organic Pollutant Levels of Yellowfin Tuna.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Bonito, Lindsay T; Sandin, Stuart; Hamdoun, Amro

    2017-06-26

    Fish are a source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human diet. Although species, trophic level, and means of production are typically considered in predicting fish pollutant load, and thus recommendations of consumption, capture location is usually not accounted for. Yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) are harvested from across the world's oceans and are widely consumed. Here, we determined geographic variation in the overall mass, concentration, and composition of POPs in yellowfin and examined the differences in levels of several POP congeners of potential relevance to human health. We sampled dorsal muscle of 117 yellowfin tuna from 12 locations worldwide, and measured POP levels using combined liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectrometry according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard procedures. POP levels varied significantly among sites, more than 36-fold on a mass basis. Individual fish levels ranged from 0.16 to 138.29 ng/g wet weight and lipid-normalized concentrations from 0.1 to 12.7 μM. Levels of 10 congeners that interfere with the cellular defense protein P-glycoprotein, termed transporter interfering compounds (TICs), ranged from 0.05 to 35.03 ng/g wet weight and from 0.03 to 3.32 μM in tuna lipid. Levels of TICs, and their individual congeners, were strongly associated with the overall POP load. Risk-based analysis of several carcinogenic POPs indicated that the fish with the highest levels of these potentially harmful compounds were clustered at specific geographic locations. Capture location is an important consideration when assessing the level and risk of human exposure to POPs through ingestion of wild fish. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP518.

  8. Statistical interpretation of pollution data from satellites. [for levels distribution over metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given pollutant within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of pollutant levels in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The pollution concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.

  9. Outdoor Lighting Ordinances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.

    2004-05-01

    A principal means to prevent poor exterior lighting practices is a lighting control ordinance. It is an enforceable legal restriction on specific lighting practices that are deemed unacceptable by the government body having jurisdiction. Outdoor lighting codes have proven to be effective at reducing polluting and trespassing light. A well written exterior lighting code will permit all forms of necessary illumination at reasonable intensities, but will demand shielding and other measures to prevent trespass and light pollution. A good code will also apply to all forms of outdoor lighting, including streets, highways, and exterior signs, as well as the lighting on dwellings, commercial and industrial buildings and building sites. A good code can make exceptions for special uses, provided it complies with an effective standard. The IDA Model Lighting Ordinance is a response to these requests. It is intended as an aid to communities that are seeking to take control of their outdoor lighting, to "take back the night" that is being lost to careless and excessive use of night lighting.

  10. Effects of snow-reflected light levels on human visual comfort.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Yilmaz, Sevgi

    2008-09-01

    The intensity of the sunlight reflected by the snow-covered surfaces is so high that it may disturb humans many times. This study aims to determine the reflected sunlight intensities from snow covered areas at points near (at a distance of 2 m) and under an individual tree and among trees (in the forest area) by accepting the open area as control; the reducing effects of the plant materials on reflected sunlight in percentage by comparing with the values of the open (control) area; and critical reflected sunlight threshold values for human visual comfort. The study was carried out over 22 clear and calm, i.e. sky was cloudless and wind was calm, days between the 1st and 31st days of January 2004, at 8:30 in the morning, at 12:30 at noon and at 14:30 in the afternoon in Erzurum. In order to determine the discomforting light intensity levels, 25 females and 26 male (totally 51) student subjects whose mean age was 20 and who had no visual disorders were selected. Considering the open area as control, mean reflected sunlight reducing effects were found to be 19.0, 66.0 and 82.7% for the 2 m near a tree, under a tree, and forest area, respectively. According to the responses of 51 subjects in the study, visually "very comfortable" range is between 5,000 and 8,000 lx; "comfortable" range is between 11,000 and 75,000 lx (mostly at 12,000 lx); "uncomfortable" condition is above the light intensity value of 43,000 lx and "very uncomfortable" condition is above the intensity of 80,000 lx. Great majority of the subjects (91%) found the value of 103,000 lx to be "very uncomfortable." As it is not an applicable way to use the great and dense tree masses in the cities, at least individual trees should be used along the main pedestrian axels in the cities having the same features with Erzurum to prevent the natural light pollution and discomforting effects of the snow-reflected sunlight.

  11. The light pollution as a surrogate for urban population of the US cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Operti, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Erneson A.; Carmona, Humberto A.; Machado, Javam C.; Andrade, José S.

    2018-02-01

    We show that the definition of the city boundaries can have a dramatic influence on the scaling behavior of the night-time light (NTL) as a function of population (POP) in the US. Precisely, our results show that the arbitrary geopolitical definition based on the Metropolitan/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA/CMSA) leads to a sublinear power-law growth of NTL with POP. On the other hand, when cities are defined according to a more natural agglomeration criteria, namely, the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA), an isometric relation emerges between NTL and population. This discrepancy is compatible with results from previous works showing that the scaling behaviors of various urban indicators with population can be substantially different for distinct definitions of city boundaries. Moreover, considering the CCA definition as more adequate than the MSA/CMSA one because the former does not violate the expected extensivity between land population and area of their generated clusters, we conclude that, without loss of generality, the CCA measures of light pollution and population could be interchangeably utilized in future studies.

  12. The Operational Forecasting of Undesirable Pollution Levels Based on a Combined Pollution Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdie, H. G.; Gillies, D. K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the application of an air pollution index, in conjunction with synoptic meteorological forecasting, to an operational program for forecasting pollution potential in the Sarnia (Ontario) petrochemical complex. (JR)

  13. Geographic Differences in Persistent Organic Pollutant Levels of Yellowfin Tuna

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C.T.; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Sandin, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fish are a source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human diet. Although species, trophic level, and means of production are typically considered in predicting fish pollutant load, and thus recommendations of consumption, capture location is usually not accounted for. Objectives: Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) are harvested from across the world’s oceans and are widely consumed. Here, we determined geographic variation in the overall mass, concentration, and composition of POPs in yellowfin and examined the differences in levels of several POP congeners of potential relevance to human health. Methods: We sampled dorsal muscle of 117 yellowfin tuna from 12 locations worldwide, and measured POP levels using combined liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectrometry according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard procedures. Results: POP levels varied significantly among sites, more than 36-fold on a mass basis. Individual fish levels ranged from 0.16 to 138.29ng/g wet weight and lipid-normalized concentrations from 0.1 to 12.7μM. Levels of 10 congeners that interfere with the cellular defense protein P-glycoprotein, termed transporter interfering compounds (TICs), ranged from 0.05 to 35.03ng/g wet weight and from 0.03 to 3.32μM in tuna lipid. Levels of TICs, and their individual congeners, were strongly associated with the overall POP load. Risk-based analysis of several carcinogenic POPs indicated that the fish with the highest levels of these potentially harmful compounds were clustered at specific geographic locations. Conclusions: Capture location is an important consideration when assessing the level and risk of human exposure to POPs through ingestion of wild fish. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP518 PMID:28686554

  14. A robust color image fusion for low light level and infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Hu, Qing-ping; Chen, Yong-kang

    2016-09-01

    The low light level and infrared color fusion technology has achieved great success in the field of night vision, the technology is designed to make the hot target of fused image pop out with intenser colors, represent the background details with a nearest color appearance to nature, and improve the ability in target discovery, detection and identification. The low light level images have great noise under low illumination, and that the existing color fusion methods are easily to be influenced by low light level channel noise. To be explicit, when the low light level image noise is very large, the quality of the fused image decreases significantly, and even targets in infrared image would be submerged by the noise. This paper proposes an adaptive color night vision technology, the noise evaluation parameters of low light level image is introduced into fusion process, which improve the robustness of the color fusion. The color fuse results are still very good in low-light situations, which shows that this method can effectively improve the quality of low light level and infrared fused image under low illumination conditions.

  15. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  16. Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones?

    PubMed

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with a variety of reproductive disorders. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specifically semen quality. The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to fluctuating levels of specific air pollutants adversely affects sperm parameters and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 327 men who were attending an infertility clinic in Łodź, Poland for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Air quality data were obtained from AirBase database. The statistically significant association was observed between abnormalities in sperm morphology and exposure to all examined air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX, CO). Exposure to air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx) was also negatively associated with the level of testosterone. Additional exposure to PM2.5, PM10 increase the percentage of cells with immature chromatin (HDS). The present study provides suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Further research is needed to explore this association in more detail. Individual precise exposure assessment would be needed for more detailed risk characterization.

  17. Voluntary Compliance, Pollution Levels, and Infant Mortality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Foster, Andrew; Gutierrez, Emilio; Kumar, Naresh

    2009-05-01

    The increasing body of evidence from high income countries linking pollution to health outcomes (Ken Chay and Michael Greenstone 2003; Janet Currie and Matthew Neidell 2004), has raised concerns about the health impact of adverse air quality in developing countries, where, in general, environmental regulation is less stringent and health monitoring and treatment are less accessible. These concerns have, in turn, encouraged consideration of the effectiveness of alternative mechanisms for improving air quality while limiting the adverse impact on economic growth. However, the analysis of both the effects of pollution on health and the effectiveness of pollution abatement policies faces particular empirical challenges in low- and middle-income contexts, given the scarcity of reliable measures of pollution concentrations. The primary source of good quality data on air quality, ground monitoring, tends to be limited to larger metropolitan areas with monitors placed at sentinel sites that may or may not yield a representative picture of population exposure. This paper calls attention to, and makes use of, newly available procedures for extracting measures of air quality from satellite imagery. In particular, satellite-based measures of aerosol optical depth (AOD) are used to obtain estimates of air quality for the whole Mexican territory at a detailed geographic scale, and these estimates are related to measures of participation in a voluntary certification program at the level of the county. The resulting estimates are then combined with estimates of the relationship between participation in the certification program and infant mortality due to respiratory causes to obtain a rough estimate of the relationship between air quality and infant health in Mexico.

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Trace Gases and Pollutants Observed with a Light Rail Vehicle Platform in Salt Lake City, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Crosman, E.; Fasoli, B.; Leclair-Marzolf, L.; Jacques, A.; Horel, J.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments are characterized by both spatial complexity and temporal variability, each of which present challenges for measurement strategies aimed at constraining estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air quality. To address these challenges we initiated a project in December 2014 to measure trace species (CO2, CH4, O3, and Particulate Matter) by way of a Utah Transit Authority (UTA) light rail vehicle whose route traverses the Salt Lake Valley in Utah on an hourly basis, retracing the same route through commercial, residential, suburban, and rural typologies. Light rail vehicles present advantages as a measurement platform, including the absence of in-situ fossil fuel emissions, repeated transects across a urban region that provides both spatial and temporal information, and relatively low operating costs. We present initial results from the first year of operations including the spatiotemporal patterns of greenhouse gases and pollutants across Salt Lake City, UT with an emphasis on criteria pollutants, identification of sources, and future applications of this measurement platform.

  19. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  20. The Relationship between Particulate Pollution Levels in Australian Cities, Meteorology, and Landscape Fire Activity Detected from MODIS Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Price, Owen F.; Williamson, Grant J.; Henderson, Sarah B.; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as “hotspots”), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788

  1. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    PubMed Central

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  2. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  3. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  4. Standardization of plasma vitellogenin level for surveying environmental estrogen pollution using the Japanese common goby Acanthogobius flavimanus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jing; Nagae, Masaki; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2018-07-01

    Field surveys of the impact of environmental estrogen (EE) pollution in aquatic wildlife have been conducted using vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker to evaluate the influence of EE. However, a standard baseline of VTG level that can be used to evaluate EE pollution has not been fully determined. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to determine the standard baseline VTG level for evaluating the biological effects of EE pollution using the Japanese common goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus) as the target model fish. Plasma VTG and estradiol-17β (E 2 ) levels associated with the reproductive cycle of wild goby inhabiting an unpolluted environment were measured. Mean plasma VTG and E 2 levels exhibited similar changes, increasing in the yolk vesicle stage and peaking in the tertiary yolk stage in females. However, plasma VTG and E 2 levels showed no significant changes in males, remaining at low levels throughout the reproductive cycle. The highest VTG levels in females and males were 1.6 mg ml -1 and 124.87 ng ml -1 , respectively. These results indicate that the baseline level (normal level) in males was approximately 130 ng ml -1 at most. We concluded that the threshold between normal and abnormal levels with a 10% risk rate was 150 ng ml -1 in the wild male goby. Plasma VTG levels in males captured from Nagasaki Harbor were higher than the threshold in each reproductive developmental stage, indicating the possibility of EE pollution at this site. The biological standard baseline for VTG established in this study is useful for assessing EE pollution in natural waters. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-05-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the

  6. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-10-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the

  7. Color and illuminance level of lighting can modulate willingness to eat bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Hasenbeck, Aimee; Cho, Sungeun; Meullenet, Jean-François; Tokar, Tonya; Yang, Famous; Huddleston, Elizabeth A; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-08-01

    Food products are often encountered under colored lighting, particularly in restaurants and retail stores. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether the color of ambient lighting can affect consumers' motivation for consumption. This study aimed to determine whether color (Experiment 1) and illuminance level (Experiment 2) of lighting can influence consumers' liking of appearance and their willingness to eat bell peppers. For red, green, and yellow bell peppers, yellow and blue lighting conditions consistently increased participants' liking of appearance the most and the least, respectively. Participants' willingness to consume bell peppers increased the most under yellow lighting and the least under blue lighting. In addition, a dark condition (i.e. low level of lighting illuminance) decreased liking of appearance and willingness to eat the bell peppers compared to a bright condition (i.e. high level of lighting illuminance). Our findings demonstrate that lighting color and illuminance level can influence consumers' hedonic impression and likelihood to consume bell peppers. Furthermore, the influences of color and illuminance level of lighting appear to be dependent on the surface color of bell peppers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of Light on Anthocyanin Levels in Submerged, Harvested Cranberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bal Ram

    2004-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of plant antioxidants known for their therapeutic use. The effects of natural light, red light, and far-red light on individual as well as total anthocyanin content in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait) were examined in an experimental setting designed to mimic water-harvesting conditions. The reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to separate and analyze the anthocyanins. In contrast to the case of the control sample that was kept in the dark, natural light increased the total anthocyanin level by 75.3% and 87.2% after 24 and 48 hours of water immersion, respectively. Red light and far-red light increased the total anthocyanin level by 41.5% and 34.7%, respectively. The amount of each individual anthocyanin increased differently under natural light, red light, and far-red light, suggesting that expressions of enzymes that catalyze the anthocyanin biosynthesis are regulated differently by environments. PMID:15577187

  9. Low-Level Light Stimulates Excisional Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Salomatina, Elena V.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Herman, Ira M.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Low levels of laser or non-coherent light, termed low-level light therapy (LLLT) have been reported to accelerate some phases of wound healing, but its clinical use remains controversial. Methods A full thickness dorsal excisional wound in mice was treated with a single exposure to light of various wavelengths and fluences 30 minutes after wounding. Wound areas were measured until complete healing and immunofluorescence staining of tissue samples was carried out. Results Wound healing was significantly stimulated in BALB/c and SKH1 hairless mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. Illuminated wounds started to contract while control wounds initially expanded for the first 24 hours. We found a biphasic dose–response curve for fluence of 635-nm light with a maximum positive effect at 2 J/cm2. Eight hundred twenty nanometer was found to be the best wavelength tested compared to 635, 670, and 720 nm. We found no difference between non-coherent 635 ± 15-nm light from a lamp and coherent 633-nm light from a He/Ne laser. LLLT increased the number of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells at the wound edge. Conclusion LLLT stimulates wound contraction in susceptible mouse strains but the mechanism remains uncertain. PMID:17960752

  10. Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different levels of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal pollution. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different levels of metal pollution in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal levels in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely polluted oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less polluted oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different levels of metal pollution. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects Of Light Pollution On The Movements Of Leptonycteris Curasoae Yerbabuenae In The Tucson Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Daniel; Walker, C.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats’ flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter data. In this presentation, we present the results from our compositional analysis with respect to the habits of the lesser long-nosed bat. For more information, please visit www.globeatnight.org.

  12. How Important Is Research on Pollution Levels in Antarctica? Historical Approach, Difficulties and Current Trends.

    PubMed

    Szopińska, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Polkowska, Żaneta

    Despite the fact that Antarctica is a continent notably free from large negative impact of human activities, literature data can be the basis for concluding that this is not an area free from anthropogenic pollutants. Pollutants, which are identified in various elements of the environment of Antarctica, are mostly connected with long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and deposition in this area. The study presents: a historical overview of research pertaining to the presence of pollutants in entire Antarctica; a description of the development of research on pollutants in various environmental samples conducted in this area since 1960; a detailed description of contemporary analytical research (2000-2014); information on concentration levels of a broad range of pollutants present in various elements of the environment. The data collected can provide grounds for concluding that pollutants present in this area can contribute to gradual degradation of Antarctic ecosystem.

  13. The International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2015-05-01

    I report on the opening ceremony of the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies 2015 (IYL2015), which took place at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, France, on 19-20 January 2015. Over the two days, more than 1000 participants from all over the world learned more about the fundamental properties of light and advanced photonics applications, the history of optics and its applications through the centuries, light poverty and light pollution, and light for everyday life, health and research.

  14. Light-Driven Au-WO3@C Janus Micromotors for Rapid Photodegradation of Dye Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qilu; Dong, Renfeng; Wu, Yefei; Gao, Wei; He, Zihan; Ren, Biye

    2017-02-08

    A novel light-driven Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotor based on colloidal carbon WO 3 nanoparticle composite spheres (WO 3 @C) prepared by one-step hydrothermal treatment is described. The Janus micromotors can move in aqueous media at a speed of 16 μm/s under 40 mW/cm 2 UV light due to diffusiophoretic effects. The propulsion of such Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotors (diameter ∼ 1.0 μm) can be generated by UV light in pure water without any external chemical fuels and readily modulated by light intensity. After depositing a paramagnetic Ni layer between the Au layer and WO 3 , the motion direction of the micromotor can be precisely controlled by an external magnetic field. Such magnetic micromotors not only facilitate recycling of motors but also promise more possibility of practical applications in the future. Moreover, the Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotors show high sensitivity toward extremely low concentrations of sodium-2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and Rhodamine B (RhB). The moving speed of motors can be significantly accelerated to 26 and 29 μm/s in 5 × 10 -4 wt % DCIP and 5 × 10 -7 wt % RhB aqueous solutions, respectively, due to the enhanced diffusiophoretic effect, which results from the rapid photocatalytic degradation of DCIP and RhB by WO 3 . This photocatalytic acceleration of the Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotors confirms the self-diffusiophoretic mechanism and opens an opportunity to tune the motility of the motors. This work also offers the light-driven micromotors a considerable potential for detection and rapid photodegradation of dye pollutants in water.

  15. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-05-01

    The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol.

  16. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Very preterm infants can detect small variations in light levels in incubators.

    PubMed

    Zores, Claire; Dufour, André; Pebayle, Thierry; Langlet, Claire; Astruc, Dominique; Kuhn, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    This prospective observational study was designed to improve our understanding of the responses of very preterm infants to light level variations in incubators and to evaluate what determined those reactions. The physiological responses of 27 very preterm infants were analysed following variations in the light level environments of their incubators over 10 hours. Heart and respiratory rates, systemic oxygen saturation and regional cerebral oxygen saturations were recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy, and the variation of each parameter was analysed. We analysed 332 light level changes. Heart rate increased by 3.8 beats per minute (range -2.6 to 12.6), respiratory rate by six cycles per minute (-1.5 to 26) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation by 1.1% (-0.5% to 3.9%) (p < 0.05 each) when delta lux was over 50. Only respiratory rate decreased significantly, by -8.4 cycles per minute (-28 to -0.4), when delta lux was 50 or lower (p < 0.05). The initial level of illumination altered the very preterm infants' responses, with higher reactivity for higher ambient light levels. Very preterm infants reacted to moderate variations in illumination in their incubator, within recommended ranges of light levels, suggesting that they may detect even small light level variations. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Environmental pollution and deaths due to stroke in a city with low levels of air pollution: ecological time series study.

    PubMed

    Amancio, Camila Trolez; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Little has been discussed about the increased risk of stroke after exposure to air pollutants, particularly in Brazil. The mechanisms through which air pollution can influence occurrences of vascular events such as stroke are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to some air pollutants and risk of death due to stroke. Ecological time series study with data from São José dos Campos, Brazil. Data on deaths due to stroke among individuals of all ages living in São José dos Campos and on particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were used. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized additive model of Poisson regression with the Statistica software, in unipollutant and multipollutant models. The percentage increase in the risk of increased interquartile difference was calculated. There were 1,032 deaths due to stroke, ranging from 0 to 5 per day. The statistical significance of the exposure to particulate matter was ascertained in the unipollutant model and the importance of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, in the multipollutant model. The increases in risk were 10% and 7%, for particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, respectively. It was possible to identify exposure to air pollutants as a risk factor for death due to stroke, even in a city with low levels of air pollution.

  19. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Agol, Eric; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-10-01

    We present EPIC Variability Extraction and Removal for Exoplanet Science Targets (EVEREST), an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft’s pointing error and a Gaussian process to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than {K}p≈ 13, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variability, asteroseismology, and other photometric studies. The EVEREST pipeline can also easily be applied to future surveys, such as the TESS mission, to correct for instrumental systematics and enable the detection of low signal-to-noise transiting exoplanets. The EVEREST light curves and the source code used to generate them are freely available online.

  20. Effect of pulsing in low-level light therapy.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Javad T; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K; Kurup, Divya Balachandran; De Taboada, Luis; Carroll, James D; Hamblin, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Low level light (or laser) therapy (LLLT) is a rapidly growing modality used in physical therapy, chiropractic, sports medicine and increasingly in mainstream medicine. LLLT is used to increase wound healing and tissue regeneration, to relieve pain and inflammation, to prevent tissue death, to mitigate degeneration in many neurological indications. While some agreement has emerged on the best wavelengths of light and a range of acceptable dosages to be used (irradiance and fluence), there is no agreement on whether continuous wave or pulsed light is best and on what factors govern the pulse parameters to be chosen. The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1970 and 2010. The basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of LLLT are discussed. The type of pulsed light sources available and the parameters that govern their pulse structure are outlined. Studies that have compared continuous wave and pulsed light in both animals and patients are reviewed. Frequencies used in other pulsed modalities used in physical therapy and biomedicine are compared to those used in LLLT. There is some evidence that pulsed light does have effects that are different from those of continuous wave light. However further work is needed to define these effects for different disease conditions and pulse structures. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of type of light on mouse circadian behaviour and stress levels.

    PubMed

    Alves-Simoes, Marta; Coleman, Georgia; Canal, Maria Mercè

    2016-02-01

    Light is the principal synchronizing environmental factor for the biological clock. Light quantity (intensity), and light quality (type of light source) can have different effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of light experienced from the time of birth on mouse growth, circadian behaviour and stress levels. We raised pigmented and albino mice under 24 h light-dark cycles of either fluorescent or white light-emitting diode (LED) light source during the suckling stage, and the animals were then exposed to various light environments after weaning and their growth rate, locomotor activity and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured. We found that the type of light the animals were exposed to did not affect the animals' growth rates or stress levels. However, we observed significant effects on the expression of the locomotor activity rhythm under low contrast light-dark cycles in pigmented mice, and under constant light in both albino and pigmented mice. These results highlight the importance of environmental light quality (light source) on circadian behavioural rhythms, and the need for close monitoring of light environments in animal facilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Chlorpyrifos pollution: its effect on brain acetylcholinesterase activity in rat and treatment of polluted soil by indigenous Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shelly; Singh, Partap Bir; Chadha, Pooja; Saini, Harvinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the levels of chlorpyrifos (CPF) pollution in agricultural soil of Punjab, India, its detrimental effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat brain and bioremediation of soils polluted with CPF using indigenous and adapted bacterial lab isolate. The analysis revealed that soil samples of Bathinda and Amritsar regions are highly contaminated with chlorpyrifos showing 19 to 175 mg/kg concentrations of CPF. The non-targeted animals may get poisoned with CPF by its indirect dermal absorption, inhalation of toxic fumes and regular consumption of soiled food grains. The study indicated that even the lowermost concentrations of CPF, 19 and 76 mg/kg of soil found in the Amritsar and Bathinda regions respectively can significantly inhibit the AChE activity in rat brain within 24 h of its treatment. This represents the antagonistic effect of CPF on AChE which is a prime neurotransmitter present in all living beings including humans. In light of this, an attempt was made to remediate the polluted soil, a major reservoir of CPF, using Pseudomonas sp. (ChlD), an indigenous bacterial isolate. The culture efficiently degraded 10 to 100 mg/kg chlorpyrifos supplemented in the soil and utilized it as sole source of carbon and energy for its growth. Thus, this study provides a detailed insight regarding the level of CPF pollution in Punjab, its detrimental effects on mammals and bio-based solution to remediate the sites polluted with CPF.

  4. Protection of SAAO observing site against light and dust pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefako, Ramotholo; Väisänen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing station near Sutherland, Northern Cape in South Africa, is one of the darkest sites in the world for optical and IR astronomy. The SAAO hosts and operates several facilities, including the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and a number of international robotic telescopes. To ensure that the conditions remain optimal for astronomy, legislation called the Astronomy Geographic Advantage (AGA) Act, of 2007, was enacted. The Act empowers the Department of Science and Technology (DST) to regulate issues that pose a threat to optical and/or radio astronomy in areas declared Astronomy Advantage Areas in South Africa. For optical astronomy, the main challenges are those posed by light and dust pollution as result of wind energy developments, and petroleum gas and oil exploration/exploitation in the area. We give an update of possible threats to the quality of the night skies at SAAO, and the challenges relating to the AGA Act implementation and enforcement. We discuss measures that are put in place to protect the Observatory, including a study to quantify the threat by a planned wind energy facility.

  5. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  6. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m-2 s-1) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36–60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  7. Polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies: Determination of emission levels associated with the best available techniques.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, D; Verachtert, E; Vander Aa, S; Polders, C; Van den Abeele, L

    2016-08-01

    Rainwater falling on outdoor storage areas of waste recovery and recycling companies becomes polluted via contact with the stored materials. It contains various pollutants, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, and is characterized by a highly fluctuating composition and flow rate. This polluted rainwater runoff is legally considered as industrial wastewater, and the polluting substances contained in the rainwater runoff at the point of discharge, are considered as emissions into water. The permitting authorities can set emission limit values (discharge limits) at the point of discharge. Best available techniques are an important reference point for setting emission limit values. In this paper, the emission levels associated with the best available techniques for dealing with polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies were determined. The determination is based on an analysis of emission data measured at different companies in Flanders. The data show that a significant fraction of the pollution in rainwater runoff is associated with particles. A comparison with literature data provides strong indications that not only leaching, but also atmospheric deposition play an important role in the contamination of rainwater at waste recovery and recycling companies. The prevention of pollution and removal of suspended solids from rainwater runoff to levels below 60mg/l are considered as best available techniques. The associated emission levels were determined by considering only emission data from plants applying wastewater treatment, and excluding all samples with suspended solid levels >60mg/l. The resulting BAT-AEL can be used as a reference point for setting emission limit values for polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies. Since the BAT-AEL (e.g. 150μg/l for Cu) are significantly lower than current emission levels (e.g. 300μg/l as the 90% percentile and 4910

  8. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Artuñedo, Antonio; del Toro, Raúl M.; Haber, Rodolfo E.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks. PMID:28445398

  9. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    PubMed

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  10. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  11. Using Lighting Levels to Control Sound Levels in a College Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hronek, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Many libraries have noise problems that can't be fixed with ceiling and carpet treatments, physical arrangement, or sound barriers. This study at Henderson Community College (Henderson KY) attempted to confirm results from an earlier study suggesting that reducing light levels led to reduced noise. The data showed mixed results, but overall the…

  12. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed.

  13. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  14. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  15. United Kingdom unveils ambitious air pollution plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    The U.K. government's new strategy to combat air pollution has drawn praise for its ambitious goals—and reservations about whether they will be achieved. Environmental scientists have applauded the aims of the Clean Air Strategy, which include substantially reducing the number of people breathing air containing high levels of fine particulates and curbing ammonia emissions from agriculture. But for now, the document, published as a draft for public consultation on 22 May, remains light on the specific policies that will help the country attain these goals. And although the government has said that with the new strategy it will go further than the European Union in tackling air pollution post-Brexit, scientists say major improvements to air quality will require a coordinated effort across Europe.

  16. Multispectral simulation environment for modeling low-light-level sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Brown, Scott D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Rolando V.

    1998-11-01

    Image intensifying cameras have been found to be extremely useful in low-light-level (LLL) scenarios including military night vision and civilian rescue operations. These sensors utilize the available visible region photons and an amplification process to produce high contrast imagery. It has been demonstrated that processing techniques can further enhance the quality of this imagery. For example, fusion with matching thermal IR imagery can improve image content when very little visible region contrast is available. To aid in the improvement of current algorithms and the development of new ones, a high fidelity simulation environment capable of producing radiometrically correct multi-band imagery for low- light-level conditions is desired. This paper describes a modeling environment attempting to meet these criteria by addressing the task as two individual components: (1) prediction of a low-light-level radiance field from an arbitrary scene, and (2) simulation of the output from a low- light-level sensor for a given radiance field. The radiance prediction engine utilized in this environment is the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model which is a first principles based multi-spectral synthetic image generation model capable of producing an arbitrary number of bands in the 0.28 to 20 micrometer region. The DIRSIG model is utilized to produce high spatial and spectral resolution radiance field images. These images are then processed by a user configurable multi-stage low-light-level sensor model that applies the appropriate noise and modulation transfer function (MTF) at each stage in the image processing chain. This includes the ability to reproduce common intensifying sensor artifacts such as saturation and 'blooming.' Additionally, co-registered imagery in other spectral bands may be simultaneously generated for testing fusion and exploitation algorithms. This paper discusses specific aspects of the DIRSIG radiance prediction for low

  17. Navigational Efficiency of Nocturnal Myrmecia Ants Suffers at Low Light Levels

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Raderschall, Chloé A.

    2013-01-01

    Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available. PMID:23484052

  18. Effect of Pulsing in Low-Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Javad T.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Kurup, Divya Balachandran; De Taboada, Luis; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Low level light (or laser) therapy (LLLT) is a rapidly growing modality used in physical therapy, chiropractic, sports medicine and increasingly in mainstream medicine. LLLT is used to increase wound healing and tissue regeneration, to relieve pain and inflammation, to prevent tissue death, to mitigate degeneration in many neurological indications. While some agreement has emerged on the best wavelengths of light and a range of acceptable dosages to be used (irradiance and fluence), there is no agreement on whether continuous wave or pulsed light is best and on what factors govern the pulse parameters to be chosen. Study Design/Materials and Methods The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1970 and 2010. Results The basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of LLLT are discussed. The type of pulsed light sources available and the parameters that govern their pulse structure are outlined. Studies that have compared continuous wave and pulsed light in both animals and patients are reviewed. Frequencies used in other pulsed modalities used in physical therapy and biomedicine are compared to those used in LLLT. Conclusion There is some evidence that pulsed light does have effects that are different from those of continuous wave light. However further work is needed to define these effects for different disease conditions and pulse structures. PMID:20662021

  19. Effects of light-emitting diode light v. fluorescent light on growing performance, activity levels and well-being of non-beak-trimmed W-36 pullets.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Xin, H; Settar, P

    2018-01-01

    More energy-efficient, readily dimmable, long-lasting and more affordable light-emitting diode (LED) lights are increasingly finding applications in poultry production facilities. Despite anecdotal evidence about the benefits of such lighting on bird performance and behavior, concrete research data were lacking. In this study, a commercial poultry-specific LED light (dim-to-blue, controllable correlated color temperature (CCT) from 4500 to 5300 K) and a typical compact fluorescent light (CFL) (soft white, CCT=2700 K) were compared with regards to their effects on growing performance, activity levels, and feather and comb conditions of non-beak-trimmed W-36 pullets during a 14-week rearing period. A total of 1280-day-old pullets in two successive batches, 640 birds each, were used in the study. For each batch, pullets were randomly assigned to four identical litter-floor rooms equipped with perches, two rooms per light regimen, 160 birds per room. Body weight, BW uniformity (BWU), BW gain (BWG) and cumulative mortality rate (CMR) of the pullets were determined every 2 weeks from day-old to 14 weeks of age (WOA). Activity levels of the pullets at 5 to 14 WOA were delineated by movement index. Results revealed that pullets under the LED and CFL lights had comparable BW (1140±5 g v. 1135±5 g, P=0.41), BWU (90.8±1.0% v. 91.9±1.0%, P=0.48) and CMR (1.3±0.6% v. 2.7±0.6%, P=0.18) at 14 WOA despite some varying BWG during the rearing. Circadian activity levels of the pullets were higher under the LED light than under the CFL light, possibly resulting from differences in spectrum and/or perceived light intensity between the two lights. No feather damage or comb wound was apparent in either light regimen at the end of the rearing period. The results contribute to understanding the impact of emerging LED lights on pullets rearing which is a critical component of egg production.

  20. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-01-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings. PMID:11607262

  1. Low Level Light Therapy with Light-Emitting Diodes for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Vasily, David B

    2016-07-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is emerging from the mists of black magic as a solid medico-scientific modality, with a substantial buildup of corroborative bodies of evidence for its efficacy and elucidation of the modes of action. Reports are appearing from many different specialties; however, of particular interest to plastic surgeons treating the aging face is the proven action of LED-LLLT on skin cells in both the epidermis and dermis and enhanced blood flow. Thus, LED-LLLT is a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for patients who are prepared to wait until the final effect is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Artificial light at night desynchronizes strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Robert, Kylie A; Lesku, John A; Partecke, Jesko; Chambers, Brian

    2015-10-07

    Change in day length is an important cue for reproductive activation in seasonally breeding animals to ensure that the timing of greatest maternal investment (e.g. lactation in mammals) coincides with favourable environmental conditions (e.g. peak productivity). However, artificial light at night has the potential to interfere with the perception of such natural cues. Following a 5-year study on two populations of wild marsupial mammals exposed to different night-time levels of anthropogenic light, we show that light pollution in urban environments masks seasonal changes in ambient light cues, suppressing melatonin levels and delaying births in the tammar wallaby. These results highlight a previously unappreciated relationship linking artificial light at night with induced changes in mammalian reproductive physiology, and the potential for larger-scale impacts at the population level. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy David; Heile Christensen, Jesper; Skou Andersen, Mikael; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Buus Hansen, Ayoe; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources/sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level. The EVA system integrates a regional-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model (DEHM), address-level population data, exposure-response functions and monetary values applicable for Danish/European conditions. Traditionally, systems that assess economic costs of health impacts from air pollution assume linear approximations in the source-receptor relationships. However, atmospheric chemistry is non-linear and therefore the uncertainty involved in the linear assumption can be large. The EVA system has been developed to take into account the non-linear processes by using a comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemical transport model when calculating how specific changes to emissions affect air pollution levels and the subsequent impacts on human health and cost. Furthermore, we present a new "tagging" method, developed to examine how specific emission sources influence air pollution levels without assuming linearity of the non-linear behaviour of atmospheric chemistry. This method is more precise than the traditional approach based on taking the difference between two concentration fields. Using the EVA system, we have estimated the total external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the ten major SNAP codes. Finally, we assess the impacts and external costs of emissions from international ship traffic around Denmark, since there is a high volume of ship traffic in the region.

  4. Evaluation of Pollution Level in Zolotoy Rog Bay (Peter the Great Gulf, the Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachkova, Y.; Lazareva, L.; Petukhov, V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the hydrochemical research of water and bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay in July 2015 are presented below. It is shown that, as a result of a large amount of polluted sewage entering The Zolotoy Rog Bay, the concentrations of organic substances (BOD5) and petroleum hydrocarbons in the water exceed the MPC. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils exceed both the background level and the level of permissible values. As a result of the calculation of the bottom accumulation (CBA) coefficient for oil hydrocarbons, the situation in the Zolotoy Rog Bay can be classified as an ecological disaster. According to the total pollution index (Zc) of heavy metals, the bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay are characterized as strongly and very strongly polluted.

  5. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  6. Coastal urban lighting has ecological consequences for multiple trophic levels under the sea.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D; Mayer-Pinto, M; Clark, G F; Dafforn, K A; Brassil, W A; Becker, A; Johnston, E L

    2017-01-15

    Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN). An array of LED spotlights was installed under a wharf to create the ALAN treatments. We used GoPro cameras to film during the day and ALAN treatments, and a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) to film during the night treatments. Fish were most abundant during unlit nights, but were also relatively sedentary. Predatory behaviour was greatest during the day and under ALAN than at night, suggesting that fish are using structures for non-feeding purposes (e.g. shelter) at night, but artificial light dramatically increases their predatory behaviour. Altered predator behaviour corresponded with structural changes to sessile prey assemblages among the experimental lighting treatments. We demonstrate the direct effects of artificial lighting on fish behaviour and the concomitant indirect effects on sessile assemblage structure. Current and future projected use of artificial lights has the potential to significantly affect predator-prey interactions in marine systems by altering habitat use for both predators and prey. However, developments in lighting technology are a promising avenue for mitigation. This is among the first empirical evidence from the marine system on how ALAN can directly alter predation, a fundamental ecosystem process, and have indirect trophic consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas.

    PubMed

    Kamrowski, Ruth L; Limpus, Col; Jones, Rhondda; Anderson, Sharolyn; Hamann, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Artificial light at night poses a significant threat to multiple taxa across the globe. In coastal regions, artificial lighting close to marine turtle nesting beaches is disruptive to their breeding success. Prioritizing effective management of light pollution requires an understanding of how the light exposure of nesting areas changes over time in response to changing temporal and spatial distributions of coastal development. We analyzed multitemporal, satellite night-light data, in combination with linear mixed model analysis, to determine broadscale changes in artificial light exposure at Australian marine turtle nesting areas between 1993 and 2010. We found seven marine turtle management units (MU), from five species, have experienced significant increases in light exposure over time, with flatback turtles nesting in east Australia experiencing the fastest increases. The remaining 12 MUs showed no significant change in light exposure. Unchanging MUs included those previously identified as having high exposure to light pollution (located in western Australia and southern Queensland), indicating that turtles in these areas have been potentially exposed to high light levels since at least the early nineties. At a finer geographic scale (within-MU), nine MUs contained nesting areas with significant increases in light exposure. These nesting areas predominantly occurred close to heavily industrialized coastal areas, thus emphasizing the importance of rigorous light management in industry. Within all MUs, nesting areas existed where light levels were extremely low and/or had not significantly increased since 1993. With continued coastal development, nesting females may shift to these darker/unchanging 'buffer' areas in the future. This is valuable information that informs our understanding of the capacity and resilience of marine turtles faced with coastal development: an understanding that is essential for effective marine turtle conservation. © 2013 John Wiley

  8. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed.

  9. Interaction between air pollution exposure and genes in relation to levels of inflammatory markers and risk of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Panasevich, Sviatlana; Leander, Karin; Ljungman, Petter; Bellander, Tom; de Faire, Ulf; Pershagen, Göran; Nyberg, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution exposure induces cardiovascular effects, possibly via systemic inflammation and coagulation misbalance. Genetic variation may determine individual susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate effect modification by inflammation (Interleukin6 (IL6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and coagulation (fibrinogen Bβ, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) gene variants on the effect of long-term or short-term air pollution exposure on both blood marker levels and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Design Population-based case–control study with a nested case-crossover study. Gene-environment interactions for short-term and long-term air pollution on blood marker levels were studied in population controls, for long-term exposure on MI risk using case–control design, and for short-term exposure on MI onset using case-crossover design. Setting The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP) conducted in 1992–1994 in Stockholm, Sweden. Spatial modelling was used to assess long-term (up to 30 years retrospectively) air pollution exposure to traffic-NO2 and heating-SO2 emissions at home addresses. Urban background NO2, SO2, PM10 and O3 measurements were used to estimate short-term (up to 5 days) air pollution exposure. Participants 1192 MI cases and 1506 population controls aged 45–70 years. Outcomes The levels of blood markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α) and coagulation (fibrinogen, PAI-1) and MI risk. Results We observed gene–environment interaction for several IL6 and TNF SNPs in relation to inflammation blood marker levels. One-year traffic-NO2 exposure was associated with higher IL-6 levels with each additional IL6-174C allele, and 1-year heating-SO2 exposure with higher levels of TNF-α in TNF-308AA homozygotes versus −308G carriers. Short-term air pollution exposure also interacted with IL6 and TNF in relation to marker levels. The risk of MI followed the effect on blood markers in each genotype group

  10. Analysis of the Momentum and Pollutant Transport at the Roof Level of 2D Idealized Street Canyons: a Large-Eddy Simulation Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wai Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the detailed momentum and pollutant transports between urban street canyons and the shear layer, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model was developed to calculate the flow and pollutant dispersion in isothermal conditions. The computational domain consisted of three identical two-dimensional (2D) idealized street canyons of unity aspect ratio. The flow field was assumed to be periodic in the horizontal domain boundaries. The subgrid-scale (SGS) stress was calculated by solving the SGS turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) conservation. An area pollutant source with constant pollutant concentration was prescribed on the ground of all streets. Zero pollutant concentration and an open boundary were applied at the domain inflow and outflow, respectively. The quadrant and budget analyses were employed to examine the momentum and pollutant transports at the roof level of the street canyons. Quadrant analyses of the resolved-scale vertical fluxes of momentum and pollutant along the roof level were performed to compare the contributions of different events/scales to the transport processes. The roof of the street canyon is divided into five segments, namely leeward side, upwind shift, center core, downwind shift and windward side in the streamwise direction. Among the four quadrants considered, the sweeps/ejections, which correspond to the downward/upward motions, dominate the momentum/pollutant transfer. The inward/outward interactions play relatively minor roles. While studying the events in detail, the contribution from the sweeps is mainly large-scale fluctuation compared with that of ejections. Moreover, most of the momentum and pollutant transports take place on the windward side. The strong shear at the roof level initiates instability that in turn promotes the increasing turbulent transport from the leeward side to the windward side. At the same time, the roof-level fluctuations grow linearly in the streamwise direction leading to the

  11. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Marquezini, Mônica V.; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Santos, Ubiratan P.; Braga, Alfésio L. F.; Alves, Milton R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1) and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1) were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm) was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student’s t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper) and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23–37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001). The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%), the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11%) and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%). A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusion High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated

  12. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As public health concerns for populations living, working and going to school near high-traffic roadways have increased, so have the need to identify and implement air pollution control strategies effective at the local level. While strategies implemented at the federal and stat...

  13. [Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants.

  14. Low-level light treatment ameliorates immune thrombocytopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingke; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Mei X.

    2017-02-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated acquired bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally low platelet counts. We reported here the ability of low-level light treatment (LLLT) to alleviate ITP in mice. The treatment is based on noninvasive whole body illumination 30 min a day for a few consecutive days by near infrared light (830 nm) transmitted by an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). LLLT significantly lifted the nadir of platelet counts and restored tail bleeding time when applied to two passive ITP models induced by anti-CD41 antibody. The anti-platelet antibody hindered megakaryocyte differentiation from the progenitors, impaired proplatelet and platelet formation, and induced apoptosis of platelets. These adverse effects of anti-CD41 antibody were all mitigated by LLLT to varying degrees, owing to its ability to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in megakaryocytes and preserve mitochondrial functions in platelets in the presence of the antibody. The observations argue not only for contribution of mitochondrial stress to the pathology of ITP, but also clinical potentials of LLLT as a safe, simple, and cost-effective modality of ITP.

  15. Levels of metals in hair of young children as an indicator of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, A.A.; Herber, R.F.; Das, H.A.

    In 1982 the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) were determined in hair of 231 four- to five-year-old children. The objective was to explore the feasibility of using metal-in-hair levels in groups of children as an indicator of environmental pollution. The study was carried out in four areas, which were assumed to differ in ambient pollution by metals. A questionnaire on personal data, socioeconomic status, intake of beverages, and life-style was completed by the parents. The metal-in-hair levels covered a large range. The variables pertaining to location together with sex, presence of amore » garden, and drinking of coffee and/or tea explained 32% of the variance of Pb, 24% of the variance of Cd, and 21% of the variance of V. The total variance explained by all measured questionnaire items was at best 38%. The location was the most important factor. Cu and Se levels did not differ between the locations.« less

  16. Studies of self-pollution in diesel school buses: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Considerable interest has focused on levels of exhaust emissions in the cabins of diesel-powered school buses and their possible adverse health effects. Significantly different policy and engineering issues would be raised if compelling evidence found that inc-cabin contamination was due to self-pollution from bus emissions, rather than ambient pollution, neighboring vehicles, and/or re-entrained road dust. We identified 19 reports from 11 studies that measured diesel exhaust particulate in the cabins of 58 school bus of various type. Studies were evaluated in light of their experimental design, their data quality, and their capacity to quantify self-pollution. Only one study had a true experimental design, comparing the same buses with and without emission controls, while four others used intentional tracers to quantify tail pipe and/or crankcase emissions. Although definitive data are still lacking, these studies suggest that currently available control technologies can nearly eliminate particulate self-pollution inside diesel school buses.

  17. Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment

    PubMed Central

    Aubé, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005 Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane. PMID:25780231

  18. Environmental lead pollution and elevated blood lead levels among children in a rural area of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-05-01

    We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.

  19. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  20. The effect of spatial and spectral heterogeneity of ground-based light sources on night-sky radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.; Aubé, M.; Kohút, I.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, light pollution is a permanent problem at many observatories around the world. Elimination of excessive lighting during the night is not only about reduction of the total luminous power of ground-based light sources, but also involves experimenting with the spectral features of single lamps. Astronomical photometry is typically made at specific wavelengths, and thus the analysis of the spectral effects of light pollution is highly important. Nevertheless, studies on the spectral behaviour of night light are quite rare. Instead, broad-band or integral quantities (such as sky luminance) are preferentially measured and modelled. The knowledge of night-light spectra is necessary for the proper interpretation of narrow-band photometry data. In this paper, the night-sky radiances in the nominal spectral lines of the B (445 nm) and V (551 nm) filters are determined numerically under clear-sky conditions. Simultaneously, the corresponding sky-luminance patterns are computed and compared against the spectral radiances. It is shown that spectra, patterns and distances of the most important light sources (towns) surrounding an observatory are essential for determining the light pollution levels. In addition, the optical characteristics of the local atmosphere can change the angular behaviour of the sky radiance or luminance. All these effects are evaluated for two Slovakian observatories: Stará Lesná and Vartovka.

  1. Correlation of ambient pollution levels and heavily-trafficked roadway proximity on the prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jassal, M S; Bakman, I; Jones, B

    2013-03-01

    Varying levels of evidence exist for the contribution of indoor air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke as a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Despite a similar mechanism of action, the influence of outdoor air pollution exposure as an independent contributor to TB disease has yet to be explored. This area of inquiry is of increasing importance given the level of pollution in the rising economies of many TB-endemic nations. Los Angeles' unique physical environs and traffic patterns mirror other global megacities with a greater burden of TB therefore allowing for preliminary correlative studies. This preliminary study hypothesizes that individuals who reside proximal to elevated pollutant exposures are likely to have a greater burden of disease--as evidenced by sputum smear-positive TB. Retrospective medical records review. Medical records of non-homeless individuals (n = 196) diagnosed with culture positive TB at Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center Hospital were analyzed from January 2007 to December 2008. The study population was grouped according to acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-positive (n = 111) and smear-negative (n = 85) status. Air pollutant exposure was captured using measurements of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 (PM2.5). Individual assignment to O3 and PM2.5 exposures were based on residential proximity to the nearest US Environmental Protection Agency's monitoring station. Proximity of home residences to traffic-related pollutants occurred by measurement of distance to the nearest freeway and major non-freeway road. Single factorial models yielded a significant correlation of smear-positive status and residential exposure to PM2.5. Residential distance to freeways and major arterial roads did not yield an association. This is the first report linking ambient pollution exposure as a risk factor for TB. PM2.5 may have the potential to impact TB lung pathology as

  2. Joliet Junior College and the 2015 International Year of Light's Cosmic Light Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2015-01-01

    We teach "Descriptive Astronomy" and "Life in the Universe" courses for non-science majors at Joliet Junior College, Joliet IL. We also occasionally present planetarium shows at the college's planetarium. In 2015, we plan to highlight the "Cosmic Light" theme of the 2015 International Year of Light through some of our teaching and outreach activities. For several years, together with our students, we have participated in the Globe at Night light pollution program. In 2015, we plan to continue our participation in this program and we will continue to encourage our students to participate on their own from other locations. We will present a live planetarium show on Light Pollution in Spring 2015 as part of the college's Brown Bag Lecture Series. We plan to develop and present one or two live planetarium presentations that focus on studying astronomical objects across the electromagnetic spectrum during 2015. Also in Spring 2015, we plan to include projects that highlight the International Year of Light in our Descriptive Astronomy course offerings. Our poster will provide details of these "Cosmic Light" activities.

  3. Persistent Organic Pollutant and Hormone Levels in Harbor Porpoise with B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Winfield, Zach C; Rickman, Barry H; Usenko, Sascha; Klope, Matthew; Berta, Susan; Dubpernell, Sandra; Garrett, Howard; Adams, Mary Jo; Lambourn, Dyanna; Huggins, Jessica L; Lysiak, Nadine; Clark, Adelaide E; Sanders, Rebel; Trumble, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    B-cell lymphoma, a common morphologic variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, has been associated with persistent pollutants in humans, but this association is not well-characterized in top-level predators sharing marine resources with humans. We characterized and compared blubber contaminants and hormones of a pregnant harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with B-cell lymphoma, with those in two presumed healthy fishery by-caught porpoises with no lymphoma: a pregnant adult and female juvenile. Common historic use compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and pesticides, were evaluated in blubber samples from three porpoises. In addition, blubber cortisol and progesterone levels (ng/g) were determined in all three animals. Total pollutant concentrations were highest in the juvenile porpoise, followed by the lymphoma porpoise and the nonlymphoma adult. Blubber cortisol concentrations were 191% greater in the pregnant with lymphoma porpoise compared with the pregnant no lymphoma porpoise, and 89% greater in the juvenile female compared with the pregnant no lymphoma porpoise. Although both adults were pregnant, progesterone levels were substantially greater (90%) in the healthy compared with the lymphoma adult. Health monitoring of top-level marine predators, such as porpoise, provides a sentinel measure of contaminants that serve as indicators of potential environmental exposure to humans.

  4. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5 with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM 2.5 . However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048

  6. Traffic and outdoor air pollution levels near residences and poorly controlled asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Wilhelm, Michelle; Rull, Rudolph P; English, Paul; Ritz, Beate

    2007-05-01

    Air pollution may exacerbate asthma. To investigate associations between traffic and outdoor air pollution levels near residences and poorly controlled asthma among adults diagnosed as having asthma in Los Angeles and San Diego counties, California. We estimated traffic density within 500 ft of 2001 California Health Interview Survey respondents' reported residential cross-street intersections. Additionally, we assigned annual average concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter 2.5 and 10 micrometers or less in diameter, and carbon monoxide measured at government monitoring stations within a 5-mile radius of the reported residential cross-street intersections. We observed a 2-fold increase in poorly controlled asthma (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-3.23) among asthmatic adults in the highest quintile of traffic density after adjusting for age, sex, race, and poverty. Similar increases were seen for nonelderly adults, men, and women, although associations seemed strongest in elderly adults (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.13-7.91). Ozone exposures were associated with poorly controlled asthma among elderly adults (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.91-3.18 per 1 pphm) and men (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.05-2.94 per 1 pphm), whereas particulate matter 10 micrometers or less seemed to affect primarily women (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.17-3.61), even at levels below the national air quality standard. Heavy traffic and high air pollution levels near residences are associated with poorly controlled asthma.

  7. The dark art of light measurement: accurate radiometry for low-level light therapy.

    PubMed

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Zainal, Siti A; Holder, Michelle J; Carroll, James D; Cooper, Paul R; Milward, Michael R; Palin, William M

    2016-05-01

    Lasers and light-emitting diodes are used for a range of biomedical applications with many studies reporting their beneficial effects. However, three main concerns exist regarding much of the low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation literature; (1) incomplete, inaccurate and unverified irradiation parameters, (2) miscalculation of 'dose,' and (3) the misuse of appropriate light property terminology. The aim of this systematic review was to assess where, and to what extent, these inadequacies exist and to provide an overview of 'best practice' in light measurement methods and importance of correct light measurement. A review of recent relevant literature was performed in PubMed using the terms LLLT and photobiomodulation (March 2014-March 2015) to investigate the contemporary information available in LLLT and photobiomodulation literature in terms of reporting light properties and irradiation parameters. A total of 74 articles formed the basis of this systematic review. Although most articles reported beneficial effects following LLLT, the majority contained no information in terms of how light was measured (73%) and relied on manufacturer-stated values. For all papers reviewed, missing information for specific light parameters included wavelength (3%), light source type (8%), power (41%), pulse frequency (52%), beam area (40%), irradiance (43%), exposure time (16%), radiant energy (74%) and fluence (16%). Frequent use of incorrect terminology was also observed within the reviewed literature. A poor understanding of photophysics is evident as a significant number of papers neglected to report or misreported important radiometric data. These errors affect repeatability and reliability of studies shared between scientists, manufacturers and clinicians and could degrade efficacy of patient treatments. Researchers need a physicist or appropriately skilled engineer on the team, and manuscript reviewers should reject papers that do not report beam measurement

  8. Concentration and Variety of Carbapenemase Producers in Recreational Coastal Waters Showing Distinct Levels of Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Raphael P.; Campana, Eloiza H.; Corrêa, Laís L.; Montezzi, Lara F.; Barrueto, Lina R. L.; da Silva, Isadora R.; Castro, Laura de S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbapenemase-producing bacteria cause difficult-to-treat infections related to increased mortality in health care settings. Their occurrence has been reported in raw sewage, sewage-impacted rivers, and polluted coastal waters, which may indicate their spread to the community. We assessed the variety and concentration of carbapenemase producers in coastal waters with distinct pollution levels for 1 year. We describe various bacterial species producing distinct carbapenemases not only in unsuitable waters but also in waters considered suitable for primary contact. PMID:28971868

  9. Low-level light treatment ameliorates immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingke; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiyu; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated acquired bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally low platelet counts. We reported here the ability of low-level light treatment (LLLT) to alleviate ITP in mice. The treatment is based on noninvasive whole body illumination 30 min a day for a few consecutive days by near infrared light (830 nm) transmitted by an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). LLLT significantly lifted the nadir of platelet counts and restored tail bleeding time when applied to two passive ITP models induced by anti-CD41 antibody. The anti-platelet antibody hindered megakaryocyte differentiation from the progenitors, impaired proplatelet and platelet formation, and induced apoptosis of platelets. These adverse effects of anti-CD41 antibody were all mitigated by LLLT to varying degrees, owing to its ability to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in megakaryocytes and preserve mitochondrial functions in platelets in the presence of the antibody. The observations argue not only for contribution of mitochondrial stress to the pathology of ITP, but also clinical potentials of LLLT as a safe, simple, and cost-effective modality of ITP. PMID:27901126

  10. Lightness of an object under two illumination levels.

    PubMed

    Zdravković, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Anchoring theory (Gilchrist et al, 1999 Psychological Review 106 795-834) predicts a wide range of lightness errors, including failures of constancy in multi-illumination scenes and a long list of well-known lightness illusions seen under homogeneous illumination. Lightness values are computed both locally and globally and then averaged together. Local values are computed within a given region of homogeneous illumination. Thus, for an object that extends through two different illumination levels, anchoring theory produces two values, one for the patch in brighter illumination and one for the patch in dimmer illumination. Observers can give matches for these patches separately, but they can also give a single match for the whole object. Anchoring theory in its current form is unable to predict these object matches. We report eight experiments in which we studied the relationship between patch matches and object matches. The results show that the object match represents a compromise between the match for the patch in the field of highest illumination and the patch in the largest field of illumination. These two principles are parallel to the rules found for anchoring lightness: highest luminance rule and area rule.

  11. Impact of light rail transit on traffic-related pollution and stroke mortality.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sug; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2017-09-01

    This paper evaluates the changes in vehicle exhaust and stroke mortality for the general public residing in the surrounding area of the light rail transit (LRT) in Houston, Texas, after its opening. The number of daily deaths due to stroke for 2002-2005 from the surrounding area of the original LRT line (exposure group) and the control groups was analyzed using an interrupted time-series analysis. Ambient concentrations of acetylene before and after the opening of LRT were also compared. A statistically significant reduction in the average concentration of acetylene was observed for the exposure sites whereas the reduction was negligible at the control site. Poisson regression models applied to the stroke mortality data indicated a significant reduction in daily stroke mortality after the opening of LRT for the exposure group, while there was either an increase or a considerably smaller reduction for the control groups. The findings support the idea that LRT systems provide health benefits for the general public and that the reduction in motor-vehicle-related air pollution may have contributed to these health benefits.

  12. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness Levels of Electromagnetic Pollution and Other Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…

  13. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of environmental lead pollution on blood lead levels in traffic police constables in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, Farida; Sadaruddin, Agha; Khatoon, Naz

    2005-10-01

    To determine the blood lead levels and trace elements (copper and manganese) in traffic police constables in Islamabad in order to assess the effects of environmental pollution on the levels of metals in body fluids. Blood samples were collected from 47 male traffic police constables, 21 to 45 years of age, posted in different areas of Islamabad and controlling traffic from 3 months to 18 years, 8 hours/day, 6 days/week. Adolescent males (13-19 years), residing in comparatively clean and very low traffic areas were included as controls. Blood lead, copper, and manganese concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean blood lead level among constables (27.27 microg/dl) was significantly (p<0.0001) high as compared to controls (3.22 microg/dl). Twenty one percent constables had elevated blood lead levels (over 25 microg/dl) and 13% had levels above the safety limit (40 microg/dl). No correlation was found between blood lead levels and length of service. No significant difference was found in the mean values for copper between traffic constables (93.49 microg/dl) and controls (71.15 microg/dl). The mean blood manganese levels in traffic constables (21.94 microg/dl) were significantly (p<0.0001) higher than in controls (1.70 microg/dl). The mean blood lead levels were significantly high in traffic constables of Karachi (47.7 microg/dl) as compared to Islamabad (27.2 microg/dl), which shows direct relation of rise in blood lead levels with vehicle exhaust. Environmental lead pollution is associated with an increased blood lead concentration in those who are regularly exposed to vehicle exhaust in high traffic areas. The degree of lead pollution arising from vehicle exhaust differs in Karachi and Islamabad. Exposure to air containing dust particles rich in manganese may affect blood manganese levels.

  15. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelem, C.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  16. Association Between Changes in Air Pollution Levels During the Beijing Olympics and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Thrombosis in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rich, David Q.; Kipen, Howard M.; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Hu, Min; Philipp, Claire; Diehl, Scott R.; Lu, Shou-En; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2014-01-01

    Context Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. Objective To determine whether markers related to CVD pathophysiological pathways (biomarkers for systemic inflammation and thrombosis, heart rate, and blood pressure) are sensitive to changes in air pollution. Design, Setting, and Participants Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics, we measured pollutants daily and the outcomes listed below in 125 healthy young adults before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics (June 2-October 30). We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the improvement in outcome levels during the Olympics and the anticipated reversal of outcome levels after pollution controls ended to determine whether changes in outcome levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations. Main Outcome Measures C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sCD62P) concentrations; white blood cell count (WBC); heart rate; and blood pressure. Results Concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants decreased substantially (−13% to −60%) from the pre-Olympic period to the during-Olympic period. Using 2-sided tests conducted at the .003 level, we observed statistically significant improvements in sCD62P levels by −34.0% (95% CI, −38.4% to −29.2%; P<.001) from a pre-Olympic mean of 6.29 ng/mL to a during-Olympic mean of 4.16 ng/mL and von Willebrand factor by −13.1% (95% CI, −18.6% to −7.5%; P<.001) from 106.4% to 92.6%. After adjustments for multiple comparisons, changes in the other outcomes were not statistically significant. In the post-Olympic period when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Olympic levels, but only sCD62P and systolic blood pressure were significantly worsened from the during-Olympic period

  17. Cloud Coverage Acts as an Amplifier for Ecological Light Pollution in Urban Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this “ecological light pollution”. We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered. PMID:21399694

  18. Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment.

    PubMed

    Aubé, Martin

    2015-05-05

    Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005 Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term dim light during nighttime changes activity patterns and space use in experimental small mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Palme, Rupert; Eccard, Jana Anja

    2018-07-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) is spreading worldwide and thereby is increasingly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Meanwhile, effects of very low intensities of light pollution on animals have rarely been investigated. We explored the effects of low intensity ALAN over seven months in eight experimental bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations in large grassland enclosures over winter and early breeding season, using LED garden lamps. Initial populations consisted of eight individuals (32 animals per hectare) in enclosures with or without ALAN. We found that bank voles under ALAN experienced changes in daily activity patterns and space use behavior, measured by automated radiotelemetry. There were no differences in survival and body mass, measured with live trapping, and none in levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Voles in the ALAN treatment showed higher activity at night during half moon, and had larger day ranges during new moon. Thus, even low levels of light pollution as experienced in remote areas or by sky glow can lead to changes in animal behavior and could have consequences for species interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Light pollution and solid-state lighting: reducing the carbon dioxide footprint is not enough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salvador

    2013-11-01

    Public and private lighting account for a relevant share of the overall electric power consumption worldwide. The pressing need of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions as well as of lowering the lumen•hour price tag has fostered the search for alternative lighting technologies to substitute for the incandescent and gas-discharge based lamps. The most successful approach to date, solid-state lighting, is already finding its way into the public lighting market, very often helped by substantial public investments and support. LED-based sources have distinct advantages: under controlled coditions their efficacy equals or surpasses that of conventional solutions, their small source size allows for an efficient collimation of the lightbeam (delivering the photons where they are actually needed and reducing lightspill on the surrounding areas), and they can be switched and/or dimmed on demand at very high rates, thus allowing for a taylored schedule of lighting. However, energy savings and carbon dioxide reduction are not the only crucial issues faced by present day lighting. A growing body of research has shown the significance of the spectral composition of light when it comes to assess the detrimental effects of artificial light-at-night (ALAN). The potential ALAN blueshift associated to the deployment of LED-based lighting systems has raised sensible concerns about its scientific, cultural, ecological and public health consequences, which can be further amplified if an increased light consumption is produced due to the rebound effect. This contribution addresses some of the challenges that these issues pose to the Optics and Photonics community.

  1. Using community level strategies to reduce asthma attacks triggered by outdoor air pollution: a case crossover analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    pollutant exposure is important to effectively attribute risk for triggering of an asthma attack, especially as concentrations increase. Improved asthma action plans for Houston individuals should warn of these pollutants, their trends, correlation and cumulative effects. Our Houston based study identifies nitrogen dioxide levels and the three-day exposure to ozone to be of concern whereas current single pollutant based national standards do not. PMID:25012280

  2. Air Pollution and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R.; Shah, Anoop S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with “traditional” risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. PMID:29402072

  3. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  4. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  5. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  6. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire Smoke on Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Health Burden

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational da...

  7. Spatio-temporal Variations of Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in China, 2005-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuanzheng

    -known polluted regions in the east (5.3 +/- 0.8% yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 +/- 0.6% yr-1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 +/- 0.3% yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO 2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Finally, the signal of urbanization between 2005 and 2015 in the prefectural-level cities was identified from the OMI NO2 data, by using a high-resolution NO2 VCD dataset (with a spatial resolution of 0.125° x 0.125°) to derive three relevant metrics ("size relative trend" as a metric for urban area expansion, "mean relative trend" for mean urban pollution, and "max relative trend" for peak intensity). Additionally, the comparisons of the spatial distribution of annual mean NO 2 VCDs over China with night light data and population density data in 2010 show the similar spatial patterns of NO2, nighttime light and population density: the correlation coefficients get to 0.74 between NO 2 and night light and 0.66 between NO2 and population density. This highlights the consequences of urbanization for pollution and health impacts. Finally, a geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model is employed to explore the spatio-temporal relationship between NO 2 pollution and GDP at a city level over 2005-2013. The GTWR model results show that cities with highest positive estimated parameters were mainly those less developed cities from inland China by providing energy sources and semi-products to coastal cities in the east. For most cities, the NO2 pollution per unit of GDP has declined over 2005-2013, reflecting to some extent the success of local emission control that is accompanied with relocation of production and emissions from the east to the west and from richer to poorer areas. In summary, our results suggest that the central and

  8. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel

  9. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Feretti, Donatella; Viola, Gaia C V; Zerbini, Ilaria; Limina, Rosa M; Zani, Claudia; Capelli, Michela; Lamera, Rossella; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN) frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years) were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  10. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Nuts and Bolts of Low-level Laser (Light) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hoon; Dai, Tianhong; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of lasers in the 1960s it was realized that laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain, inflammation and swelling. In recent years the field sometimes known as photobiomodulation has broadened to include light-emitting diodes and other light sources, and the range of wavelengths used now includes many in the red and near infrared. The term “low level laser therapy” or LLLT has become widely recognized and implies the existence of the biphasic dose response or the Arndt-Schulz curve. This review will cover the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular and at a tissular level and will summarize the various light sources and principles of dosimetry that are employed in clinical practice. The range of diseases, injuries, and conditions that can be benefited by LLLT will be summarized with an emphasis on those that have reported randomized controlled clinical trials. Serious life-threatening diseases such as stroke, heart attack, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury may soon be amenable to LLLT therapy. PMID:22045511

  12. Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Baroncelli, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.

    1995-05-01

    Our institute has recently developed a differential optical absorption spectrometry system called the gas analyzer spectrometer correlating optical absorption differences (GASCOAD), which features as a detector a linear image sensor that uses an artificial light source for long-path tropospheric-pollution monitoring. The GASCOAD, its method of eliminating interference from background sky light, and subsequent spectral analysis are reported and discussed. The spectrometer was used from 7 to 22 February 1993 in Milan, a heavily polluted metropolitan area, to measure the concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, and HNO2 averaged over a 1.7-km horizontal light path. The findings are reported and briefly discussed.

  13. Air pollution levels reflected in deposits on building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Anders G.; Svärdh, Anna; Tronner, Kate

    About 1400 samples of building stone have been collected in Sweden and other European countries, mainly from polluted areas but also from countryside districts. All samples have been analysed by SEM/EDS, and some selected by other techniques like XRPD, GC/MS, or ICP. In particular, we have determined concentrations of gypsum, iron and some other metals; chlorine, phosphorus, soot (carbon), and organic components. The results confirm a positive correlation between SO 2 concentrations and gypsum formation on calcareous stone. Polluted areas generate more metal particles and particles of soot, asphalt, car-tyre rubber, fly-ash, quartz, calcite, gypsum, and chlorides. On building façades in polluted cities about 100 constituents have been identified, including carcinogeneous organic compounds like benzopyrene.

  14. Stable Nighttime Light Decreased in Protected Area of California: Findings from DMSP-OLS Observations and the Importance for Protected Area Policy Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S.; Gillespie, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Stable nighttime light, an indicator of persisting human activity and light pollution is a well-recognized disturbance to the wilderness of protected areas (PAs). Mostly supported by in situ observations, very limited studies of light pollution for PAs focused at a regional level and on a continuous time span to support policy making effectively. DMSP-OLS stable nighttime series provide continuous observation of nightlight and have been widely applied in studies focusing on human activities. In this study, we employed inter-calibrated DMSP-OLS nightlight series from 1992 to 2012 to evaluate the change of intensity and extension of stable nighttime light inside California PAs. We observed a decrease of stable nighttime light and a shrinkage in spatial extent in PAs located in all ecoregions from 1992 to 2012, especially before 2004. Such decrease and shrinkage occurred mostly in southern California and the Bay Area where mega metropolitan clusters locate. The successful application of protecting strategies in PAs and the improved technologies of lighting may contribute to the relieving of light pollution in PAs. However, the stable nighttime light slightly increased since 2004, when there was limited room for stricter protective regulations and the pressure from population growth persisted. Population density explained most spatial distribution of nightlight in years with census tract level demographic data available, except PAs with the highest wilderness such as Sierra Nevada Mts. We anticipate to improve the models with the newest remote sensing nighttime product from NASA Suomi-NPP and annually updated demographic data from American Community Survey at census tract level in the future to provide a cost-effective evaluation on protecting strategies. Such evaluation will support land managers of PAs and local policy-makers for modification and proposal of policies.

  15. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Pollutants

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation Districts (RTDs) light rail operations were examined for pollutant production and runoff. To : accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a rainfall-runoff facility was conducted. Input to this labo...

  16. Effects of guidelines implementation in a surgical intensive care unit to control nighttime light and noise levels.

    PubMed

    Walder, B; Francioli, D; Meyer, J J; Lançon, M; Romand, J A

    2000-07-01

    Because of around-the-clock activities, environmental noise and light are among the many causes of sleep disturbance in an intensive care unit (ICU). The implementation of guidelines may potentially change behavior rules and improve sleep quality. A prospective interventional study, observing the effects of simple nighttime guidelines on light and noise levels in an ICU. A modern surgical ICU, subdivided into six identical three-bed rooms. Critically ill adult patients. Between two observation periods, five guidelines were implemented to decrease both light and noise during the night shift in the patient's room. Light levels and noise levels were obtained using a luxmeter and a sound level meter [A-weighted decibels (dB) scale] and were monitored continuously from 11 pm to 5 am both before (period P1) and after (period P2) the implementation of guidelines. Similar patient's gravity and nursing workload scores were observed between P1 and P2. A low mean (<5 Lux) and maximal light level were measured during both P1 and P2. The implementation of guidelines lowered mean light disturbance intensity with a greater variability of light during P2. All noise levels were high and corresponded more to a quiet office for noise level equivalents and to a busy restaurant for peak noise levels during both P1 and P2. Guidelines decreased the noise level equivalent (P1, 51.3 dB; P2, 48.3 dB), peak noise level (P1, 74.9 dB; P2, 70.8 dB), and the number of acoustic identified alarms (P1, 22.1 dB; P2, 15.8 dB) during P2. The night light levels were low during both periods, and lowering the light levels induced a greater variation of light, which may impair sleep quality. All measured noise levels were high during both periods, which could contribute to sleep disturbance, and the implementation of guidelines significantly lowers some important noise levels. The background noise level was unchanged.

  17. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  18. LAN MAP: An Innovative Airborne Light at Night Mapping Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. M.; Craine, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread installation of inefficient and misdirected artificial light at night (LAN) has led to increasing concerns about light pollution and its impact, not only on astronomical facilities but larger communities as well. Light pollution impacts scientific research, environmental ecosystems, human health, and quality of life. In recent years, the public policy response to light pollution has included formulation of government codes to regulate lighting design and installation. Various environmental groups now include light pollution among their rallying themes to protest both specific and general developments. The latter efforts are often conducted in the absence of any quantitative data and are frequently charged by emotion rather than reason. To bring some scientific objectivity, and quantitative data, to these discussions, we have developed a suite of tools for simultaneous photometric measurements and temporal monitoring of both local communities and the sky overhead. We have also developed novel protocols for the use of these tools, including a triad of airborne, ground mobile, and ground static photometric surveys. We present a summary of these tools and protocols, with special emphasis on the airborne systems, and discuss baseline and follow-up measurements of LAN environments in the vicinity of numerous observatories in Arizona, the home of the initial LAN MAP surveys.

  19. Global air monitoring study: a multi-country comparison of levels of indoor air pollution in different workplaces.

    PubMed

    Koong, Heng Nung; Khoo, Deborah; Higbee, Cheryl; Travers, Mark; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Dresler, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    A local study completed in Singapore, which was part of an international multi-country study that aims to develop a global assessment of exposure to second-hand smoke in indoor workplaces, gathered data regarding the indoor air quality of public areas. It was hypothesised that air would be less polluted in non-smoking venues compared to places where smoking occurred. A TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor was used to sample and record the levels of respirable suspended particles (RSP) in the air. A broad range of venues were sampled in Singapore. The primary goal of data analysis was to assess the difference in the average levels of RSP in smoke-free and non smoke-free venues. Data was assessed at 3 levels: (a) the mean RSP across all venues sampled compared with the mean levels of smoke-free and non smoke-free venues, (b) levels in venues where smoking occurred compared with similar venues in Ireland, and (c) comparison between smoke-free and non smoke-free areas according to the type of venue. Statistical significance was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of indoor air pollution was 96% lower in smoke-free venues compared to non smoke-free venues. Averaged across each type of venue, the lowest levels of indoor air pollution were found in restaurants (17 microg/m3) and the highest in bars (622 microg/m3); both well above the US EPA Air Quality Index hazardous level of >or=251 ug/m3. This study demonstrates that workers and patrons are exposed to harmful levels of a known carcinogen and toxin. Policies that prohibit smoking in public areas dramatically reduce exposure and improve worker and patron health.

  20. Outdoor air pollutants and patient health.

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert J

    2010-01-15

    Almost 160 million persons live in areas of the United States that exceed federal health-based air pollution standards. The two air pollutants that most commonly exceed standards are ozone and particulate matter. Ozone and particulate matter can harm anyone if levels are sufficiently elevated, but health risk from air pollution is greatest among vulnerable populations. Both ozone and particulate matter can cause pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function, and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Particulate matter is also strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Children, older adults, and other vulnerable persons may be sensitive to lower levels of air pollution. Persons who are aware of local air pollution levels, reported daily by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the Air Quality Index, can take action to reduce exposure. These actions include simple measures to limit exertion and time spent outdoors when air pollution levels are highest, and to reduce the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants into indoor spaces.

  1. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Thomas W.; Coleman, Matthew; Griffith, Katherine M.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities. PMID:25926694

  2. Effectiveness of traffic light vs. boom barrier controls at road-rail level crossings: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G; Edquist, Jessica; Navarro, Jordan

    2012-03-01

    Although collisions at level crossings are relatively uncommon occurrences, the potential severity of their consequences make them a top priority among safety authorities. Twenty-five fully-licensed drivers aged between 20 and 50 years participated in a driving simulator study that compared the efficacy, and drivers' subjective perception, of two active level crossing traffic control devices: flashing lights with boom barriers and standard traffic lights. Because of its common usage in most states in Australia, a stop sign-controlled level crossing served as the passive referent. Although crossing violations were less likely at the level crossings controlled by active devices than at those controlled by stop signs, both kinds of active control were associated with a similar number of violations. Further, the majority (72%) of drivers reported preferring flashing lights to traffic lights. Collectively, results indicate that the installation of traffic lights at real-world level crossings would not be likely to offer safety benefits over and above those provided already by flashing lights with boom barriers. Furthermore, the high rate of violations at passively controlled crossings strongly supports the continued practice of upgrading level crossings with active traffic control devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    PubMed

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  4. Our Light or Starlight? Citizen Science, Public Involvement and You

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2010-10-01

    With half of the world's population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people's long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and ``Dark Skies Rangers'' activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most recently

  5. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    PubMed

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  6. Pollution and Infant Health.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet

    2013-12-01

    In this article, I review recent research showing that even relatively low levels of pollution can affect infants' health. This research attempts to go beyond documenting correlations by using sharp changes in pollution levels, carefully selecting control groups (including unexposed siblings as controls for exposed children), and considering behavioral responses to pollution such as maternal mobility. Poor and minority children are more likely to be affected and differential exposure could be responsible for some of the observed group-level differences in health at birth. Policymakers concerned about the roots of inequality should consider the role played by environmental exposures of pregnant mothers.

  7. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  8. Correlation between light levels and the development of deprivation myopia.

    PubMed

    Karouta, Cindy; Ashby, Regan Scott

    2014-12-09

    In chicks, daily exposure to bright light (15,000 lux) retards the development of form-deprivation myopia (FDM) by roughly 60%. This study investigated whether higher light intensities increase the amount of protection against FDM, and whether protection and light intensity are correlated. Furthermore, we examined if exposure to bright light can prevent the progression of FDM or whether it affects only the onset of experimental myopia. Experiment 1: Chicks wore translucent diffusers monocularly for a period of 7 days, with exposure to one of five light intensities (500, 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, and 40,000 lux, n = 12 per group). Experiment 2: Chickens wore translucent diffusers monocularly for 11 days and were split into three groups: (1) chicks reared under 500 lux, (2) chicks reared under 40,000 lux, and (3) chicks reared under 500 lux for the first 4 days and 40,000 lux for the remaining 7 days. A significant correlation was observed between log light intensity and the development of FDM, with a lesser myopic refraction (F (28, 330) = 60.86, P < 0.0001) and shorter axial length (F (4, 20) = 8.87, P < 0.0001) seen with increasing light intensities. The progression of FDM was halted in chicks that were switched from 500 to 40,000 lux. The level of protection from the development of FDM increases with increasing light intensity. Daily exposure to 40,000 lux almost completely prevents the onset of FDM and, once myopia is established, halts further progression. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi

    2014-05-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

  10. Assessment of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as a modifier of air pollution-asthma associations among children in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    O'Lenick, Cassandra R; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Friberg, Mariel D; Chang, Howard H; Kramer, Michael R; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2017-02-01

    A broad literature base provides evidence of association between air pollution and paediatric asthma. Socioeconomic status (SES) may modify these associations; however, previous studies have found inconsistent evidence regarding the role of SES. Effect modification of air pollution-paediatric asthma morbidity by multiple indicators of neighbourhood SES was examined in Atlanta, Georgia. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for 5-18 years old with a diagnosis of asthma in 20-county Atlanta during 2002-2008. Daily ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and elemental carbon were estimated using ambient monitoring data and emissions-based chemical transport model simulations. Pollutant-asthma associations were estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for temporal trends and meteorology. Effect modification by ZCTA-level (neighbourhood) SES was examined via stratification. We observed stronger air pollution-paediatric asthma associations in 'deprivation areas' (eg, ≥20% of the ZCTA population living in poverty) compared with 'non-deprivation areas'. When stratifying analyses by quartiles of neighbourhood SES, ORs indicated stronger associations in the highest and lowest SES quartiles and weaker associations among the middle quartiles. Our results suggest that neighbourhood-level SES is a factor contributing vulnerability to air pollution-related paediatric asthma morbidity in Atlanta. Children living in low SES environments appear to be especially vulnerable given positive ORs and high underlying asthma ED rates. Inconsistent findings of effect modification among previous studies may be partially explained by choice of SES stratification criteria, and the use of multiplicative models combined with differing baseline risk across SES populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. [METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION ON THE FORMATION OF THE LEVELS OF OVERALL MORBIDITY RATE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    PubMed

    Veremchuk, L V; Cherpack, N A; Gvozdenko, T A; Volkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    In large cities with strong air pollution the formation of the levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma has a complex causation that requires the search for informative methods for identification of causes and consequences of this dependence. Method for the assessment of the dependence of overall levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma on the degree of air pollution allows you to select a "useful information" of the direct impact of air pollution on a background of random processes and latent relationship between human and environment. The use of the method of the information entropy analysis allowed us to estimate the total and the individual contribution of the separate components of air pollution on the formation of levels of total morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in the population of the city of Vladivostok. Levels of total incidence of this pathology were established to differ in various age groups. The adult population is more adapted to air pollution, but retains a high sensitivity to the impact of nitrogen dioxide. Levels of overall l morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in children and adolescents depend on the total air pollution with some dominance of the influence of suspended matter and carbon monoxide.

  12. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    , Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: effect of low levels. Environ Health Perspect 125:23-29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232.

  13. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin. PMID:24409391

  14. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2007-01-01

    More than 75 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban communities where people are exposed to levels of smog or pollution that exceed the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) safety standards. Urban air quality presents a unique problem because of a number of complex variables, including traffic congestion, energy production, and energy consumption activities, all of which can contribute to and affect air pollution and air quality in this environment. In environmental engineering, photocatalysis is an area of research whose potential for environmental clean-up is rapidly developing popularity and success. Photocatalysis, a natural chemical process, is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. Photocatalytic agents are activated when exposed to near UV (ultraviolet) light (320-400 nm) and water. In recent years, surfaces coated with photocatalytic materials have been extensively studied because pollutants on these surfaces will degrade when the surfaces are exposed to near UV light. Building materials, such as tiles, cement, glass, and aluminum sidings, can be coated with a thin film of a photocatalyst. These coated materials can then break down organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, into environmentally friendly compounds. These surfaces also exhibit a high affinity for water when exposed to UV light. Therefore, not only are the pollutants decomposed, but this superhydrophilic nature makes the surface self-cleaning, which helps to further increase the degradation rate by allowing rain and/or water to wash byproducts away. According to the Clean Air Act, each individual state is responsible for implementing prevention and regulatory programs to control air pollution. To operate an air quality program, states must adopt and/or develop a plan and obtain approval from the EPA. Federal approval provides a means for the EPA to maintain consistency among different state programs and ensures that they comply with the

  15. Fibrin clot structure is affected by levels of particulate air pollution exposure in patients with venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoxi; Gong, Yun Yun; Martinelli, Ida; Angelici, Laura; Favero, Chiara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Mannucci, Pier M; Ariëns, Robert A S; Routledge, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and thrombosis. Long-term exposure to particulate matter with a diameter<10μm (PM10) has been associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not particulate air pollution alters fibrin clot structure and thus modulates thrombosis risk. We investigated fibrin polymerization by turbidity (maximum absorbance mOD), clot structure by confocal microscopy (fibre number per μm) and fibrin pore size by permeability (Ks×10(-10)cm(2)) in 103 patients with deep vein thrombosis and 121 healthy controls, for whom levels of air pollution exposure had been recorded. Exposure groups were defined by mean PM10 concentrations over the 730days before the event. We found a higher average number of fibres per clot area in patients than controls, but no difference in Ks or fibre thickness. When the two groups were divided into high or low exposure to PM10, a significantly denser fibrin clot network structure with thicker fibres (higher maximum absorbance, p<0.05), decreased permeability (lower Ks value, p<0.05) and higher average fibre numbers per clot area (p<0.05) was observed in patients in the high exposure group compared to those with low exposure. There were no significant differences in fibrin clot structure between the two exposure levels in healthy subjects. PM10 levels are associated with altered fibrin clot structure in patients with deep vein thrombosis but not in controls, suggesting that air pollution may trigger differences in fibrin clot structure only in patients predisposed to thrombotic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flight performance in night-flying sweat bees suffers at low light levels.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Jamie Carroll; Coates, Melissa M; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-11-01

    The sweat bee Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), unlike most bees, flies in extremely dim light. And although nocturnal insects are often equipped with superposition eyes, which greatly enhance light capture, Megalopta performs visually guided flight with apposition eyes. We examined how light limits Megalopta's flight behavior by measuring flight times and corresponding light levels and comparing them with flight trajectories upon return to the nest. We found the average time to land increased in dim light, an effect due not to slow approaches, but to circuitous approaches. Some landings, however, were quite fast even in the dark. To explain this, we examined the flight trajectories and found that in dim light, landings became increasingly error prone and erratic, consistent with repeated landing attempts. These data agree well with the premise that Megalopta uses visual summation, sacrificing acuity in order to see and fly at the very dimmest light intensities that its visual system allows.

  17. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries.

  18. Light at night disrupts nocturnal rest and elevates glucocorticoids at cool color temperatures.

    PubMed

    Alaasam, Valentina J; Duncan, Richard; Casagrande, Stefania; Davies, Scott; Sidher, Abhijaat; Seymoure, Brett; Shen, Yantao; Zhang, Yong; Ouyang, Jenny Q

    2018-05-15

    Nighttime light pollution is quickly becoming a pervasive, global concern. Since the invention and proliferation of light-emitting diodes (LED), it has become common for consumers to select from a range of color temperatures of light with varying spectra. Yet, the biological impacts of these different spectra on organisms remain unclear. We tested if nighttime illumination of LEDs, at two commercially available color temperatures (3000 and 5000 K) and at ecologically relevant illumination levels affected body condition, food intake, locomotor activity, and glucocorticoid levels in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We found that individuals exposed to 5000 K light had higher rates of nighttime activity (peaking after 1 week of treatment) compared to 3000 K light and controls (no nighttime light). Birds in the 5000 K treatment group also had increased corticosterone levels from pretreatment levels compared to 3000 K and control groups but no changes in body condition or food intake. Individuals that were active during the night did not consequently decrease daytime activity. This study adds to the growing evidence that the spectrum of artificial light at night is important, and we advocate the use of nighttime lighting with warmer color temperatures of 3000 K instead of 5000 K to decrease energetic costs for avian taxa. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Association between pulmonary function and daily levels of sand dust particles assessed by light detection and ranging in schoolchildren in western Japan: A panel study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sano, Hiroyuki; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Nakazaki, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of sand dust emissions in association with respiratory disorders is the quantity of particulate matter. This is usually expressed as particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the composition of PM10 and PM2.5 varies. Light detection and ranging is used to monitor sand dust particles originating in East Asian deserts and distinguish them from air pollution aerosols. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the daily levels of sand dust particles and pulmonary function in schoolchildren in western Japan. In this panel study, the peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 399 schoolchildren was measured daily from April to May 2012. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association of PEF with the daily levels of sand dust particles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and PM2.5. There was no association between the daily level of sand dust particles and air pollution aerosols, while both sand dust particles and air pollution aerosols had a significant association with SPM and PM2.5. An increment of 0.018 km(-1) in sand dust particles was significantly associated with a decrease in PEF (-3.62 L/min; 95% confidence interval, -4.66 to -2.59). An increase of 14.0 μg/m(3) in SPM and 10.7 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 led to a significant decrease of -2.16 L/min (-2.88 to -1.43) and -2.58 L/min (-3.59 to -1.57), respectively, in PEF. These results suggest that exposure to sand dust emission may relate to pulmonary dysfunction in children in East Asia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollutants Distribution and Removal Effect of Rainfall on Atmospheric Pollutants in Mining Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-feng, Tang; You-biao, Hu

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the characteristics of atmospheric pollutant (SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10) and the effects of rainfall on the removal of atmospheric pollutants. The results show atmospheric pollutants concentration vary in different seasons and functional area: atmospheric pollutants concentration in summer and autumn is lower than that in winter and spring; the concentration of SO2 and NO2 in coal-chemical industry areas and light industrial areas is higher, the concentration difference of PM2.5 and PM10 in different functional areas is very small, the removal efficiency of rainfall on atmospheric pollutant is gradually improved with the increasing of daily rainfall, rainfall intensity and rainfall duration, the ability of rainfall to remove pollutants tends to be stable after daily rainfall and rainfall intensity exceeds 30mm and 20mm/h respectively, the effect of rainfall on the removal of PM2.5 was slightly worse than the effect of rainfall on other atmospheric pollutants, the rainfall duration should be 60min, 60min and 80min respectively when the effect of rainfall on NO2, PM10 and SO2 tends to be stable.

  1. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  3. Tank Level Detection Devices for the Carriage of Oil : Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Section 4110

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-12-29

    This study was conducted to assess the technical feasibility of satisfying the requirements of Section 4110 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), which calls for minimum regulatory standards tank level monitoring devices in teh cargo tanks of ta...

  4. A three-level model for binary time-series data: the effects of air pollution on school absences in the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Virginie; Berhane, Kiros; Thomas, Duncan C

    2005-04-15

    A three-level model is proposed to simultaneously examine the effects of daily exposure to air pollution and individual risk factors on health outcomes without aggregating over subjects or time. We used a logistic transition model with random effects to take into account heterogeneity and overdispersion of the observations. A distributed lag structure for pollution has been included, assuming that the event on day t for a subject depends on the levels of air pollution for several preceding days. We illustrate this proposed model via detailed analysis of the effect of air pollution on school absenteeism based on data from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

  5. North American pollution measurements from geostationary orbit with Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.

    2017-12-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument. It launches between 2019 and 2021 to measure atmospheric pollution from Mexico City and Cuba to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly at high spatial resolution, 10 km2. Geostationary daytime measurements capture the variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry at sub-urban scale to improve emission inventories, monitor population exposure, and enable emission-control strategies.TEMPO measures UV/visible Earth reflectance spectra to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, BrO, OClO, IO, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. It tracks aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products. TEMPO is the North American component of the upcoming the global geostationary constellation for pollution monitoring, together with the European Sentinel-4 and the Korean Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS).TEMPO science studies include: Intercontinental pollution transport; Solar-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll over land and in the ocean to study tropical dynamics, primary productivity and carbon uptake, to detect red tides, and to study phytoplankton; measurements of stratospheric intrusions that cause air quality exceedances; measurements at peaks in vehicle travel to capture the variability in emissions from mobile sources; measurements of thunderstorm activity, including outflow regions to better quantify lightning NOx and O3 production; cropland measurements to follow the temporal evolution of emissions after fertilizer application and from rain-induced emissions from semi-arid soils; investigating the chemical processing of primary fire emissions and the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone; examining ocean halogen emissions and their impact on the oxidizing capacity of coastal environments; measuring spectra of nighttime lights as markers for human activity, energy conservation, and compliance with outdoor lighting standards

  6. The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F; Hemmi, Jan M

    2010-05-22

    Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues trigger this activity. To identify the onset of specific temporal niches, animals could anticipate the timing of regular events or directly measure environmental variables. We show that the Australian bull ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, starts foraging only during evening twilight throughout the year. The onset occurs neither at a specific temperature nor at a specific time relative to sunset, but at a specific ambient light intensity. Foraging onset occurs later when light intensities at sunset are brighter than normal or earlier when light intensities at sunset are darker than normal. By modifying ambient light intensity experimentally, we provide clear evidence that ants indeed measure light levels and do not rely on an internal rhythm to begin foraging. We suggest that the reason for restricting the foraging onset to twilight and measuring light intensity to trigger activity is to optimize the trade-off between predation risk and ease of navigation.

  7. The influence of reduced light intensity on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicide exposure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide pollution events in aquatic ecosystems often coincide with increased turbidity and reduced light intensity. It is therefore important to determine whether reduced light intensity can influence herbicide toxicity, especially to primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms collected from 4 rivers were exposed to herbicides in 48 h rapid toxicity tests under high light (100 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) and low light (20 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) intensities. The effects of 2 herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) were assessed on 26 freshwater benthic diatom taxa. There was no significant interaction of light and herbicide effects at the community level or on the majority (22 of 26) of benthic diatom taxa. This indicates that low light levels will likely have only a minor influence on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2252-2260. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants in the air can contribute significantly to the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and to certain forms of cancer. On the basis of the results of a recent study of the impacts of pollution control on inflation, the annual reduction in purchasing power of the average family is calculated to be $31 per family. To determine the average costs of air pollution on human health, research by Lave and Seskin is utilized. First, the implications of air pollution for mortality and morbidity rates are determined. Then, the reduction in direct health costs and indirect costs (lost productivity of workers) as a result of pollution abatement is estimated. These annual health costs from pollution total approximately $250 per family. The results suggest that the inflationary costs of air pollution control are more than offset by the damages to public health from unabated air pollution. PMID:6771129

  9. Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Maga, Mikołaj; Janik, Maciej K; Wachsmann, Agnieszka; Chrząstek-Janik, Olga; Koziej, Mateusz; Bajkowski, Mateusz; Maga, Paweł; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits. Subsequently, the CO level in their exhaled air was measured. Air quality data, obtained from the Regional Inspectorates of Environmental Protection, revealed the differences in atmospheric CO concentration between locations. 1226 subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their declared smoking status and place of living. The average CO level in exhaled air was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.0001) as well as in non-smokers from big cities than non-smokers from small ones (p<0.0001). Created model showed that non-smokers from big cities have odds ratio of 125.3 for exceeding CO cutoff level of 4ppm compared to non-smokers from small towns. The average CO level in exhaled air is significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. Among non-smokers, the average exhaled CO level is significantly higher in big city than small town citizens. These results suggest that permanent exposure to an increased concentration of air pollution and cigarette smoking affect the level of exhaled CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  11. Seabird mortality induced by land-based artificial lights.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Holmes, Nick D; Ryan, Peter G; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Faulquier, Lucie; Murillo, Yovana; Raine, André F; Penniman, Jay F; Neves, Verónica; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J; Chiaradia, André; Dann, Peter; Anderson, Tracy; Metzger, Benjamin; Shirai, Masaki; Deppe, Lorna; Wheeler, Jennifer; Hodum, Peter; Gouveia, Catia; Carmo, Vanda; Carreira, Gilberto P; Delgado-Alburqueque, Luis; Guerra-Correa, Carlos; Couzi, François-Xavier; Travers, Marc; Corre, Matthieu Le

    2017-10-01

    Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are attracted to and then grounded (i.e., forced to land) by lights when they fly at night. We reviewed the current state of knowledge of seabird attraction to light to identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although species in families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be grounded by artificial light, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters (Procellariiformes). At least 56 species of Procellariiformes, more than one-third of them (24) threatened, are subject to grounding by lights. Seabirds grounded by lights have been found worldwide, mainly on oceanic islands but also at some continental locations. Petrel breeding grounds confined to formerly uninhabited islands are particularly at risk from light pollution due to tourism and urban sprawl. Where it is impractical to ban external lights, rescue programs of grounded birds offer the most immediate and employed mitigation to reduce the rate of light-induced mortality and save thousands of birds every year. These programs also provide useful information for seabird management. However, these data are typically fragmentary, biased, and uncertain and can lead to inaccurate impact estimates and poor understanding of the phenomenon of seabird attraction to lights. We believe the most urgently needed actions to mitigate and understand light-induced mortality of seabirds are estimation of mortality and effects on populations; determination of threshold light levels and safe distances from light sources; documentation of the fate of rescued birds; improvement of rescue campaigns, particularly in terms of increasing recovery rates and level of care; and research on seabird-friendly lights to reduce attraction. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. The role of perceived air pollution and health risk perception in health symptoms and disease: a population-based study combined with modelled levels of PM10.

    PubMed

    Orru, Kati; Nordin, Steven; Harzia, Hedi; Orru, Hans

    2018-07-01

    Adverse health impact of air pollution on health may not only be associated with the level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the pollution and by top-down processing (e.g. beliefs of the exposure being hazardous), especially in areas with relatively low levels of pollutants. The aim of this study was to test a model that describes interrelations between air pollution (particles < 10 [Formula: see text]m, PM 10 ), perceived pollution, health risk perception, health symptoms and diseases. A population-based questionnaire study was conducted among 1000 Estonian residents (sample was stratified by age, sex, and geographical location) about health risk perception and coping. The PM 10 levels were modelled in 1 × 1 km grids using a Eulerian air quality dispersion model. Respondents were ascribed their annual mean PM 10 exposure according to their home address. Path analysis was performed to test the validity of the model. The data refute the model proposing that exposure level significantly influences symptoms and disease. Instead, the perceived exposure influences symptoms and the effect of perceived exposure on disease is mediated by health risk perception. This relationship is more pronounced in large cities compared to smaller towns or rural areas. Perceived pollution and health risk perception, in particular in large cities, play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced symptoms and diseases at relatively low levels of air pollution.

  13. Highlights of the new Emission Norm for the Regulation of Light Pollution in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Due to the need to deal with the new menace of LEDS, which are very blue emitters, and to address other shortcomings regarding scattering and over illumination of the first lighting regulations passed in Chile in 1998 (DS 686/1998), the Chilean Ministry of Environment (MMA) approved new regulations by Presidential decree (DS 043/2012) on May 03, 2013. This new version of the regulations was developed by OPCC in collaboration with the MMA.This new environmental standard includes the following main restrictions:A full-cut-off requirement for general lighting, which means 0.49cd/Klumen at 90º (i.e., no light distribution above horizontal).For sport and recreational activities, an allowed level of 10cd/Klumen at 90º, together with a visor to cut upper-hemisphere emissions.Spectral restrictions divided into three regulated regions of the visible spectrum (as compared to the total light emission between 380 and 780nm): (a) not more than 15% of total light output in the range 300 to 380nm; (b) not more than 15% in the range 380 to 499nm; and (c) not more than 50% in the range 781nm to 1micron.Over illumination restricted to not more than 20% over the Chilean standard (NSEG 9 n71) for minimal levels in public lighting.Billboards with inner sources of illuminations (LED or plasma big screens) must emit no more than 50cd/m2 at night. No spectral restriction is applied.This new lighting regulation has not come into force yet, due to a delay in approving complementary technical protocols. Enforcement is also a critical issue to deal with, given that the institutional environmental framework in Chile is being modified.The OPCC is working with both the Ministry of Public Works and also Ministry of Housing, seeking to go beyond the new lighting regulation by applying a more restrictive approach in terms of spectral restriction, promoting the use of warm white LEDS with a CCT of 2.700 Kº and, in the case of outdoor illumination near professional observatories, monochromatic

  14. Dim light at night: physiological effects and ecological consequences for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Kernbach, Meredith E; Hall, Richard J; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2018-06-23

    Light pollution has emerged as a pervasive component of land development over the past century. Several detrimental impacts of this anthropogenic influence have been identified in night shift workers, laboratory rodents, and a plethora of wildlife species. Circadian, or daily, patterns are interrupted by the presence of light at night and have the capacity to alter rhythmic physiological or behavioral characteristics. Indeed, biorhythm disruption can lead to metabolic, reproductive, and immunological dysfunction depending on the intensity, timing, duration and wavelength of light exposure. Light pollution, in many forms and by many pathways, is thus apt to affect the nature of host-pathogen interactions. However, no research has yet investigated this possibility. The goal of this manuscript is to outline how dim light at night (dLAN), a relevant and common form of light pollution, may affect disease dynamics by interrupting circadian rhythms and regulation of immune responses as well as opportunities for host-parasite interactions and subsequent transmission risk including spillover into humans. We close by proposing some promising interventions including alternative lighting methods or vector control efforts.

  15. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (< $500 US) sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sensors can potentially allow larger fleets of monitors to be deployed to better study the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants. The small size and light weight of these sensors also allows for the possibility of wearable or drone applications. Sensor networks will very likely play a key role in future estimates of human health impacts of pollutants, in particular particulate matter (PM), and will allow for the better characterization of pollutant sources and source regions.We will present measurements from an assortment of sensors, costing $20-$700, that have been used to measure air pollution in the US, India, and China with a focus on estimating PM concentrations. Their performance has been evaluated in these very different settings with low concentrations seen in the US (up to approximately 20 ug m-3) and much higher concentrations measured in India and China (up to approximately 300 ug m-3). Based on these studies the optimal concentration ranges of these sensors have been determined. Used in conjunction with data from a carbon dioxide sensor, emissions factors were estimated in some of the locations. In addition temperature and humidity sensors can be used to calculate c

  16. Is part-night lighting an effective measure to limit the impacts of artificial lighting on bats?

    PubMed

    Azam, Clémentine; Kerbiriou, Christian; Vernet, Arthur; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Plichard, Laura; Maratrat, Julie; Le Viol, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    As light pollution is currently considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, different lighting management options are being explored to mitigate the impact of artificial lighting on wildlife. Although part-night lighting schemes have been adopted by many local authorities across Europe to reduce the carbon footprint and save energy, their effects on biodiversity are unknown. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we compared the activity levels of 8 bat species under unlit, part-night, and full-night lighting treatments in a rural area located 60 km south of Paris, France. We selected 36 study locations composed of 1 lit site and a paired unlit control site; 24 of these sites were located in areas subject to part-night lighting schemes, and 12 sites were in areas under standard, full-night lighting. There was significantly more activity on part-night lighting sites compared to full-night lighting sites for the late-emerging, light-sensitive Plecotus spp., and a similar pattern was observable for Myotis spp., although not significant. In contrast, part-night lighting did not influence the activity of early emerging bat species around streetlights, except for Pipistrellus pipistrellus for which there was significantly less activity on part-night lighting sites than on full-night lighting sites. Overall, no significant difference in activity between part- and full-night lighting sites were observed in 5 of the 8 species studied, suggesting that current part-night lighting schemes fail to encompass the range of activity of most bat species. We recommend that such schemes start earlier at night to effectively mitigate the adverse effects of artificial lighting on light-sensitive species, particularly along ecological corridors that are especially important to the persistence of biodiversity in urban landscapes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of dietary lysine levels and lighting conditions on intramuscular fat accumulation in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ashihara, Akane; Ishida, Aiko

    2018-04-29

    This study was conducted to test our hypothesis that intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation increases in pigs fed on a low lysine diet during the dark period than those fed on the same diet during the light period. Using barrows aged 6 weeks, we monitored whether serum glucose and insulin levels were affected by light conditions. Two diets with different levels of lysine, 0.78% (LL diet) and 1.37% (control diet) were prepared. Eight pigs were fed on the diet during the light period, while the remaining pigs were fed during the dark period. The pigs were fed either the LL diet or the control diet. Although IMF contents of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were higher in the pigs fed on a LL diet (p < .05), the light conditions had no effect. Low dietary lysine caused reduction in serum glucose levels (p < .05) and serum insulin levels (p = .0613). However, they were also unaffected by the lighting conditions. To gain further insights, we determined the messenger RNA levels of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase in LD and Rhomboideus muscles and in the liver. © 2018 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. [Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds in large buildings: pollution levels and remaining issues after revision of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant.

  19. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light (LLLT) for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms that operate at the cellular and tissue levels during LLLT. Mitochondria are thought to be the main site for the initial effects of light and specifically cytochrome c oxidase that has absorption peaks in the red and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the action spectra of LLLT effects. The discovery that cells employ nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the mitochondria by neuronal nitric oxide synthase, to regulate respiration by competitive binding to the oxygen binding of cytochrome c oxidase, now suggests how LLLT can affect cell metabolism. If LLLT photodissociates inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, this would explain increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction and prevention of apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, increase of blood flow and induction of transcription factors. In

  20. Effects of Environmental Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function Level of Residents in Korean Industrial Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eunju; Lee, Seokwon; Kim, Geun-Bae; Kim, Tae-Jong; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Kyoungho; Son, Bu-Soon

    2018-04-24

    This study aims to identify environmental air pollution adversely affecting pulmonary function among a community-based general population living in Korean industrial complexes. A total of 1963 residents participated in a pulmonary function test (PFT). The sample population consisted of an exposed group ( n = 1487) living within a radius of 5 km of industrial complexes and a control group ( n = 476) living over a radius of 10 km from the industrial complexes in Gwangyang and Yeosu cities. PFT results were calculated for each resident of the study population. On-site questionnaire surveys with face-to-face interviews were also conducted to collect more detailed information on personal lifestyles, medical history, exposure to air pollution, and respiratory disease and related symptoms. A total of 486 measured samples were collected by eight automated air-monitoring stations installed in four counties of Gwangyang and four counties of Yeosu in South Korea from January 2006 to February 2007. Mean levels of SO₂ (0.012 ppm), CO (0.648 ppm), NO₂ (0.02 ppm), O₃ (0.034 ppm), and PM 10 (43.07 μg/m³), collected within a radius of 5 km, were significantly higher than those collected over a radius of 10 km from Gwangyang and Yeosu industrial complexes. Prevalence odds ratio (OR) of abnormal pulmonary function in the exposed group of residents (<5 km) was elevated at 1.24 (95% CI 0.71⁻1.96), but not statistically significant ( p > 0.05). In multiple linear regression analysis, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC) levels significantly declined as SO₂, CO, and O₃ levels increased when adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, smoking, secondhand smoke, and respiratory disease and related symptoms ( n = 1963) ( p < 0.05). These results suggest that exposure to air pollution affects pulmonary function levels of residents living in Korean industrial complexes.

  1. Air pollution and human fertility rates.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-09-01

    Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. We assessed the association between traffic related air pollution and fertility rates in humans in Barcelona, Spain (2011-2012). We hypothesized that higher air pollution levels would be associated with lower fertility rates. We calculated the general fertility rate which is the number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years per census tract. We used land use regression (LUR) modeling to estimate the air pollution concentrations (particulate matter, NO2/NOx) per census tract. We used Besag-York-Mollié models to quantify the relationship between air pollution and fertility rates with adjustment for a number of potential confounders such as maternal age and area level socio-economic status. We found a statistically significant reduction of fertility rates with an increase in traffic related air pollution levels, particularly for the coarse fraction of particulate matter (IRR=0.87 95% CI 0.82, 0.94 per IQR). This is the first study in humans to show an association between reduced fertility rates and higher traffic related air pollution levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Light propagation in the Solar System for astrometry on sub-micro-arcsecond level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschocke, Sven

    2018-04-01

    We report on recent advancement in the theory of light propagation in the Solar System aiming at sub-micro-arcsecond level of accuracy: (1) A solution for the light ray in 1.5PN approximation has been obtained in the field of N arbitrarily moving bodies of arbitrary shape, inner structure, oscillations, and rotational motion. (2) A solution for the light ray in 2PN approximation has been obtained in the field of one arbitrarily moving pointlike body.

  3. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  4. Chromophore absorbance change quantification in tissue during low-level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Daniel; Chung, Christine; Qian, Li; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Low Level Light Therapy (LLLT) has been implicated to stimulate tissue, promoting healing and reducing pain. One of the potential pathways stimulated by LLLT relates to the electron transport chain, where photon quantum energy can induce a change in the biochemical reactions within the cell. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility to exploit light additionally as a diagnostic tool to determine tissue physiological states, particularly in quantifying the changes in redox states of Cytochrome C as a result of induced LLLT biochemical reactions.

  5. The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues trigger this activity. To identify the onset of specific temporal niches, animals could anticipate the timing of regular events or directly measure environmental variables. We show that the Australian bull ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, starts foraging only during evening twilight throughout the year. The onset occurs neither at a specific temperature nor at a specific time relative to sunset, but at a specific ambient light intensity. Foraging onset occurs later when light intensities at sunset are brighter than normal or earlier when light intensities at sunset are darker than normal. By modifying ambient light intensity experimentally, we provide clear evidence that ants indeed measure light levels and do not rely on an internal rhythm to begin foraging. We suggest that the reason for restricting the foraging onset to twilight and measuring light intensity to trigger activity is to optimize the trade-off between predation risk and ease of navigation. PMID:20129978

  6. Validity of ambient levels of fine particles as surrogate for personal exposure to outdoor air pollution--results of the European EXPOLIS-EAS Study (Swiss Center Basel).

    PubMed

    Oglesby, L; Künzli, N; Röösli, M; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Mathys, P; Stern, W; Jantunen, M; Kousa, A

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the validity of fixed-site fine particle levels as exposure surrogates in air pollution epidemiology, we considered four indicator groups: (1) PM2.5 total mass concentrations, (2) sulfur and potassium for regional air pollution, (3) lead and bromine for traffic-related particles, and (4) calcium for crustal particles. Using data from the European EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distribution within Adult Urban Populations in Europe) study, we assessed the associations between 48-hr personal exposures and home outdoor levels of the indicators. Furthermore, within-city variability of fine particle levels was evaluated. Personal exposures to PM2.5 mass were not correlated to corresponding home outdoor levels (n = 44, rSpearman (Sp) = 0.07). In the group reporting neither relevant indoor sources nor relevant activities, personal exposures and home outdoor levels of sulfur were highly correlated (n = 40, rSp = 0.85). In contrast, the associations were weaker for traffic (Pb: n = 44, rSp = 0.53; Br: n = 44, rSp = 0.21) and crustal (Ca: n = 44, rSp = 0.12) indicators. This contrast is consistent with spatially homogeneous regional pollution and higher spatial variability of traffic and crustal indicators observed in Basel, Switzerland. We conclude that for regional air pollution, fixed-site fine particle levels are valid exposure surrogates. For source-specific exposures, however, fixed-site data are probably not the optimal measure. Still, in air pollution epidemiology, ambient PM2.5 levels may be more appropriate exposure estimates than total personal PM2.5 exposure, since the latter reflects a mixture of indoor and outdoor sources.

  7. Noise Pollution in Turkish Elementary Schools: Evaluation of Noise Pollution Awareness and Sensitivity Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates noise pollution levels in two elementary schools. Also, "noise level awareness and sensitivity training" was given for reducing noise pollution, and the effects and results of this training were evaluated. "Sensitivity" training was given to 611 students and 48 teachers in a private and a public school.…

  8. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of <10 min. Apolux's degree of temporal resolution varied across manufacturers, mobile networks, and the time of day that data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  9. Notable light-free catalytic activity for pollutant destruction over flower-like BiOI microspheres by a dual-reaction-center Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yan, Dengbiao; Lyu, Lai; Hu, Chun; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Lili

    2018-10-01

    BiOI is widely used as photocatalysts for pollutant removal, water splitting, CO 2 reduction and organic transformation due to its excellent photoelectric properties. Here, we report for the first time that a light-free catalyst consisting of the flower-like BiOI microspheres (f-BiOI MSs) exposing (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) crystal planes prepared by a hydrothermal method in ethylene glycol environment can rapidly eliminate the refractory BPA within only ∼3 min through a Fenton-like process. The reaction activity is ∼190 times higher than that of the conventional Fenton catalyst Fe 2 O 3 . A series of characterizations and experiments reveal the formation of the dual reaction centers on f-BiOI MSs. The electron-rich O centers efficiently reduce H 2 O 2 to OH, while the electron-poor oxygen vacancies capture electrons from the adsorbed pollutants and divert them to the electron-rich area during the Fenton-like reactions. By these processes, pollutants are degraded and mineralized quickly in a wide pH range. Our findings address the problems of the classical Fenton reaction and are useful for the development of efficient Fenton-like catalysts through constructing dual reaction centers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. White Light–Emitting Diodes (LEDs) at Domestic Lighting Levels and Retinal Injury in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yu-Man; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Sliney, David; Lee, Li-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000–10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. Objective: We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. Methods: We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. Results: H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. Conclusion: Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich “white” LEDs for general lighting. Citation: Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light–emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269–276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294 PMID:24362357

  11. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  12. [Hexavalent chromium pollution and exposure level in electroplating workplace].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-hui; Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Zhang-ping; Jiang, Cai-xia; Ren, Xiao-bin; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-min

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pollution of hexavalent chromium in the electroplating workplace and screen the biomarkers of chromium exposure. Field occupational health investigation was conducted in 25 electroplating workplaces. 157 electroplating workers and 93 healthy unexposed controls were recruited. The epidemiological information was collected with face to face interview. Chromium in erythrocytes was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The median of short-term exposure concentration of chromium in the air at electroplating workplace was 0.06 mg/m(3) (median) and ranging from 0.01 (detect limit) to 0.53 mg/m(3)). The median concentration of Cr (VI) in erythrocytes in electroplating workers was 4.41 (2.50 ∼ 5.29) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in control subjects [1.54 (0.61 ∼ 2.98) µg/L, P < 0.01]. After stratified by potential confounding factors such as gender, age, smoking status and alcohol consumption, significant differences still existed between electroplating workers and control subjects, except for the subjects of age less than 30 years old (P = 0.11). There was hexavalent chromium pollution in electroplating workplace. Occupational hazards prevention measures should be taken to control the chromium pollution hazards.

  13. Image classification at low light levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernick, Miles N.; Morris, G. Michael

    1986-12-01

    An imaging photon-counting detector is used to achieve automatic sorting of two image classes. The classification decision is formed on the basis of the cross correlation between a photon-limited input image and a reference function stored in computer memory. Expressions for the statistical parameters of the low-light-level correlation signal are given and are verified experimentally. To obtain a correlation-based system for two-class sorting, it is necessary to construct a reference function that produces useful information for class discrimination. An expression for such a reference function is derived using maximum-likelihood decision theory. Theoretically predicted results are used to compare on the basis of performance the maximum-likelihood reference function with Fukunaga-Koontz basis vectors and average filters. For each method, good class discrimination is found to result in milliseconds from a sparse sampling of the input image.

  14. Exposure of tropical ecosystems to artificial light at night: Brazil as a case study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana Ribeirão de; Bennie, Jon; Mantovani, Waldir; Gaston, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Artificial nighttime lighting from streetlights and other sources has a broad range of biological effects. Understanding the spatial and temporal levels and patterns of this lighting is a key step in determining the severity of adverse effects on different ecosystems, vegetation, and habitat types. Few such analyses have been conducted, particularly for regions with high biodiversity, including the tropics. We used an intercalibrated version of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) images of stable nighttime lights to determine what proportion of original and current Brazilian vegetation types are experiencing measurable levels of artificial light and how this has changed in recent years. The percentage area affected by both detectable light and increases in brightness ranged between 0 and 35% for native vegetation types, and between 0 and 25% for current vegetation (i.e. including agriculture). The most heavily affected areas encompassed terrestrial coastal vegetation types (restingas and mangroves), Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest. The existing small remnants of Lowland Deciduous and Semideciduous Seasonal Forests and of Campinarana had the lowest exposure levels to artificial light. Light pollution has not often been investigated in developing countries but our data show that it is an environmental concern.

  15. Exposure of tropical ecosystems to artificial light at night: Brazil as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bennie, Jon; Mantovani, Waldir; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial nighttime lighting from streetlights and other sources has a broad range of biological effects. Understanding the spatial and temporal levels and patterns of this lighting is a key step in determining the severity of adverse effects on different ecosystems, vegetation, and habitat types. Few such analyses have been conducted, particularly for regions with high biodiversity, including the tropics. We used an intercalibrated version of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) images of stable nighttime lights to determine what proportion of original and current Brazilian vegetation types are experiencing measurable levels of artificial light and how this has changed in recent years. The percentage area affected by both detectable light and increases in brightness ranged between 0 and 35% for native vegetation types, and between 0 and 25% for current vegetation (i.e. including agriculture). The most heavily affected areas encompassed terrestrial coastal vegetation types (restingas and mangroves), Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest. The existing small remnants of Lowland Deciduous and Semideciduous Seasonal Forests and of Campinarana had the lowest exposure levels to artificial light. Light pollution has not often been investigated in developing countries but our data show that it is an environmental concern. PMID:28178352

  16. The reciprocal relation between lightning and pollution and their impact over Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Middey, Anirban; Chaudhuri, Sutapa

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol loading in the atmosphere can cause increased lightning flashes, and those lightning flashes produce NOX , which reacts in sun light to produce surface ozone. The present study deals with the effect of surface pollutants on premonsoon (April-May) lightning activity over the station Kolkata (22.65° N, 88.45° E). Seven-year (2004-2010) premonsoon thunderstorms data are taken for the study. Different parameters like aerosol optical depth and cloud top temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products along with lightning flash data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor are analyzed. Some surface pollution parameters like suspended particulate matter, particulate matter 10, nitrogen oxides (NOX), and surface ozone (O₃) data during the same period are taken account for clear understanding of their association with lightning activity. Heights of convective condensation level and lifting condensation level are collected from radiosonde observations to anticipate about cloud base. It is found that increased surface pollution in a near storm environment is related to increased lightning flash rate, which results in increased surface NOX and consequently increased surface ozone concentration over the station Kolkata.

  17. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  18. Foliar concentrations of volunteer willows growing on polluted sediment-derived sites versus sites with baseline contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Quataert, Paul; De Vos, Bruno; Tack, Filip M G; Muys, Bart

    2004-04-01

    Many alluvial soils along navigable waterways are affected by disposal of dredged sediments or overbank sedimentation and contain metal concentrations that are elevated compared to baseline levels. Uptake patterns for metals and other elements by several volunteer Salix species growing on these sites were determined during a growing season in field plots and compared with the same species growing on soils with baseline contamination levels. For Cd and Zn, foliar concentrations were clearly higher on dredged sediment landfills. Uptake patterns differed significantly between species. A high uptake of Mn and low uptake of Cu, K and S in S. cinerea was attributed to wetland soil chemistry. Site effects on metal uptake were evaluated in more detail for Salix cinerea and S. alba growing on different sediment-derived sites under field conditions. Foliar Cd concentrations were higher in S. cinerea than in S. alba. This appeared to be a genetic feature not influenced by soil chemical properties, as it was observed both on clean sites and polluted sediment-derived sites. For S. cinerea, soil chemistry was reflected in foliar concentrations, while foliar Cd concentrations and bioavailability were found to be independent of the thickness of the polluted horizon. Dredged sediment landfills and freshwater tidal marshes with comparable Cd soil pollution had significantly different foliar Cd concentrations.

  19. Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Hale, James D; Davies, Gemma; Fairbrass, Alison J; Matthews, Thomas J; Rogers, Christopher D F; Sadler, Jon P

    2013-01-01

    Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.

  20. Mapping Lightscapes: Spatial Patterning of Artificial Lighting in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hale, James D.; Davies, Gemma; Fairbrass, Alison J.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Rogers, Christopher D. F.; Sadler, Jon P.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city’s brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas. PMID:23671566

  1. Enhancement of low light level images using color-plus-mono dual camera.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Ju

    2017-05-15

    In digital photography, the improvement of imaging quality in low light shooting is one of the users' needs. Unfortunately, conventional smartphone cameras that use a single, small image sensor cannot provide satisfactory quality in low light level images. A color-plus-mono dual camera that consists of two horizontally separate image sensors, which simultaneously captures both a color and mono image pair of the same scene, could be useful for improving the quality of low light level images. However, an incorrect image fusion between the color and mono image pair could also have negative effects, such as the introduction of severe visual artifacts in the fused images. This paper proposes a selective image fusion technique that applies an adaptive guided filter-based denoising and selective detail transfer to only those pixels deemed reliable with respect to binocular image fusion. We employ a dissimilarity measure and binocular just-noticeable-difference (BJND) analysis to identify unreliable pixels that are likely to cause visual artifacts during image fusion via joint color image denoising and detail transfer from the mono image. By constructing an experimental system of color-plus-mono camera, we demonstrate that the BJND-aware denoising and selective detail transfer is helpful in improving the image quality during low light shooting.

  2. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N

    1993-01-01

    The concept of critical levels was developed in order to define short-term and long-term average concentrations of gaseous pollutants above which plants may be damaged. Although the usual way in which pollutants in precipitation (wet deposition) influence vegetation is by affecting soil processes, plant foliage exposed to fog and cloud, which often contain much greater concentrations of pollutant ions than rain, may be damaged directly. The idea of a critical level has been extended to define concentrations of pollutants in wet deposition above which direct damage to plants is likely. Concentrations of acidity and sulphate measured in mountain and coastal cloud are summarised. Vegetation at risk of injury is identified as montane forest growing close to the cloud base, where ion concentrations are highest. The direct effects of acidic precipitation on trees are reviewed, based on experimental exposure of plants to simulated acidic rain, fog or mist. Although most experiments have reported results in terms of pH (H(+) concentration), the accompanying anion is important, with sulphate being more damaging than nitrate. Both conifers and broadleaved tree seedlings showing subtle changes in the structural characteristics of leaf surfaces after exposure to mist or rain at or about pH 3.5, or sulphate concentration of 150 micromol litre(-1). Visible lesions on leaf surfaces occur at around pH 3 (500 micromol litre(-1) sulphate), broadleaved species tending to be more sensitive than conifers. Effects on photosynthesis and water relations, and interactions with other stresses (e.g. frost), have usually been observed only for treatments which have also caused visible injury to the leaf surface. Few experiments on the direct effects of polluted cloud have been conducted under field conditions with mature trees, which unlike seedlings in controlled conditions, may suffer a growth reduction in the absence of visible injury. Although leaching of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) is

  3. Pollution level and reusability of the waste soil generated from demolition of a rural railway.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Wee, Gui Nam; No, Jee Hyun; Lee, Tae Kwon

    2018-09-01

    Railways are typically considered polluted from years of train operation. However, the pollution level of railway in a rural area, which is less exposed to hazardous material from trains and freights, is rarely assessed. This study evaluated common railway pollutants such as heavy metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chemical properties in the waste soil generated from the renovation of an old railway in rural area of Wonju, South Korea. Furthermore, lab-scale cultivation tests of peas (Pisum sativum) were performed to assess reusability of the waste soil as a soil amendment. Carbonaceous materials were found in the upper layer of the railway (0 to -40 cm) and the concentration of common railway pollutants was comparable to those of the agricultural land nearby. Specifically, total aromatic and aliphatic TPHs were below detection limit; and total PAHs < 1.0 mg kg -1 was 1000-times less than railway functional parts. Applying the carbonaceous waste soil improved the water holding capacity of soil by approximately 10% and sprouts formed on the soil with 10% waste soil composition had greater fresh weight, stem length, and root length than the control. Although this investigation was confined to a small length of the railway route, the results confirm environmental safety and the potential value of the waste generated from rural railways for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study of Light Level Effect on the Accuracy of Image Processing-based Tomato Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prijatna, D.; Muhaemin, M.; Wulandari, R. P.; Herwanto, T.; Saukat, M.; Sugandi, W. K.

    2018-05-01

    Image processing method has been used in non-destructive tests of agricultural products. Compared to manual method, image processing method may produce more objective and consistent results. Image capturing box installed in currently used tomato grading machine (TEP-4) is equipped with four fluorescence lamps to illuminate the processed tomatoes. Since the performance of any lamp will decrease if its service time has exceeded its lifetime, it is predicted that this will affect tomato classification. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum light levels which affect classification accuracy. This study was conducted by varying light level from minimum and maximum on tomatoes in image capturing boxes and then investigates its effects on image characteristics. Research results showed that light intensity affects two variables which are important for classification, for example, area and color of captured image. Image processing program was able to determine correctly the weight and classification of tomatoes when light level was 30 lx to 140 lx.

  5. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Dickman, Elizabeth M.; Newell, Jennifer M.; González, María J.; Vanni, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in food chains with 3 or more trophic levels. In a field experiment manipulating light, nutrients, and food-chain length, we show that FCE is constrained by algal food quality and food-chain length. FCE across 3 trophic levels (phytoplankton to carnivorous fish) was highest under low light and high nutrients, where algal quality was best as indicated by taxonomic composition and nutrient stoichiometry. In 3-level systems, FCE was constrained by the efficiency at which both herbivores and carnivores converted food into production; a strong nutrient effect on carnivore efficiency suggests a carryover effect of algal quality across 3 trophic levels. Energy transfer efficiency from algae to herbivores was also higher in 2-level systems (without carnivores) than in 3-level systems. Our results support the hypothesis that FCE is strongly constrained by light, nutrients, and food-chain length and suggest that carryover effects across multiple trophic levels are important. Because many environmental perturbations affect light, nutrients, and food-chain length, and many ecological services are mediated by FCE, it will be important to apply these findings to various ecosystem types. PMID:19011082

  6. Polluted Dust Classification and Its Optical Properties Analysis Using CALIPSO Data and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Yang, P.; Holz, R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In CALIPSO Level 2 aerosol data, dust particles are classified into two subtypes, namely, pure dust and polluted dust based on lidar backscatter, depolarization ratio and surface types. In this research, the polluted dust subtype is found to have two distinct modes in terms of integrated depolarization ratio (IDR) and integrated total color ratio (ICR). Dust with smaller IDR and ICR occurs mainly over areas with strong smoke emissions such as industrial cities. This kind of polluted dust originating from East Asia is also found over the Pacific Ocean. In contrast, the other type originating from the Saharan desert with larger IDR and ICR occurs mainly over the Atlantic Ocean. The disparities of IDR and ICR may result from different pollutants. The polluted dust with smaller ICR and IDR should have stronger absorption of light and may contain black carbon. Other chemical compounds such as sea salts may account for polluted dust with larger ICR and IDR. To further separate the types of polluted dust, cluster analysis is applied to determine the centroid of each type in terms of IDR and ICR. Furthermore, scattering models of dust mixed with various pollutants are constructed to be included in a CALIPSO simulator. The simulated IDR and ICR values are compared with data to retrieve the chemical compositions of polluted dust. The difference of polluted dust over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean provides new evidence about long-range transport of Asian dust to North America. The distribution of dust polluted by black carbon is determined, which can improve knowledge about the effect of black carbon on the earth's radiation budget.

  7. Economic impacts from PM2.5 pollution-related health effects in China's road transport sector: A provincial-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xu; Dai, Hancheng; Geng, Yong; Wilson, Jeffrey; Wu, Rui; Xie, Yang; Hao, Han

    2018-06-01

    Economic impact assessments of air pollution-related health effects from a sectoral perspective in China is still deficient. This study evaluates the PM 2.5 pollution-related health impacts of the road transport sector on China's economy at both national and provincial levels in 2030 under various air mitigation technologies scenarios. Health impacts are estimated using an integrated approach that combines the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a health model. Results show that at a national level, the road transport sector leads to 163.64 thousand deaths per year, increases the per capita risk of morbidity by 0.37% and accounts for 1.43 billion Yuan in health care expenditures. We estimate 442.90 billion Yuan of the value of statistical life loss and 2.09 h/capita of work time loss in 2015. Without additional control measures, air pollution related to the transport sector will cause 177.50 thousand deaths in 2030, a 0.40% per capita increase in the risk of morbidity, accounting for 4.12 billion Yuan in health care expenditures, 737.15 billion Yuan of statistical life loss and 2.23 h/capita of work time loss. Based on our model, implementing the most strict control strategy scenario would decrease mortality by 42.14%, morbidity risk by 42.14%, health care expenditures by 41.94%, statistical life loss by 26.22% and hours of work time loss by 42.65%, comparing with the no control measure scenario. In addition, PM 2.5 pollution from the road transport sector will cause 0.68% GDP loss in 2030. At a provincial level, GDP losses in 14 out of 30 provinces far exceed the national rate. Henan (1.20%), Sichuan (1.07%), Chongqing (0.99%), Hubei (0.94%), and Shandong (0.90%) would experience the highest GDP loss in 2030. Implementing control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 pollution in the road transport sector could bring positive benefits in half of the Chinese provinces especially in

  8. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in Antarctic notothenioid fish and invertebrates associated with trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wei-Ling; Cheng, Jing-O; Chen, Te-Hao; Kuo, Fu-Wen; Kao, Shu-Ji; Chang, Chih-Wei; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Fang, Li-Sing

    2018-01-01

    Notothenioid fish and invertebrate samples from Antarctica were collected in the austral summer of 2009, and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), as well as δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes for trophic level determination. In this study, the POP levels in the Antarctic biota samples were found to be ranked in the following order: OCPs > PAHs >> PBDEs. The POP levels in notothenioid fish and krill correlate to trophic levels; however, the POP concentrations in intertidal benthic invertebrates are higher than in notothenioid fish implying that specific biogeochemical factors may affect bioaccumulation in the Antarctica ecosystem. Biomagnification of POPs may have a smaller role than bioconcentration in Antarctica environment. In addition to the source, transport, exposure, and absorption for each group of POPs in the short food chain in Antarctica, the biological variation among species, interaction habitats, diet and metabolism are also factors for future studies on contaminant bioaccumulation. PMID:29641526

  10. Light availability impacts structure and function of phototrophic stream biofilms across domains and trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Mia M; Wagner, Karoline; Schwab, Clarissa; Urich, Tim; Battin, Tom J

    2018-04-21

    Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms. Using metatranscriptomics, we found that under light limitation dominant phototrophs, including diatoms and cyanobacteria, displayed a remarkable plasticity in their photosynthetic machinery manifested as higher abundance of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) involved in photosynthesis and chloroplast ribosomal RNA. Under higher light availability, bacterial mRNAs involved in phosphorus metabolism, mainly from Betaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, increased, likely compensating for nutrient depletion in thick biofilms with high biomass. Consumers, including diverse ciliates, displayed community shifts indicating preferential grazing on algae instead of bacteria under higher light. For the first time, we show that the functional integrity of stream biofilms under variable light availability is maintained by structure-function adaptations on several trophic levels. Our findings shed new light on complex biofilms, or "microbial jungles", where in analogy to forests, diverse and multi-trophic level communities lend stability to ecosystem functioning. This multi-trophic level perspective, coupling metatranscriptomics to process measurements, could advance understanding of microbial-driven ecosystems beyond biofilms, including planktonic and soil environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity of Ambient Levels of Fine Particles as Surrogate for Personal Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution-Results of the European EXPOLIS-EAS Study (Swiss Center Basel).

    PubMed

    Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino; Röösli, Martin; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Mathys, Patrick; Stern, Willem; Jantunen, Matti; Kousa, Anu

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the validity of fixed-site fine particle levels as exposure surrogates in air pollution epidemiology, we considered four indicator groups: (1) PM 25 total mass concentrations, (2) sulfur and potassium for regional air pollution, (3) lead and bromine for traffic-related particles, and (4) calcium for crustal particles. Using data from the European EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distribution within Adult Urban Populations in Europe) study, we assessed the associations between 48-hr personal exposures and home outdoor levels of the indicators. Furthermore, within-city variability of fine particle levels was evaluated. Personal exposures to PM 2.5 mass were not correlated to corresponding home outdoor levels (n = 44, r S (S) =r o v ' Spearman (Sp) 0.07). In the group reporting neither relevant indoor sources nor relevant activities, personal exposures and home outdoor levels of sulfur were highly correlated (n = 40, r Sp = 0.85). In contrast, the associations were weaker for traffic (Pb: n = 44, r Sp = 0.53; Br: n = 44, r Sp = 0.21) and crustal (Ca: n = 44, r Sp = 0.12) indicators. This contrast is consistent with spatially homogeneous regional pollution and higher spatial variability of traffic and crustal indicators observed in Basel, Switzerland. We conclude that for regional air pollution, fixed-site fine particle levels are valid exposure surrogates. For source-specific exposures, however, fixed-site data are probably not the optimal measure. Still, in air pollution epidemiology, ambient PM 2.5 levels may be more appropriate exposure estimates than total personal PM 2.5 exposure, since the latter reflects a mixture of indoor and outdoor sources.

  12. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  13. Daytime light intensity affects seasonal timing via changes in the nocturnal melatonin levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Rani, Sangeeta; Malik, Shalie; Trivedi, Amit K.; Schwabl, Ingrid; Helm, Barbara; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2007-08-01

    Daytime light intensity can affect the photoperiodic regulation of the reproductive cycle in birds. The actual way by which light intensity information is transduced is, however, unknown. We postulate that transduction of the light intensity information is mediated by changes in the pattern of melatonin secretion. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of high and low daytime light intensities on the daily melatonin rhythm of Afro-tropical stonechats ( Saxicola torquata axillaris) in which seasonal changes in daytime light intensity act as a zeitgeber of the circannual rhythms controlling annual reproduction and molt. Stonechats were subjected to light conditions simulated as closely as possible to native conditions near the equator. Photoperiod was held constant at 12.25 h of light and 11.75 h of darkness per day. At intervals of 2.5 to 3.5 weeks, daytime light intensity was changed from bright (12,000 lux at one and 2,000 lux at the other perch) to dim (1,600 lux at one and 250 lux at the other perch) and back to the original bright light. Daily plasma melatonin profiles showed that they were linked with changes in daytime light intensity: Nighttime peak and total nocturnal levels were altered when transitions between light conditions were made, and these changes were significant when light intensity was changed from dim to bright. We suggest that daytime light intensity could affect seasonal timing via changes in melatonin profiles.

  14. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Julio C; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2011-01-01

    Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases in cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions induced by LLLT have also been observed in humans. Importantly, LLLT given at energy densities that exert beneficial effects does not induce adverse effects. This highlights the value of LLLT as a novel paradigm to treat visual

  15. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2011-01-01

    Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases in cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions induced by LLLT have also been observed in humans. Importantly, LLLT given at energy densities that exert beneficial effects does not induce adverse effects. This highlights the value of LLLT as a novel paradigm to treat visual

  16. A Target-Lighted dsDNA-Indicator for High-Performance Monitoring of Mercury Pollution and Its Antagonists Screening.

    PubMed

    Qing, Zhihe; Zhu, Lixuan; Li, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Sheng; Zou, Zhen; Guo, Jingru; Cao, Zhong; Yang, Ronghua

    2017-10-17

    As well-known, the excessive discharge of heavy-metal mercury not only destroys the ecological environment, bust also leads to severe damage of human health after ingestion via drinking and bioaccumulation of food chains, and mercury ion (Hg 2+ ) is designated as one of most prevalent toxic metal ions in drinking water. Thus, the high-performance monitoring of mercury pollution is necessary. Functional nucleic acids have been widely used as recognition probes in biochemical sensing. In this work, a carbazole derivative, ethyl-4-[3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridium iodine)-9H-carbazol -9-yl)] butanoate (EBCB), has been synthesized and found as a target-lighted DNA fluorescent indicator. As a proof-of-concept, Hg 2+ detection was carried out based on EBCB and Hg 2+ -mediated conformation transformation of a designed DNA probe. By comparison with conventional nucleic acid indicators, EBCB held excellent advantages, such as minimal background interference and maximal sensitivity. Outstanding detection capabilities were displayed, especially including simple operation (add-and-read manner), ultrarapidity (30 s), and low detection limit (0.82 nM). Furthermore, based on these advantages, the potential for high-performance screening of mercury antagonists was also demonstrated by the fluorescence change of EBCB. Therefore, we believe that this work is meaningful in pollution monitoring, environment restoration and emergency treatment, and may pave a way to apply EBCB as an ideal signal transducer for development of high-performance sensing strategies.

  17. Cellular detection of 50 Hz magnetic fields and weak blue light: effects on superoxide levels and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Höytö, Anne; Herrala, Mikko; Luukkonen, Jukka; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2017-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) on superoxide levels and genotoxicity depend on the presence of blue light. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to a 50 Hz, 100 μT MF with or without non-phototoxic level of blue light for 24 h. We also studied whether these treatments alter responses to menadione, an agent that induces mitochondrial superoxide (O 2 • - ) production and DNA damage. Micronuclei, proliferation, viability, cytosolic and mitochondrial O 2 • - levels were assessed. MF (without blue light) increased cytosolic O 2 • - production and blue light suppressed this effect. Mitochondrial O 2 • - production was reduced by both MF and blue light, but these effects were not additive. Micronucleus frequency was not affected by blue light or MF alone, but blue light (significantly when combined with MF) enhanced menadione-induced micronuclei. The original simple hypothesis (blue light is needed for MF effects) was not supported, but interaction of MF and blue light was nevertheless observed. The results are consistent with MF effects on light-independent radical reactions.

  18. Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Lucas Freitas; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT), has been known for almost 50 years but still has not gained widespread acceptance, largely due to uncertainty about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action. However, in recent years, much knowledge has been gained in this area, which will be summarized in this review. One of the most important chromophores is cytochrome c oxidase (unit IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which contains both heme and copper centers and absorbs light into the near-infra-red region. The leading hypothesis is that the photons dissociate inhibitory nitric oxide from the enzyme, leading to an increase in electron transport, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production. Another hypothesis concerns light-sensitive ion channels that can be activated allowing calcium to enter the cell. After the initial photon absorption events, numerous signaling pathways are activated via reactive oxygen species, cyclic AMP, NO and Ca2+, leading to activation of transcription factors. These transcription factors can lead to increased expression of genes related to protein synthesis, cell migration and proliferation, anti-inflammatory signaling, anti-apoptotic proteins, antioxidant enzymes. Stem cells and progenitor cells appear to be particularly susceptible to LLLT. PMID:28070154

  19. Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Lucas Freitas; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT), has been known for almost 50 years but still has not gained widespread acceptance, largely due to uncertainty about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action. However, in recent years, much knowledge has been gained in this area, which will be summarized in this review. One of the most important chromophores is cytochrome c oxidase (unit IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which contains both heme and copper centers and absorbs light into the near-infra-red region. The leading hypothesis is that the photons dissociate inhibitory nitric oxide from the enzyme, leading to an increase in electron transport, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production. Another hypothesis concerns light-sensitive ion channels that can be activated allowing calcium to enter the cell. After the initial photon absorption events, numerous signaling pathways are activated via reactive oxygen species, cyclic AMP, NO and Ca2+, leading to activation of transcription factors. These transcription factors can lead to increased expression of genes related to protein synthesis, cell migration and proliferation, anti-inflammatory signaling, anti-apoptotic proteins, antioxidant enzymes. Stem cells and progenitor cells appear to be particularly susceptible to LLLT.

  20. The Impact of Light Pollution Education through a Global Star-Hunting Campaign and Classroom Curricu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Buxner, S.; Pompea, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The emphasis of the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, and its accompanying Dark Skies Rangers activities is to increase public awareness on issues of light pollution. An on-line evaluation survey was administered to 585 people who participated in a GLOBE at Night and/or Dark Skies Rangers workshop and had received a Dark Skies Education Kit over the last 5 years. The survey was conducted to help improve the dark sky education programs and was administered and assessed by an external evaluator. Results will be presented on the usefulness of the programs, workshops and associated materials (e.g., the Dark Skies Rangers activities, materials, kit). Results will also include the evaluation of the GLOBE at Night campaigns, the use of these resources in the classroom, and the educators' impressions of student learning outcomes. Session participants will: 1) Learn about ongoing efforts to evaluate a large citizen science project; 2) Learn about usefulness of Dark Sky products for a variety of educational providers; 3) Learn how to apply the presented techniques to their own outreach activities.

  1. Impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost: A crucial way to communicate the health risks of air pollution to the public.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Guoxing

    2018-04-01

    Limited studies have explored the impacts of exposure to sustained high levels of air pollution (air pollution wave) on mortality. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of air pollution wave has been increasing in highly polluted regions recently, understanding the impacts of air pollution wave is crucial. In this study, air pollution wave was defined as 2 or more consecutive days with air pollution index (API) > 100. The impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost (YLL) due to non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory deaths were evaluated by considering both consecutive days with high levels of air pollution and daily air pollution levels in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. The results showed the durational effect of consecutive days with high levels of air pollution was substantial in addition to the effect of daily air pollution. For instance, the durational effect was related to an increase in YLL of 116.6 (95% CI: 4.8, 228.5) years from non-accidental deaths when the air pollution wave was sustained for 4 days, while the corresponding daily air pollution's effect was 121.2 (95% CI: 55.2, 187.1) years. A better interpretation of the health risks of air pollution wave is crucial for air pollution control policy making and public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Jia, Xiaofang; Wu, Yunfei

    2016-12-15

    Daily PM 2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM 2.5 mass concentration was 53 ± 36 μg·m -3 with the highest seasonal average concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. Water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols accounted for 34% ± 15% and 33% ± 9%, respectively, of PM 2.5 mass on annual average. The excellent, good, lightly polluted, moderately polluted, and heavily polluted days based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM 2.5 accounted for 40%, 42%, 11%, 4%, and 3%, respectively, of the year. The sum of the average concentration of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased from 4.2 ± 2.9 μg·m -3 during excellent days to 85.9 ± 22.4 μg·m -3 during heavily polluted days, and their contributions to PM 2.5 increased from 15% ± 8% to 49% ± 10% accordingly. In contrast, the average concentration of carbonaceous aerosols increased from 9.2 ± 2.8 μg·m -3 to 51.2 ± 14.1 μg·m -3 , and their contributions to PM 2.5 decreased from 34% ± 6% to 29% ± 7%. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed that the major sources for high PM 2.5 and its dominant chemical components were within the area mainly covering Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces. Regional pollutant transport from Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia autonomous region located in the west direction of SDZ was also important during the heating season.

  3. High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Jia, Xiaofang; Wu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was 53 ± 36 μg·m−3 with the highest seasonal average concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. Water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols accounted for 34% ± 15% and 33% ± 9%, respectively, of PM2.5 mass on annual average. The excellent, good, lightly polluted, moderately polluted, and heavily polluted days based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM2.5 accounted for 40%, 42%, 11%, 4%, and 3%, respectively, of the year. The sum of the average concentration of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased from 4.2 ± 2.9 μg·m−3 during excellent days to 85.9 ± 22.4 μg·m−3 during heavily polluted days, and their contributions to PM2.5 increased from 15% ± 8% to 49% ± 10% accordingly. In contrast, the average concentration of carbonaceous aerosols increased from 9.2 ± 2.8 μg·m−3 to 51.2 ± 14.1 μg·m−3, and their contributions to PM2.5 decreased from 34% ± 6% to 29% ± 7%. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed that the major sources for high PM2.5 and its dominant chemical components were within the area mainly covering Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces. Regional pollutant transport from Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia autonomous region located in the west direction of SDZ was also important during the heating season. PMID:27983711

  4. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing’s metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg−1, 195.9 mg·kg−1, 239.2 mg·kg−1 and 713.2 mg·kg−1) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg−1, 125.1 mg·kg−1, 131.9 mg·kg−1 and 514.5 mg·kg−1). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk. PMID:28973969

  5. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg -1 , 195.9 mg·kg -1 , 239.2 mg·kg -1 and 713.2 mg·kg -1 ) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg -1 , 125.1 mg·kg -1 , 131.9 mg·kg -1 and 514.5 mg·kg -1 ). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  6. Constructing the magnetic bifunctional graphene/titania nanosheet-based composite photocatalysts for enhanced visible-light photodegradation of MB and electrochemical ORR from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yihe; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Yu, Xuelian; An, Qi

    2017-09-25

    Photocatalysis is a promising strategy to address the global environmental and energy challenges. However, the studies on the application of the photocatalytically degraded dye-polluted water and the multi-purpose use of one type of catalyst have remained sparse. In this report, we try to demonstrate a concept of multiple and cyclic application of materials and resources in environmentally relevant catalyst reactions. A magnetic composite catalyst prepared from exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and a polyelectrolyte enabled such a cyclic application. The composite catalyst decomposed a methylene blue-polluted water under visible light, and then the catalyst was collected and removed from the treated water using a magnet. The photocatalytically treated water was then used to prepare the electrolyte in electrochemical reductive reactions and presented superior electrochemical performance compared with the dye-polluted water. The composite catalyst was once again used as the cathode catalyst in the electrochemical reaction. Each component in the composite catalyst was indispensable in its catalytic activity, but each component played different roles in the photochemical, magnetic recycling, and electrochemical processes. We expect the report inspire the study on the multi-functional catalyst and cyclic use of the catalytically cleaned water, which should contribute for the environmental and energy remedy from a novel perspective.

  7. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-03-01

    "Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits.

  8. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

  9. A 256×256 low-light-level CMOS imaging sensor with digital CDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mei; Chen, Nan; Zhong, Shengyou; Li, Zhengfen; Zhang, Jicun; Yao, Li-bin

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve high sensitivity for low-light-level CMOS image sensors (CIS), a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) pixel circuit with a small integration capacitor is used. As the pixel and the column area are highly constrained, it is difficult to achieve analog correlated double sampling (CDS) to remove the noise for low-light-level CIS. So a digital CDS is adopted, which realizes the subtraction algorithm between the reset signal and pixel signal off-chip. The pixel reset noise and part of the column fixed-pattern noise (FPN) can be greatly reduced. A 256×256 CIS with CTIA array and digital CDS is implemented in the 0.35μm CMOS technology. The chip size is 7.7mm×6.75mm, and the pixel size is 15μm×15μm with a fill factor of 20.6%. The measured pixel noise is 24LSB with digital CDS in RMS value at dark condition, which shows 7.8× reduction compared to the image sensor without digital CDS. Running at 7fps, this low-light-level CIS can capture recognizable images with the illumination down to 0.1lux.

  10. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants with a heterodyne radiometer transmitter-receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The presence of selected atmospheric pollutants can be determined by transmitting an infrared beam of proper wavelength through the atmosphere, and detecting the reflections of the transmitted beam with a heterodyne radiometer transmitter-receiver using part of the laser beam as a local oscillator. The particular pollutant and its absorption line strength to be measured are selected by the laser beam wave length. When the round-trip path for the light is known or measured, concentration can be determined. Since pressure (altitude) will affect the shape of the molecular absorption line of a pollutant, tuning the laser through a range of frequencies, which includes a part of the absorption line of the pollutant of interest, yields pollutant altitude data from which the altitude and altitude profile is determined.

  11. Radiative Absorption by Light Absorbing Carbon: Uncertainty, Temporal and Spatial Variation in a Typical Polluted City in Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Zhao, Y.; Lyu, R.

    2017-12-01

    The optical properties of light absorbing carbon (LAC) in atmospheric aerosols, including their uncertainties, temporal change and spatial pattern were studied at suburban, urban and industrial sites in Nanjing, a typical polluted city in Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The optical properties of black carbon (BC) and the uncertainty in radiative absorption of BC were quantified combining cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) and thermal-optical techniques. It was found that applying a constant value from previous studies for multiple scattering factor could not well represent the actual absorption characteristics of aerosols in Nanjing. The relative deviation between calculated and measured absorption coefficient of BC was up to 56 ± 34%. A significant positive correlation (R2=0.95) was found between multiple scattering factor (C*) and the mixing state of EC (ECopt/EC) within the ECopt/EC ranged 0.43 0.92 (C*=1.64(ECopt/EC)+1.47, 0.43opt/EC<0.57; C*=6.42(ECopt/EC)-1.39, 0.57opt/EC<0.92). However, C* were not linearly correlated with ECopt/EC when the ratios were below 0.43 or above 0.92. The content of isoprene from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) was higher in summer (5.8%) than that in autumn (0.5%). Brown carbon (BrC) associated with anthropogenic precursors was stronger in light absorption than that from biogenic sources, thus precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was probably the main reason for seasonal variation in MAE of BrC. At industrial site, linear positive correlation (R=0.87) was found between measured MSOC and secondary organic carbon (SOC), suggesting SOA formation was the major source of MSOC in this area. The lower MAE values of MSOC indicated that BrC generated from secondary sources might demonstrate weaker light absorbing ability than that from primary emissions. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that MAE BrC, 365 reduced by 0.26 m2/g when SOC increased by 1μgC/m3. This study provided insights into a more comprehensive

  12. An export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming model for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Rong, Qiangqiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Yue, Wencong; Tan, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this research, an export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming (EC-IFBLMOP) model was developed through integrating export coefficient model (ECM), interval parameter programming (IPP) and fuzzy parameter programming (FPP) within a bi-level multi-objective programming framework. The proposed EC-IFBLMOP model can effectively deal with the multiple uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and fuzzy membership functions. Also, the complexities in agricultural systems, such as the cooperation and gaming relationship between the decision makers at different levels, can be fully considered in the model. The developed model was then applied to identify the optimal land use patterns and BMP implementing levels for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution management in a subcatchment in the upper stream watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in north China. The results of the model showed that the desired optimal land use patterns and implementing levels of best management of practices (BMPs) would be obtained. It is the gaming result between the upper- and lower-level decision makers, when the allowable discharge amounts of NPS pollutants were limited. Moreover, results corresponding to different decision scenarios could provide a set of decision alternatives for the upper- and lower-level decision makers to identify the most appropriate management strategy. The model has a good applicability and can be effectively utilized for agricultural NPS pollution management.

  13. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-14

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  14. Preparation of magnetic photocatalyst nanohybrid decorated by polyoxometalate for the degradation of a pharmaceutical pollutant under solar light.

    PubMed

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Ahmadpour, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic polyoxometalate nanohybrid was prepared by the surface modification of γ-Fe2O3/SrCO3 nanoparticles with PW 12 O 40 (3 -) polyoxometalate (POM) anions. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirm the presence of POM on the surface of γ-Fe2O3/SrCO3 nanoparticles. TEM results revealed the ellipsoid-like structure of nanohybrid which was 23 nm in length and 6 nm in width. The activity of the photocatalyst was investigated by the photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen (IBP) in an aqueous solution under solar light. It was found that in comparison with the γ-Fe2O3/SrCO3, the degradation of IBP after 2-h exposure to the solar light irradiation was significantly higher for POM-γ-Fe2O3/SrCO3 nanohybrids. The degradation of IBP was enhanced by the addition of H2O2 to the air saturated solution, while the addition of NaHCO3 and isopropanol restricted the degradation process. In the presence of H2O2, the Fenton photocatalyst degradation under solar light irradiation led to relatively complete degradation of IBP. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity and magnetization properties of this magnetic photocatalyst nanohybrid provide a promising solution for the degradation of water pollutants and photocatalyst recovery. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration for preparation of POM-γ-Fe2O3/SrCO3 nanohybrid and photocatalytic reaction of IBP on POM-γ-Fe2O3/SrCO3 nanohybrid.

  15. Long-Term Oil Pollution and In Situ Microbial Response of Groundwater in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Sidan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Ding, Aizhong; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Potential threats exist where groundwater is polluted by high concentrations of oil compounds (980.20 mg L -1 the highest TPHs). An abandoned petrochemical plant in Lanzhou City, where long-term petrochemical products leakage contaminated the groundwater, was used as a field site in this study. To determine the extent of pollution and find an effective solution, chemical techniques combined with molecular biological techniques were used to survey the migration and decomposition of pollutants. Moreover, Illumina Sequencing was employed to reveal the microbial changes of different sites. Light-chain alkanes (mostly C6-C9), most benzene compounds, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene) mainly polluted the source. C29 to C36 and chlorobenzenes (hexachlorocyclohexane) polluted the secondary polluted sites. Moreover, chloralkane (trichloroethane and dichloroethane), benzene derivatives (trimethylbenzene and butylbenzene), and PAHs (fluorene and phenanthrene) were present in the other longtime-contaminated water. The bacterial genera are closely related with the chemical matters, and different groups of microorganisms gather in the sample sites that are polluted with different kinds of oil. The biodiversity and abundance of observed species change with pollution conditions. The dominant phyla (81%) of the bacterial community structure are Proteobacteria (62.2% of the total microbes), Bacteroidetes (8.85%), Actinobacteria (6.70%), and Choloroflexi (3.03%). Pseudomonadaceae is significant in the oil-polluted source and Comamonadaceae is significant in the secondary polluted (migrated oil) sample; these two genera are natural decomposers of refractory matters. Amycolatopsis, Rhodocyclaceae, Sulfurimonas, and Sulfuricurvum are the dominant genera in the long-migrated oil-polluted samples. Bioavailability of the oil-contaminated place differs with levels of pollution and cleaning the worse-polluted sites by microbes is more difficult.

  16. Minimizing the Threat of Light Pollution on Observatories through Education: the Quality Lighting Teaching Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; M, Pompea, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Poor quality lighting impedes astronomy research and our right to see a starry night sky. It creates safety issues, affects human circadian sensitivities, disrupts ecosystems, and wastes billions of dollars/year in energy consumption. It also leads to excess carbon emissions. How do you change the mindset of society that is used to turning night into day? You educate the next generation on quality lighting.As an outcome of the International Year of Light 2015, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory’s Education and Public Outreach group has produced a Quality Lighting Teaching (QLT) Kit. The kits are designed around problem-based learning scenarios. The kit’s six activities allow students to address real lighting problems that relate to wildlife, sky glow, aging eyes, energy consumption, safety, and light trespass. The activities are optimized for 11-14 year olds but can be expanded to younger and older. All materials are in both English and Spanish. Most of the activities can be done within in a few minutes during class or afterschool and as stations or as stand-alones. Everything you need for the six activities is included in the kit. Tutorial videos on how to do the activities can be found at www.noao.edu/education/qltkit.php. Ninety-two out of one hundred kits have been distributed in thirty-two countries through SPIE (the International Society for Optical Engineering), CIE (the International Commission on Illuminations), OSA (the Optical Society), IDA (the International Dark Sky Association), and the IAU OAD–Office of Astronomy Development. Successful feedback is promoting a choice between commercializing the kit or gaining further grants to build more kits. A plan is being considered to distribute kits to observatories around the world, hence helping to reduce the effects of one of the three threats to observational astronomy through awareness and action.

  17. From The Ground Up I: Light Pollution Sources in Flagstaff, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...Lighting Codes The 1989 lighting codes for the first time anywhere estab- lished overall limits on the amount of outdoor lighting. Origin- ally, four...fiducial time . It is important to note at least one category of lighting that we did not include or study, which may be a substantial contributor to the

  18. Light accelerates plant responses to warming.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris

    2015-08-17

    Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create environmental heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global warming and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to warming. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to warming, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. Warming of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, warming-induced changes in forest floor plant communities.

  19. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  20. Cosmic Light EDU kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

  1. Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Factors of Air Pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongsheng; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhang, Wenzhong; Wang, Shaojian; Yu, Jianhui

    2017-12-08

    In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Based on ground monitoring air quality data collected in 2015 in Chinese cities above the prefectural level, this study identifies the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution and its associated driving factors in China using descriptive statistics and geographical detector methods. The results show that the average air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio across Chinese cities in 2015 were 23.1 ± 16.9% and 16.2 ± 14.8%. The highest levels of air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio were observed in northern China, especially in the Bohai Rim region and Xinjiang province, and the lowest levels were found in southern China. The average and maximum levels of continuous air pollution show distinct spatial variations when compared with those of the continuous air pollution ratio. Monthly changes in both air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio have a U-shaped variation, indicating that the highest levels of air pollution occurred in winter and the lowest levels happened in summer. The results of the geographical detector model further reveal that the effect intensity of natural factors on the spatial disparity of the air pollution ratio is greater than that of human-related factors. Specifically, among natural factors, the annual average temperature, land relief, and relative humidity have the greatest and most significant negative effects on the air pollution ratio, whereas human factors such as population density, the number of vehicles, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) witness the strongest and most significant positive effects on air pollution ratio.

  2. Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Factors of Air Pollution in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Wenzhong; Wang, Shaojian; Yu, Jianhui

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Based on ground monitoring air quality data collected in 2015 in Chinese cities above the prefectural level, this study identifies the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution and its associated driving factors in China using descriptive statistics and geographical detector methods. The results show that the average air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio across Chinese cities in 2015 were 23.1 ± 16.9% and 16.2 ± 14.8%. The highest levels of air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio were observed in northern China, especially in the Bohai Rim region and Xinjiang province, and the lowest levels were found in southern China. The average and maximum levels of continuous air pollution show distinct spatial variations when compared with those of the continuous air pollution ratio. Monthly changes in both air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio have a U-shaped variation, indicating that the highest levels of air pollution occurred in winter and the lowest levels happened in summer. The results of the geographical detector model further reveal that the effect intensity of natural factors on the spatial disparity of the air pollution ratio is greater than that of human-related factors. Specifically, among natural factors, the annual average temperature, land relief, and relative humidity have the greatest and most significant negative effects on the air pollution ratio, whereas human factors such as population density, the number of vehicles, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) witness the strongest and most significant positive effects on air pollution ratio. PMID:29292783

  3. Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat

    PubMed Central

    Brüning, Anika; Kloas, Werner; Preuer, Torsten; Hölker, Franz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics. PMID:29686874

  4. Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Anika; Kloas, Werner; Preuer, Torsten; Hölker, Franz

    2018-01-01

    Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.

  5. Cavities shield birds from effects of artificial light at night on sleep.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2018-05-20

    Light pollution is an ever increasing worldwide problem disrupting animal behavior. Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been shown to affect sleep in wild birds. Even cavity-nesting bird species may be affected when sleeping inside their cavity. Correlational studies suggest that light from outside the cavity/nest box, for example from street lights, may affect sleep. We used an experimental design to study to what extent nest boxes shield animals from effects of ALAN on sleep. We recorded individual sleep behavior of free-living great tits (Parus major) that were roosting in dark nest boxes and exposed their nest box entrance to ALAN the following night (1.6 lux white LED light; a similar light intensity as was found at nest boxes near street lights). Their behavior was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest boxes on both nights. Our experimental treatment did not affect sleep behavior. Sleep behavior of birds in the control group did not differ from that of individuals in the light treated group. Our results suggest that during winter cavities shield birds from some effects of ALAN. Furthermore, given that effects of ALAN and exposure to artificial light are species-, sex-, and season-dependent, it is important that studies using wild animals quantify individual exposure to light pollution, and be cautious in the interpretation and generalization of the effects, or lack thereof, from light pollution. Rigorous studies are necessary to examine individual light exposure and its consequences in cavity- and open-nesting birds. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Indoor air quality in Portuguese schools: levels and sources of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Madureira, J; Paciência, I; Pereira, C; Teixeira, J P; Fernandes, E de O

    2016-08-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in 73 primary classrooms in Porto were examined for the purpose of assessing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, particulate matter, ventilation rates and bioaerosols within and between schools, and potential sources. Levels of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5 , PM10 , bacteria and fungi, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide, temperature and relative humidity were measured indoors and outdoors and a walkthrough survey was performed concurrently. Ventilation rates were derived from CO2 and occupancy data. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm were often encountered, indicating poor ventilation. Most VOCs had low concentrations (median of individual species <5 μg/m(3) ) and were below the respective WHO guidelines. Concentrations of particulate matter and culturable bacteria were frequently higher than guidelines/reference values. The variability of VOCs, aldehydes, bioaerosol concentrations, and CO2 levels between schools exceeded the variability within schools. These findings indicate that IAQ problems may persist in classrooms where pollutant sources exist and classrooms are poorly ventilated; source control strategies (related to building location, occupant behavior, maintenance/cleaning activities) are deemed to be the most reliable for the prevention of adverse health consequences in children in schools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ground-level ozone pollution and its health impacts in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Shuai; Xue, Boru; Lv, Zhaofeng; Meng, Zhihang; Yang, Xiaofan; Xue, Tao; Yu, Qiao; He, Kebin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, ground-level ozone pollution in China has become an increasingly prominent problem. This study simulated and analyzed spatiotemporal distribution of ozone and exposure level by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models and monitoring data from 1516 national air quality monitoring stations in China during 2015. The simulation results show that the Sichuan Basin, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had relatively high average annual concentrations of ozone. The regions with more than 10% nonattainment days of 160 μg/m3 (daily maximum 8-h) are mainly concentrated in BTH, Shandong Peninsula and YRD, where large seasonal variations were also found. Exposure levels were calculated based on population data and simulated ozone concentrations. The cumulative population exposed to daily maximum 8-h concentration greater than or equal to 100 μg/m3 was 816.04 million, 61.17% of the total. Three methods were used to estimate the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to ozone. A comparative study using different exposure concentrations and threshold concentrations found large variations among these methods, although they were all peer-reviewed methods. The estimated mortality of COPD caused by ozone in China in 2015 ranged from 55341 to 80280, which mainly distributed in Beijing, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Sichuan Province, the YRD and PRD region.

  8. Air pollution and vulnerability: solving the puzzle of prioritization.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Diab, Roseanne

    2011-01-01

    While ambient air pollution levels in excess of prescribed health standards are generally unacceptable, the exceedance is even more serious in areas where people reside. Vulnerability caused by poverty, disease, lack of education, and poor living conditions exacerbates the problem. Air quality management plans identify prioritized strategies for improved air quality independent of consideration of vulnerability. A population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritization framework comprising five themes (air pollution sources; air pollution levels; air pollution potential; community awareness, observations, perceptions, and actions; and vulnerability factors) was proposed and applied to the eThekwini Municipality (Durban, South Africa). Data were scored according to predetermined risk threshold values to ascertain at-risk communities. While those urban wards located in a known air pollution hotspot had the highest air pollution levels, a periurban ward with moderate exposure levels was most vulnerable. This framework will prove invaluable for the development of focused interventions to reduce vulnerability and air pollution-associated adverse health impacts.

  9. Low levels of chemical anthropogenic pollution may threaten amphibians by impairing predator recognition.

    PubMed

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that direct mortality and physiological effects caused by pollutants are major contributing factors to global amphibian decline. However, even sublethal concentrations of pollutants could be harmful if they combined with other factors to cause high mortality in amphibians. Here we show that sublethal concentrations of pollutants can disrupt the ability of amphibian larvae to recognize predators, hence increasing their risk of predation. This effect is indeed much more important since very low amounts of pollutants are ubiquitous, and environmental efforts are mostly directed towards preventing lethal spills. We analyzed the effects of two common contaminants (humic acid and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize chemical cues from a common predator, nymphs of the dragonfly Anax imperator. We compared the swimming activity of tadpoles in the presence and absence of water-borne chemical cues from dragonflies at different concentrations of humic acid and ammonium nitrate. Tadpoles reduced swimming activity in response to predator cues in the absence of pollutants, whereas they remained unresponsive to these cues when either humic acid or ammonium nitrate was added to the water, even at low concentrations. Moreover, changes in tadpole activity associated with the pollutants themselves were non-significant, indicating no toxic effect. Alteration of the natural chemical environment of aquatic systems by pollutants may be an important contributing cause for declines in amphibian populations, even at sublethal concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM 2.5, NO 2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotko, Tuulia; Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino; Carrer, Paolo; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Jantunen, Matti

    Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with different air pollution components is needed. In the European air pollution exposure study, EXPOLIS, the air pollution annoyance as perceived at home, workplace and in traffic were surveyed among other study objectives. Overall 1736 randomly drawn 25-55-yr-old subjects participated in six cities (Athens, Basel, Milan, Oxford, Prague and Helsinki). Levels and predictors of individual perceived annoyances from air pollution were assessed. Instead of the usual air pollution concentrations at fixed monitoring sites, this paper compares the measured microenvironment concentrations and personal exposures of PM 2.5 and NO 2 to the perceived annoyance levels. A considerable proportion of the adults surveyed was annoyed by air pollution. Female gender, self-reported respiratory symptoms, downtown living and self-reported sensitivity to air pollution were directly associated with high air pollution annoyance score while in traffic, but smoking status, age or education level were not significantly associated. Population level annoyance averages correlated with the city average exposure levels of PM 2.5 and NO 2. A high correlation was observed between the personal 48-h PM 2.5 exposure and perceived annoyance at home as well as between the mean annoyance at work and both the average work indoor PM 2.5 and the personal work time PM 2.5 exposure. With the other significant determinants (gender, city code, home location) and home outdoor levels the model explained 14% (PM 2.5) and 19% (NO 2) of the variation in perceived air pollution annoyance in traffic. Compared to

  11. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  12. The role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution in Beijing during APEC 2014 and Victory Parade 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengfei; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Yanhua; Li, Yingruo; Han, Yiqun; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Wang, Junxia

    2017-11-01

    To control severe air pollution in China, comprehensive pollution control strategies have been implemented throughout the country in recent years. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the influence of meteorological conditions on levels of air pollution needs to be determined. Using the intensive air pollution control strategies implemented during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 2014 (APEC 2014) and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (Victory Parade 2015) as examples, we estimated the role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution levels in Beijing. Atmospheric particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) samples were collected and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO, NOx, and O3) were measured online at a site in Peking University (PKU). To determine the influence of meteorological conditions on the levels of air pollution, we first compared the air pollutant concentrations during days with stable meteorological conditions. However, there were few days with stable meteorological conditions during the Victory Parade. As such, we were unable to estimate the level of emission reduction efforts during this period. Finally, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based only on meteorological parameters was built to predict air pollutant concentrations, which could explain more than 70 % of the variation in air pollutant concentration levels, after incorporating the nonlinear relationships between certain meteorological parameters and the concentrations of air pollutants. Evaluation of the GLM performance revealed that the GLM, even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and, hence, the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 and 28 % to the reduction

  13. Comparison of gene expression levels of appA, ppsR, and EL368 in Erythrobacter litoralis spheroplasts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and under blue light, red light, and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Koki; Takahashi, Sawako; Nishida, Hiromi

    2018-03-31

    We compared the gene expression levels of the blue-light-responsive genes, appA (encoding photosynthesis promoting protein AppA), ppsR (encoding photosynthesis suppressing protein PpsR), and EL368 (encoding a blue-light-activated histidine kinase with a light, oxygen, or voltage domain) between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in spheroplasts of the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis. The spheroplasts conducted photosynthesis under red light but not under blue light. All three blue-light-responsive genes showed higher expression under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions under blue light. In contrast, under red light, although the expression level of appA was higher in the presence of oxygen than in the absence of oxygen, the expression levels of ppsR and EL368 were similar in the presence and absence of oxygen. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of blue-light-responsive genes is strongly affected by oxygen in E. litoralis spheroplasts.

  14. Magnetic Properties of PMx Collected at Sites with Different Level of Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, E.; Kotlik, B.; Kapicka, A.; Zboril, R.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of environmental samples can serve as fast and relatively cheap proxy method to investigate occurrence of iron oxides. These methods are very sensitive in detecting strongly magnetic compounds such as magnetite and maghemite and can reveal concentration and assess grain-size distribution of these minerals. This information can be significant in estimating e.g. the source of pollutants, monitoring pollution load, or investigating seasonal and climatic effects. We studied magnetic properties of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and total suspended matter (TSP), collected over 12-48 hours at sites with different level of air pollution: a small clean settlement in south Bohemia, industrial site close to steel works, industrial site close to open mine pit, urban and traffic site. In our contribution we will show typical differences in PMx properties. SEM observations will be complemented by magnetic measurements and Mossbauer spectroscopy. In all the ssampled sites, the SEM images clearly reveal spherules rich in iron oxides. Thermomagentic measurements (temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility) prove that magnetite is the dominant magnetic phase in atmospheric dust in samples from all sites. Hysteresis loops and IRM acquisition curve could be reliably measured. Surprisingly, finer dust particles show smaller coercive force than the coarser ones. Mossbauer spectroscopy could be interpreted in terms of multi-domain magnetite only in the samples with PMx dominated by the steel works, where the content of magnetite was the highest. The results demonstrate that magnetic measurements are extremely sensitive to trace amount of ferrimagnetic iron oxides, which were in many cases below the sensitivity limit of Mossbauer spectroscopy. This study is supported by the Czech Science Foundation through grant #P210/10/0554.

  15. Light-stick: A problem of marine pollution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar-Ribeiro, Caio; Rosa, Helena Costi; Rocha, Daniele Oliveira; Dos Reis, Camila Galli Baldini; Prado, Tabata Sarti; Muniz, Daniela Hernandes Coimbra; Carrasco, Raquel; Silva, Flávia Milão; Martinelli-Filho, José Eduardo; Palanch-Hans, Maria Fernanda

    2017-04-15

    Light-sticks are used as bait in surface long-line fishing, to capture swordfish and other large pelagic predators. When discharged in the ocean, it may reach the beaches. The traditional Brazilian community of Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia, use light-sticks as a medicine for rheumatism, vitiligo and mycoses. It may affect the marine life when its content leak in the open ocean. This work evaluated and identified the acute and chronic toxicity of the light-stick. A high acute toxicity was observed in the mobility/mortality of Artemia sp.; in the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, and a high chronic toxicity in the development of the pluteus larvae of the same sea urchin. The main compounds that probably caused toxicity were the volatiles such as the fluorescent PAH and oxidants such as the hydrogen peroxide. Its disposal in the open ocean is a potential threat for marine life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of different lighting levels at workstations with video display terminals on operators' work efficiency].

    PubMed

    Janosik, Elzbieta; Grzesik, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of different lighting levels at workstations with video display terminals (VDTs) on the course of the operators' visual work, and to determine the optimal levels of lighting at VDT workstations. For two kinds of job (entry of figures from a typescript and edition of the text displayed on the screen), the work capacity, the degree of the visual strain and the operators' subjective symptoms were determined for four lighting levels (200, 300, 500 and 750 lx). It was found that the work at VDT workstations may overload the visual system and cause eyes complaints as well as the reduction of accommodation or convergence strength. It was also noted that the edition of the text displayed on the screen is more burdening for operators than the entry of figures from a typescript. Moreover, the examination results showed that the lighting at VDT workstations should be higher than 200 lx and that 300 lx makes the work conditions most comfortable during the entry of figures from a typescript, and 500 lx during the edition of the text displayed on the screen.

  17. The Effect of Light Level and Small Pupils on Presbyopic Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Renfeng; Gil, Daniel; Dibas, Mohammed; Hare, William; Bradley, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    To examine the impact of small pupils and light levels on reading performance of distance-corrected presbyopes. To determine whether small pupils would enable presbyopes to read at near even at low light levels. To establish the lower range of text luminances, we quantified the space-averaged luminance of text in nine different artificially lit interior environments, and examined the impact of the text characters on space-averaged luminance of electronic and printed displays. Distance and near reading speeds of 20 presbyopes (ages 40-60 years) were measured while viewing through artificial pupils (diameters 1-4.5 mm), natural pupils, or with a multifocal contact lens. Space-averaged text luminance levels varied from 0.14 to 140 cd/m2 (including the range of measured environmental text luminances). Adding black text to a white computer display or paper reduces luminance by approximately 15% to 31%, and the lowest encountered environmental text luminance was approximately 2 to 3 cd/m2. For both distance and near reading performance, the 2- to 3-mm small pupil yielded the best overall reading acuity for space-averaged text light levels ≥ 2 cd/m2. The 2- to 3-mm artificial pupils and the multifocal contact lenses both enabled maximum or near-maximum reading speeds for 0.5 logMAR characters at distance and near, but with natural pupils, reading speeds were significantly reduced at near. Although photon noise at low luminance reduces the visual benefits of small pupils, the benefits of 2- to 3-mm artificial pupils are sufficient to enable >80% of distance-corrected presbyopes to read proficiently at near, even at the lowest text luminances found in interior environments.

  18. Classification of video sequences into chosen generalized use classes of target size and lighting level.

    PubMed

    Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Dudek, Łukasz; Witkowski, Marcin

    The VQiPS (Video Quality in Public Safety) Working Group, supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has been developing a user guide for public safety video applications. According to VQiPS, five parameters have particular importance influencing the ability to achieve a recognition task. They are: usage time-frame, discrimination level, target size, lighting level, and level of motion. These parameters form what are referred to as Generalized Use Classes (GUCs). The aim of our research was to develop algorithms that would automatically assist classification of input sequences into one of the GUCs. Target size and lighting level parameters were approached. The experiment described reveals the experts' ambiguity and hesitation during the manual target size determination process. However, the automatic methods developed for target size classification make it possible to determine GUC parameters with 70 % compliance to the end-users' opinion. Lighting levels of the entire sequence can be classified with an efficiency reaching 93 %. To make the algorithms available for use, a test application has been developed. It is able to process video files and display classification results, the user interface being very simple and requiring only minimal user interaction.

  19. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  20. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in consumers of eel from polluted rivers compared to marketable eel.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Polder, Anuschka; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Steegenga, Wilma T; Kampman, Ellen; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-12-01

    Globally, many river sediments are seriously contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) known to accumulate in aquatic food. In the Netherlands, toxicological risks of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds led to a ban on eel fishing in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in serum POP levels in consumers of eel from high-polluted areas and consumers of eel from low-polluted areas or aquaculture. In total 80 Dutch men were included, aged 40-70 years, with a habitual eel consumption of at least one portion (150 g) per month. Total levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds were measured in serum of all participants with the DR CALUX bioassay, validated with GC-MS. For a subgroup of 38 participants extensive POP measurements were performed. We revealed that consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in 2.5 and up to 10 times increased levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) respectively compared to controls. The highest PCB levels were detected for PCB 153, with a median level of 896 ng/g lipid and a maximum level of 5000 ng/g lipid in the high-exposed group. Furthermore, hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs: sum of 4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4'-OH-CB172, and 4-OH-CB187) were 8 times higher in men who consumed eel from polluted areas, and detected at levels (median 4.5 ng/g ww) reported to cause adverse health effects. Also, the majority of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were significantly higher in consumers of eel from pullulated areas. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal that (past) consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in high body burdens of dioxins, PCBs, OH-PCBs and PFASs. We confirmed the predictions made in a former risk assessment, and the high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds as well as the OH-PCBs are of health concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stable genetic structure and connectivity in pollution-adapted and nearby pollution-sensitive populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    PubMed Central

    Biancani, Leann M.; Flight, Patrick A.; Nacci, Diane E.; Rand, David M.; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabiting the heavily polluted New Bedford Harbour (NBH) estuary have shown inherited tolerance to local pollutants introduced to their habitats in the past 100 years. Here we examine two questions: (i) Is there pollution-driven selection on the mitochondrial genome across a fine geographical scale? and (ii) What is the pattern of migration among sites spanning a strong pollution gradient? Whole mitochondrial genomes were analysed for 133 F. heteroclitus from seven nearby collection sites: four sites along the NBH pollution cline (approx. 5 km distance), which had pollution-adapted fish, as well as one site adjacent to the pollution cline and two relatively unpolluted sites about 30 km away, which had pollution-sensitive fish. Additionally, we used microsatellite analyses to quantify genetic variation over three F. heteroclitus generations in both pollution-adapted and sensitive individuals collected from two sites at two different time points (1999/2000 and 2007/2008). Our results show no evidence for a selective sweep of mtDNA in the polluted sites. Moreover, mtDNA analyses revealed that both pollution-adapted and sensitive populations harbour similar levels of genetic diversity. We observed a high level of non-synonymous mutations in the most polluted site. This is probably associated with a reduction in Ne and concomitant weakening of purifying selection, a demographic expansion following a pollution-related bottleneck or increased mutation rates. Our demographic analyses suggest that isolation by distance influences the distribution of mtDNA genetic variation between the pollution cline and the clean populations at broad spatial scales. At finer scales, population structure is patchy, and neither spatial distance, pollution concentration or pollution tolerance is a good predictor of mtDNA variation. Lastly, microsatellite analyses revealed stable population structure over the last

  2. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  7. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  8. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  9. Assessing water pollution level and gray water footprint of anthropogenic nitrogen in agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guorui; Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing

    2017-04-01

    Water pollution has become a global problem which is one of the most critical issues of today's water treatment. At a spatial resolution of 10km, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for major cropping systems from 1955 to 2014, estimate the anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh, and calculate the resultant grey water footprints and N-related water pollution level in China. The accumulated annual Nitrogen loads to fresh from agricultural system is 0.38Tg in 1955 and 4.42Tg in 2014, while the grey water footprints vary from 1.53 billion m3 to 17.67 billion m3, respectively. N loads in north of China contributes much more on the N leaching because of the high fertilizer but in south of China, it is mainly focused on the N runoff because of the heavy rain. There are more than 25% of grids with WPL>1 (exceed the water capacity of assimilation), which is mainly located on the North China Plain.

  10. Low-level light therapy for zymosan-induced arthritis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano, Ana P.; Dai, Tianhong; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Salomatina, Elena V.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Cohen, Richard; Apruzzese, William A.; Smotrich, Michael H.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-02-01

    It has been known for many years that low level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) can ameliorate the pain, swelling and inflammation associated with various forms of arthritis. Light is absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores leading to an increase in ATP, reactive oxygen species and/or cyclic AMP production and consequent gene transcription via activation of transcription factors. However, despite many reports about the positive effects of LLLT in medicine, its use remains controversial. Our laboratory has developed animal models designed to objectively quantify response to LLLT and compare different light delivery regimens. In the arthritis model we inject zymosan into rat knee joints to induce inflammatory arthritis. We have compared illumination regimens consisting of a high and low fluence (3 J/cm2 and 30 J/cm2), delivered at a high and low irradiance (5 mW/cm2 and 50 mW/cm2) using 810-nm laser light daily for 5 days, with the effect of conventional corticosteroid (dexamethasone) therapy. Results indicated that illumination with 810-nm laser is highly effective (almost as good as dexamethasone) at reducing swelling and that longer illumination time was more important in determining effectiveness than either total fluence delivered or irradiance. Experiments carried out using 810-nm LLLT on excisional wound healing in mice also confirmed the importance of longer illumination times. These data will be of value in designing clinical trials of LLLT.

  11. Anemia prevalence and hemoglobin levels are associated with long-term exposure to air pollution in an older population.

    PubMed

    Honda, Trenton; Pun, Vivian C; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anemia, a highly prevalent disorder in elderly populations, is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased mortality, impaired functional status and cognitive disorders. Approximately two-thirds of anemia in American elderly is caused by chronic inflammation or is unexplained. A potential contributing factor may include air pollution exposures, which have been shown to increase systemic inflammation and affect erythropoiesis. Few studies, however, have investigated the associations of air pollution on hemoglobin levels and anemia. We used linear regression models and modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine the associations of particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) on hemoglobin concentrations and prevalence of anemia, respectively, among 4121 older Americans enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We estimated participant-specific exposures to PM 2.5 using spatio-temporal models, and to NO 2 using nearest measurements from Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Hemoglobin levels were measured for participants in each of two data collection waves from dried blood spots. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization hemoglobin-based criteria of <13 and <12g/dL for men and women, respectively. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, race, income, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, region, urbanicity and medication use. Mediation by C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, was also investigated. An inter-quartile range (IQR, 3.9μg/m 3 ) increase in the one-year moving average PM 2.5 was positively associated with anemia prevalence (prevalence ratio, or PR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.45) and decreases in average hemoglobin of 0.81g/dL (p<0.001). Similarly, an IQR (9.6ppb) increase in NO 2 was associated with anemia prevalence (PR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.63) and a decrease in average hemoglobin of 0.81g/dL (p<0

  12. Anemia Prevalence and Hemoglobin Levels are Associated with Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution in an Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Trenton; Pun, Vivian C.; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anemia, a highly prevalent disorder in elderly populations, is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased mortality, impaired functional status and cognitive disorders. Approximately two-thirds of anemia in American elderly is caused by chronic inflammation or is unexplained. A potential contributing factor may include air pollution exposures, which have been shown to increase systemic inflammation and affect erythropoiesis. Few studies, however, have investigated the associations of air pollution on hemoglobin levels and anemia. METHODS We used linear regression models and modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine the associations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on hemoglobin concentrations and prevalence of anemia, respectively, among 4,121 older Americans enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We estimated participant-specific exposures to PM2.5 using spatio-temporal models, and to NO2 using nearest measurements from Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System. Hemoglobin levels were measured for participants in each of two data collection waves from dried blood spots. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization hemoglobin-based criteria of <13 and <12 g/dL for men and women, respectively. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, race, income, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, region, urbanicity and medication use. Mediation by C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, was also investigated. RESULTS An inter-quartile range (IQR, 3.9 μg/m3) increase in the one-year moving average PM2.5