Science.gov

Sample records for light scattering mals

  1. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-08-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  2. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  3. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  4. Fluorescence and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the mentioned experiment is to aid students in developing tactics for distinguishing between signals originating from fluorescence and light scattering. Also, the experiment provides students with a deeper understanding of the physicochemical bases of each phenomenon and shows that the techniques are actually related.

  5. Light Scattering by Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ya-Ming; Ji, Xia

    Nowadays, with the development of technology, particles with size at nanoscale have been synthesized in experiments. It is noticed that anisotropy is an unavoidable problem in the production of nanospheres. Besides, nonspherical nanoparticles have also been extensively used in experiments. Comparing with spherical model, spheroidal model can give a better description for the characteristics of nonspherical particles. Thus the study of analytical solution for light scattering by spheroidal particles has practical implications. By expanding incident, scattered, and transmitted electromagnetic fields in terms of appropriate vector spheroidal wave functions, an analytic solution is obtained to the problem of light scattering by spheroids. Unknown field expansion coefficients can be determined with the combination of boundary conditions and rotational-translational addition theorems for vector spheroidal wave functions. Based on the theoretical derivation, a Fortran code has been developed to calculate the extinction cross section and field distribution, whose results agree well with those obtain by FDTD simulation. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 91230203.

  6. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  7. Dynamic light scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    An optical microscope technique, dynamic light scattering microscopy (DLSM) that images dynamically scattered light fluctuation decay rates is introduced. Using physical optics we show theoretically that within the optical resolution of the microscope, relative motions between scattering centers are sufficient to produce significant phase variations resulting in interference intensity fluctuations in the image plane. The time scale for these intensity fluctuations is predicted. The spatial coherence distance defining the average distance between constructive and destructive interference in the image plane is calculated and compared with the pixel size. We experimentally tested DLSM on polystyrene latex nanospheres and living macrophage cells. In order to record these rapid fluctuations, on a slow progressive scan CCD camera, we used a thin laser line of illumination on the sample such that only a single column of pixels in the CCD camera is illuminated. This allowed the use of the rate of the column-by-column readout transfer process as the acquisition rate of the camera. This manipulation increased the data acquisition rate by at least an order of magnitude in comparison to conventional CCD cameras rates defined by frames/s. Analysis of the observed fluctuations provides information regarding the rates of motion of the scattering centers. These rates, acquired from each position on the sample are used to create a spatial map of the fluctuation decay rates. Our experiments show that with this technique, we are able to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and can monitor fast intensity fluctuations, on the order of milliseconds. DLSM appears to provide dynamic information about fast motions within cells at a sub-optical resolution scale and provides a new kind of spatial contrast.

  8. Scattered light in photolithographic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Joseph P.

    1994-05-01

    Scattered light, flare, is present in the images formed by all photolithography lenses and it reduces lithographic process tolerances. It varies from lens to lens and with time, but is easily measured by observation of images of opaque objects formed in positive photoresist. The scattered light halo of a lens is modeled and the model used to estimate the flare for any reticle used with that lens.

  9. Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razinkov, Vladimer

    2009-03-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  10. Light Scattering in Exoplanet Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Transit spectroscopy is currently the leading technique for studying exoplanet atmospheric composition, and has led to the detection of molecular species, clouds, and/or hazes for numerous worlds outside the Solar System. The field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy will be revolutionized with the anticipated launch of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018. Over the course of the design five year mission for JWST, the observatory is expected to provide in-depth observations of many tens of transiting exoplanets, including some worlds in the poorly understood 2–4 Earth-mass regime. As the quality of transit spectrum observations continues to improve, so should models of exoplanet transits. Thus, certain processes initially thought to be of second-order importance should be revisited and possibly added to modeling tools. For example, atmospheric refraction, which was commonly omitted from early transit spectrum models, has recently been shown to be of critical importance in some terrestrial exoplanet transits. Beyond refraction, another process that has seen little study with regards to exoplanet transits is light multiple scattering. In most cases, scattering opacity in exoplanet transits has been treated as equivalent to absorption opacity. However, this equivalence cannot always hold, such as in the case of a strongly forward scattering, weakly absorbing aerosol. In this presentation, we outline a theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that spans the geometric limit (used in most modern models) to a fully multiple scattering approach. We discuss a new technique for improving model efficiency that effectively separates photon paths, which tend to vary slowly in wavelength, from photon absorption, which can vary rapidly in wavelength. Using this newly developed approach, we explore situations where cloud or haze scattering may be important to JWST observations of gas giants, and comment on the conditions necessary for scattering to become a major

  11. Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Hovenier, Joop W.

    1998-01-01

    Improved understanding of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles is important to many science and engineering disciplines and was the subject of the Conference on Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications. The conference was held 29 September-1 October 1998 at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City and brought together 115 participants from 18 countries. The main objective of the conference was to highlight and summarize the rapid advancements in the field, including numerical methods for computing the single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by nonspherical and heterogeneous particles, measurement approaches, knowledge of characteristic features in scattering patterns, retrieval and remote sensing techniques, nonspherical particle sizing, and various practical applications. The conference consisted of twelve oral and one poster sessions. The presentations were loosely grouped based on broad topical categories. In each of these categories invited review talks highlighted and summarized specific active areas of research. To ensure a high-quality conference, all abstracts submitted had been reviewed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee for technical merit and content. The conference program was published in the June 1998 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society and is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.giss.nasa.gov/-crmim/conference/program.html. Authors of accepted papers and review presentations contributed to a volume of preprints published by the American Meteorological Society' and distributed to participants at the conference.

  12. Development and qualification of a size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle light scattering method for molecular weight determination of unfractionated heparin.

    PubMed

    Beirne, John; Truchan, Hilary; Rao, Lin

    2011-01-01

    The molecular weight of unfractionated heparin was determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. The SEC/MALS method determines absolute molecular weight directly from the angular dependence of scattered light intensity as a function of concentration and does not rely on molecular weight standards for column calibration. The SEC/MALS method developed at Scientific Protein Laboratories was qualified in terms of specificity, precision, robustness, and accuracy. By eliminating the requirement of well-characterized molecular weight standards derived from heparin, the present procedure represents a clear improvement over the column calibration methods used in molecular weight determination. The SEC/MALS method is suitable for routine quality control of unfractionated heparin. PMID:20838778

  13. Light scattering of degenerate fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, S.; Leblanc, L. J.; Myrskog, S.; Extavour, M. H. T.; McKay, D.; Stummer, A.; Thywissen, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    We report on progress in measuring the suppression of resonant light scattering in a gas of degenerate fermions. A gas of trapped degenerate fermions is expected to exhibit narrower optical linewidths and longer excited state lifetimes than single atoms when the Fermi energy is larger than the photon recoil energy [1-3]. In this case, the number of available states into which a scattered atom can recoil is significantly reduced due to the filling of the Fermi sea. We produce a degenerate gas of 4x10^4 ultra-cold fermionic ^40K atoms by sympathetic cooling with bosonic ^87Rb in a micro-magnetic chip trap. The atoms can then be loaded into a tight dipole trap just above the surface of the chip and probed with a near resonance laser pulse. [1] Th. Busch, J. R. Anglin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Europhys. Lett. 44, 1 (1998). [2] B. DeMarco and D. S. Jin, Phys. Rev. A 58, R4267 (1998). [3] J. Javanainen and J. Ruostekosky, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3033 (1995). Work supported by NSERC, CFI, OIT, Research Corporation, and PRO.

  14. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-07-15

    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  15. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.

    1975-06-03

    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  16. Theory of Light Scattering in Axion Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Taking account of the axion term in the Maxwell Lagrangian, we present a rigorous theory of light scattering in piecewise-constant axion fields. In particular, we focus on axionic substances with confined and/or curved geometries, and the scattering matrices of an axionic slab, cylinder, and sphere are derived analytically. The axion term generates a surface current with off-diagonal optical conductivity, giving rise to a new type of photospin--orbit interaction. As a result, various novel light-scattering phenomena can take place. We demonstrate enhanced Faraday rotation, parity-violating light scattering, and strong perturbation of dipole radiation.

  17. Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Smith, James A.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory goniometer consisting of an He-Ne laser (632.8 nm), vertical leaf holder, and silicon photovoltaic detector was used to measure the bidirectional scattering (both transmittance and reflectance) of red oak and red maple. The illumination angles were 0, 30, and 60 deg, and the scattering was recorded approximately every 10 deg in the principal plane. The scattering profiles obtained show the non-Lambertian characteristics of the scattering, particularly for the off-nadir illumination directions. The transmitted light was more isotropic than the reflected light.

  18. Microscopic Imaging and Spectroscopy with Scattered Light

    PubMed Central

    Boustany, Nada N.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Optical contrast based on elastic scattering interactions between light and matter can be used to probe cellular structure and dynamics, and image tissue architecture. The quantitative nature and high sensitivity of light scattering signals to subtle alterations in tissue morphology, as well as the ability to visualize unstained tissue in vivo, has recently generated significant interest in optical scatter based biosensing and imaging. Here we review the fundamental methodologies used to acquire and interpret optical scatter data. We report on recent findings in this field and present current advances in optical scatter techniques and computational methods. Cellular and tissue data enabled by current advances in optical scatter spectroscopy and imaging stand to impact a variety of biomedical applications including clinical tissue diagnosis, in vivo imaging, drug discovery and basic cell biology. PMID:20617940

  19. Microscope spectrometer for light scattering investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Aude; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Dumont, Sylvain; Gay, Frederic; Quemerais, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We describe a setup including a microscope to study volumes of a few {mu}m{sup 3} by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in a backscattering configuration. Light scattered by individual objects of micrometric size can be analyzed in the 400-800 nm spectral range. This setup can also be employed to study both diluted and concentrated colloidal solutions by DLS measurements. For diluted solutions we found evidence of the fluctuations of the number of particles in a confocal volume. We discuss their contribution to the autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity measured as a function of time.

  20. Hadronic light-by-light scattering in muonium hyperfine splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G.; Shelyuto, V. A.; Vainshtein, A. I.

    2008-09-15

    We consider an impact of hadronic light-by-light scattering on the muonium hyperfine structure. A shift of the hyperfine interval {delta}{nu}(Mu){sub HLBL} is calculated with the light-by-light scattering approximated by the exchange of pseudoscalar and pseudovector mesons. Constraints from the operator product expansion in QCD are used to fix parameters of the model similar to the one used earlier for the hadronic light-by-light scattering in calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The pseudovector exchange is dominant in the resulting shift, {delta}{nu}(Mu){sub HLBL}=-0.0065(10) Hz. Although the effect is tiny it is useful in understanding the level of hadronic uncertainties.

  1. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOEpatents

    Nave, Stanley E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  2. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOEpatents

    Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  3. The Whiteness of Things and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Calza, G.; Oss, S.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some simple experiments dealing with intriguing properties of light and its interaction with matter. In particular, we show how to emphasize that light reflection, refraction and scattering can provide a proper, physical description of human perception of the "colour" white. These experiments can be used in the classroom with an enquiry…

  4. Polarization of light scattered by clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, Paul; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. This phenomenon is not well understood but is potentially of interest for remote sensing of the earth. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of vegetation were measured. The Umov effect, or inverse relation between polarization and reflectance noted by many earlier workers, was observed here and is shown to be a very general property of diffusely scattering surfaces. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The polarization of light scattered from aggregations of leaves is affected by this negatively polarized, transmitted light. The light scattered from the upper leaf surfaces was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for quantitatively by specular Fresnel reflection from small, randomly oriented facets on the surfaces of the leaves.

  5. Molecular weight characterization of high molecular weight dextran with multiangle light scattering in on-line and off-line mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the molecular weight (MW) analysis of high MW dextran using multiangle light scattering (MALS) in both chromatography and automated batch measurement mode. The results show that the chromatographic columns alter the high MW native dextran and cause underestimation of the MW as a consequence. Alternatively, a batch MALS measurement (without columns) provides more accurate MW values. The batch MALS measurement was automated with the incorporation of an automatic sample dilution and injection device. This automation reduces the sample preparation time and minimizes concentration errors introduced by manual sample dilution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using an automated batch MALS in the analysis of high MW dextran.

  6. Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Jacob; Cao, Hui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2011-05-11

    In this paper, we combine experimental dark-field imaging, scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy with rigorous electrodynamics calculations in order to investigate light scattering from planar arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in aperiodic spirals with diffuse, circularly symmetric Fourier space. In particular, by studying the three main types of Vogel's spirals fabricated by electron-beam lithography on quartz substrates, we demonstrate polarization-insensitive planar light diffraction in the visible spectral range. Moreover, by combining dark-field imaging with analytical multiparticle calculations in the framework of the generalized Mie theory, we show that plasmonic spirals support distinctive structural resonances with circular symmetry carrying orbital angular momentum. The engineering of light scattering phenomena in deterministic structures with circular Fourier space provides a novel strategy for the realization of optical devices that fully leverage on enhanced, polarization-insensitive light-matter coupling over planar surfaces, such as thin-film plasmonic solar cells, plasmonic polarization devices, and optical biosensors. PMID:21466155

  7. Light scattering study of rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beuthan, J; Netz, U; Minet, O; Mueller, G; Scheel, A; Henniger, J

    2002-11-30

    The distribution of light scattered by finger joints is studied in the near-IR region. It is shown that variations in the optical parameters of the tissue (scattering coefficient {mu}{sub s}, absorption coefficient {mu}{sub a}, and anisotropy factor g) depend on the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At the first stage, the distribution of scattered light was measured in diaphanoscopic experiments. The convolution of a Gaussian error function with the scattering phase function proved to be a good approximation of the data obtained. Then, a new method was developed for the reconstruction of distribution of optical parameters in the finger cross section. Model tests of the quality of this reconstruction method show good results. (laser biology and medicine)

  8. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  9. Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, R. A.; Drees, F. W.

    1986-04-01

    Light-induced scattering features in LiNbO3- and BaTiO3-crytals are compared with theories on holographic writing in photorefractive crystals. It is shown that they describe the experimental facts concerning the expected main scattering directions for a given incident polarization, the time development, the thickness and the wavelength dependence. Time records of the transmission offer a useful alternative for the determination of the photoconductivity. Furthermore, a new method for birefringence measurements is established. The high accuracy of this method is based on the automatic fulfillment of a phase matching condition by the anisotropically scattered radiation.

  10. [Evaluation of molecular weights of hyaluronate preparations by multi-angle laser light scattering].

    PubMed

    Yomota, Chikako

    2003-01-01

    Hyaluronate (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide, has been used for osteoarthritis, periartritis of the shoulder and rheumatoid arthritis by intraarticular administration, and in ophthalmic surgery such as anterior segment surgery, and eye lotion. In this study, the molecular weight (Mw) of HA preparations were estimated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) system consisted of a refractometer (RI) and a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALS). From the results, it has been clarified that a successful characterization of HA samples with Mw up to 2 - 3 x 10(6) g/mol was possible by multidetector system.

  11. Scattered light in Galactic H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo-Rella, V.

    2002-02-01

    We find that dust-scattered light is the dominant contributor (50-70%) to the continuum in the pure nebular spectra (bright stars excluded) of NGC 3372 (Carina), M8 and M20. On the other hand, the stellar spectra contributes only about 50% of the continuum when the stars are included. This high contribution of scattered light should be taken into account when deriving the age and stellar content from observed Equivalent Widths ( W[H scriptstyle beta ]) in spatially resolved GEHRs and H II galaxies.

  12. Light scattering by a reentrant fractal surface.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Suárez, A; Méndez, E R

    1997-05-20

    Recently, rigorous numerical techniques for treating light scattering problems with one-dimensional rough surfaces have been developed. In their usual formulation, these techniques are based on the solution of two coupled integral equations and are applicable only to surfaces whose profiles can be described by single-valued functions of a coordinate in the mean plane of the surface. In this paper we extend the applicability of the integral equation method to surfaces with multivalued profiles. A procedure for finding a parametric description of a given profile is described, and the scattering equations are established within the framework of this formalism. We then present some results of light scattering from a sequence of one-dimensional flat surfaces with defects in the form of triadic Koch curves. Beyond a certain order of the prefractal, the scattering patterns become stationary (within the numerical accuracy of the method). It can then be argued that the results obtained correspond to a surface with a fractal structure. These constitute, to our knowledge, the first rigorous calculations of light scattering from a reentrant fractal surface. PMID:18253371

  13. Light scattering by randomly oriented crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, Karri; Lumme, Kari; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Irvine, William M.

    The scattering phase function and the degree of linear polarization for small crystals oriented randomly in space have been computed using the geometric ray tracing theory and assuming that the crystals are homogeneous and isotropic. Calculations have been carried out for the main crystal geometries. Detection of halos from crystals other than hexagonal water ice is briefly discussed. The crystal size and shape parameters have also been averaged over some simple distributions in order to examine general light scattering properties of sharp-edged particles. A scalar physical optics correction has been developed for the geometric optics phase functions. Results can be applied to light scattering from regoliths and planetary rings, and possibly also to atmospheric halos. Retroreflecting crystals in the regolith would cause an opposition spike, a phenomenon observed for many bright satellites.

  14. Light Scattering based detection of food pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current methods for detecting foodborne pathogens are mostly destructive (i.e., samples need to be pretreated), and require time, personnel, and laboratories for analyses. Optical methods including light scattering based techniques have gained a lot of attention recently due to its their rapid a...

  15. Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    The eye is not just a "window to the soul"; it can also be a "window to the human body." The eye is built like a camera. Light which travels from the cornea to the retina traverses through tissues that are representative of nearly every tissue type and fluid type in the human body. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose ocular and systemic diseases through the eye. Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a laboratory technique routinely used in the characterization of macromolecular dispersions. QELS instrumentation has now become more compact, sensitive, flexible, and easy to use. These developments have made QELS/DLS an important tool in ophthalmic research where disease can be detected early and noninvasively before the clinical symptoms appear.

  16. Light scattering by cirrus cloud layers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, K.-N.

    1972-01-01

    The properties of the reflection, transmission, and absorption of the cirrus cloud layers are calculated under the assumption that the ice crystals in cirrus clouds may be approximated long circular cylinders randomly oriented in space. The phase function, the single scattering albedo, and the extinction cross section are obtained on the basis of Liou's (1972) calculations of light scattering by ice clouds in the visible and infrared. A modified two-stream approximation for radiative transfer is developed and is used to evaluate the radiative properties of the cirrus cloud layers.

  17. Dynamic Light Scattering From Colloidal Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krall, A. H.; Weitz, David A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a brief, preliminary account of the interpretation of dynamic light scattering from fractal colloidal gels. For small scattering angles, and for high initial colloid particle volume fractions, the correlation functions exhibit arrested decay, reflecting the non-ergodic nature of these systems and allowing us to directly determine the elastic modulus of the gels. For smaller initial volume fractions, the correlation functions decay completely. In all cases, the initial decay is not exponential, but is instead described by a stretched exponential. We summarize the principles of a model that accounts for these data and discuss the scaling behavior of the measured parameters.

  18. Multiple Light Scattering Probes of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffold, Frank

    2007-02-01

    I will discuss both static and dynamic properties of diffuse waves. In practical applications the optical properties of colloidal systems play an important role, for example in commercial products such as sunscreen lotions, food (drinks), coatings but also in medicine for example in cataract formation (eye lens turbidity). It is thus of importance to know the key parameters governing optical turbidity from the single to the multiple scattering regime. Temporal fluctuations of multiply scattered light are studied with photon correlation spectroscopy (Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy). This DWS method and its various implementations will be treated.

  19. Light fractionation increases the efficacy of ALA-PDT but not of MAL-PDT: What is the role of (vascular) endothelial cells?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, H. S.; de Vijlder, H. C.; de Haas, E. R. M.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.; Kruijt, B.; Poel-Dirks, D.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; ten Hagen, T. L. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using protoporpyrin IX (PpIX) precursors like 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) has shown to be effective in the treatment of various skin diseases. Using ALA we have shown in numerous studies a significantly improved efficacy by applying light fractionation with a long dark interval. In contrast, in the hairless mouse model, the PDT efficacy using MAL is unaffected by adopting this approach. More acute edema is found after ALA-PDT suggesting a difference in response of endothelial cells to PDT. To investigate the role of endothelial cells, cryo-sections of hairless mouse skin after 4 hours of topical MAL or ALA application were stained with a fluorescent endothelial cell marker (CD31). Co-localization of this marker with the PpIX fluorescence was performed using the spectral imaging function of the confocal microscope. We have also used intra-vital confocal microscopy to image the PpIX fluorescence distribution in correlation with the vasculature of live mouse skin. Our results show PpIX fluorescence at depth in cryo-sections of mouse skin after 4 hours of topical application. Co-localization has shown to be difficult due to the changes in tissue organization caused by the staining procedure. As expected we found high PpIX fluorescence levels in the epidermis after both MAL and ALA application using intra-vital microscopy. After ALA application more PpIX fluorescence was found deep in the dermal layer of the skin than after MAL. Furthermore we detected localized fluorescence in unidentified structures that could not be correlated to blood vessels or nerves.

  20. Nonlinear scattering of light in nanodiamond hydrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, G. M.; Puzyr', A. P.; Vanyukov, V. V.; Purtov, K. V.; Mogileva, T. N.; Bondar', V. S.

    2010-04-01

    The nonlinear scattering of light under the conditions of optical limiting of nanosecond pulsed laser radiation at a wavelength of 1064 nm in a nanodiamond (ND) hydrosol has been experimentally studied. Superstable hydrosols were obtained from detonation NDs with a modified surface. Using an improved scheme of z scanning, it is shown that a decrease in the optical transmission coefficient of an ND hydrosol under optical limiting conditions is due to enhanced nonlinear scattering. It is established that the energy of pulsed radiation scattered at a right angle obeys a power law in dependence on the energy density of incident radiation pulses. Hydrosols of detonation NDs with the modified surface exhibit high stability with respect to the periodic laser action at high power density.

  1. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  2. Bacteriorhodopsin induces a light-scattering change in Halobacterium halobium

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    When suspensions of Halobacterium halobium are exposed to bright light, the light-scattering properties of the bacteria change. This light- scattering response can produce a transmission decrease of about 1% throughout the red and near-infrared region. The action spectrum for the light-scattering response appropriately matches the absorption spectrum of bacteriorhodopsin. The response is eliminated by cyanide p- trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a proton ionophore, and by triphenylmethylphosphonium, a membrane permanent cation. A mild hypertonic shock induces a similar light-scattering change, suggesting that bright light causes the bacteria to shrink about 1% in volume, thereby producing the light-scattering response. PMID:32181

  3. Zeno: Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Boukari, Hacene; Gent, David A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    1996-01-01

    The Zeno (Critical Fluid Light Scattering) experiment is the culmination of a long history of critical fluid light scattering in liquid-vapor systems. The major limitation to making accurate measurements closer to the critical point was the density stratification which occurs in these extremely compressible fluids. Zeno was to determine the critical density fluctuation decay rates at a pair of supplementary angles in the temperature range 100 mK to 100 (mu)K from T(sub c) in a sample of xenon accurately loaded to the critical density. This paper gives some highlights from operating the instrument on two flights March, 1994 on STS-62 and February, 1996 on STS-75. More detail of the experiment Science Requirements, the personnel, apparatus, and results are displayed on the Web homepage at http://www.zeno.umd.edu.

  4. Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.

    1995-01-01

    Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Influence of convection on the stimulated concentration light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhanov, I. S.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaikov, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    A non-linear growth of the scattering intensity and the frequency shift of the spectral lines of scattered light close to the half-width of the spontaneous scattering in the back scattering of light in the suspensions of latex nanoparticles in water were found. It proves that we observed a stimulated scattering of light on the particle concentration variations. Influence of convection is taken into account using Doppler measurements of fluid flow.

  6. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  7. Dynamic light scattering optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Jiang, James Y.; Zhu, Bo; Boas, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an integration of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-resolution 3D imaging of heterogeneous diffusion and flow. DLS analyzes fluctuations in light scattered by particles to measure diffusion or flow of the particles, and OCT uses coherence gating to collect light only scattered from a small volume for high-resolution structural imaging. Therefore, the integration of DLS and OCT enables high-resolution 3D imaging of diffusion and flow. We derived a theory under the assumption that static and moving particles are mixed within the OCT resolution volume and the moving particles can exhibit either diffusive or translational motion. Based on this theory, we developed a fitting algorithm to estimate dynamic parameters including the axial and transverse velocities and the diffusion coefficient. We validated DLS-OCT measurements of diffusion and flow through numerical simulations and phantom experiments. As an example application, we performed DLS-OCT imaging of the living animal brain, resulting in 3D maps of the absolute and axial velocities, the diffusion coefficient, and the coefficient of determination. PMID:23037374

  8. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  9. Improved Optics For Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Harry Michael

    1995-01-01

    Improved optical train devised for use in light-scattering measurements of quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and laser spectroscopy. Measurements performed on solutions, microemulsions, micellular solutions, and colloidal dispersions. Simultaneous measurements of total intensity and fluctuations in total intensity of light scattered from sample at various angles provides data used, in conjunction with diffusion coefficients, to compute sizes of particles in sample.

  10. Modeling light scattering from diesel soot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Patricia; Shepherd, Ian; Hunt, Arlon

    2002-07-16

    The Mie model is widely used to analyze light scattering from particulate aerosols. The Diesel Particle Scatterometer (DPS), for example, determines the size and optical properties of diesel exhaust particles that are characterized by measuring three angle-dependent elements of the Mueller scattering matrix. These elements are then fitted using Mie calculations with a Levenburg-Marquardt optimization program. This approach has achieved good fits for most experimental data. However, in many cases, the predicted real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction were less than that for solid carbon. To understand this result and explain the experimental data, we present an assessment of the Mie model by use of a light scattering model based on the coupled dipole approximation. The results indicate that the Mie calculation can be used to determine the largest dimension of irregularly shaped particles at sizes characteristic of Diesel soot and, for particles of known refractive index, tables can be constructed to determine the average porosity of the particles from the predicted index of refraction.

  11. Measurement of light scattering in deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, N.; Balasi, K.; Domvoglou, T.; Kiskiras, I.; Lenis, D.; Maniatis, M.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2016-04-01

    The deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, being prepared by the KM3NET collaboration, will contain thousands of optical sensors to readout. The accurate knowledge of the optical properties of deep-sea water is of great importance for the neutrino event reconstruction process. In this study we describe our progress in designing an experimental setup and studying a method to measure the parameters describing the absorption and scattering characteristics of deep-sea water. Three PMTs will be used to measure in situ the scattered light emitted from six laser diodes in three different wavelengths covering the Cherenkov radiation spectrum. The technique for the evaluation of the parameters is based on Monte Carlo simulations and our results show that we are able to determine these parameters with satisfying precision.

  12. Light Scattering Study of Titania Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Choonghoon; Sorensen, Chris

    1997-03-01

    We studied the fractal morphology of titania aerosols by light scattering. Titania aerosols were generated by the thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a silica tube furnace. TTIP was evaporated at temperatures up to 80^circC and its vapor was carried by dry nitrogen to a furnace with temperature in the range of 400 - 600^circC. A TEM analysis of the generated particles showed a typical DLCA structure with a monomer diameter about 50 nm. The particles were then made to flow through a narrow outlet as a laminar stream. The light scattering from these particles was measured using a He-Ne laser as a light source. The measured structure factor clearly showed the Rayleigh, Guinier, and fractal regimes. The fractal morphological parameters, such as the cluster radius of gyration, the fractal dimension, and the fractal prefactor were studied from the structure factor as a function of particle generation conditions. The cluster radius of gyration was about 1 μm and showed a modest dependency on the generation conditions. The fractal dimension was about 1.7 in all cases. These results are in good agreement with the TEM analysis.

  13. Improved particle counting and size distribution determination of aggregated virus populations by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Matt; Razinkov, Vladimir; Wei, Ziping; Casas-Finet, Jose R; Tous, Guillermo I; Schenerman, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The method is based on the spherical particle counting approach given by Wyatt and Weida in 2004, with additional modifications. The new method was tested by analyzing polystyrene beads and adenovirus samples, both having a well-characterized particle size and concentration. Influenza virus samples were analyzed by the new AFFFF-MALS technique, and particle size and aggregate state were compared with results from atomic force microscopy analysis. The limitations and source of possible errors for the new AFFFF-MALS analysis are discussed.

  14. Evaporative light scattering detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Schaneberg, Brian T; Molyneux, Russell J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2004-01-01

    A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method utilizing evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) has been developed for the simultaneous detection of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids with and without chromophores, namely, riddelliine, riddelliine N-oxide, senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, seneciphylline, retrorsine, integerrimine, lasiocarpine and heliotrine. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in five plant extracts (Senecio spartioides, S. douglasii var. longilobus, S. jacobaea, S. intergerrimus var. exaltatus and Symphytum officinale). The detection of heliotrine (which does not contain a chromophore) was much improved by ELSD compared with photodiode array detection. PMID:14979525

  15. Light scattering from dense cold atomic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bihui; Cooper, John; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study the propagation of light through a cold atomic medium, where the effects of motion, laser intensity, atomic density, and polarization can all modify the properties of the scattered light. We present two different microscopic models: the "coherent dipole model" and the "random-walk model", both suitable for modeling recent experimental work done in large atomic arrays in the low-light-intensity regime. We use them to compute relevant observables such as the linewidth, peak intensity, and line center of the emitted light. We further develop generalized models that explicitly take into account atomic motion. Those are relevant for hotter atoms and beyond the low-intensity regime. We show that atomic motion can lead to drastic dephasing and to a reduction of collective effects, together with a distortion of the line shape. Our results are applicable to model a full gamut of quantum systems that rely on atom-light interactions, including atomic clocks, quantum simulators, and nanophotonic systems.

  16. Light scattering in artificial fog and simulated with light scattering filter.

    PubMed

    Ikaunieks, Gatis; Colomb, Michéle; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2009-05-01

    Disability glare, affecting e.g. road safety at night, may result either from intraocular light scattering or from external conditions such as fog. Measurements were made of light scattering in fog and compared with intraocular straylight data for normal eyes and eyes with simulated cataract. All measurements were made with a direct compensation flicker method. To estimate light scattering levels in fog, straylight measurements were carried in a fog chamber for different densities of fog. Density was characterized by the meteorological term visibility V and ranged from 7 to 25. Test distance for measurements in the fog was constant at 5 m. Cataract eye conditions were simulated by placing a light scattering polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) filter with scatterers of submicron size in front of the normal eye. All measurements were made using each of three broad-band color stimuli - red, green and blue (produced either with LEDs or a color CRT monitor). Differences were found in both the level and the spectral characteristics of scattering under the different conditions. The measured values of the straylight parameter, s, in artificial fog showed no noticeable spectral dependence at any visibility range. Increasing the visibility range caused an exponential decrease in the straylight. Intraocular straylight measured with the clear eye showed an increase at the red and blue ends of the spectrum as compared to the green. Straylight measured using PDLC plates with different transparency levels showed a spectral dependence which decreased with wavelength. The scattering introduced by the PDLC plate therefore failed to give a valid simulation of cataract and fog conditions for polychromatic stimuli, due to its erroneous spectral dependence.

  17. Atom-interferometric studies of light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, S.; Barrett, B.; Chan, I.; Mok, C.; Kumarakrishnan, A.; Yavin, I.

    2009-07-15

    We have used an echo-type atom interferometer that manipulates laser-cooled atoms in a single ground state to investigate the effect of light scattering from pulsed and continuous-wave light. The interferometer uses two off-resonant standing-wave pulses applied at times t=0 and t=T to diffract and recombine momentum states separated by 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi})k at t=2T. Matter wave interference is associated with the formation of a density grating with period {lambda}/2 in the vicinity of this echo time. The grating contrast is measured by recording the intensity of coherently backscattered light. The interferometer is perturbed by an additional pulse applied at t=2T-{delta}T or by continuous-wave background light. If the additional pulse is a standing wave, the momentum states interfering at t=2T are displaced and the grating contrast can be completely recovered due to constructive interference. In this case, the contrast shows a periodic modulation at the atomic recoil frequency as a function of {delta}T. In a recent work, it was shown that the atomic recoil frequency can be measured easily and precisely when using coherence functions to model the signal shape. This paper provides an alternative description of the signal shape through an analytical calculation of echo formation in the presence of an additional standing-wave pulse. Using this treatment, it is possible to model the effects of spontaneous emission and spatial profile of the laser beam on the signal shape. Additionally, the theory predicts scaling laws as a function of the pulse area and the number of additional standing-wave pulses. These scaling laws are investigated experimentally and can be exploited to improve precision measurements of the atomic recoil frequency. We also show that coherence functions can be used to make a direct measurement of the populations of momentum states associated with the ground state under conditions where the Doppler-broadened velocity distribution of the sample is much

  18. Light Scattering From Fractal Titania Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Rajiv; Sorensen, Christopher M.

    1996-03-01

    We studied the fractal morphology of titania aggregates by light scattering. Titanium dioxide particles were generated by the thermal decomposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide(TTIP) in a glass furnace at various temperatures in the range of 100 - 500^o C. We scattered vertically polarized He-Ne laser (λ = 6328Ålight from a laminar aerosol stream of particles and measured the optical structure factor. This structure factor shows Rayleigh, Guinier, fractal and Porod regimes. The radius of gyration Rg was determined from the Guinier analysis. The data were then fit to the Fisher-Burford form to determine the fractal dimension of about 2.0. This fit also delineated the crossover from the fractal to Porod regime, which can be used to determine the monomer particle size of about 0.1 μm. These optical measurements will be compared to electron microscope analysis of aggregates collected from the aerosol. This work was supported by NSF grant CTS-9908153.

  19. Analysis of light scattering from a cutting tool edge.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Malacara, D

    1994-07-01

    The scattering of light from cutting tools is studied. The contribution of cutting tool edge parameters (height and width) to scattering patterns and the influence of side surface roughness on scattering patterns are investigated. An angle-limited integrated scattering method is developed and analyzed for fast determination of edge parameters.

  20. Polarized light scattering from individual semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian

    This thesis addresses the light scattering, particularly Raman and Rayleigh scattering from quasi one dimensional semiconductor nanowires, such as Zn1-xMnxS and GaP nanowires. Many of the results stem from measurements of individual wires. Four original works are presented in the thesis: (1) The growth of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Zn1-xMnxS (0≤x<0.6) nanowires using a three-zone furnace and two solid sources is reported (Chapter 2.4). The vibrational properties of the DMS nanowires with different Zn/Mn ratios were studied by correlating their Raman scattering spectra with the composition and structure measured by x-Ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD). We find that the transverse optical (TO) phonon band disappears at the lowest Mn concentrations, while the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon band position was found insensitive to x. Three additional Raman bands were observed between the ZnS q=0 TO and LO phonons when Mn atoms were present in the nanowires (Chapter 5); (2) Polarized Raman scattering on individual crystalline GaP nanowires with diameters 40 individual crystalline GaP nanowires with diameters 40scattering intensity function I(theta) ˜ cos4theta where theta is the angle between nanowire axis and the incident laser polarization. For larger diameter (70scattering are proposed to explain the experimental data. This work realizes a fundamental understanding of Raman scattering in semiconductor nanowires and furthermore, the antenna effects are essential to the analysis of all electro-optic effects in small diameter filaments (Chapter 7); (3) Results of polarized Rayleigh back-scattering studies are

  1. A Study of Brownian Motion Using Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noel A.; Lunacek, Joseph H.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to investigate molecular motion by means of light scattering. Light from a He-Ne laser is focused into a cell containing a suspension of polystyrene spheres. The scattered light, collected on the photosurface of a photomultiplier tube, is analyzed. The apparatus won first prize in Demonstration Lecture Apparatus in…

  2. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Bennett N.; James, Robert H.; Calogero, Don; Ilev, Ilko K.

    2015-09-01

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.

  3. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Bennett N.; James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Calogero, Don

    2015-09-15

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.

  4. Light scattering by a multilayered spheroidal particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farafonov, Victor G.; Voshchinnikov, Nikolai V.

    2012-04-01

    The light scattering problem for a confocal multilayered spheroid has been solved by the extended boundary condition method (EBCM) with a corresponding spheroidal basis. The solution preserves the advantages of the approach applied previously to homogeneous and core-mantle spheroids, i.e. the separation of the radiation fields into two parts and a special choice of scalar potentials for each of the parts. The method is known to be useful in a wide range of the particle parameters. It is particularly efficient for strongly prolate and oblate spheroids. Numerical tests are described. Illustrative calculations have shown that the extinction factors to converge to average values with a growing number of layers and how the extinction vary with a growth of particle porosity.

  5. Miniature instrumentation for laser light scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert G. W.

    1989-01-01

    Traditional optical systems for photon correlation spectroscopy and laser anemometry have relied upon physically large and fairly expensive lasers, bulk-optics such as lenses of a few inches diameter, large mechanical mounts and carefully selected, fragile and bulky photon counting photomultiplier detectors. In some cases, experimental fluid dynamics at a desired position in a flow, perhaps deep inside complex machinery, is physically impossible or very difficult. Similar problems exist with photon correlation spectroscopy, e.g., remote and heterodyne experiments. Various optical and electro optical components were investigated and characterized with the aim of replacing existing photon correlation laser spectroscopy and anemometry techniques in miniaturized form, and with significant cost reduction. Very recently, a range of miniature, modular light scattering systems were constructed from little solid state optical and electro optical components, and experimentally verified measurement performance comparable to standard lab photon correlation spectroscopy and laser anemometry equipment.

  6. Light-scattering spectroscopy of native bile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prygun, Natalya P.; Korolevich, Alexander N.

    1995-01-01

    Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) was used to measure particle sizes in fresh human gallbladder bile of patients with gallstones. The recent experiments suggest the presence of a novel, bile salt-independent, mode of cholesterol transport in saturated human bile. Cholesterol is carried in large phospholipid vesicles with approximate diameter of 75 nm. It was shown that under experimental conditions these vesicles were able to dissolve up to 80% of the biliary cholesterol at low bile salt concentrations. A lecithin lamellar phase has already been suggested as a cholesterol carrier and recently vesicles were reported in model bile solutions and in native bile. Due to its nonperturbing nature, the technique of LLS has in recent years become widely applied to the study of micellar systems and, in particular, has been used to systematically investigate aqueous biliary lipid systems. LSS was employed to characterize the size, shape thermodynamics and interactions of bile salts micelle.

  7. Effects of asphericity on single-particle polarized light scattering.

    PubMed

    Spinrad, R W; Brown, J

    1993-10-20

    Polarized light scattering from individual particles has been analyzed to determine the effects of particle shape. Flow cytometric techniques were used on samples of spherical microspheres and naturally occurring marine algae. An analog of the depolarization ratio was obtained by using crossed polarizers in the source and detector of the flow cytometer. Results suggest that differences between the polarized light scattering of spheres and aspherical particles are not discernible unless the scattered intensities are normalized to the forward scattering, which is roughly equivalent to particulate cross section. This research indicates that polarized light scattering, when normalized to particle size, may provide an indication of the extent of asphericity of hydrosols.

  8. Laboratory simulation of light scattering from regolith surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karand, A.

    2013-09-01

    The study of light scattering by planetary regolith has been and still is a subject of great interest in many different scientific disciplines for many years. Measurement of light scattered from such surface provide information about the composition and structure of the surface. Here in Assam University, Silchar, India we have set up a laboratory to simulate the light scattering properties of such surface. Results obtained by the above experiment will be discussed.

  9. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    PubMed Central

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from −70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth. PMID:24867385

  10. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Youngju; Jung, Jaehwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, Hyunjoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Yongkeun

    2014-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  11. Recovering the vorticity of a light beam after scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salla, Gangi Reddy Perumangattu, Chithrabhanu; Anwar, Ali; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, Ravindra P.

    2015-07-13

    We generate optical vortices and scatter them through a rough surface. However, the scattered light passing through a lens shows the same vorticity when probed at the Fourier plane. The vorticity is measured using a nonseparable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light as it cannot be confirmed by the standard interferometric technique. The observed vorticity is found to be independent of the amount of scattered light collected. Therefore, vortices can be used as information carriers even in the presence of scattering media. The experimental results are well supported by the theoretical results.

  12. Mie scattering of light with orbital angular momentum by nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Pramod; Guzmán, Angela M.

    2011-09-01

    We generalize Mie scattering theory to describe the scattering of light with orbital angular momentum (OAM). We apply our results to the analysis of scattering by gold nanoparticles and compare the angular distribution of the scattered light for plane waves and light with OAM. The multipole expansion for scattered OAM waves depends on the localized surface plasmon modes that can couple to incident light carrying a well-defined amount of azimuthal charge (or l-number) at a particular wavelength. We study here the properties of Mie scattering of OAM waves by nanoparticles located at the beam waist as a function of the size of the particle and of the frequency and content of azimuthal charge of the incident wave.

  13. NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to explore the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware and to assess user requirements and needs for a laser light scattering instrument in a reduced gravity environment. The workshop addressed experimental needs and stressed hardware development.

  14. Utility of light scatter in the morphological analysis of sperm

    EPA Science Inventory

    We were able to differentiate the morphologically diverse sperm nuclei of four animal species by using an Ortho flow cytometer to detect the forward light scatter from a red (helium-neon) laser. Cytograms depicting the axial light loss and forward red scatter signals revealed uni...

  15. Particle detection by a light-scattering technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormanyos, S.; Mastroeni, J.

    1972-01-01

    Instrument measures concentration of small particles in aqueous medium in terms of amount of light scattered and degree to which light transmission is attenuated. Sensitivity to small particles is optimized because both scattered and transmitted illumination levels are detected by photodiodes.

  16. Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor; Quinones, Renato A.

    1992-01-01

    Mie theory is applied to estimate scattering by polydispersions of marine heterotrophic bacteria, and a simple expression is derived for the bacterial scattering coefficient. The error incurred in deriving bacterial optical properties by use of the van de Hulst approximations is computed. The scattering properties of natural bacterial assemblages in three marine environments, Georges Bank, Northeast Channel, and Sargasso Sea, are assessed by applying Mie theory to field data on bacterial size and abundance. Results are used to examine the potential contribution of bacteria to the scattering properties of seawater. The utility of using pigment data to predict the magnitude of scattering by bacteria is discussed.

  17. Dynamic light-scattering studies of mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama; Pajevic, Sinisa; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. R.; LaMont, Jeffrey T.; Afdhal, Nezham H.; Niu, N.

    1993-07-01

    Dynamic light scattering was applied to study aggregation phenomena in mucin, the glycoprotein responsible for the visco-elastic properties of mucus which is found as a lining on most epithelial cell surfaces. Intensity autocorrelation functions measured on purified mucin solutions under varying experimental conditions were analyzed by Laplace inversion methods. The results showed that at low pH (below 4) solutions of gastric mucin contain very large supra-molecular aggregates, with diffusion constants 100 times slower than those of the 2 X 106 molecular weight glycoprotein of mucin. Similar methods were used to investigate the interaction of gall bladder mucin with cholesterol-phospholipid vesicles. Repeated measurements of the intensity correlation functions after adding mucin to a suspension of vesicles showed a two-fold increase in the hydrodynamic radius of the vesicles over a period of three hours after which the vesicle size stayed constant. Control experiments with latex particles in mucin and vesicles in other proteins showed no change in size, implying that the fusion of vesicles is due to vesicle-mucin interactions.

  18. Liposomes by quasielastic light scattering and spectroturbidimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Shchyogolev, Sergei Y.

    2002-07-01

    A variant of the experimental implementation of the quasi- elastic light scattering (QELS) method for determining the average particle size in liposome suspensions in the homodyne mode was considered. The aim of the investigations was to compare the data obtained with the result of a version of the method of spectroturbidimetry (STM) previously developed to determine the size and shell thickness of liposomes. For determination of the corresponding correlation functional, an experimental setup was used that was base don a helium-neon laser with a computer sound card as the analog-digital converter. Monodisperse suspension of latexes and colloidal gold as well as E. coli cell suspension were used as the test objects. The tests showed good accuracy of the QELS determination of the particle diameter d in the region of d < 100. Below this boundary, the accuracy of the particle size determination is limited by the relatively low resolving capacity of the analog-digital converter of the given type. It was established that the results of the determination of the average particle size in liposome polydisperse suspension obtained by QELS and STM were in satisfactory agreement.

  19. Dynamic light scattering can determine platelet function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet transfusions are life-saving procedures for patients who are bleeding or undergoing chemotherapy. The effectiveness of transfusions depends on the number of platelets transfused and the platelet function. Platelet function correlates with proportion of discoid to activated platelets, morphology response to temperature stress, and inversely correlates with microparticle content. ThromboLUX is a novel device that determines platelet function by measuring all of these characteristics using dynamic light scattering (DLS). During periods of stress, such as decreased temperature, cytoskeletal rearrangements will cause normal, discoid platelets to activate and become spiny spheres. The formation of pseudopods of various lengths facilitates the clotting cascade and also increases the apparent size of platelets. ThromboLUX uses a 37-20-37 C temperature cycle that mimics the bleeding, storage, and transfusion process. As the temperature fluctuates, DLS will measure the changing platelet hydrodynamic radius and the size of any microparticles present. ThromboLUX analysis of platelet concentrates in vitro would allow determination of high platelet function units before transfusion and would therefore improve transfusion outcomes and patient safety. This study examined how DLS is able to distinguish between discoid and activated platelets as well as measure the parameters that contribute to high platelet function.

  20. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  1. Laser Light Scattering with Multiple Scattering Suppression Used to Measure Particle Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tin, Padetha; Lock, James A.; Cannell, David S.; Smart, Anthony E.; Taylor, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    Laser light scattering is the technique of choice for noninvasively sizing particles in a fluid. The members of the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project in laser light scattering at the NASA Lewis Research Center have invented, tested, and recently enhanced a simple and elegant way to extend the concentration range of this standard laboratory particle-sizing technique by several orders of magnitude. With this technique, particles from 3 nm to 3 mm can be measured in a solution. Recently, laser light scattering evolved to successfully size particles in both clear solutions and concentrated milky-white solutions. The enhanced technique uses the property of light that causes it to form tall interference patterns at right angles to the scattering plane (perpendicular to the laser beam) when it is scattered from a narrow laser beam. Such multiple-scattered light forms a broad fuzzy halo around the focused beam, which, in turn, forms short interference patterns. By placing two fiber optics on top of each other and perpendicular to the laser beam (see the drawing), and then cross-correlating the signals they produce, only the tall interference patterns formed by singly scattered light are detected. To restate this, unless the two fiber optics see the same interference pattern, the scattered light is not incorporated into the signal. With this technique, only singly scattered light is seen (multiple-scattered light is rejected) because only singly scattered light has an interference pattern tall enough to span both of the fiber-optic pickups. This technique is simple to use, easy to align, and works at any angle. Placing a vertical slit in front of the signal collection fibers enhanced this approach. The slit serves as an optical mask, and it significantly shortens the time needed to collect good data by selectively masking out much of the unwanted light before cross-correlation is applied.

  2. DUST SCATTERING IN TURBULENT MEDIA: CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SCATTERED LIGHT AND DUST COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Witt, Adolf N.

    2013-12-01

    Radiative transfer models in a spherical, turbulent interstellar medium (ISM), in which the photon source is situated at the center, are calculated to investigate the correlation between the scattered light and the dust column density. The medium is modeled using fractional Brownian motion structures that are appropriate for turbulent ISM. The correlation plot between the scattered light and optical depth shows substantial scatter and deviation from simple proportionality. It was also found that the overall density contrast is smoothed out in scattered light. In other words, there is an enhancement of the dust-scattered flux in low-density regions, while the scattered flux is suppressed in high-density regions. The correlation becomes less significant as the scattering becomes closer to being isotropic and the medium becomes more turbulent. Therefore, the scattered light observed in near-infrared wavelengths would show much weaker correlation than the observations in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. We also find that the correlation plot between scattered lights at two different wavelengths shows a tighter correlation than that of the scattered light versus the optical depth.

  3. Multiangle static and dynamic light scattering in the intermediate scattering angle range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborini, E.; Cipelletti, L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe a light scattering apparatus based on a novel optical scheme covering the scattering angle range 0.5° ⩽ θ ⩽ 25°, an intermediate regime at the frontier between wide angle and small angle setups that is difficult to access by existing instruments. Our apparatus uses standard, readily available optomechanical components. Thanks to the use of a charge-coupled device detector, both static and dynamic light scattering can be performed simultaneously at several scattering angles. We demonstrate the capabilities of our apparatus by measuring the scattering profile of a variety of samples and the Brownian dynamics of a dilute colloidal suspension.

  4. Multiangle static and dynamic light scattering in the intermediate scattering angle range.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, E; Cipelletti, L

    2012-09-01

    We describe a light scattering apparatus based on a novel optical scheme covering the scattering angle range 0.5° ≤ θ ≤ 25°, an intermediate regime at the frontier between wide angle and small angle setups that is difficult to access by existing instruments. Our apparatus uses standard, readily available optomechanical components. Thanks to the use of a charge-coupled device detector, both static and dynamic light scattering can be performed simultaneously at several scattering angles. We demonstrate the capabilities of our apparatus by measuring the scattering profile of a variety of samples and the Brownian dynamics of a dilute colloidal suspension. PMID:23020361

  5. Light scattering characterization of optical components: BRDF, BTDF, and scatter losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Sven; Finck, Alexander; Katsir, Dina; Zeitner, Uwe; Duparré, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Light scattering caused by imperfections of optical components can critically affect the performance of optical systems in terms of losses and image degradation. Because of the numerous potential sources of scattering such as roughness, surface and sub-surface defects, bulk inhomogeneities, as well as coatings, scattering properties must be carefully specified and measured at the wavelengths of application. Bidirectional Reflectance and Transmittance Distribution Functions (BRDF / BTDF) are used to quantify the angle resolved scattering properties. The data can be used as an input for optical engineering software just as FRED, ASAP, ZEMAX for stray light modeling. In addition, analyzing the scattered light can provide valuable information about the relevant imperfections. The presentation provides an overview of instrumentation for light scattering measurements at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the extreme ultraviolet and the infrared spectral regions. Examples of applications will be discussed ranging from superpolished mirrors to diffraction gratings, interference coatings, and black absorbing coatings.

  6. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  7. Dynamic Light Scattering of Diabetic Vitreopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebag, J.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dunker, Stephan; Suh, Kwang I.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes induces pathology throughout the body via nonenzymatic glycation of proteins. Vitreous, which is replete with type 11 collagen, undergoes significant changes in diabetes. The resultant diabetic vitreopathy plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy. Detecting these molecular changes could provide insight into diabetic eye disease as well as molecular effects elsewhere in the body. Human eyes were obtained at autopsy and studied in the fresh, unfixed state. Sclera, choroid, and retina were dissected off the vitreous for dark-field slit microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the former, the entire vitreous was exposed. For the latter, only a window at the equator was dissected in some specimens, and the anterior segment was removed leaving the posterior lens capsule intact in others. DLS was performed to determine particle sizes at multiple sites 0.5 mm apart, spanning the globe at the equator (window dissections) and along the antero-posterior axis. Dark-field slit microscopy in diabetic subjects detected findings typical of age-related vitreous degeneration, but at much younger ages than nondiabetic controls. Noninvasive DLS measurements found a greater heterogeneity and larger particle sizes in vitreous of subjects with diabetes as compared to age-matched controls. DLS can detect and quantify the early molecular effects that cause vitreous collagen fibrils to cross-link and aggregate. This could provide valuable insight into ocular and systemic effects of hyperglycemia, because the molecular changes in diabetic vitreopathy could serve as an index of such effects throughout the body. In addition to the diagnostic implications, this methodology could provide a rapid, reproducible way to monitor the response to therapy with novel agents intended to prevent the complications of diabetes on a molecular level.

  8. Scattering of polarized Gaussian light by a spheroidal particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianming; Xiao, Sai; Ma, Lixiu; Su, Baochen

    2015-02-01

    Light scattering by a small particle can produce light with polarization characteristics different from those of the incident beam. In this article, we studied the polarized Gaussian beam scattered by a spheroidal particle within the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory framework. A theoretical procedure is given to expand an incident Gaussian beam in terms of spheroidal vector wave functions. We studied the single scattering properties of a single spheroidal particle with varying aspect ratios and size parameters. Exact analytic solutions are obtained for computing the amplitude matrix and single scattering Muller matrix for a single spheroid with normal illumination. The Muller scattering matrix elements of a single spheroid are compared between plane wave and Gaussian light beam as incident light source.

  9. Origin of light scattering variations of a latent flaw through light scattering measurement with applied stress effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Terasaki, Nao; Sakai, Kazufumi; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    The stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM) was proposed for inspecting surface to detect polishing induced latent flaws. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of the light scattering intensity variation of latent flaws using SILSM, we have investigated stress effect of light scattering intensities using polarized light system and calculated the reflectance and the retardation using Jones matrix. As the results, we evaluated the change in the birefringence around a tip of a latent flaw between before and after stress were applied.

  10. Coherent light scattering from a two-dimensional Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Weitenberg, Christof; Schauss, Peter; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Cheneau, Marc; Endres, Manuel; Bloch, Immanuel; Kuhr, Stefan

    2011-05-27

    We experimentally demonstrate coherent light scattering from an atomic Mott insulator in a two-dimensional lattice. The far-field diffraction pattern of small clouds of a few hundred atoms was imaged while simultaneously laser cooling the atoms with the probe beams. We describe the position of the diffraction peaks and the scaling of the peak parameters by a simple analytic model. In contrast to Bragg scattering, scattering from a single plane yields diffraction peaks for any incidence angle. We demonstrate the feasibility of detecting spin correlations via light scattering by artificially creating a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic order as a density wave and observing the appearance of additional diffraction peaks.

  11. Correlating the morphological and light scattering properties of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Marina

    The scattered light pattern from a biological cell is greatly influenced by the internal structure and optical properties of the cell. This research project examines the relationships between the morphological and scattering properties of biological cells through numerical simulations. The mains goals are: (1) to develop a procedure to analytically model biological cells, (2) to quantitatively study the effects of a range of cell characteristics on the features of the light scattering patterns, and (3) to classify cells based on the features of their light scattering patterns. A procedure to create an analytical cell model was developed which extracted structural information from the confocal microscopic images of cells and allowed for the alteration of the cell structure in a controlled and systematic way. The influence of cell surface roughness, nuclear size, and mitochondrial volume density, spatial distribution, size and shape on the light scattering patterns was studied through numerical simulations of light scattering using the Discrete Dipole Approximation. It was found that the light scattering intensity in the scattering angle range of 25° to 45° responded to changes in the surface fluctuation of the cell and the range of 90° to 110° was well suited for characterization of mitochondrial density and nuclear size. A comparison of light scattering pattern analysis methods revealed that the angular distribution of the scattered light and Gabor filters were most helpful in differentiating between the cell characteristics. In addition, a measured increase in the Gabor energy of the light scattering patterns in response to an increase in the complexity of the cell models suggested that a complex nuclear structure and mitochondria should be included when modeling biological cells for light scattering simulations. Analysis of the scattering pattern features with Gabor filters resulted in discrimination of the cell models according to cell surface roughness

  12. Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuan-Tao; Singh, Kirat; Capjack, Clarence; Petrácek, Jirí; Backhouse, Christopher; Rozmus, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    An integrated microfluidic planar optical waveguide system for measuring light scattered from a single scatterer is described. This system is used to obtain 2D side-scatter patterns from single polystyrene microbeads in a fluidic flow. Vertical fringes in the 2D scatter patterns are used to infer the location of the 90-deg scatter (polar angle). The 2D scatter patterns are shown to be symmetrical about the azimuth angle at 90 deg. Wide-angle comparisons between the experimental scatter patterns and Mie theory simulations are shown to be in good agreement. A method based on the Fourier transform analysis of the experimental and Mie simulation scatter patterns is developed for size differentiation.

  13. Light scattering from a moving atom.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this work, scattering of an incident electric field from a moving atom is reexamined classically in two steps: the time-dependent current density created by the field inside the atom is first calculated under the electric-dipole approximation, and is then used to calculate the field scattered from the atom. Unlike the conventional frame-hopping method, the present method does not need to treat the Doppler effect as an effect separated from the scattering process, and it derives instead of simply uses the Doppler effect.

  14. Light scattering from a moving atom.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this work, scattering of an incident electric field from a moving atom is reexamined classically in two steps: the time-dependent current density created by the field inside the atom is first calculated under the electric-dipole approximation, and is then used to calculate the field scattered from the atom. Unlike the conventional frame-hopping method, the present method does not need to treat the Doppler effect as an effect separated from the scattering process, and it derives instead of simply uses the Doppler effect. PMID:23455906

  15. Anomalous scattering of light on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Lee, Pascal; Mccarthy, Derek; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Researchers report here the discovery of an isolated region of anomalously forward scattering materials on the surface of Triton. The researchers' best-fit Hapke parameters indicate that regolith particles in the anomalous scattering region are not only less backward scattering, but also slightly lower in single scattering albedo than average materials on Triton's surface. While it might be possible to account for such differences in terms of differences in particle size and transparency, it is also possible that the anomalous region is compositionally distinct from other terrains. It is noteworthy that, for the anomalous region, there exists a distinctively strong spatial correlation between the photometric ratios at different phase angles, and that, relative to other terrains, the anomalous region reddens at a different rate with increasing phase angle.

  16. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure.

  17. Bright-white beetle scales optimise multiple scattering of light.

    PubMed

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  18. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    PubMed Central

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  19. Analytic expression for in-field scattered light distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Light that is scattered from lenses and mirrors in an optical system produces a halo of stray light around bright objects within the field of view. The angular distribution of scattered light from any one component is usually described by the Harvey model. This paper presents analytic expressions for the scattered irradiance at a focal plane from optical components that scatter light in accordance with the Harvey model. It is found that the irradiance is independent of the location of an optical element within the system, provided the element is not located at or near an intermediate image plane. It is also found that the irradiance has little or no dependence on the size of the element.

  20. Experimental observation of universality in depolarized light scattering.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Graciana; Voigt, Dirk; Aiello, Andrea; Woerdman, J P

    2005-12-01

    Experimental results on light depolarization due to multimode scattering are reported. By means of polarization tomography, we characterize the depolarizing power and the polarization entropy of a broad class of optically scattering media and confirm the recently predicted universal behavior of these two quantities [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090406 (2005)].

  1. Hierarchical mesoporous silica nanoparticles as superb light scattering materials.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaehoon; Yun, Juyoung; Lee, Jungsup; Lee, Kisu; Jang, Jyongsik

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach to enhance the light scattering effect was explored by applying hierarchical silica nanoparticles in DSSCs as scattering layers. The WSN-incorporated cells showed a PCE value of 9.53% and a PCE enhancement of 30.19% compared with those of the reference cells. PMID:26699659

  2. Design of fiber optic probes for laser light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Chu, Benjamin

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented of the role of optical fibers in laser light scattering. Design of a general fiber optic/microlens probe by means of ray tracing is described. Several different geometries employing an optical fiber of the type used in lightwave communications and a graded index microlens are considered. Experimental results using a nonimaging fiber optic detector probe show that due to geometrical limitations of single mode fibers, a probe using a multimode optical fiber has better performance, for both static and dynamic measurements of the scattered light intensity, compared with a probe using a single mode fiber. Fiber optic detector probes are shown to be more efficient at data collection when compared with conventional approaches to measurements of the scattered laser light. Integration of fiber optic detector probes into a fiber optic spectrometer offers considerable miniaturization of conventional light scattering spectrometers, which can be made arbitrarily small. In addition static and dynamic measurements of scattered light can be made within the scattering cell and consequently very close to the scattering center.

  3. Evaluation of advanced light scattering technology for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, W. J.; Rosenblum, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of modern light scattering equipment and the uses it might have in studying processes in microgravity are evaluated. Emphasis is on the resolution of polydisperse systems. This choice was made since a major use of light scattering was expected to be the study of crystal growth of macromolecules in low gravity environments. An evaluation of a modern photon correlation spectrometer and a Mie spectrometer is presented.

  4. Planar laser light scattering technique for measurement of nonspherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Choi, Man Soo; Jeong, Dae Hwa; Lee, Hyo Hyung

    2004-09-01

    Small particles are one of the biggest sources that cause loss in semiconductor and flat panel display industry. Therefore, it is important to control them during their manufacturing process. To achieve this goal, exact measurement of particles is first required. Laser light scattering is the most widely used technique for diagnosis of particles because it does not disturb flow field and enables real time and spatially resolved analysis. Measurement of nonspherical aggregates comprised of small primary particles is difficult compared with spherical particles because they have very complex morphology. In addition, most researches on aggregates using light scattering are limited to point measurement, which requires much time to inspect large area and is difficult to observe unsteady phenomenon. Motivated by this, we have developed a laser light scattering method for simultaneous measurement of spatial distributions of aggregate size and morphology. Silica aggregates that were generated in Methane/air premixed flame were used as test particles. Multiangular planar light scattering measurement was carried out using a sheet beam of Ar ion laser and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera as a light source and a detector, respectively. The result was interpreted based on the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans scattering theory for fractal aggregates to obtain the mean radius of gyration and fractal dimension that are the parameters characterizing aggregate size and morphology. The suitability of our new technique was confirmed by experiment using conventional light scattering.

  5. Measurement of inherent particle properties by dynamic light scattering: introducing electrorotational light scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Prüger, B; Eppmann, P; Donath, E; Gimsa, J

    1997-01-01

    Common dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods determine the size and zeta-potential of particles by analyzing the motion resulting from thermal noise or electrophoretic force. Dielectric particle spectroscopy by common microscopic electrorotation (ER) measures the frequency dependence of field-induced rotation of single particles to analyze their inherent dielectric structure. We propose a new technique, electrorotational light scattering (ERLS). It measures ER in a particle ensemble by a homodyne DLS setup. ER-induced particle rotation is extracted from the initial decorrelation of the intensity autocorrelation function (ACF) by a simple optical particle model. Human red blood cells were used as test particles, and changes of the characteristic frequency of membrane dispersion induced by the ionophore nystatin were monitored by ERLS. For untreated control cells, a rotation frequency of 2 s-1 was induced at the membrane peak frequency of 150 kHz and a field strength of 12 kV/m. This rotation led to a decorrelation of the ACF about 10 times steeper than that of the field free control. For deduction of ERLS frequency spectra, different criteria are discussed. Particle shape and additional field-induced motions like dielectrophoresis and particle-particle attraction do not significantly influence the criteria. For nystatin-treated cells, recalculation of dielectric cell properties revealed an ionophore-induced decrease in the internal conductivity. Although the absolute rotation speed and the rotation sense are not yet directly accessible, ERLS eliminates the tedious microscopic measurements. It offers computerized, statistically significant measurements of dielectric particle properties that are especially suitable for nonbiological applications, e.g., the study of colloidal particles. PMID:9138587

  6. Molecular origin of background light in Thomson scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    The plasma background light in Thomson scattering measurements is often far higher than expected for a pure hydrogen plasma. The spectral distribution of light from three plasmas (duration: 1 ms to steady state; electron density: below 10/sup 12/ to over 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/; temperature: below 20 to over 1000 eV) and signal-to-noise and intensity data from the Thomson scattering systems used on them are compared with analytic estimates to show that in two of these plasmas molecular light dominates the spectrum, while in the other, molecular light is present, but bremsstrahlung is usually more intense. Knowledge of the mechanism for background light can aid in designing detection systems for Thomson scattering and provide information on the neutral species composition and effective charge of the plasma.

  7. Light scattering of semitransparent sintered polytetrafluoroethylene films.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghe; Lee, Bong Jae; Zhang, Zhuomin M; Allen, David W

    2008-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a strongly scattering material and has been regarded to have optical properties similar to biological tissues. In the present study, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) of several PTFE films, with thicknesses from 0.11 to 10 mm, are measured using a laser scatterometer at the wavelength of 635 nm. The directional-hemispherical reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) were obtained by integrating BRDF and BTDF for normal incidence. Comparison of the ratio of the measured R and T with that calculated from the adding-doubling method allows the determination of the reduced scattering coefficient. Furthermore, the effect of surface scattering is investigated by measuring the polarization-dependent BRDF and BTDF at oblique incidence. By analyzing the measurement uncertainty of BTDF in the near-normal observation angles at normal incidence, the present authors found that the scattering coefficient of PTFE should exceed 1200 cm(-1), which is much greater than that of biological tissues. On the other hand, the absorption coefficient of PTFE must be less than 0.01 cm(-1), much smaller than that of biological tissues, a necessary condition to achieve R > or =0.98 with a 10-mm-thick slab. PMID:19021442

  8. Light Scattering on the High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    The high temperature superconductors have been examined by the technique of Raman scattering in several limits: the insulating phase, the normal and superconducting state of the superconducting phase, and an optically induced metastable phase. In all cases, the analysis and proposed phenomenological models involved either an examination of the inelastic background scattering or the phonon excitation spectrum. Specifically, the character, temperature dependence, critical temperature dependence and the copper-oxygen covalency dependence of the inelastic background scattering has been studied in all three phases. Analysis of the superconducting phase reveals a marginal Fermi-liquid like character of the electronic polarizability, and a decidedly non-traditional shift of the scattering intensity of the electronic excitations at low temperature. On removing oxygen, the system passes through a metal-insulator transition and the inelastic background becomes dominantly magnetic in origin. Examinations of the 'allowed' Raman active phonons in the superconducting phase expose a strong coupling of two modes to the background electronic excitation spectrum, and a dramatic renormalization of these modes below T _{rm c}. Further, two sharply resonant Raman 'forbidden' modes can be bleached out of the spectrum at low temperature with a sufficiently high laser dosage. A transition from this optically induced metastable state to the normal state occurs on warming the crystal back to room temperature. On reducing the oxygen concentration, the coupling strength of the two asymmetric phonons diminishes rapidly, the renormalization effects vanish, and the compound no longer exhibits metastability.

  9. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  10. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  11. Light scattering by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Rist, Stefan; Menotti, Chiara; Morigi, Giovanna

    2010-01-15

    We investigate theoretically light scattering of photons by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in the linear regime. A full quantum theory for the atom-photon interactions is developed as a function of the atomic state in the lattice along the Mott-insulator-superfluid phase transition, and the photonic-scattering cross section is evaluated as a function of the energy and of the direction of emission. The predictions of this theory are compared with the theoretical results of a recent work on Bragg scattering in time-of-flight measurements [A.M. Rey et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 023407 (2005)]. We show that, when performing Bragg spectroscopy with light scattering, the photon recoil gives rise to an additional atomic site-to-site hopping, which can interfere with ordinary tunneling of matter waves and can significantly affect the photonic-scattering cross section.

  12. Simulation of light scattering from exoskeletons of scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-03-21

    An approach for simulation of light scattering from beetles exhibiting structural colors originating from periodic helicoidal structures is presented. Slight irregularities of the periodic structure in the exoskeleton of the beetles are considered as a major cause of light scattering. Two sources of scattering are taken into account: surface roughness and volume non-uniformity. The Kirchhoff approximation is applied to simulate the effect of surface roughness. To describe volume non-uniformity, the whole structure is modeled as a set of domains distributed in space in different orientations. Each domain is modeled as an ideal uniformly twisted uniaxial medium and differs from each other by the pitch. Distributions of the domain parameters are assumed to be Gaussian. The analysis is performed using the Mueller matrix formalism which, in addition to spectral and spatial characteristics, also provides polarization properties of the scattered light. PMID:27136777

  13. Study of Light Scattering in the Human Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, I. Kelly; Bruce, N. C.; Valdos, L. R. Berriel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model of the human eye to be used in studies of the scattering of light in different components of the eye's optical system. Different parts of the eye are susceptible to produce scattering for different reasons; age, illness or injury. For example, cataracts can appear in the human lens or injuries or fungi can appear on the cornea. The aim of the study is to relate the backscattered light, which is what doctors measure or detect, to the forward scattered light, which is what affects the patient's vision. We present the model to be used, the raytrace procedure and some preliminary results for the image on the retina without scattering.

  14. Polar nephelometer for light-scattering measurements of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Barkey, B; Liou, K N

    2001-02-15

    We report on a small, lightweight polar nephelometer for the measurement of the light-scattering properties of cloud particles, specifically designed for use on a balloonborne platform in cirrus cloud conditions. The instrument consists of 33 fiber-optic light guides positioned in a two-dimensional plane from 5 degrees to 175 degrees that direct the scattered light to photodiode detectors-amplifier units. The system uses an onboard computer and data acquisition card to collect and store the measured signals. The instrument's calibration is tested by measurement of light scattered into a two-dimensional plane from small water droplets generated by an ultrasonic humidifier. Excellent comparisons between the measured water-droplet scattering properties and expectations generated by Mie calculation are shown. The measured scattering properties of ice crystals generated in a cold chamber also compare reasonably well with the theoretical results based on calculations from a unified theory of light scattering by ice crystals that use the particle size distribution measured in the chamber. PMID:18033557

  15. Polar nephelometer for light-scattering measurements of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Barkey, B; Liou, K N

    2001-02-15

    We report on a small, lightweight polar nephelometer for the measurement of the light-scattering properties of cloud particles, specifically designed for use on a balloonborne platform in cirrus cloud conditions. The instrument consists of 33 fiber-optic light guides positioned in a two-dimensional plane from 5 degrees to 175 degrees that direct the scattered light to photodiode detectors-amplifier units. The system uses an onboard computer and data acquisition card to collect and store the measured signals. The instrument's calibration is tested by measurement of light scattered into a two-dimensional plane from small water droplets generated by an ultrasonic humidifier. Excellent comparisons between the measured water-droplet scattering properties and expectations generated by Mie calculation are shown. The measured scattering properties of ice crystals generated in a cold chamber also compare reasonably well with the theoretical results based on calculations from a unified theory of light scattering by ice crystals that use the particle size distribution measured in the chamber.

  16. Scattering of light by molecules over a rough surface.

    PubMed

    Long, Maureen; Khine, Michelle; Kim, Arnold D

    2010-05-01

    We present a theory for the multiple scattering of light by obstacles situated over a rough surface. This problem is important for applications in biological and chemical sensors. To keep the formulation of this theory simple, we study scalar waves. This theory requires knowledge of the scattering operator (t-matrix) for each of the obstacles as well as the reflection operator for the rough surface. The scattering operator gives the field scattered by the obstacle due to an exciting field incident on the scatterer. The reflection operator gives the field reflected by the rough surface due to an exciting field incident on the rough surface. We apply this general theory for the special case of point scatterers and a slightly rough surface with homogeneous Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. We show examples that demonstrate the utility of this theory. PMID:20448766

  17. Multiple scattering of polarized light: influence of absorption.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, A; Voit, F; Schäfer, J; Kienle, A

    2014-06-01

    This work continues previous research about multiple scattering of polarized light propagation in turbid media, putting emphasis on the imaginary part of the scatterers' complex refractive index. The whole angle-dependent Müller matrix is evaluated by comparing results of a polarization sensitive radiative transfer solution to Maxwell theory. Turbid media of defined scatterer concentrations are modelled in three dimensions by sphere ensembles kept inside a cubic or spherical simulation volume. This study addresses the impact of absorption on polarization characteristics for selected media from low to high absorption. Besides that, effects caused by multiple and dependent scattering are shown for increasing volume concentration. In this context some unique properties associated with multiple scattering and absorption are pointed out. Further, scattering results in two dimensions are compared for examples of infinite parallel cylinders of high absorption and perpendicularly incident plane waves.

  18. Light scattering in optical CT scanning of Presage dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Adamovics, J.; Cheeseborough, J. C.; Chao, K. S.; Wuu, C. S.

    2010-11-01

    The intensity of the scattered light from the Presage dosimeters was measured using a Thorlabs PM100D optical power meter (Thorlabs Inc, Newton, NJ) with an optical sensor of 1 mm diameter sensitive area. Five Presage dosimeters were made as cylinders of 15.2 cm, 10 cm, 4 cm diameters and irradiated with 6 MV photons using a Varian Clinac 2100EX. Each dosimeter was put into the scanning tank of an OCTOPUS" optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) filled with a refractive index matching liquid. A laser diode was positioned at one side of the water tank to generate a stationary laser beam of 0.8 mm width. On the other side of the tank, an in-house manufactured positioning system was used to move the optical sensor in the direction perpendicular to the outgoing laser beam from the dosimeters at an increment of 1 mm. The amount of scattered photons was found to be more than 1% of the primary light signal within 2 mm from the laser beam but decreases sharply with increasing off-axis distance. The intensity of the scattered light increases with increasing light attenuations and/or absorptions in the dosimeters. The scattered light at the same off-axis distance was weaker for dosimeters of larger diameters and for larger detector-to-dosimeter distances. Methods for minimizing the effect of the light scattering in different types of optical CT scanners are discussed.

  19. Impact of morphological parameters onto simulated light scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorupski, Krzysztof; Mroczka, Janusz; Riefler, Norbert; Oltmann, Hergen; Will, Stefan; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the impact of the variation of various parameters of fractal aggregates on simulated light scattering patterns. Static light scattering is commonly used to measure soot in a flame and such a study could help to improve experimental approaches. Aggregate models, used for our light scattering simulations, are based on real soot structures that can be found under laboratory conditions in a premixed ethane/air flame (McKenna-type burner, equivalence ratio ϕ=2.5). Our work was not focused on modeling and analysis of aggregates that are typically encountered in the atmosphere, therefore the results might be of limited interest to climate scientists. In our study, the variation of all parameters that enter into the standard fractal equation were investigated. Additionally effects when varying the overlap of primary particles, the incident wavelength and the complex refractive index are discussed. For numerical simulations two different codes were used, the T-Matrix (when particles are in point contact) and the DDScat program (which is capable of performing light scattering simulations by overlapping spheres). Comparisons between these two methods show very good agreement. The results demonstrate that the radius of gyration is responsible for the amount of light scattered towards the back direction while the total volume of an aggregate defines the shape of the light scattering patterns. Small changes of the fractal dimension can be neglected (provided that the fractal prefactor is accordingly modified in a suitable way). The overlap level, if the radius of gyration is kept constant, introduces barely visible changes to the light scattering diagrams which suggest that a simple aggregate model, composed of particles being in point contact, can be used instead of a structure in early sintering stage when overlap of primary particles is not so high.

  20. Light Scattering by Surface Tension Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, G.; Garbay, F.

    1979-01-01

    This simple and inexpensive experiment is an illustration of the physical concepts of interaction between light and surface tension waves, and provides a new method of measuring surface tension. (Author/GA)

  1. Structural Interpretations of Static Light Scattering Patterns of Fractal Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Lambert; Thill; Ginestet; Audic; Bottero

    2000-08-15

    A method based on static light scattering by fractal aggregates is introduced to extract structural information. In this study, we determine the scattered intensity by a fractal aggregate calculating the Structure and the Form factors noted, respectively, S(q) and F(q). We use the approximation of the mean field Mie scattering by fractal aggregates (R. Botet, P. Rannou, and M. Cabane, appl. opt. 36, 8791, 1997). This approximation is validated by a comparison of the scattering and extinction cross sections values calculated using, on the one hand, Mie theory with a mean optical index n) and, on the other hand, the mean field approximation. Scattering and extinction cross sections values differ by about 5%. We show that the mean environment of primary scatterers characterized by the optical index n(s) must be taken into account to interpret accurately the scattering pattern from fractal aggregates. Numerical simulations were done to evaluate the influence of the fractal dimension values (D(f)>2) and of the radius of gyration or the number of primary particles within the aggregates (N=50 to 250) on the scatterers' mean optical contrast (n(s)/n). This last parameter plays a major role in determining the Form factor F(q) which corresponds to the primary particles' scattering. In associating the mean optical index (n) to structural characteristics, this work provides a theoretical framework to be used to provide additional structural information from the scattering pattern of a fractal aggregate (cf. Part II). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Imaging back scattered and near back scattered light in ignition scale plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, R.K.; Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Moody, J.D.

    1996-05-07

    Diagnostics have been developed and fielded at the Nova laser facility that image scattered light in the vicinity of the final laser focusing lens. The absolute calibration of optical components exposed to the target debris have been achieved by a combination of routine in situ calibration and maintenance. The scattering observed from plasmas relevant to ignition experiments indicates that light scattered just outside the lens can be larger than that collected by the lens, and is a significant factor in the energy balance when the f number is high.

  3. Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, S. M.; Armstrong, G. L.; Chan, H.-Y.; Mattson, E.; Mock, A.; Li, B.; Potts, J. R.; Cui, M.; Rand, S. C.; Oliveira, S. L.; Marchal, J.; Hinklin, T.; Laine, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years there has been great interest in controlling the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. In gases and crystals, coherent techniques have been applied to alter the speed of light without changing the physical or chemical structure of the medium. Also, light transmitted by highly disordered solids has exhibited signatures of Anderson localization, indicating the existence of a regime of ``stopped'' light that is mediated by random elastic scattering. However, to date, light has not been generated in a random medium as a pointlike excitation that is fixed in space from the outset. Here we report experimental evidence for the electrical generation and confinement of light within nanosized volumes of a random dielectric scattering medium in which a population inversion has been established, and discuss the properties of these novel light sources.

  4. Cell light scattering characteristic research based on FDTD algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Zhu, Hao; Li, Wenchao; Ye, Changbin

    2015-10-01

    As with the number of cancer increases year by year, so it is important to be found and treated earlier. With biological cells and tissues are sensitive to infrared and visible light, cell morphology and physical structure of the optical properties can easily obtain, we can provide theoretical basis for the early diagnosis of cancer by observing the difference of optical properties between normal and cancerous cells. Compared with Mie scattering theory, finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm can analyze any complex structure model. In this paper we use mathematical modeling method to establish the single cell mathematical model and with finite difference time domain algorithm to simulate the propagation and scattering of light in the biological cells, you can calculate the scattering of electromagnetic field distribution at anytime and anywhere. With radar cross section (RCS) to measure the results of the scattering characteristics. Due to the difference between normal cells and cancerous cells are embodied in cell shape, size and the refractive index, through the simulation we can get different cell parameters of light scattering information, Find out the cell parameters change the changing rule of the influence on the scattering characteristics and find out change regularity of scattering characteristics. These data can judge very accurate of the cells is normal or cancerous cells.

  5. Hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal light scattering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofmann, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications.A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04094a

  6. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Light scattering study of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, J.; Netz, U.; Minet, O.; Klose, Annerose D.; Hielscher, A. H.; Scheel, A.; Henniger, J.; Müller, G.

    2002-11-01

    The distribution of light scattered by finger joints is studied in the near-IR region. It is shown that variations in the optical parameters of the tissue (scattering coefficient μs, absorption coefficient μa, and anisotropy factor g) depend on the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At the first stage, the distribution of scattered light was measured in diaphanoscopic experiments. The convolution of a Gaussian error function with the scattering phase function proved to be a good approximation of the data obtained. Then, a new method was developed for the reconstruction of distribution of optical parameters in the finger cross section. Model tests of the quality of this reconstruction method show good results.

  7. An experimental study of light scattering by large, irregular particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Audrey F.; Hapke, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    The intensity and polarization of light scattered by a variety of types of artificial partices large compared to the wavelength were measured as a function of phase angle. Shape, surface roughness, absorption coefficient, and internal scattering coefficient were varied systematically and their effects studied. Scattering by clear, smooth-surfaced spheres is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the geometrical optics (ray theory) approximation to physical optics (Mie theory). The phase functions of almost all of the particles measured have both forward and backward scattering lobes. A two-parameter, double Henyey-Greenstein function generally provides reasonably good descriptions of the data, while keeping the number of free parameters to the minimum necessary. On a double Henyey- Greenstein parameter plot all of the particles fall into an L-shaped area of restricted size in which the location is characteristic of the particle type. Formalisms based on the equivalent slab model are also given for estimating the scattering efficiency of a large, irregular particle. For most dielectric particles the transmitted, forward scattered light is partially negatively polarized. It is this component that is respopnsible for the well-known maximum in the polarization curves of planetary regoliths at phase angles around 100 deg. For phase angles between about 30 deg and 70 deg the internally scattered light is found to be randomly polarized in the particles studied here, so that the only contribution to the second component of the Stokes vector is by Fresnel reflection from the particle surface. If this empirical result is general, measurement of the second Stokes vector of the light scattered from a regolith at these angles may provide a method of remotely measuring the mean refractive index.

  8. Radiant intensity of light scattered from clouds.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1968-04-01

    A Monte Carlo method that accurately allows for the numerous small angle scattering events is used to calculate the reflected and transmitted radiance and flux of visible radiation that has interacted with cumulus clouds. The variation of these quantities with solar zenith angle, optical thickness of the cloud, and surface albedo is studied. When the surface albedo is zero, the reflected radiance has a relative maximum at the horizon (except for very thick clouds and incident beam near zenith). When the incident beam is near the horizon, there is a strong maximum in the reflected radiance on the solar horizon and a pronounced minimum near the zenith. There is a relative maximum in the transmitted radiance around the direction of the incident beam until the cloud becomes thick in that direction. In most instances, the variations are greatly decreased when the surface albedo is unity.

  9. Light scattering by a spheroidal particle.

    PubMed

    Asano, S; Yamamoto, G

    1975-01-01

    The solution of electromagnetic scattering by a homogeneous prolate (or oblate) spheroidal particle with an arbitrary size and refractive index is obtained for any angle of incidence by solving Maxwell's equations under given boundary conditions. The method used is that of separating the vector wave equations in the spheroidal coordinates and expanding them in terms of the spheroidal wavefunctions. The unknown coefficients for the expansion are determined by a system of equations derived from the boundary conditions regarding the continuity of tangential components of the electric and magnetic vectors across the surface of the spheroid. The solutions both in the prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinate systems result in a same form, and the equations for the oblate spheroidal system can be obtained from those for the prolate one by replacing the prolate spheroidal wavefunctions with the oblate ones and vice versa. For an oblique incidence, the polarized incident wave is resolved into two components, the TM mode for which the magnetic vector vibrates perpendicularly to the incident plane and the TE mode for which the electric vector vibrates perpendicularly to this plane. For the incidence along the rotation axis the resultant equations are given in the form similar to the one for a sphere given by the Mie theory. The physical parameters involved are the following five quantities: the size parameter defined by the product of the semifocal distance of the spheroid and the propagation constant of the incident wave, the eccentricity, the refractive index of the spheroid relative to the surrounding medium, the incident angle between the direction of the incident wave and the rotation axis, and the angles that specify the direction of the scattered wave.

  10. Resonant Light Scattering to Measure BEC-Pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Tommasini, Paolo

    1997-04-01

    We present a single-scattering formalism for incoherent resonant light scattering by dilute quantum gas systems such as the atomic-trap Bose-Einstein condensates. We point out that resonant scattering gives access to more information than the dynamical structure factor, familiar from non-resonant scattering. In particular, we show that the detuning dependence of the incoherent scattering cross-section allows the direct determination of the BEC pairing density < ψ ψ >, a broken symmetry which is of fundamental importance in understanding the microscopic structure of the condensate. Furthermore, the technique can be viewed as an experimental test to determine wether or not the condensate is in a good number state.

  11. Inferring mixture Gibbs free energies from static light scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David; Wahle, Christopher; Thurston, George

    We describe a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing that applies to connected, isotropic ternary and quaternary liquid composition domains, including restricted domains which may not touch all binary axes. For restricted domains, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns obtained at different wavelengths can correspond to the same underlying free energy, and supplement the available information. We discuss well-posed problems for this fully nonlinear, degenerate elliptic partial differential equation. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, and indicate how measurement time depends on instrument throughput. These methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain liquid domains. Supported by NIH EY018249.

  12. Solar-stimulated inelastic light scattering in clear seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Voss, Kenneth J.

    1997-02-01

    Solar Fraunhofer lines are used as indicators of the inelastic light scattering in the sea water. Data from both in-shore and off-shore are presented and compared with results of theoretical modeling. Very good agreement is found between the modeled and measured proportion of inelastic to elastically scattered and direct light at 589 nm when the Raman scattering coefficient of Marshall and Smith is used, as opposed to that of Slusher and Derr. At 656 nm the agreement is not as good, indicating possible interference from other sources such a Chlorophyll fluorescence. Recent work has extended the measurements of include smaller absorption lines, such as 689 nm, where significant filling has been measured at the surface due to the Chlorophyll fluorescence. This technique allows the natural fluorescence to be measured, even at the surface where there is still a significant amount of direct solar light.

  13. Multiple light scattering methods for multiphase flow diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flows of gases and liquids containing droplets, bubbles, or particulates present light scattering imaging challenges due to the interference from each phase, such as secondary reflections, extinctions, absorptions, and refractions. These factors often prevent the unambiguous detection of each phase and also produce undesired beam steering. The effects can be especially complex in presence of dense phases, multispecies flows, and high pressure environments. This investigation reports new methods for overcoming these effects for quantitative measurements of velocity, density, and temperature fields. The methods are based on light scattering techniques combining Mie and filtered Rayleigh scattering and light extinction analyses and measurements. The optical layout is designed to perform multiple property measurements with improved signal from each phase via laser spectral and polarization characterization, etalon decontamination, and use of multiple wavelengths and imaging detectors.

  14. Scattered light in the IUE spectra of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altner, B.; Chapman, R. D.; Kondo, Y.; Stencel, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent infrared photometry indicates that the alleged disk of particulate matter surrounding the mysterious secondary object in the Epsilon Aur system is cold, around 500 K. IUE spectra, on the other hand, contain significant flux in excess of that expected from an F0 Ia star in the far UV, which if interpreted as a hot secondary star leads to a possible contradiction with the IR data. Other models of the UV excess have been proposed, including the idea that the bulk of the short-wavelength flux is light scattered into the SWP camera from longer wavelengths. With the recent availability of a detailed generalized IUE descattering algorithm it is possible to thoroughly investigate the scattered-light contribution to the short-wavelength continuum. It is found that the IUE spectra are indeed partially contaminated by scattered light, but that even after correction for this instrumental effect a significant time-dependent UV excess is still present.

  15. Laser light scattering as a probe of fractal colloid aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David A.; Lin, M. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The extensive use of laser light scattering is reviewed, both static and dynamic, in the study of colloid aggregation. Static light scattering enables the study of the fractal structure of the aggregates, while dynamic light scattering enables the study of aggregation kinetics. In addition, both techniques can be combined to demonstrate the universality of the aggregation process. Colloidal aggregates are now well understood and therefore represent an excellent experimental system to use in the study of the physical properties of fractal objects. However, the ultimate size of fractal aggregates is fundamentally limited by gravitational acceleration which will destroy the fractal structure as the size of the aggregates increases. This represents a great opportunity for spaceborne experimentation, where the reduced g will enable the growth of fractal structures of sufficient size for many interesting studies of their physical properties.

  16. Optical model of transient light scattering in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Loiko, V. A. Konkolovich, A. V.; Miskevich, A. A.

    2009-03-15

    A static optical model is developed for the effect of field-induced transient scattering on coherent light transmission through ferroelectric liquid crystals. Scattering processes are described by introducing an optically anisotropic medium containing scatterers (transient domains). The results presented in the paper are obtained for a plane parallel layer of ferroelectric liquid crystals with a planar helicoidal structure under normal illumination with a linearly polarized plane wave. An analysis is presented of the coherent transmittance of the layer in static applied electric fields.

  17. Neutron and light scattering studies of light-harvesting photosynthetic antenna complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2011-06-28

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been employed in studying the structural information of various biological systems, particularly in systems without high-resolution structural information available. In this report, we briefly present some principles and biological applications of neutron scattering and DLS, compare the differences in information that can be obtained with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and then report recent studies of SANS and DLS, together with other biophysical approaches, for light-harvesting antenna complexes and reaction centers of purple and green phototrophic bacteria.

  18. Scattering of coherent and incoherent light by latex hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Sherman, G C; Harris, F S; Morse, F L

    1968-03-01

    Experimental study of the scattering of coherent and incoherent light by latex hydrosols has been extended to determine the effects of larger diameter scatterers and of several scatterer concentrations. The angular dependence of the intensity of the light scattered by latex spheres suspended in water was measured. Two light sources were used: (1) a continuous wave He-Ne laser radiating at 6328 A and (2) a high pressure, xenon arc lamp limited to a 100-micro bandwidth centered at 6328 A. The number of particles in the scattering volume coherently illuminated with the laser was greater than the number coherently illuminated with the xenon lamp by a factor > 5 x 10(5). Six hydrosols were studied: three suspensions of particles polydispersed in size (diameter ranges from 6 micro to 14 micro, 12 micro to 35 micro, and 25 micro to 55 micro) and three suspensions of particles monodispersed in size (0.796-micro diam and concentration ranging from 5.7 x 10(7) particles/cm(3) to 5.7 x 10(5) particles/cm(3)). For these six suspensions, the data from the two light sources agree to within the possible experimental error of 20%.

  19. Novel Trapping and Scattering of Light in Resonant Nanophotonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei

    Nanophotonic structures provide unique ways to control light and alter its behaviors in ways not possible in macroscopic structures. In this thesis, we explore novel behaviors of light created by nanophotonic structures, with a common theme on resonance effects. The first half of the thesis focuses on a peculiar type of electromagnetic resonance, where the resonance lifetime diverges to infinity. These states, called bound states in the continuum, remain localized in space even though their frequency lie within a continuum of extended modes. We find such states in photonic crystal slabs and the surface of bulk photonic crystals. We show the conditions necessary for them to exist, and provide the first experimental observation of these unusual states. We also show that these states have a topological nature, with conserved and quantized topological charges that govern their generation, evolution, and annihilation. The second half of the thesis concerns light scattering from resonant nanophotonic structures, where resonances can enhance or suppress scattering at particular wavelengths and angles. We show that multiple resonances in one nanostructure and in the same multipole channel generally lead to a scattering dark state where the structure becomes transparent. Based on the coherent interference from multiple scatterers, we show there are geometries that can achieve a sharp structural color where the hue, saturation, and brightness are all viewing-angle independent. We also invent a new type of transparent display based on wavelength-selective light scattering from nanostructures.

  20. Optical cavitation probe using light scattering from bubble clouds.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yasuo; Lee, Judy; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Yasui, Kyuichi; Towata, Atsuya; Tuziuti, Toru

    2009-04-01

    To understand the behaviour of systems containing clouds of bubbles (multibubble system) in real sonochemical reactors, a new diagnosis method, i.e., optical cavitation probe (OCP), has been proposed. When a laser beam is introduced into the cavitation bubble cloud, the scattered light intensity changes by the collective oscillation of cavitation bubbles. The frequency domain spectrum of the scattered light contains rich information on the cavitation bubble clouds, comparable with the acoustic emission spectra detected by a hydrophone. The significant merits of OCP, such as capability for spatially resolved, non-invasive measurement of the cavitation bubble clouds, robustness even in a violent cavitation field have been experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Symmetry theorems on the forward and backward scattering Mueller matrices for light scattering from a nonspherical dielectric scatterer.

    PubMed

    Hu, C R; Kattawar, G W; Parkin, M E; Herb, P

    1987-10-01

    The symmetry theorems on the complete forward and backward scattering Mueller matrices for light scattering from a single dielectric scatterer (as opposed to an ensemble of scatterers) are systematically and thoroughly analyzed. Symmetry operations considered include discrete rotations about the incident direction and mirror planes not coinciding with the scattering plane. For forward scattering we find sixteen different symmetry shapes (not including the totally asymmetric one), which may be classified into five symmetry classes, with identical reductions in the forward scattering matrices for all symmetry shapes that fall into the same symmetry class. For backward scattering we find only four different symmetry shapes, which may be classified into only two symmetry classes. The forward scattering symmetry theorems also lead to a symmetry theorem on the total extinction cross section. Based on the conclusions of this work it should be possible to design quick and nondestructive methods for the identification of certain small objects, when suitable partial information about the objects to be identified is already available. A promising practical example is given.

  2. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging under ambient light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinxin; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Hong, Weili; Huang, Kai-Chih; Yang, Huaidong; Jin, Guofan; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate an ambient light coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope that allows CARS imaging to be operated under environmental light for field use. The CARS signal is modulated at megahertz frequency and detected by a photodiode equipped with a lab-built resonant amplifier, then extracted through a lock-in amplifier. The filters in both the spectral domain and the frequency domain effectively blocked the room light contamination of the CARS image. In situ hyperspectral CARS imaging of tumor tissue under ambient light is demonstrated. PMID:27519113

  3. Study of resonance light scattering for remote optical probing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penney, C. M.; Morey, W. W.; St. Peters, R. L.; Silverstein, S. D.; Lapp, M.; White, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Enhanced scattering and fluorescence processes in the visible and UV were investigated which will enable improved remote measurements of gas properties. The theoretical relationship between scattering and fluorescence from an isolated molecule in the approach to resonance is examined through analysis of the time dependence of re-emitted light following excitation of pulsed incident light. Quantitative estimates are developed for the relative and absolute intensities of fluorescence and resonance scattering. New results are obtained for depolarization of scattering excited by light at wavelengths within a dissociative continuum. The experimental work was performed in two separate facilities. One of these utilizes argon and krypton lasers, single moded by a tilted etalon, and a 3/4 meter double monochromator. This facility was used to determine properties of the re-emission from NO2, I2 and O3 excited by visible light. The second facility involves a narrow-line dye laser, and a 3/4 meter single monochromator. The dye laser produces pulsed light with 5 nsec pulse duration and 0.005 nm spectral width.

  4. Investigation of light scattering on a single dust grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlu, Jiri; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Barton, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Complex phenomenon of light scattering by dust grains plays an important role in all dust--light interactions, especially in space, e.g., light passing through dense dusty clouds in the space as well as in the upper atmosphere, dust charging by photoemission, etc. When the wavelength of the incident light is about the size of the grain, the Mie theory is often used to characterize the scattering process. Unfortunately, we have only very limited knowledge of necessary material constants for most of the space-related materials and also the solution of Mie equations for general grain shapes is difficult or unknown. We develop an apparatus for observations of light scattering on small (micrometer-sized) arbitrary shaped dust grains. We directly measure the scattering by levitating grains in the field created by the standing-wave ultrasonic trap, where we can study single grains or small grain clusters. The experiment is performed at atmospheric air --- unlike other experiments, where grains were measured in water or other liquids. Therefore, the background effects are significantly reduced. Currently, the trap is under development and first tests are carried out. Besides initial results, we focus on theoretical computations of the ultrasonic field of the selected trap.

  5. Bulk and surface light scattering from transparent silica aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Bergkvist, Mikael

    1992-11-01

    Elastic light scattering has been used to study structural properties of different transparent aerogels, which may be used as filling materials in super-windows. With a goniometer having an angular resolution better than 0.6 degree(s) and a He-Ne laser as the light source we investigated the angular distribution of scattered intensity from transparent silica aerogels and one xerogel. The densities ranged between 0.11 and 0.60 gcm-3. An exponential correlation function for the density fluctuations of a random porous medium has been utilized to analyze the large-angle scattering, which is dominated by bulk scattering, for different polarization of the incident light. The determination of correlation lengths in the nanometer range was possible, because the absolute scattering intensities were determined. For relative angular dependence measurements, this range would have been accessible only to small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The resulting mean pore sizes between 8 nm and 50 nm and specific surface areas between 500 and 700 m2/g agree well with nitrogen-porosimetry data from the literature. The data compare quite well with correlation lengths calculated from specular transmittance data from an ordinary spectrophotometer. This method, which is not sensitive to the angular distribution of superposed forward scattering with large correlation lengths, has also been applied to a series of base-catalyzed TMOS aerogels with different catalyst concentrations. The forward scattering peak of the signal may be attributed to correlation lengths in the micrometer range. Experimental results for aerogel surfaces with evaporated aluminum indicate that this might be due to the surface properties. A quantitative analysis, however, is not possible yet.

  6. Visualizing Light Scattering in Silicon Waveguides with Black Phosphorus Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianjiao; Hu, Shuren; Chamlagain, Bhim; Hong, Tu; Zhou, Zhixian; Weiss, Sharon M; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2016-09-01

    A black phosphorus photodetector is utilized to investigate the light-scattering patterns of a silicon waveguide through wavelength- and polarization-dependent scanning photocurrent measurements. The photocurrent signals exhibit similar patterns to the light-intensity distribution of the waveguide calculated by finite-difference time-domain simulations, suggesting that photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the silicon waveguide can be injected into phosphorene to induce its photoresponse. PMID:27296253

  7. Visualizing Light Scattering in Silicon Waveguides with Black Phosphorus Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianjiao; Hu, Shuren; Chamlagain, Bhim; Hong, Tu; Zhou, Zhixian; Weiss, Sharon M; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2016-09-01

    A black phosphorus photodetector is utilized to investigate the light-scattering patterns of a silicon waveguide through wavelength- and polarization-dependent scanning photocurrent measurements. The photocurrent signals exhibit similar patterns to the light-intensity distribution of the waveguide calculated by finite-difference time-domain simulations, suggesting that photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the silicon waveguide can be injected into phosphorene to induce its photoresponse.

  8. Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.; Mourant, Judith R.

    2012-08-01

    Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment.

  9. Laboratory measurements of light scattering by simulated atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Quiney, R G; Carswell, A I

    1972-07-01

    Using the Stokes vector formulation measurements are reported of the four principal components of the scattering matrix under controlled laboratory conditions. Two ranges of scattering conditions are considered: atmospheric air as a function of relative humidity (HAZE) and water droplet clouds (FOGS). A 50-mW (63284-A) He-Ne laser is used as the light source. A sensitive automated polar nephelometer, which has been developed for these measurements, records the scattered light as a function of scattering angle from 6 degrees to 174 degrees . A digital computer is used to calculate the matrix elements from the raw experimental data. The results may be compared with the theoretical computations of Deirmendjian and the field work of Rozenberg. The results of the experiments show pronounced dependence upon the relative humidity and the properties of the fogs that are explicable qualitatively. However, quantitative inversion of light scattering data to obtain such information as the size distribution requires comprehensive experiments of high precision and large amounts of computer time.

  10. Electrically controlled light scattering from thermoreversible liquid-crystal gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Rob H. C.; Stümpflen, Volker; Broer, Dirk J.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Tervoort, Theo A.; Smith, Paul

    2000-07-01

    Thermoreversible gels of the liquid-crystal LC-E7 with 1,3:2,4-Di-O-benzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) form white light-scattering films that are reversibly switchable to a clear state by ac electric fields. The light scattering by the gelled films is an intrinsic material property that originates in the phase diagram of the system displaying a monotectic-type equilibrium ("mesotectic") among a liquid, a solid, and a mesophase at extremely low concentrations of DBS. Electro-optical characteristics and demonstrated viscoelastic behavior of the films produced indicate the applicability of DBS/LC-E7 in large area scattering-based flat panel displays and projection systems.

  11. Debye series for light scattering by a multilayered sphere.

    PubMed

    Li, Renxian; Han, Xiange; Jiang, Huifen; Ren, Kuan Fang

    2006-02-20

    We have derived the formula for the Debye-series decomposition for light scattering by a multilayered sphere. This formulism permits the mechanism of light scattering to be studied. An efficient algorithm is introduced that permits stable calculation for a large sphere with many layers. The formation of triple first-order rainbows by a three-layered sphere and single-order rainbows and the interference of different-order rainbows by a sphere with a gradient refractive index, are then studied by use of the Debye model and Mie calculation. The possibility of taking only one single mode or several modes for each layer is shown to be useful in the study of the scattering characteristics of a multilayered sphere and in the measurement of the sizes and refractive indices of particles. PMID:16523791

  12. Monte carlo calculations of light scattering from clouds.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1968-03-01

    The scattering of visible light by clouds is calculated from an efficient Monte Carlo code which follows the multiple scattered path of the photon. The single scattering function is obtained from the Mie theory by integration over a particle size distribution appropriate for cumulus clouds at 0.7-micro wavelength. The photons are followed through a sufficient number of collisions and reflections from the lower surface (which may have any desired albedo) until they make a negligible contribution to the intensity. Various variance reduction techniques are used to improve the statistics. The cloud albedo and the mean optical path of the transmitted and reflected photons are given as a function of the solar zenith angle, optical thickness, and surface albedo. The numerous small angle scatterings of the photon in the direction of the incident beam are followed accurately and produce a greater penetration into the cloud than is obtained with a more isotropic and less realistic phase function.

  13. Optical caustics observed in light scattered by an oblate spheroid.

    PubMed

    Lock, James A; Xu, Feng

    2010-03-10

    The electromagnetic fields scattered when a plane wave is incident on an oblate spheroid in the side-on orientation may be calculated using a generalization of Mie theory, and the results may be decomposed in a Debye series expansion. A number of optical caustics are observed in the computed scattered intensity for the one internal reflection portion of the Debye series for scattering angles in the vicinity of the first-order rainbow, and are analyzed in terms of the rainbow, transverse cusp, and hyperbolic umbilic caustics of catastrophe optics. The specific features of these three caustics are described, as is their assembly into the global structure of the observed caustics for spheroid scattering. It is found that, for a spheroid whose radius is an order of magnitude larger than the wavelength of the incident light, the interference structure accompanying the transverse cusp and hyperbolic umbilic caustics is only partially formed.

  14. Half a century of light scatter metrology and counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stover, John C.

    2014-09-01

    Back in the early days Bill Wolf once said something like: "The guy with the lowest scatter measurement is closest to the right answer." He was often right then - but not anymore. Everything has changed. Today measurements are limited by Rayleigh scatter from the air - not the instrument. We have both written and physical standards and everybody spells BRDF the same way. In the time it takes to give this talk, over 100,000 silicon wafers will be inspected around the world using a few thousand scatterometers - average price about one million dollars each. The way the world illuminates everything from homes to football fields is changing with the advent of high brightness LED's and these lighting systems are designed using a combination of scatter metrology and analysis techniques - many of which were started at The Optical Sciences Center. This paper reviews two major highlights in half a century of scatter metrology progress.

  15. Light Scattering by Polymers: Two Experiments for Advanced Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, equipment, and results for two experiments are presented. The first involves the measurement of the mass-average and degree of coiling of polystyrene and is interpreted by the full mathematical theory of light scattering. The second is the study of transitions in gelatin. (JN)

  16. A Study of Brownian Motion Using Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noel A.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Presents an advanced laboratory experiment and lecture demonstration by which the intensity spectrum of light scattered by a suspension of particles in a fluid can be studied. From this spectrum, it is possible to obtain quantitative information about the motion of the particles, including an accurate determination of their diffusion constant.…

  17. Optical Characterization of Optofluidic Waveguides Using Scattered Light Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Micah H.; Phillips, Brian S.; Zhao, Yue; Holmes, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of scattered light images is shown to be an attractive method for the characterization of optofluidic waveguides. The method is shown to be capable of measuring waveguide propagation losses and transmissions between solid and liquid-core structures. Measurement uncertainties are considered and characterized and were typically less than 15%. PMID:21811344

  18. Optical Characterization of Optofluidic Waveguides Using Scattered Light Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Micah H; Phillips, Brian S; Zhao, Yue; Holmes, Matthew R; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R

    2011-08-01

    The use of scattered light images is shown to be an attractive method for the characterization of optofluidic waveguides. The method is shown to be capable of measuring waveguide propagation losses and transmissions between solid and liquid-core structures. Measurement uncertainties are considered and characterized and were typically less than 15%.

  19. Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procura, Massimiliano; Colangelo, Gilberto; Hoferichter, Martin; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The largest uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g - 2)μ come from hadronic contributions. In particular, in a few years the subleading hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) contribution might dominate the theory uncertainty. We present a dispersive description of the HLbL tensor, which is based on unitarity, analyticity, crossing symmetry, and gauge invariance. This opens up the possibility of a data-driven determination of the HLbL contribution to (g - 2)μ with the aim of reducing model dependence and achieving a reliable error estimate. Our dispersive approach defines unambiguously the pion-pole and the pion-box contribution to the HLbL tensor. Using Mandelstam's double-spectral representation, we have proven that the pion-box contribution coincides exactly with the one-loop scalar QED amplitude, multiplied by the appropriate pion vector form factors.

  20. Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingfang; Acosta, Diana M; Whitney, Jon R; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering (CG-MALS) is an emerging technique for the determination of intermolecular interactions via the second virial coefficient B22. With CG-MALS, detailed studies of the second virial coefficient can be carried out more accurately and effectively than with traditional methods. In addition, automated mixing, delivery and measurement enable high speed, continuous, fluctuation-free sample delivery and accurate results. Using CG-MALS we measure the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solutions at various values of pH and ionic strength of a univalent salt (NaCl). The systematic variation of the second virial coefficient as a function of pH and NaCl strength reveals the net charge change and the isoelectric point of BSA under different solution conditions. The magnitude of the second virial coefficient decreases to 1.13 x 10(-5) ml*mol/g(2) near the isoelectric point of pH 4.6 and 25 mM NaCl. These results illuminate the role of fundamental long-range electrostatic and van der Waals forces in protein-protein interactions, specifically their dependence on pH and ionic strength.

  1. Scattering Optical Elements: Stand-Alone Optical Elements Exploiting Multiple Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongchan; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Park, Chunghyun; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, Heon; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2016-07-26

    Optical design and fabrication techniques are crucial for making optical elements. From conventional lenses to diffractive optical elements and to recent metasurfaces, various types of optical elements have been proposed to manipulate light where optical materials are fabricated into desired structures. Here, we propose a scattering optical element (SOE) that exploits multiple light scattering and wavefront shaping. Instead of fabricating optical materials, the SOE consists of a disordered medium and a photopolymer-based wavefront recorder, with shapes impinging on light on demand. With the proposed stand-alone SOEs, we experimentally demonstrate control of various properties of light, including intensity, polarization, spectral frequency, and near field. Due to the tremendous freedom brought about by disordered media, the proposed approach will provide unexplored routes to manipulate arbitrary optical fields in stand-alone optical elements.

  2. Investigation into the scattering of light by human hair.

    PubMed

    Bustard, H K; Smith, R W

    1991-08-20

    We describe a general investigation into the scattering of light by human hair. The main features of the intensity distribution produced by light scattered by an individual hair are identified. Qualitative explanations for the features are advanced in terms of the arrangement of the outer structure of the hair and its level of pigmentation. Contrast gloss values are calculated in an attempt to quantify the appearance of hair. These values are found to depend not only on the properties of hair, such as color and condition, but also on the direction and polarization state of the incident light. In assessing the effects of cosmetic treatments on hair, gloss values are shown to be useful where readings from treated hairs are compared with those from a control sample investigated in the same conditions.

  3. Light Scattering by Fractal Dust Aggregates. I. Angular Dependence of Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Ryo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kataoka, Akimasa; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-06-01

    In protoplanetary disks, micron-sized dust grains coagulate to form highly porous dust aggregates. Because the optical properties of these aggregates are not completely understood, it is important to investigate how porous dust aggregates scatter light. In this study, the light scattering properties of porous dust aggregates were calculated using a rigorous method, the T-matrix method, and the results were then compared with those obtained using the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) theory and Mie theory with the effective medium approximation (EMT). The RGD theory is applicable to moderately large aggregates made of nearly transparent monomers. This study considered two types of porous dust aggregates—ballistic cluster-cluster agglomerates (BCCAs) and ballistic particle-cluster agglomerates. First, the angular dependence of the scattered intensity was shown to reflect the hierarchical structure of dust aggregates; the large-scale structure of the aggregates is responsible for the intensity at small scattering angles, and their small-scale structure determines the intensity at large scattering angles. Second, it was determined that the EMT underestimates the backward scattering intensity by multiple orders of magnitude, especially in BCCAs, because the EMT averages the structure within the size of the aggregates. It was concluded that the RGD theory is a very useful method for calculating the optical properties of BCCAs.

  4. Light Scattering by Fractal Dust Aggregates. I. Angular Dependence of Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Ryo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kataoka, Akimasa; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-06-01

    In protoplanetary disks, micron-sized dust grains coagulate to form highly porous dust aggregates. Because the optical properties of these aggregates are not completely understood, it is important to investigate how porous dust aggregates scatter light. In this study, the light scattering properties of porous dust aggregates were calculated using a rigorous method, the T-matrix method, and the results were then compared with those obtained using the Rayleigh–Gans–Debye (RGD) theory and Mie theory with the effective medium approximation (EMT). The RGD theory is applicable to moderately large aggregates made of nearly transparent monomers. This study considered two types of porous dust aggregates—ballistic cluster–cluster agglomerates (BCCAs) and ballistic particle–cluster agglomerates. First, the angular dependence of the scattered intensity was shown to reflect the hierarchical structure of dust aggregates; the large-scale structure of the aggregates is responsible for the intensity at small scattering angles, and their small-scale structure determines the intensity at large scattering angles. Second, it was determined that the EMT underestimates the backward scattering intensity by multiple orders of magnitude, especially in BCCAs, because the EMT averages the structure within the size of the aggregates. It was concluded that the RGD theory is a very useful method for calculating the optical properties of BCCAs.

  5. Aerosol light scattering measurements as a function of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Day, D E; Malm, W C; Kreidenweis, S M

    2000-05-01

    The hygroscopic nature of atmospheric fine aerosol was investigated at a rural site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park during July and August 1995. Passing the sample aerosol through an inlet, which housed an array of Perma Pure diffusion dryers, controlled the sample aerosol's relative humidity (RH). After conditioning the aerosol sample in the inlet, the light scattering coefficient and the aerosol size distribution were simultaneously measured. During this study, the conditioned aerosol's humidity ranged between 5% < RH < 95%. Aerosol response curves were produced using the ratio bspw/bspd; where bspw is the scattering coefficient measured at some RH greater than 20% and bspd is the scattering coefficient of the "dry" aerosol. For this work, any sample RH values below 15% were considered dry. Results of this investigation showed that the light scattering ratio increased continuously and smoothly over the entire range of relative humidity. The magnitude of the ratio at a particular RH value, however, varied considerably in time, particularly for RH values greater than approximately 60%. Curves of the scattering coefficient ratios as a function of RH were generated for each day and compared to the average 12-hour chemical composition of the aerosol. This comparison showed that for any particular RH value the ratio was highest during time periods of high sulfate concentrations and lowest during time periods of high soil or high organic carbon concentrations.

  6. A Theoretical Light Scattering Model of Nanoparticle Laser Tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Accomplishments this reporting period include: 1. derived, programmed, checked, and tested the Mie light scattering theory formulas for the radiation trapping force for both the on-axis and off-axis geometry of the trapping beam plus trapped spherical particle; 2. verified that the computed radiation trapping force for a freely propagating focused Gaussian laser beam incident on a spherical particle agrees with previous published calculations; 3. compared the small particle size and large particle size limits of the Mie calculation with the results of Rayleigh scattering theory and ray scattering theory, respectively and verified that the comparison is correct for Rayleigh scattering theory but found that ray theory omits an important light scattering effect included in the Mie theory treatment; 4. generalized the calculation of the radiation trapping force on a spherical particle in the on-axis geometry from a freely propagating focused Gaussian laser beam to the realistic situation of a Gaussian beam truncated and focused by a high numerical aperture oil-immersion microscope objective lens and aberrated by the interface between the microscope cover slip and the liquid-filled sample volume; and 5. compared the calculated radiation trapping force for this geometry with the results of previously published experiments and found that the agreement is better than when using previously developed theories.

  7. Brillouin light scattering detection of ferromagnetic resonance in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, G.; Patton, C.E.; Booth, J.G.

    1988-04-15

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in thin films of permalloy and yttrium iron garnet (YIG) has been studied by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) techniques. The measurements were made at 9.4 GHz on 22.4 to 75-nm-thick permalloy films and on 2.1- to 12.8-..mu..m-thick YIG films. Intensity profiles for magnon scattered light versus in-plane applied field were obtained by analyzing the forward scattered light through the films with a high-contrast Fabry--Perot interferometer. The BLS profiles show a signal-to-noise ratio of 10-100 for the permalloy and 100-1000 for the YIG films, depending on the film thickness and the microwave power level. The FMR BLS response was quantified in terms of global response function, counts/s mW versus magnon occupation number N/sub u/. The N/sub u/ parameter relates the scattering to the uniform mode FMR response (linewidth, field, frequency, etc.), input microwave power, and active sample volume. The response for permalloy was approximately10/sup -8/ counts/s mW magnon, which translates into a limiting sample volume of 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 3/.

  8. Inhomogeneous particle model for light-scattering by cometary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Muinonen, Karri

    2015-12-01

    We introduce an inhomogeneous irregular-particle model for reproducing the typical light-scattering features of cometary dust such as the negative polarization near the backscattering direction, and the weak increase of the backscattering intensity. The model is based on the hierarchical Voronoi-partitioning and the algorithm provides fast generation of irregular particles with a flexible control of inhomogeneity. The input parameters of the model are refractive indices, their volumetric abundances, and the number of constituents on each level. The light-scattering properties of these particles with parameters relevant to cometary dust are solved by the volume-integral-equation method. The light-scattering features of inhomogeneous particles are compared with the mixtures of homogeneous particles, and particles with the refractive index obtained by the effective-medium approximation. We show that with the inhomogeneity size of order 0.2 μm, the different models produce qualitatively similar scattering features while some quantitative differences are observed which have an effect on the retrieved material composition of dust.

  9. Depolarization of light by rough surface of scattering phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2013-02-01

    The growing interest in biomedical optics to the polarimetric methods push researchers to better understand of light depolarization during scattering in and on the surface of biological tissues. Here we study the depolarization of light propagated in silicone phantoms. The phantoms with variety of surface roughness and bulk optical properties are designed to imitate human skin. Free-space speckle patterns in parallel (III) and perpendicular (I⊥) direction in respect to incident polarization are used to get the depolarization ratio of backscattered light DR = (III - I⊥)/( III + I⊥). The Monte Carlo model developed in house is also applied to compare simulated DR with experimentally measured. DR dependence on roughness, concentration and size of scattering particles is analysed. A weak depolarization and negligible response to scattering of the medium are observed for phantoms with smooth surfaces, whereas for the surface roughness in order to the mean free path the depolarization ratio decreases and reveals dependence on the bulk scattering coefficient. In is shown that the surface roughness could be a key factor triggering the ability of tissues' characterization by depolarization ratio.

  10. Modeling light scattering by mineral dust particles using spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merikallio, Sini; Nousiainen, Timo

    Suspended dust particles have a considerable influence on light scattering in both terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and can therefore have a large effect on the interpretation of remote sensing measurements. Assuming dust particles to be spherical is known to produce inaccurate results when modeling optical properties of real mineral dust particles. Yet this approximation is widely used for its simplicity. Here, we simulate light scattering by mineral dust particles using a distribution of model spheroids. This is done by comparing scattering matrices calculated from a dust optical database of Dubovik et al. [2006] with those measured in the laboratory by Volten et al. [2001]. Wavelengths of 441,6 nm and 632,8 nm and refractive indexes of Re = 1.55 -1.7 and Im = 0.001i -0.01i were adopted in this study. Overall, spheroids are found to fit the measurements significantly better than Mie spheres. Further, we confirm that the shape distribution parametrization developed in Nousiainen et al. (2006) significantly improves the accuracy of simulated single-scattering for small mineral dust particles. The spheroid scheme should therefore yield more reliable interpretations of remote sensing data from dusty planetary atmospheres. While the spheroidal scheme is superior to spheres in remote sensing applications, its performance is far from perfect especially for samples with large particles. Thus, additional advances are clearly possible. Further studies of the Martian atmosphere are currently under way. Dubovik et al. (2006) Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonspheric-ity in remote sensing of desert dust, JGR, Vol. 111, D11208 Volten et al. (2001) Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm, JGR, Vol. 106, No. D15, pp. 17375-17401 Nousiainen et al. (2006) Light scattering modeling of small feldspar aerosol particles using polyhedral prisms and spheroids, JQSRT 101, pp. 471-487

  11. Free-form thin lens design with light scattering surfaces for practical LED down light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raychiy J.; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2016-05-01

    The free-form optical quasilens surface technology was utilized to develop and design a solid transparent plastic optical lens for the LED down light with the narrow angular light distribution requirement in the LED lighting applications. In order to successfully complete the mission, the precise mid-field angular distribution model of the LED light source was established and built. And also the optical scattering surface property of the Harvey BSDF scattering model was designed, measured, and established. Then, the optical simulation for the entire optical system was performed to develop and design this solid transparent plastic optical lens system. Finally, the goals of 40 deg angular light distribution pattern defined at full width half maximum with glare reduced in the areas of interest and the optical performance of nearly 82% light energy transmission optics were achieved for the LED down light illumination.

  12. Laser light-scattering diagnostic of blood protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Galina P.; Petrusevich, Yurii M.; Ten, Dmitrii I.; Boiko, A. V.; Fadyukova, Olga E.

    2003-11-01

    Molecular methods of diagnostics of widespread diseases including vascular pathology on the base static and dynamic laser light scattering in serum blood solution are testified. The alterations of molecular parameters of blood serum of animal species (rats) after experimentally induced cerebral ischemia (hypoxia) and haemorrhagic stroke relative to controls were studied. It was obtained that effective mass of scattering particles in blood serum solutions is diminished for haemorrhagic and ischemic rats in comparison to control. The relative protein concentrations in blood serum also change both after false operation and in case of induced ischemia.

  13. Halos and rainbows: The elastic scattering of light exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Satchler, G.R.; Hussein, M.H.

    1993-10-01

    The scattering of an exotic light nucleus with a halo is compared with that of a normal nucleus. Four, sometimes opposing effects arising from the halo are identified. Semiclassical expressions are derived which embody these effects. The cases of {sup 11}Li and {sup 11}C scattering from {sup 12}C at E/A = 60 MeV are compared. We conclude that the {sup 11}Li differential cross sections are probably smaller than those for {sup 11}C, in agreement with recent analyses of the measurements.

  14. Debye series for light scattering by a coated nonspherical particle

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Feng; Lock, James A.

    2010-06-15

    By using the extended boundary condition method, the Debye series is developed for light scattered by a coated nonspherical particle in order to interpret the angular dependence of the scattered intensity in terms of various physical processes. Numerical calculations are performed to study the influence of the coating thickness and the ellipticity of a coated spheroid on the angular position of the {alpha} and {beta} primary rainbows, which are produced by partial waves experiencing one internal reflection. The hyperbolic umbilic focal section is demonstrated and is analyzed for both the {alpha} and the {beta} rainbows.

  15. Debye series for light scattering by a coated nonspherical particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Lock, James A.

    2010-06-01

    By using the extended boundary condition method, the Debye series is developed for light scattered by a coated nonspherical particle in order to interpret the angular dependence of the scattered intensity in terms of various physical processes. Numerical calculations are performed to study the influence of the coating thickness and the ellipticity of a coated spheroid on the angular position of the α and β primary rainbows, which are produced by partial waves experiencing one internal reflection. The hyperbolic umbilic focal section is demonstrated and is analyzed for both the α and the β rainbows.

  16. In situ measurement of inelastic light scattering in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    Variation in the shape of solar absorption (Fraunhofer) lines are used to study the inelastic scattering in natural waters. In addition, oxygen absorption lines near 689nm are used to study the solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The prototype Oceanic Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (OFLD) has been further developed and improved by using a well protected fiber optic - wire conductor cable and underwater electronic housing. A Monte-Carlo code and a simple code have been modified to simulate the Raman scattering, DOM fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence. A series of in situ measurements have been conducted in clear ocean waters in the Florida Straits, in the turbid waters of Florida Bay, and in the vicinity of a coral reef in the Dry Tortugas. By comparing the reduced data with the model simulation results, the Raman scattering coefficient, b r with an excitation wavelength at 488nm, has been verified to be 2.6 × 10-4m-1 (Marshall and Smith, 1990), as opposed to 14.4 × 10- 4m-1 (Slusher and Derr, 1975). The wavelength dependence of b r cannot be accurately determined from the data set as the reported values (λ m-4 to λ m- 5) have an insignificant effect in the natural underwater light field. Generally, in clear water, the percentage of inelastic scattered light in the total light field at /lambda < 510nm is negligible for the whole water column, and this percentage increases with depth at /lambda > 510nm. At low concentrations (a y(/lambda = 380nm) less than 0.1m-1), DOM fluorescence plays a small role in the inelastic light field. However, chlorophyll fluorescence is much stronger than Raman scattering at 685nm. In shallow waters where a sea bottom affects the ambient light field, inelastic light is negligible for the whole visible band. Since Raman scattering is now well characterized, the new OFLD can be used to measure the solar stimulated in situ fluorescence. As a result, the fluorescence signals of various bottom surfaces, from coral to

  17. Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.

    2001-01-01

    A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

  18. Analysis of Thomson scattered light from an arc plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Gregori, G; Kortshagen, U; Heberlein, J; Pfender, E

    2002-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of Thomson scattered light from an arc plasma jet. Our approach goes beyond the standard random-phase approximation (RPA) and provides more consistent data for the electron temperature and density in plasmas that are weakly nonideal and collisional. The theory is based on a memory function formalism for the spectral density function with the use of the three lowest-order frequency-moment sum rules. These moments are then corrected for temperature inhomogeneities in the scattering volume. The proposed interpretation of scattering data is compared with the RPA result and with the standard Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisional model for the dynamic structure factor. It is shown that the obtained electron temperature values are closer but not equal to local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature values extracted from spectroscopic measurements.

  19. Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Gao, Chun-Hong; Cai, Shi-Duan; Jin, Yue; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    A combination of a scattering medium layer and a roughened substrate was proposed to enhance the light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Comparing with a reference OLED without any scattering layer, 65% improvement in the forward emission has been achieved with a scattering layer formed on an intentionally roughened external substrate surface of the OLED by spin-coating a sol-gel fabricated matrix containing well dispersed titania (TiO2) particles. Such a combination method not only demonstrated efficient extraction of the light trapped in the glass substrate but also achieved homogenous emission from the OLED panel. The proposed technique, convenient and inexpensive, is believed to be suitable for the large area OLED production in lighting applications.

  20. Space telescope low scattered light camera - A model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuper, T. G.; Shack, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    A design approach for a camera to be used with the space telescope is given. Camera optics relay the system pupil onto an annular Gaussian ring apodizing mask to control scattered light. One and two dimensional models of ripple on the primary mirror were calculated. Scattered light calculations using ripple amplitudes between wavelength/20 wavelength/200 with spatial correlations of the ripple across the primary mirror between 0.2 and 2.0 centimeters indicate that the detection of an object a billion times fainter than a bright source in the field is possible. Detection of a Jovian type planet in orbit about alpha Centauri with a camera on the space telescope may be possible.

  1. A Possible Application of Coherent Light Scattering on Biological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Dan; Chicea, Liana Maria

    2007-04-01

    Human urine from both healthy patients and patients with different diseases was used as scattering medium in a coherent light scattering experiment. The time variation of the light intensity in the far field speckle image was acquired using a data acquisition system on a PC and a time series resulted for each sample. The autocorrelation function for each sample was calculated and the autocorrelation time was determined. The same samples were analyzed in a medical laboratory using the standard procedure. We found so far that the autocorrelation time is differently modified by the presence of pus, albumin, urobilin and sediments. The results suggest a fast procedure that can be used as laboratory test to detect the presence not of each individual component in suspensions but of big conglomerates as albumin, cylinders, oxalate crystals.

  2. Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Kiefer, Dale A.

    Recent enumeration and identification of marine particles that are less than 2μm in diameter, suggests that they may be the major source of light scattering in the open ocean. The living components of these small particles include viruses, heterotrophic and photoautotrophic bacteria and the smallest eucaryotic cells. In order to examine the relative contribution by these (and other) microorganisms to scattering, we have calculated a budget for both the total scattering and backscattering coefficients (at 550nm) of suspended particles. This budget is determined by calculating the product of the numerical concentration of particles of a given category and the scattering cross-section of that category. Values for this product are then compared to values for the particulate scattering coefficients predicted by the models of GORDON and MOREL (1983) and MOREL (1988). In order to make such a comparison, we have estimated both the total scattering and backscattering cross-section of various microbial components that include viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, prochlorophytes, cyanobacteria, ultrananoplankton (2-8μm), larger nanoplankton (8-20μm) and microplankton (>20 μm). Such determinations are based upon Mie scattering calculations and measurements of the cell size distribution and the absorption and scattering coefficients of microbial cultures. In addition, we have gathered published information on the numerical concentration of living and detrial marine particles in the size range from 0.03 to 100μm. The results of such a study are summarized as follows. The size distribution of microorganisms in the ocean roughly obeys an inverse 4th power law over three orders of magnitude in cell diameter, from 0.2 to 100μm. Thus, the size distribution of living organisms is similar to that for total particulate matter as determined by electronic particle counters. For representative values of refractive index, it appears that most of the scattering in the sea comes from

  3. Light scattering studies of an electrorheological fluid in oscillatory shear

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1995-12-31

    We have conducted a real time, two-dimensional light scattering study of the nonlinear dynamics of field-induced structures in an electrorheological fluid subjected to oscillatory shear. We have developed a kinetic chain model of the observed dynamics by considering the response of a fragmenting/aggregating particle chain to the prevailing hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces. This structural theory is then used to describe the nonlinear rheology of ER fluids.

  4. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  5. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is providing and coordinating the technology for placing a compact Laser Light Scattering (LLS) instrument in a microgravity environment. This will be accomplished by defining and assessing user requirements for microgravity experiments, coordinating needed technological developments, and filling technical gaps. This effort is striving to brassboard and evaluate a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument. The progress of the program is reported.

  6. Light source for narrow and broadband coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Maximilian; Dobner, Sven; Fallnich, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    We present a light source that is well adapted to both narrow- and broadband coherent Raman scattering (CRS) methods. Based on a single oscillator, the light source delivers synchronized broadband pulses via supercontinuum generation and narrowband, frequency-tunable pulses via four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber. Seeding the four-wave mixing with a spectrally filtered part of the supercontinuum yields high-pulse energies up to 8 nJ and the possibility of scanning a bandwidth of 2000  cm(-1) in 25 ms. All pulses are emitted with a repetition frequency of 1 MHz, which ensures efficient generation of CRS signals while avoiding significant damage of the samples. Consequently, the light source combines the performance of individual narrow- and broadband CRS light sources in one setup, thus enabling hyperspectral imaging and rapid single-resonance imaging in parallel. PMID:26625022

  7. Photovoltaic structures having a light scattering interface layer and methods of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiangxin; Compaan, Alvin D.; Paudel, Naba Raj

    2015-10-13

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell structures having an integral light scattering interface layer configured to diffuse or scatter light prior to entering a semiconductor material and methods of making the same are described.

  8. Advanced Compton scattering light source R&D at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Gibson, D J; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M; Shverdin, M Y; Wu, S; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-02-16

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV {gamma}-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented. At MeV photon energies relevant for nuclear processes, Compton scattering light sources are attractive because of their relative compactness and improved brightness above 100 keV, compared to typical 4th generation synchrotrons. Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A new precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. Based on the success of the previous Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays (T-REX) Compton scattering source at LLNL, the source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. After a brief presentation of successful nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments done with T-REX, the new source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  9. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Rothberg, Lewis

    2012-11-30

    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, “the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels”. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  10. Light Scattering and Absorption Studies of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    1997-11-01

    The use of physical techniques has been very important in understanding the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. In particular, light scattering and absorption studies have been used to measure the kinetics of sickle cell hemoglobin polymerization and depolymerization (melting). The theory of sickle cell polymerization that has been derived and tested by these methods has not only led to an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease but has also led to improved treatment strategies. Sickle cell disease effects about 1 out of 600 people of African descent born in the United States. The disease is caused by a mutant form of hemoglobin (the oxygen transporting molecule in the blood), hemoglobin S (HbS), which differs from normal adult hemoglobin by the substitution of a single amino acid for another. The polymerization of HbS, which occurs under conditions of low oxygen pressure, causes distortion and increased rigidity of the sickle red blood cell that leads to blockage of the capillaries and a host of resulting complications. The disease is associated with tissue damage, severe painful crises and a high degree of mortality. Light scattering studies of purified HbS and whole cells (conducted by F.A. Ferrone, J. Hofrichter, W.A. Eaton, and their associates) have been used to determine the mechanism of HbS polymerization. Polymerization will generally not occur when the hemoglobin is in an oxygen-rich environment. The question is, when HbS is rapidly deoxygenated (as it is when going from the lungs to the tissues) what is the kinetics of polymerization? Photolysis methods were used to rapidly deoxygenate HbS and light scattering was used as a function of time to measure the kinetics of polymerization. Polarized light scattering may be a more effective way to measure polymer content than total intensity light scattering. It was found that no polymerization occurs during a period of time called the delay time and subsequent polymerization occurs

  11. Founding fathers of light scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kerker, M

    1991-11-20

    One can view our comprehension of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, particularly that by colloidal dispersions of metal sols, as the merging of two traditions in light-scattering theory and practice. One of these originated with Michael Faraday's work on brilliantly colored metal sols, which was taken up by Richard Zsigmondy and then by Gustav Mie, who accounted for the colors by electromagnetic-scattering theory. The other tradition starts with John Tyndall's work with aerosols, which stimulated Lord Rayleigh's entry into the field. Lord Rayleigh was perplexed by observations made with sulfur hydrosols, which in turn were explored by C. V. Raman. Raman's extensive work in light scattering led to his subsequent discovery of the Raman effect. These two traditions were then intertwined when it was shown that the same physical effect that caused Faraday's sols to exhibit their brilliant colors was also the origin of the enhancement of Raman signals from molecules adsorbed on the metal particles that compose these sols.

  12. Scattered light corrections to Sun photometry: analytical results for single and multiple scattering regimes.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2007-04-01

    Analytical equations for the diffused scattered light correction factor of Sun photometers are derived and analyzed. It is shown that corrections are weakly dependent on the atmospheric optical thickness. They are influenced mostly by the size of aerosol particles encountered by sunlight on its way to a Sun photometer. In addition, the accuracy of the small-angle approximation used in the work is studied with numerical calculations based on the exact radiative transfer equation.

  13. Investigating nanoparticle aggregation dynamics in an aqueous magnetic fluid by light scattering anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Dan

    2010-05-01

    Light scattering on particles having the diameter comparable with the wavelength is accurately described by the Mie theory and the light scattering anisotropy can conveniently be described by the one parameter Henyey Greenstein phase function. An aqueous suspension containing magnetite nanoparticles was the target of a coherent light scattering experiment. By fitting the scattering phase function on the experimental data the scattering anisotropy parameter can be assessed. As the scattering parameter strongly depends of the scatterer size, the average particle diameter was thus estimated and particle aggregates presence was probed. This technique was used to investigate the nanoparticle aggregation dynamics and the results are presented in this work.

  14. Studies of toxic aerosols via elastic and inelastic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, W.; Li, W.; Allen, T.M.; Blair, D.S.; Davis, E.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Evaporation rates and chemical characteristics of potentially toxic aerosols have been determined by elastic and inelastic light-scattering measurements. The aerosol systems examined were a commercial catalyst consisting of a mixture of stannous octanoate (SNO) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) and droplets emitted from open tanks of chromic acid solutions used for anodizing aluminum. The heavy metals contained in these aerosols represent a danger to the workplace if such materials are inhaled. Nanogram amounts of the solutions were studied by suspending single microdroplets in electrodynamic balances in a flow of air to measure evaporation rates and to obtain Raman spectra. Elastic scattering data include phase functions and morphological resonance spectra from which droplet sizes are determined. The inelastic light-scattering data or Raman spectra provide molecular vibrational bond information. It was found that EHA spectra agree with bulk data in the literature, and that SNO Raman spectra, which are not available in the literature, are consistent with infrared spectra for bulk SNO. At room temperature the vapor pressure of SNO is on the order of 0.01 Pa while that of EHA is on the order of 0.1 Pa. Raman data for the residue of evaporated chromic acid solutions show the presence of chromium oxides (Cr[sup 6+] compounds), surfactants, and bound (nonvolatile) water. 31 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Overview of single-cell elastic light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Matti; Karmenyan, Artashes

    2015-05-01

    We present and discuss several modern optical methods based on elastic light scattering (ELS), along with their technical features and applications in biomedicine and life sciences. In particular, we review some ELS experiments at the single-cell level and explore new directions of applications. Due to recent developments in experimental systems (as shown in the literature), ELS lends itself to useful applications in the life sciences. Of the developed methods, we cover elastic scattering spectroscopy, optical tweezer-assisted measurement, goniometers, Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS), and microscopic methods. FTLS significantly extends the potential analysis of single cells by allowing monitoring of dynamical changes at the single-cell level. The main aim of our review is to demonstrate developments in the experimental investigation of ELS in single cells including issues related to theoretical “representations” and modeling of biological systems (cells, cellular systems, tissues, and so on). Goniometric measurements of ELS from optically trapped single cells are shown and the importance of the experimental verification of theoretical models of ELS in the context of biomedical applications is discussed.

  16. Light scattering at oblique incidence on two coaxial cylinders.

    PubMed

    Yousif, H A; Mattis, R E; Kozminski, K

    1994-06-20

    A solution for the problem of a plane wave at oblique incidence on two coaxial cylinders is presented. The solution of the wave equation is determined for various geometric regions, and boundary conditions are applied at the material interfaces. The resulting solution consists of a system of eight equations in eight unknown coefficients. Expressions for two of the Mueller-scattering matrix elements (S(11) and S(12)) and the extinction, scattering, and backscattering cross sections are derived. A numerical algorithm for the solution is developed and implemented. The algorithm is tested for several limiting cases: homogeneous, hollow, and metal-core cylinders at various angles of incidence for TM and TE waves. Comparisons of the results of the algorithm with the results of studies reported in the literature are made. The comparisons are favorable, achieving good agreement with published work. For two coaxial cylinders, the numerical calculations show that if one is to use light scattering as a diagnostic tool, both of the Mueller-scattering matrix elements S(11) and S(12) must be measured simultaneously. In addition, the backscattering cross section is very sensitive for monitoring change in the radii of the cylinders.

  17. CIRCULAR INTENSITY DIFFERENTIAL SCATTERING OF LIGHT BY HELICAL STRUCTURES. III. A GENERAL POLARIZABILITY TENSOR AND ANOMALOUS SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, Carlos; Maestre, Marcos F.; Tinoco, Jr., Ignacio

    1980-11-01

    Numerical calculations of the circular intensity differential scattering of light by oriented helical structures made of units with general polarizability tensors are presented. The effects on the scattering patterns of both absorptive and dispersive properties of the units are illustrated. The differential scattering and the total scattering both show anomalous scattering phenomena; the differential scattering pattern is asymmetric when the wavelength of incident light is within an absorption band. Equations for bi-axial polarizabilities are used to derive the symmetry properties of the differential scattering pattern and to show how this symmetry can be used to determine the right- or left-handed sense of the helical structure. The wavelength dependence of the scattering pattern is obtained for a Lorentzian polarizability.

  18. Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongkeun; Diez-Silva, Monica; Fu, Dan; Popescu, Gabriel; Choi, Wonshik; Barman, Ishan; Suresh, Subra; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-03-01

    We present the light scattering of individual Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized human red blood cells (Pf-RBCs), and demonstrate progressive alterations to the scattering signal arising from the development of malaria-inducing parasites. By selectively imaging the electric fields using quantitative phase microscopy and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, we calculate the light scattering maps of individual Pf-RBCs. We show that the onset and progression of pathological states of the Pf-RBCs can be clearly identified by the static scattering maps. Progressive changes to the biophysical properties of the Pf-RBC membrane are captured from dynamic light scattering.

  19. Stray-light suppression with high-collection efficiency in laser light-scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deilamian, K.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Kelleher, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An optical system is described for collecting a large fraction of fluorescent light emitted isotropically from a cylindrical interaction region. While maintaining an overall detection efficiency of 9 percent, the system rejects, by more than 12 orders of magnitude, incident laser light along a single axis that intersects the interaction region. Such a system is useful for a wide variety of light-scattering experiments in which high-collection efficiency is desirable, but in which light from an incident laser beam must be rejected without resorting to spectral filters.

  20. Spectroscopy of diffuse light in dust clouds. Scattered light and the solar neighbourhood radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, K.; Mattila, K.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The optical surface brightness of dark nebulae is mainly due to scattering of integrated starlight by classical dust grains. It contains information on the impinging interstellar radiation field, cloud structure, and grain scattering properties. We have obtained spectra of the scattered light from 3500 to 9000 Å in two globules, the Thumbprint Nebula and DC 303.8-14.2. Aims. We use observations of the scattered light to study the impinging integrated starlight spectrum as well as the scattered Hα and other line emissions from all over the sky. We search also for the presence of other than scattered light in the two globules. Methods. We obtained long-slit spectra encompassing the whole globule plus adjacent sky in a one-slit setting, thus enabling efficient elimination of airglow and other foreground sky components. We calculated synthetic integrated starlight spectra for the solar neighbourhood using HIPPARCOS-based stellar distributions and the spectral library of Pickles. Results. Spectra are presented separately for the bright rims and dark cores of the globules. The continuum spectral energy distributions and absorption line spectra can be well modelled with the synthetic integrated starlight spectra. Emission lines of Hα +[N II], Hβ, and [S II] are detected and are interpreted in terms of scattered light plus an in situ warm ionized medium component behind the globules. We detected an excess of emission over the wavelength range 5200-8000 Å in DC 303.8-14.2 but the nature of this emission remains open. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme ESO No. 073.C-0239(A). Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org.

  1. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit. PMID:27152337

  2. Light dark matter scattering in outer neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermeño, Marina; Pérez-García, M. Ángeles; Silk, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We calculate for the first time the phonon excitation rate in the outer crust of a neutron star due to scattering from light dark matter (LDM) particles gravitationally boosted into the star. We consider dark matter particles in the sub-GeV mass range scattering off a periodic array of nuclei through an effective scalar-vector interaction with nucleons. We find that LDM effects cause a modification of the net number of phonons in the lattice as compared to the standard thermal result. In addition, we estimate the contribution of LDM to the ion-ion thermal conductivity in the outer crust and find that it can be significantly enhanced at large densities. Our results imply that for magnetized neutron stars the LDM-enhanced global conductivity in the outer crust will tend to reduce the anisotropic heat conduction between perpendicular and parallel directions to the magnetic field.

  3. An introduction to dynamic light scattering of macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, K.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques provide information about size, shape, and flexibility of particles as well as offering insight concerning the nature of the interactions between particles and their environments. This book offers a study of DLS by macromolecular and polyelectrolyte solutions. With an emphasis on the interpretation of DLS data, the material is organized according to the increasing complexity of the system, ranging from dilute solutions of noninteracting small particles to the more complex multicomponent systems of strongly interacting large particles. Because the dynamics of these systems can be complex, various methods used to analyze correlation functions of multidecay processes are discussed. Also covered are complementary techniques that assist in the interpretation of DLS data - such as neutron scattering and spin echo.

  4. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit.

  5. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Anthony J.; Lee, James P.; Ellis, David J. P.; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F.; Griffths, Jonathan P.; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Shields, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit. PMID:27152337

  6. A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keunsoo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Park, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Jonghee; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Cho, Doo-Hee; Lim, Jong Tae; Oh, Min-Cheol; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Moon, Jaehyun

    2016-07-13

    We propose and fabricate a random light scattering layer for light extraction in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with silver nanodots, which were obtained by melting silver nanowires. The OLED with the light scattering layer as an internal light extraction structure was enhanced by 49.1% for the integrated external quantum efficiency (EQE). When a wrinkle structure is simultaneously used for an external light extraction structure, the total enhancement of the integrated EQE was 65.3%. The EQE is maximized to 65.3% at a current level of 2.0 mA/cm(2). By applying an internal light scattering layer and wrinkle structure to an OLED, the variance in the emission spectra was negligible over a broad viewing angle. Power mode analyses with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations revealed that the use of a scattering layer effectively reduced the waveguiding mode while introducing non-negligible absorption. Our method offers an effective yet simple approach to achieve both efficiency enhancement and spectral stability for a wide range of OLED applications.

  7. Coherence of light scattered from a randomly rough surface.

    PubMed

    Leskova, T A; Maradudin, A A; Munõz-Lopez, J

    2005-03-01

    We study the coherence of p-polarized light scattered from a one-dimensional weakly rough random metal surface in contact with vacuum. The mutual coherence function of the single nonzero component of the scattered magnetic field is calculated in planes parallel to, and at increasing distances from, the mean scattering surface in the vacuum region. It is found to be the sum of a contribution that is independent of the distance from the mean surface and a contribution that is a function of this distance and decays to zero over a distance of the order of the wavelength of the incident light. It is also shown that the spatial coherence of the electromagnetic field in the far field in a plane at a fixed distance from the mean surface, as a function of the relative distance along it, mimics the surface height autocorrelation function at short relative distances and oscillates with two periods, T(1) = lambda and T(2) = lambda/sin theta(0), where theta(0) is the angle of incidence. The former is due to the excitation of lateral waves, while the latter is due to the coherent interference of the multiple scattering processes that lead to the enhanced backscattering effect. In the near field the spatial coherence of the electromagnetic field measured at a fixed distance from the mean surface displays oscillations that are due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. The period of these oscillations equals the wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons, while the exponential decay of their amplitude is determined by the energy mean free path of the surface plasmon polaritons.

  8. Dynamic light scattering in veterinary medicine: refinement of diagnostic criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Stephen; Zietz, Stanley; Gabriel, Karl L.; Gabriel, David; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2001-05-01

    In dynamic light scattering (DLS), the structure or material of interest, suspended in a fluid, is illuminated by a beam of laser light and the scattered light is interpreted in terms of diffusion coefficient, particle size or its distribution. DLS has shown clear promise as a non-invasive, objective and precise diagnostic modality for investigation of lens opacity (cataract) and other medical and toxicological problems. The clinical potential of LDS has been demonstrated in several species both in vivo and in vitro. In many clinical cases, discernment between normal and diseased patients is possible by simple inspection of the particle size distribution. However a more rigorous and sensitive classification scheme is needed, particularly for evaluation of therapy and estimation of tissue injury. The data supplied by DLS investigation is inherently multivariate and its most efficient interpretation requires a multivariate approach which includes the variability among specimens as well as any correlation among the variables (e.g. across the particle size distribution). We present a brief review of DLS methodology, illustrative data and our efforts toward a diagnostic classification scheme. In particular we will describe application of the Mahalanobis distance and related statistical methods to DLS data.

  9. Ultrafast image-based dynamic light scattering for nanoparticle sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wu; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cai, Xiaoshu

    2015-11-01

    An ultrafast sizing method for nanoparticles is proposed, called as UIDLS (Ultrafast Image-based Dynamic Light Scattering). This method makes use of the intensity fluctuation of scattered light from nanoparticles in Brownian motion, which is similar to the conventional DLS method. The difference in the experimental system is that the scattered light by nanoparticles is received by an image sensor instead of a photomultiplier tube. A novel data processing algorithm is proposed to directly get correlation coefficient between two images at a certain time interval (from microseconds to milliseconds) by employing a two-dimensional image correlation algorithm. This coefficient has been proved to be a monotonic function of the particle diameter. Samples of standard latex particles (79/100/352/482/948 nm) were measured for validation of the proposed method. The measurement accuracy of higher than 90% was found with standard deviations less than 3%. A sample of nanosilver particle with nominal size of 20 ± 2 nm and a sample of polymethyl methacrylate emulsion with unknown size were also tested using UIDLS method. The measured results were 23.2 ± 3.0 nm and 246.1 ± 6.3 nm, respectively, which is substantially consistent with the transmission electron microscope results. Since the time for acquisition of two successive images has been reduced to less than 1 ms and the data processing time in about 10 ms, the total measuring time can be dramatically reduced from hundreds seconds to tens of milliseconds, which provides the potential for real-time and in situ nanoparticle sizing.

  10. Ultrafast image-based dynamic light scattering for nanoparticle sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wu; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cai, Xiaoshu

    2015-11-15

    An ultrafast sizing method for nanoparticles is proposed, called as UIDLS (Ultrafast Image-based Dynamic Light Scattering). This method makes use of the intensity fluctuation of scattered light from nanoparticles in Brownian motion, which is similar to the conventional DLS method. The difference in the experimental system is that the scattered light by nanoparticles is received by an image sensor instead of a photomultiplier tube. A novel data processing algorithm is proposed to directly get correlation coefficient between two images at a certain time interval (from microseconds to milliseconds) by employing a two-dimensional image correlation algorithm. This coefficient has been proved to be a monotonic function of the particle diameter. Samples of standard latex particles (79/100/352/482/948 nm) were measured for validation of the proposed method. The measurement accuracy of higher than 90% was found with standard deviations less than 3%. A sample of nanosilver particle with nominal size of 20 ± 2 nm and a sample of polymethyl methacrylate emulsion with unknown size were also tested using UIDLS method. The measured results were 23.2 ± 3.0 nm and 246.1 ± 6.3 nm, respectively, which is substantially consistent with the transmission electron microscope results. Since the time for acquisition of two successive images has been reduced to less than 1 ms and the data processing time in about 10 ms, the total measuring time can be dramatically reduced from hundreds seconds to tens of milliseconds, which provides the potential for real-time and in situ nanoparticle sizing.

  11. Ultrafast image-based dynamic light scattering for nanoparticle sizing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cai, Xiaoshu

    2015-11-01

    An ultrafast sizing method for nanoparticles is proposed, called as UIDLS (Ultrafast Image-based Dynamic Light Scattering). This method makes use of the intensity fluctuation of scattered light from nanoparticles in Brownian motion, which is similar to the conventional DLS method. The difference in the experimental system is that the scattered light by nanoparticles is received by an image sensor instead of a photomultiplier tube. A novel data processing algorithm is proposed to directly get correlation coefficient between two images at a certain time interval (from microseconds to milliseconds) by employing a two-dimensional image correlation algorithm. This coefficient has been proved to be a monotonic function of the particle diameter. Samples of standard latex particles (79/100/352/482/948 nm) were measured for validation of the proposed method. The measurement accuracy of higher than 90% was found with standard deviations less than 3%. A sample of nanosilver particle with nominal size of 20 ± 2 nm and a sample of polymethyl methacrylate emulsion with unknown size were also tested using UIDLS method. The measured results were 23.2 ± 3.0 nm and 246.1 ± 6.3 nm, respectively, which is substantially consistent with the transmission electron microscope results. Since the time for acquisition of two successive images has been reduced to less than 1 ms and the data processing time in about 10 ms, the total measuring time can be dramatically reduced from hundreds seconds to tens of milliseconds, which provides the potential for real-time and in situ nanoparticle sizing. PMID:26628172

  12. Changes in hemodynamics and light scattering during cortical spreading depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been known to play an important role in the mechanism of migraine, stroke and brain injure. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals has been shown a powerful method for characterizing the spatial and temporal pattern of the propagation of CSD. However, the possible physiological mechanisms underlying the intrinsic optical signal (IOS) during CSD still remain incompletely understood. In this study, a spectroscopic recording of the change in optical intrinsic signal during CSD was performed and an analysis method based on the modified Beer-Lambert law was used to estimate the changes in the concentration of HbO2 and Hb, and changes in light scattering from the spectra data. The CSD were induced by pinprick in 10 α-chloralose/urethane anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. In all experiments, four-phasic changes in optical reflectance were observed at 450 nm ~ 570 nm, and triphasic changes in optical reflectance were observed in the range of 570 nm ~750 nm. But at 750 nm ~ 850 nm, only biphasic changes of optical signal were detected. Converting the spectra data to the changes in light scattering and concentration of Hb and HbO2, we found that the CSD induced an initial increase in concentration of HbO2 (amplitude: 9.0+/-3.7%), which was 26.2+/-18.6 s earlier than the onset of increase of Hb concentration. Furthermore, the concentration of HbO2 showed a four-phasic change, whereas the concentration of Hb only showed a biphasic change. For the changes in light scattering during CSD, a triphasic change was observed.

  13. Light-induced scattering in laser radiation nonlinear optical limiting based on fullerene-containing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousova, Inna M.; Grigor'ev, Vladimir A.; Danilov, Oleg B.; Kalintsev, Alexander G.; Kris'ko, A. V.; Mironova, N. G.; Yur'ev, Michail S.

    2001-03-01

    The contribution of light induced scattering to nonlinear optical limiting is theoretically and experimentally investigated. It is shown that light induced scattering is caused by fine-scale (1 divided by 10 micrometer) inhomogeneities formation, very low (comparable to spontaneous noise) laser beam inhomogeneities can evolve into light induced scattering. The numerical modeling of scattered radiation angular distribution and laser radiation attenuation in optical limiters was performed. The modeling results were compared with the experimental ones.

  14. Multiple scattering of light in three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Alexandra; Wiersma, Diederik S; Wegener, Martin; von Freymann, Georg

    2009-02-01

    Recent experiments on three-dimensional icosahedral dielectric photonic quasicrystals have shown several unexpected features: transmitted femtosecond pulses developed a trailing "diffusive" exponential tail and the sum of (zeroth-order) transmittance and reflectance was well below unity. These experimental findings have previously been ascribed to sample imperfections. Here, we analyze these findings by using 3D periodic approximants of the ideal photonic quasicrystals. We show that the experimental observations can be explained in terms of multiple scattering of light within these structures, i.e., in terms of intrinsic rather than purely extrinsic quasicrystal properties.

  15. Polarized light scattering technique for morphological characterization of waterborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Venkat V.; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar

    2009-05-01

    We have recently developed an elliptically polarized light scattering (EPLS) technique to characterize the morphology of fine particles suspended in an optically non-absorbing medium such as water. This technique provides the size distribution, shape and agglomeration characteristics of suspended particles. This technique can be used to detect various types of biological pathogens such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses in potable water systems. Here we report results obtained from EPLS measurements on two strains of Bacillus spores suspended in water along with comparison with electron microscopy.

  16. Detecting apoptosis using dynamic light scattering with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yang, Victor X. D.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-07-01

    A dynamic light scattering technique is implemented using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the change in intracellular motion as cells undergo apoptosis. Acute myeloid leukemia cells were treated with cisplatin and imaged at a frame rate of 166 Hz using a 1300 nm swept-source OCT system at various times over a period of 48 h. Time correlation analysis of the speckle intensities indicated a significant increase in intracellular motion 24 h after treatment. This rise in intracellular motion correlated with histological findings of irregularly shaped and fragmented cells indicative of cell membrane blebbing and fragmentation.

  17. Peregrinations through topics in light scattering and radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattawar, George W.

    2016-07-01

    In this van de Hulst essay, I have taken the liberty to present a journey through some topics in light scattering and radiative transfer which I feel were major contributions to the field but the number of topics I would like to cover is far more numerous than I have the time or the space to present. I also wanted to share with the reader some heartwarming memories I have of my wonderful friend and truly distinguished colleague Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (affectionately known to his colleagues as "Henk") whom I consider to be one of the preeminent scientists of his era.

  18. Peculiarities of excitation of surface plasmons upon noncollinear light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Anatolii V; Korneev, A A; Mukina, L S; Nazarov, Maksim M; Prudnikov, I R; Shkurinov, A P

    2005-01-31

    The efficiency of excitation of surface plasmons upon noncollinear light scattering from a metal diffraction grating is studied. It is shown that this efficiency strongly depends on the grating profile and the azimuthal angle of rotation. The relation between the spatial configuration of the electromagnetic field near the grating-vacuum interface and the possibility of excitation of plasmons is found. Taking into account different conditions for plasmon excitation, the peculiarities of experimental angular dependences of specular reflection are explained. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  19. POLARIZED LIGHT REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED BY THICK RAYLEIGH SCATTERING ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Natraj, Vijay; Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-03-20

    Accurate values for the intensity and polarization of light reflected and transmitted by optically thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres with a Lambert surface underneath are presented. A recently reported new method for solving integral equations describing Chandrasekhar's X- and Y-functions is used. The results have been validated using various tests and techniques, including the doubling-adding method, and are accurate to within one unit in the eighth decimal place. Tables are stored electronically and expected to be useful as benchmark results for the (exo)planetary science and astrophysics communities. Asymptotic expressions to obtain Stokes parameters for a thick layer from those of a semi-infinite atmosphere are also provided.

  20. Hydration properties of small hydrophobic molecules by Brillouin light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comez, L.; Lupi, L.; Paolantoni, M.; Picchiò, F.; Fioretto, D.

    2012-09-01

    We study the relaxation of water molecules next to hydrophobic solutes with different functional groups by Brillouin light scattering. Evidence is given for (i) water activation energy in trimethylamine-N-oxide, proline and t-butyl alcohol diluted solutions which is comparable to that of neat water, almost independent from solute mole fraction and (ii) moderate slowdown of relaxation time of proximal water compared to the bulk, which is consistent with excluded volume models. Assuming that the main contribution to viscosity comes from bulk and hydration water, a rationale is given of the phenomenological Arrhenius' laws for the viscosity of diluted aqueous solutions.

  1. HD100546 multi-epoch scattered light observations

    SciTech Connect

    Avenhaus, Henning; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Brittain, Sean D.; Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2014-07-20

    We present H, K{sub s}, and L' filter polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) data for the transitional disk around HD100546 obtained in 2013, together with an improved re-reduction of previously published 2006 data. We reveal the disk in polarized scattered light in all three filters, achieving an inner working angle of ∼0.''1. Additional, short-exposure observations in the H and K{sub s} filters probe the surroundings of the star down to ∼0.''03 (∼3 AU). HD100546 is fascinating because of its variety of sub-structures possibly related to forming planets in the disk, and PDI is currently the best technique for imaging them in the near-IR. For the first time ever, we detect a disk in L-band PDI data, and we constrain the outer radius of the inner hole to 14 ± 2 AU and its eccentricity to <0.133. A dark lane is detected between ∼0.''2-0.''6 AU in the front side of the disk, which is likely an effect of the scattering angle and the scattering function of the grains. We find a spiral arm in the northeast that has no obvious connection to spiral arms seen before by other authors further out in the disk, but winds are in the same direction (clockwise). The two bright scattering peaks along the semi-major axis are asymmetric, with the southeastern one being significantly brighter. This could be related to the inner companion candidate that is close to the brighter side of the disk at the time of the observations. The scattering color is close to gray between the H and K{sub s} filters ([H]–[K{sub s}] = 0.19 ± 0.11), but the scattering in the L' filter is significantly weaker ([H]–[L'] = –1.08 ± 0.35, [K{sub s}]–[L'] = –1.27 ± 0.35). We measure the position angle of the disk to be 138° ± 3°, consistent with previous observations, and we derive the dust scattering function in the H and K{sub s} filters between ∼35° and ∼130° at two different radii (30-50 and 80-110 AU) and show that our results are consistent with a disk that is more strongly

  2. Coherence effects in scattering order expansion of light by atomic clouds.

    PubMed

    Rouabah, Mohamed-Taha; Samoylova, Marina; Bachelard, Romain; Courteille, Philippe W; Kaiser, Robin; Piovella, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    We interpret cooperative scattering by a collection of cold atoms as a multiple-scattering process. Starting from microscopic equations describing the response of N atoms to a probe light beam, we represent the total scattered field as an infinite series of multiple-scattering events. As an application of the method, we obtain analytical expressions of the coherent intensity in the double-scattering approximation for Gaussian density profiles. In particular, we quantify the contributions of coherent backward and forward scattering.

  3. Light-Wave Mixing and Scattering with Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Zhu, Chengjie; Hagley, E. W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a semiclassical theoretical framework on light-wave mixing and scattering with single-component quantum gases. We show that these optical processes originating from elementary excitations with dominant collective atomic recoil motion are stimulated Raman or hyper-Raman in nature. In the forward direction the wave-mixing process, which is the most efficient process in normal gases, is strongly reduced by the condensate structure factor even though the Bogoliubov dispersion relation automatically compensates the optical-wave phase mismatch. In the backward direction, however, the free-particle-like condensate structure factor and Bogoliubov dispersion result in highly efficient light-wave mixing and collective atomic recoil motion that are enhanced by a stimulated hyper-Raman gain and a very narrow two-photon motional state resonance.

  4. Study of Scattered Light from Known Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, a group of edge on debris disks, surrounding main-sequence shell stars have been discovered in the infrared. These disks are of high interest because they not only have dust, but an observed amount of circumstellar gas. HD158352 was an ideal target to try and image the disk because it was one of the closest stars in this group. Using the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), we attempted to take a direct image of the light scattered from the known disk in a broad optical bandpass. Studying these particular type of disks in high detail will allow us to learn more about gas-dust interactions. In particular, this will allow us to learn how the circumstellar gas evolves during the planet-forming phase. Even though it was predicted that the disk should have a magnitude of 20.5 at 3", no disk was seen in any of the optical images. This suggests that the parameters used to predict the brightness of the disk are not what we first anticipated and adjustments to the model must be performed. We also present the blue visible light spectrum of the scattered light from the debris disk surrounding Beta Pictoris. We are analyzing archival observations taken by Heap, using Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument. A long slit with a bar was used to occult Beta Pictoris as well as the PSF star. This was done because it is necessary to subtract a PSF observed the same way at the target to detect the disk. It appears that we have detected light from the disk but the work was in progress at the time of the abstract deadline.

  5. Observations Of Scattered Light From Cometary Dust And Their Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jockers, Klaus

    1997-09-01

    This review begins with a discussion of the techniques needed for observations of scattered light from cometary dust. After an introduction into the basic concepts of the scattering process, observations of the phase curves of brightness, colour and polarization are covered. Images of colour and polarization are presented and the observed relation of colour and polarization in jets and shells is discussed. The interpretation of the measurements is based on the power law size distributions of dust grains observed from space. The power index must lie between 2 and 4 to provide the mass budget and visibility of the dust coma in accordance with the basic facts of cometary physics. Application of mechanical (radiation pressure) theory to cometary images allows us to derive related power law distributions for comets not explored by spacecraft. Grain scattering models are presented and compared with observations. A prediction is made of the spatial distribution of Stokes parameters U and V in the presence of aligned particles. Up to now such patterns have not been observed. Future work should include the exploration of comets at small and possibly very small phase angles and a detailed comparison of polarization and colour images of comets with thermal images and with models based on mechanical theory.

  6. Determining Equilibrium Lamellar Thickness by Small Angle Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Akpalu, Yvonne

    2002-03-01

    The crystallization and melting behavior of homogeneous copolymers of ethylene with butene and hexene is studied by small angle light scattering (SALS). We show that the final melting temperature (T_m^f), which corresponds to equilibrium between a melt with an overall ethylene sequence concentration (equal to the mole fraction of crystallizable units) and the thickest lamellar crystals can be determined from the SALS melting measurements. The T_m^f values, determined from the temperature at which the SALS HV or VV invariant vanishes during the melting, are substantially higher (7 to 10 °C) than those obtained from small angle x-ray (SAXS), wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thus our measurements indicate that SAXS, WAXS and DSC underestimate the lamellar thickness (l_f) of the largest crystals, a parameter necessary for estimating thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for ethylene copolymers. We also investigate T_m^f as a function of crystallization time (ranging from 1 hr to 72 hr) and heating rate. We discuss the implications of our SALS approach for estimating T_m^f, lf and lamellar morphological parameters from x-ray scattering.

  7. Imaging beyond the ballistic limit in coherence imaging using multiply scattered light.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Michael G; Wax, Adam

    2011-02-28

    We present an imaging system based on low coherence interferometric detection of multiply scattered light for extended depth imaging into highly scattering media. By incorporating angle-resolved detection, coherence imaging with multiply scattered photons is shown to be both feasible and potentially superior to existing techniques for performing time-resolved measurements of scattered light. Imaging is demonstrated through nearly 100 mean free paths of scattering phantom in a single-ended geometry. The resolution and imaging contrast are compared to those obtained with conventional OCT systems which chiefly detect singly scattered light. PMID:21369257

  8. Dust Evolution Can Produce Scattered Light Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Andrews, Sean M.; Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel

    2015-11-01

    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular “gaps.” The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed “gap” features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the fragmentation threshold velocity, the strength of the turbulence, and the age of the disk, and should be generic (at some radius) for typically adopted disk parameters. The same physical processes can affect the thermal emission at optically thin wavelengths (˜1 mm), although the behavior can be more complex; unlike for disk-planet interactions, a “gap” should not be present at these longer wavelengths.

  9. DUST EVOLUTION CAN PRODUCE SCATTERED LIGHT GAPS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Andrews, Sean M.; Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: mkama@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2015-11-01

    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular “gaps.” The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed “gap” features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the fragmentation threshold velocity, the strength of the turbulence, and the age of the disk, and should be generic (at some radius) for typically adopted disk parameters. The same physical processes can affect the thermal emission at optically thin wavelengths (∼1 mm), although the behavior can be more complex; unlike for disk–planet interactions, a “gap” should not be present at these longer wavelengths.

  10. Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-analyzed laser-light scattering (FALLS) is a relatively simple technique that can be used to measure principal characteristics of a sheet of sprayed liquid as it breaks up into ligaments and then the ligaments break up into droplets. In particular, through frequency analysis of laser light scattered from a spray, it is possible to determine whether the laser-illuminated portion of the spray is in the intact-sheet region, the ligament region, or the droplet region. By logical extension, it is possible to determine the intact length from the location of the laser beam at the transition between the intact-sheet and ligament regions and to determine a breakup frequency from the results of the frequency analysis. Hence, FALLS could likely be useful both as a means of performing research on sprays in general and as a means of diagnostic sensing in diverse applications in which liquid fuels are sprayed. Sprays are also used for drying and to deposit paints and other coating materials.

  11. Online submicron particle sizing by dynamic light scattering using autodilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoli, David F.; Elings, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient production of a wide range of commercial products based on submicron colloidal dispersions would benefit from instrumentation for online particle sizing, permitting real time monitoring and control of the particle size distribution. Recent advances in the technology of dynamic light scattering (DLS), especially improvements in algorithms for inversion of the intensity autocorrelation function, have made it ideally suited to the measurement of simple particle size distributions in the difficult submicron region. Crucial to the success of an online DSL based instrument is a simple mechanism for automatically sampling and diluting the starting concentrated sample suspension, yielding a final concentration which is optimal for the light scattering measurement. A proprietary method and apparatus was developed for performing this function, designed to be used with a DLS based particle sizing instrument. A PC/AT computer is used as a smart controller for the valves in the sampler diluter, as well as an input-output communicator, video display and data storage device. Quantitative results are presented for a latex suspension and an oil-in-water emulsion.

  12. Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.

  13. Lysozyme Aggregation and Fibrillation Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemzer, Louis; Flanders, Bret; Schmit, Jeremy; Sorensen, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins provides a rich phase space with significant biomedical implications, including a link with several age-related diseases. We employed dynamic light scattering to monitor the aggregation of lysozyme, a model protein, from a monomeric state until the formation of micron-sized fibrils. For an aqueous lysozyme solution buffered at pH 2, the auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity was found to be well-fit by a single exponential function with decay time τ = 1/(2Dq^2) = 0.25 ms, which corresponds to a mean hydrodynamic radius (RH) of 2.2 nm, very likely generated by monomers. Ethanol (4% v/v final concentration) induced a partial unfolding, to RH = 4.6 nm. The subsequent addition of 70 mM KCl was found to shrink the size back to RH = 2.5 nm, as expected when a denatured protein refolds due to partial screening of the intramolecular repulsion. However, further aggregation was not observed. At pH 4, using a low-salt acetate buffer, more ethanol (10% v/v) was required to initiate unfolding, but once it occurred, larger aggregates formed. These results are consistent with the model that partial unfolding, which exposes beta-motif secondary structure, is a prerequisite for aggregation and fibrillation, but the aggregation fate depends on the protein charge state (pH) and screening (salt concentration).

  14. Light scattering / SEC study of iota-carageenan aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Erica; Thomson, Robert; Norwood, David

    2003-11-01

    Carrageenans are believed to change conformation from random coil to helix when varying temperature and/or salt concentration. It is a point of contention as to whether this helix is formed from one coil or two. We present a study of this conformation change using viscometry and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) with size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Light scattering results show a clear increase in molecular weight and radius of gyration within 30 minutes of adding NaCl to high concentrations of iota-carrageenan, which may be interpreted as the conformation change described. However, estimates of persistence length ( ˜ R_G^2 / M_W) show no strong variation when increasing added salt. This suggests that the molecular weight increase reflects an aggregation of polymer molecules instead of a change in conformation. The iota-carrageenan molecules continue to aggregate slowly (hours to days depending on NaCl concentration). The final molecular weight of the aggregates depends on salt concentration, but the aggregation time seems to depend only on polymer concentration. If samples mixed in pure water are injected while the SEC system flows a NaCl mobile phase, we see effects typical of salting a linear polyelectrolyte.

  15. Quasielastic light scattering evidence for vesicular secretion of biliary lipids.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D E; Angelico, M; Carey, M C

    1989-07-01

    We employed quasielastic light scattering, negative-stain, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy to study the time-dependent physicochemical behavior of biliary lipids in fresh rat bile. Three to five minutes after bile collection, the earliest light scattering measurements and electron microscopy revealed unilamellar vesicles (mean hydrodynamic radius, Rh = 430-740 A) coexisting with mixed micelles (Rh = 20-120 A) in all biles. Both percent biliary vesicles (1 to greater than 70%) and micellar sizes varied inversely with bile salt concentration (range 1.6-72 mM) both during endogenous pool drainage and sodium taurocholate infusion. With bile salt concentrations in the vicinity of or below the estimated critical micellar concentration, biliary vesicle concentrations remained constant or increased slightly with passage of time. However, with micellar bile salt concentrations, complete conversion of vesicles to micelles occurred at rates that were directly proportional to bile salt concentration. Back-extrapolation of weighted Rh averages of micelles plus vesicles as functions of time gave sizes of approximately 470 A at 1 min, suggesting the predominance of homogeneously sized unilamellar vesicles at the earliest stages of bile formation. After micellization of lipids, mixed protein aggregates of vesicle size were demonstrated in all biles. These experiments elucidate the dynamic coexistence of lipid vesicles and mixed micelles in cholesterol unsaturated biles and demonstrate that vesicle-to-micelle interconversions of biliary lipid aggregates are normal physiological phenomena within the biliary tree.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. THE SPECTRUM OF THE DIFFUSE GALACTIC LIGHT: THE MILKY WAY IN SCATTERED LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Draine, B. T.

    2012-01-10

    We measure the optical spectrum of the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)-the local Milky Way in reflection-using 92,000 blank sky spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We correlate the SDSS optical intensity in regions of blank sky against 100 {mu}m intensity independently measured by the Cosmic Background Explorer and Infrared Astronomy satellites, which provides a measure of the dust column density times the intensity of illuminating starlight. The spectrum of scattered light is very blue and shows a clear 4000 A break and broad Mg b absorption. This is consistent with scattered starlight, and the continuum of the DGL is well reproduced by a simple radiative transfer model of the Galaxy. We also detect line emission in H{alpha}, H{beta}, [N II], and [S II], consistent with scattered light from the local interstellar medium. The strength of [N II] and [S II], combined with upper limits on [O III] and He I, indicates a relatively soft ionizing spectrum. We find that our measurements of the DGL can constrain dust models, favoring a grain size distribution with relatively few large grains. We also estimate the fraction of high-latitude H{alpha} which is scattered to be 19% {+-} 4%.

  17. The Spectrum of the Diffuse Galactic Light: The Milky Way in Scattered Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Draine, B. T.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the optical spectrum of the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)—the local Milky Way in reflection—using 92,000 blank sky spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We correlate the SDSS optical intensity in regions of blank sky against 100 μm intensity independently measured by the Cosmic Background Explorer and Infrared Astronomy satellites, which provides a measure of the dust column density times the intensity of illuminating starlight. The spectrum of scattered light is very blue and shows a clear 4000 Å break and broad Mg b absorption. This is consistent with scattered starlight, and the continuum of the DGL is well reproduced by a simple radiative transfer model of the Galaxy. We also detect line emission in Hα, Hβ, [N II], and [S II], consistent with scattered light from the local interstellar medium. The strength of [N II] and [S II], combined with upper limits on [O III] and He I, indicates a relatively soft ionizing spectrum. We find that our measurements of the DGL can constrain dust models, favoring a grain size distribution with relatively few large grains. We also estimate the fraction of high-latitude Hα which is scattered to be 19% ± 4%.

  18. Multiangle dynamic light scattering analysis using an improved recursion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Wanyan; Zeng, Xianjiang; Chen, Junyao; Du, Peng; Yang, Kecheng

    2015-10-01

    Multiangle dynamic light scattering (MDLS) compensates for the low information in a single-angle dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement by combining the light intensity autocorrelation functions from a number of measurement angles. Reliable estimation of PSD from MDLS measurements requires accurate determination of the weighting coefficients and an appropriate inversion method. We propose the Recursion Nonnegative Phillips-Twomey (RNNPT) algorithm, which is insensitive to the noise of correlation function data, for PSD reconstruction from MDLS measurements. The procedure includes two main steps: 1) the calculation of the weighting coefficients by the recursion method, and 2) the PSD estimation through the RNNPT algorithm. And we obtained suitable regularization parameters for the algorithm by using MR-L-curve since the overall computational cost of this method is sensibly less than that of the L-curve for large problems. Furthermore, convergence behavior of the MR-L-curve method is in general superior to that of the L-curve method and the error of MR-L-curve method is monotone decreasing. First, the method was evaluated on simulated unimodal lognormal PSDs and multimodal lognormal PSDs. For comparison, reconstruction results got by a classical regularization method were included. Then, to further study the stability and sensitivity of the proposed method, all examples were analyzed using correlation function data with different levels of noise. The simulated results proved that RNNPT method yields more accurate results in the determination of PSDs from MDLS than those obtained with the classical regulation method for both unimodal and multimodal PSDs.

  19. Polyelectrolyte Conformation, Interactions and Hydrodynamics as Studied by Light Scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Snehasish

    Polyelectrolyte conformation, interactions and hydrodynamics show a marked dependence on the ionic strength (C_{rm s}) of the medium, the concentration (C_{rm p}) of the polymer itself and their charge density (xi). The apparent electrostatic persistence length obtained from static light scattering varied approximately as the inverse square root of C _{rm s} for highly pure, high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA) as well as for variably ionized acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymers (NaPAA), and linearly with xi. The experimental values of persistence length and second virial coefficient (A_2) are compared to predictions from theories based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and on excluded-volume. Although the mean square radius of gyration (< S^2>) depended strongly on C _{rm s}. < S^2> decreasing with increasing C_{rm s} for both HA and NaPAA indicating clear evidence of polyion expansion, dynamic light scattering values of the translational diffusion coefficient (D) remains constant when extrapolated to infinite polymer concentration for both the polymers. The behavior of D is compared to predictions from coupled mode theory in the linear limit. The effects of NaOH on the conformations, interactions, diffusion and hydrolysis rates of HA are characterized in detail using static, dynamic and time-dependent light scattering supplemented by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). For the HA < S^2>, A_2 and the hydrolysis rates all resemble superposing titration curves, while the D remains independent of both the concentration of NaOH, and the contraction of < S^2>. The indication is that the interactions, conformations and the hydrolysis rates are all controlled by the titration of the HA hydroxyl groups by the NaOH to yield -O ^-, which (i) destroys single strand hydrogen bonds, leading to de-stiffening and contraction of the HA coil and a large decrease in intermolecular interaction, and (ii) slowly depolymerizes HA. The experimental

  20. Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, P.; Albella, P.; Schnell, M.; Chen, J.; Huth, F.; García-Etxarri, A.; Casanova, F.; Golmar, F.; Arzubiaga, L.; Hueso, L.E.; Aizpurua, J.; Hillenbrand, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light scattering at nanoparticles and molecules can be dramatically enhanced in the 'hot spots' of optical antennas, where the incident light is highly concentrated. Although this effect is widely applied in surface-enhanced optical sensing, spectroscopy and microscopy, the underlying electromagnetic mechanism of the signal enhancement is challenging to trace experimentally. Here we study elastically scattered light from an individual object located in the well-defined hot spot of single antennas, as a new approach to resolve the role of the antenna in the scattering process. We provide experimental evidence that the intensity elastically scattered off the object scales with the fourth power of the local field enhancement provided by the antenna, and that the underlying electromagnetic mechanism is identical to the one commonly accepted in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. We also measure the phase shift of the scattered light, which provides a novel and unambiguous fingerprint of surface-enhanced light scattering. PMID:22353715

  1. Simplifying the calculation of light scattering properties for black carbon fractal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. J. A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    Black carbon fractal aggregates have complicated shapes that make the calculation of their optical properties particularly computationally expensive. Here, a method is presented to estimate fractal aggregate light scattering properties by optimising simplified models to full light scattering calculations. It is found that there are no possible spherical models (at any size or refractive index) that well represent the light scattering in the visible or near-thermal infrared. As such, parameterisations of the light scattering as a function of the number of aggregate particles is presented as the most pragmatic choice for modelling distributions of black carbon when the large computational overheads of rigorous scattering calculations cannot be justified. This parameterisation can be analytically integrated to provide light scattering properties for lognormal distributions of black carbon fractal aggregates and return extinction cross sections with 0.1% accuracy for typical black carbon size distributions. Scattering cross sections and the asymmetry parameter can be obtained to within 3%.

  2. Simplifying the calculation of light scattering properties for black carbon fractal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. J. A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2014-02-01

    Black carbon fractal aggregates have complicated shapes that make the calculation of their optical properties particularly computationally expensive. Here, a method is presented to estimate fractal aggregate light scattering properties by optimising simplified models to full light scattering calculations. It is found that there are no possible spherical models (at any size or refractive index) that well represent the light scattering in the visible, or near-thermal infrared. As such, parameterisations of the light scattering as a function of the number of aggregate particles is presented as the most pragmatic choice for modelling distributions of black carbon when the large computational overheads of rigorous scattering calculations cannot be justified. This parameterisation can be analytically integrated to provide light scattering properties for log-normal distributions of black carbon fractal aggregates and return extinction cross-sections with 0.1% accuracy for typical black carbon size distributions. Scattering cross-sections and the asymmetry parameter can be obtained to within 3%.

  3. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy in Si/SiGe nanostructures: Strain, chemical composition and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybeskov, L.; Mala, S. A.; Wang, X.; Baribeau, J.-M.; Wu, X.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a review of recent studies of inelastic light scattering spectroscopy in two types of Si/SiGe nanostructures: planar superlattices and cluster (dot) multilayers including first- and second-order Raman scattering, polarized Raman scattering and low-frequency inelastic light scattering associated with folded acoustic phonons. The results are used in semi-quantitative analysis of chemical composition, strain and thermal conductivity in these technologically important materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Scanning radiometer for measurement of forward-scattered light to determine mean diameter of spray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A scanning radiometer is reported that measures forward-scattered light to determine the mean diameter of spray particles. An optical scanning method gives a continuous measurement of the light-scattering angle during spray nozzle tests. A method of calibration and a correction for background light are presented. Mean particle diameters of 10 to 500 micrometers can be measured.

  5. Seasonal variations in light scattering in the New York region and their relation to sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaderer, Brain P.; Tanner, Roger L.; Lioy, Paul J.; Stolwijk, Jan A. J.

    Light scattering data collected during two periods of intensive sampling in New York City (one during summer months and one during winter months) are discussed and analyzed for diurnal patterns, their relationship to pollutant emission sources, meteorological parameters, and the size distribution and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol. The lack of a diurnal pattern for light scattering in summer in combination with a strong positive association with ozone and wind direction dependency suggests that in summer the transport of an aged aerosol in photochemically rich air masses rather than local emissions of primary pollutants is largely responsible for the observed levels of light scattering in New York City. Winter levels of light scattering observed in New York City, while approx. 50% lower than summer levels, were much less dependant on wind direction and closely related to pollutant emissions from local sources. This suggests that locally generated aerosol dominates light scattering in the winter. Particles 0.1-1.3 μm in diameter were strongly correlated with light scattering in New York City during both summer and winter periods. However, a given volume of aerosol between 0.1 and 1.3 μm scattered more light in summer than in winter, indicating the fresher nature of the winter aerosol. Variance in dry particulate light scattering was found to principally account for light extinction variance (calculated from airport visibility observations) in summer and winter. Sulfate aerosol was strongly correlated with light scattering during both summer and winter periods.

  6. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle by dynamic light scattering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a complete review on the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to study the size distribution and colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The mathematical analysis involved in obtaining size information from the correlation function and the calculation of Z-average are introduced. Contributions from various variables, such as surface coating, size differences, and concentration of particles, are elaborated within the context of measurement data. Comparison with other sizing techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy, revealed both the advantages and disadvantages of DLS in measuring the size of magnetic nanoparticles. The self-assembly process of MNP with anisotropic structure can also be monitored effectively by DLS. PMID:24011350

  7. Preliminary Remediation of Scattered Light in NEAR MSI Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han; Robinson, Mark S.; Murchie, Scott

    2002-01-01

    During a failed Eros orbit insertion maneuver on 20 December 1998, more than 28 kg of hydrazine were expended by attitude control jets on the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft. Deposition of burn products on the outer optic of the multispectral imager, or MSI, resulted in a wavelength-dependent degradation of the system point-spread function (PSF). The scattered light is progressively worse in the shortest and longest wavelength filters, especially at 450 and 1050 nm. The degraded PSF was characterized using numerous images of Canopus acquired subsequent to the anomaly. There is no evidence for temporal change in the PSF since the burn abort incident. A fast Fourier transform-based image restoration method using the optimal filter recovers most of the spatial resolution of the original images while preserving radiometric accuracy for the 550- to 1000-nm images. This procedure has enabled nearly unimpeded monochrome imaging of asteroid morphology and select 5-color measurements at a scale of ∼5 pixels.

  8. Demonstration of cell-ricin interaction by electrophoretic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Hakim Hachemi, B; Betrencourt, C; Volochine, B; Frénoy, J P; Chraïbi, Z; Alfsen, A; Lavialle, F

    1989-07-01

    Electrophoretic light scattering has been used to investigate the interaction of ricin, a vegetal toxin, with cells. This technique allowed measurements in the presence of free ligand and proved particularly useful for the study of a system with low affinity. The electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes and oligodendrocytes was found equal to 2.08 x 10(-8) and 2.35 x 10(-8)m2s-1V-1, respectively. Upon ricin binding, these values decreased significantly. This change was related to the saturation of the binding sites. The specificity of the interaction was demonstrated by conducting the experiments in the presence of lactose. This specific inhibitor fully prevented the ricin-cell interaction.

  9. Elastic scattering, fusion, and breakup of light exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolata, J. J.; Guimarães, V.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2016-05-01

    The present status of fusion reactions involving light ( A < 20) radioactive projectiles at energies around the Coulomb barrier ( E < 10 MeV per nucleon) is reviewed, emphasizing measurements made within the last decade. Data on elastic scattering (providing total reaction cross section information) and breakup channels for the involved systems, demonstrating the relationship between these and the fusion channel, are also reviewed. Similarities and differences in the behavior of fusion and total reaction cross section data concerning halo nuclei, weakly-bound but less exotic projectiles, and strongly-bound systems are discussed. One difference in the behavior of fusion excitation functions near the Coulomb barrier seems to emerge between neutron-halo and proton-halo systems. The role of charge has been investigated by comparing the fusion excitation functions, properly scaled, for different neutron- and proton-rich systems. Possible physical explanations for the observed differences are also reviewed.

  10. Preface: Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles XIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovik, Oleg; Labonnete, Laurent; Litvinov, Pavel; Parol, Frederic; Mischenko, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 14th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XIV) was held at the Universit de Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France on 17-21 June 2013. The conference was attended by 200 scientists from 26 countries. The scientific program included one plenary lecture, 12 invited reviews, 100 contributed oral talks, and 86 poster presentations. The program, the abstracts, and the slides of the oral presentations are available at the conference web site http:www-loa.univ-lille1.frELS-XIV. To highlight one of the traditional ELS themes, the ELS-XIV featured a special session on Remote sensing of aerosols and clouds using polarimetric observations. This session was sponsored and co-organized by the French space agency CNES and attracted representatives from nearly all research teams word-wide involved in the development and active use of space-borne, in situ, and ground-based polarimetric observations.

  11. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, William B.; Hough, James; Germer, Thomas A.; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T.; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Because of the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches. PMID:19416893

  12. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  13. Light scattering investigation of phase separation in a micelle system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1993-12-31

    We report a real-time, two-dimensional light scattering study of the evolution of structure in a two component nonionic micelle system during phase separation via spinodal decomposition. Our principal finding is that domain growth proceeds much slower than the cube root of time prediction for simple binary fluids. In fact, the growth kinetics can be empirically described as a stretched exponential approach to a pinned domain size. Although the kinetics are not yet understood, this anomalous behavior may be due to the ability of the spherical micelles to reorganize into more complex structures. The domain structure also shows some anomalies. Although at short times the expected structure factor for a critical quench is observed, at long times the structure factor crosses over to the off-critical form. However, in all cases the average scattered intensity is proportional to the cube of the domain size. These findings are discussed in comparison to standard theories of and experimental work on binary fluids.

  14. Light scattering by lunar-like particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, Jay D.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental input to models of light scattering from planetary regoliths is the mean phase function of the regolith particles. Using the known size distribution for typical lunar soils, the mean phase function and mean linear polarization for a regolith volume element of spherical particles of any composition were calculated from Mie theory. The two contour plots given here summarize the changes in the mean phase function and linear polarization with changes in the real part of the complex index of refraction, n - ik, for k equals 0.01, the visible wavelength 0.55 micrometers, and the particle size distribution of the typical mature lunar soil 72141. A second figure is a similar index-phase surface, except with k equals 0.1. The index-phase surfaces from this survey are a first order description of scattering by lunar-like regoliths of spherical particles of arbitrary composition. They form the basis of functions that span a large range of parameter-space.

  15. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku

    2015-01-07

    The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  16. Hadronic contribution to light-by-light scattering in [ital g][sub [mu

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.B. )

    1994-02-01

    We comment on the theoretical uncertainties involved in estimating the hadronic effects on the light-by-light scattering contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, especially based on the analysis and results of Kinoshita, Ni[hacek z]ic, and Okamoto. From the point of view of an effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory, we suggest that the charged pion contribution may be better determined than has been appreciated. However, the neutral pion contribution needs greater theoretical insight before its magnitude can be reliably estimated.

  17. Nanoparticle free polymer blends for light scattering films in liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Mochiduki, Kazuhide; Kubo, Naoya; Yokoyama, Yoshiyuki

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports an approach using nanoparticle free polymer blends for light scattering films in liquid crystal displays. The ability to create the regularly structured circle of approximately 200 nm diameter in the light scattering film by blending two specified polymers with carboxylic acid groups and epoxy groups was demonstrated. The developed light scattering film based on thermosetting system indicated regularly structured nanomorphology, high light scattering rates of more than 3.9% at 300-600 nm of wavelength, and fast thermal cross-linking reaction at 150 °C and 60 s in thermosetting conditions for high productivity.

  18. Particle sizing by measurement of forward-scattered light at two angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental and practical limitations to particle sizing by measurement of forward scattered light are presented. Methods to minimize the limitations are described. Two types of instruments are compared.

  19. Modeling stray light from rough surfaces and subsurface scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.; Goshy, John J.; Pfisterer, Richard N.

    2014-09-01

    Over the years we have developed an adequate theory and understanding of surface scatter from smooth optical surfaces (Rayleigh-Rice), moderately rough surfaces with paraxial incident and scattered angles (Beckmann- Kirchhoff) and even for moderately rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattered angles where a linear systems formulation requiring a two-parameter family of surface transfer functions is required to characterize the surface scatter process (generalized Harvey-Shack). However, there is always some new material or surface manufacturing process that provides non-intuitive scatter behavior. The linear systems formulation of surface scatter is potentially useful even for these situations. In this paper we will present empirical models of several classes of rough surfaces or materials (subsurface scatter) that allow us to accurately model the scattering behavior at any incident angle from limited measured scatter data. In particular, scattered radiance appears to continue being the natural quantity that exhibits simple, elegant behavior only in direction cosine space.

  20. Mal de Debarquement

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Mal de debarquement (MdD), the “sickness of disembarkment,” occurs when habituation to background rhythmic movement becomes resistant to readaption to stable conditions and results in a phantom perception of self motion typically described as rocking, bobbing, or swaying. Although several studies have shown that brief periods of MdD are common in healthy individuals, this otherwise natural phenomenon can become persistent in some individuals and lead to severe balance problems. Increased recognition of MdD in a persistent pathological form occurred after the publication of a case series of six patients by Brown and Baloh in 1987. Over 20 years later, although more is known about the clinical syndrome of persistent MdD, little is known about what leads to this persistence. This review addresses the clinical features of MdD, the associated symptoms in the persistent form, theories on pathogenesis, experience with treatment, and future directions for research. PMID:19834863

  1. Light transmission channels in random scattering media (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Recently it has been shown that shaping the wavefront of an incident laser beam can significantly enhance the total transmission of light through strong scattering media [1]. This is done by coupling light to high transmission channels. However, optical absorption would modify such transmission channels. In a disordered system with uniform absorption, the maximal transmission channel changes from diffusive to ballistic-like transport [2]. This ballistic-like transport may enable new modes of imaging in absorbing media. If the absorption is distributed non-uniformly in space, the high transmission channels redirect the energy flows to circumvent the absorbing regions to minimize loss. Thus the attenuation of high transmission channels by inhomogeneous absorption becomes lower than that by homogeneous absorption [3]. Since the maximum transmission channel is the most efficient in bypassing the absorbing region, the ratio of its transmittance to the average transmittance increases with absorption, eventually exceeds the ratio without absorption. The finding that inhomogeneous absorption may have a weaker impact on open channels than homogeneous absorption is promising for practical applications. [1] S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 133903 (2014). [2] S. F. Liew, S. M. Popoff, A. P. Mosk, W. L. Vos, and H. Cao. Phys. Rev. B 89, 224202 (2014). [3] S. F. Liew and H. Cao. Opt. Express 23, 11043 (2015).

  2. Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-01-01

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first full-polarization DOPC system which records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase conjugation fidelity. PMID:26977651

  3. Light scattering from thin smectic liquid crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-elastic light scattering experiments have been performed on the tilted phases of thin smectic liquid crystal films. Films of only a few layers in thickness allow for study of phase transitions in a quasi-two-dimensional, substrate-free system. In the bend and splay geometries, it is found the scattering is well described by a simple elastic free energy describing in-plane fluctuations. The coupling of bond-orientation to the molecular tilt allows the investigation of bond-orientation order in the hexatic Smectite-I phase. This thesis discusses the elasticity and dynamics in terms of a defect-mediated theory of two-dimensional melting. In intermediate geometries, the dynamic signal reveals the presence of a previously unreported slow mode in the Smectite-C phase of 4-(2-methylbutyl)-phenyl-4[prime]-(octyloxy)-(1,1[prime])-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8OSI). The wavevector dependence of the scattered intensity for the new mode is well described by the selection rules for out-of-plane fluctuations of the film. The overdamped dynamics reveal a non-hydrodynamic and extremely slow decay. In the Smectite-I phase of 8OSI, where the director fluctuations are strongly coupled to orientational fluctuations of the hexatic order, it is found textural defects develop in the director fields, destroying the magnetic alignment. Experiments were also performed on mixtures of 8OSI and 4-n-hexyl-phenyl-4-n-(decyloxy)-benzthiolate ([bar 1]4S6) liquid crystals. For mixtures with more than 50% [bar 1]4S6, no hexatic phase and melting proceeded via a first-order Smectic-C to Smectic-J transition. At lower concentrations of [bar 1]4S6, the author was able to change the critical properties of the Smectic-C to Smectic-I phase transition, by increasing the quantity of [bar 1]4S6 in the mixture. In the vicinity of the crystal-hexatic-liquid triple point, the Smectic-C to Smectic-I transition becomes first-order due to the influence of the crystal order-parameter.

  4. Angular and spectrally resolved investigations of yeast cells by light scattering microscopy and goniometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Julian; Müller, Dennis; Nothelfer, Steffen; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-07-01

    Spectrally and angular resolved light scattering from yeast cells was studied with a scattering microscope and a goniometer. Different cell models were investigated with help of analytical solutions of Maxwell's equations. It was found that extraction of precise morphological and optical cellular properties from the measured scattering patterns and phase functions requires more sophisticated cell models than standard Mie theory.

  5. Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments.

    PubMed

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W Kendall

    2004-08-20

    Using three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, we examine the effect of beam transmissometer geometry on the relative error in the measurement of the beam-attenuation coefficient in an aquatic environment characterized by intense light scattering, especially within submerged bubble clouds entrained by surface-wave breaking. We discuss the forward-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered at small angles (< 1 degrees) and the multiple-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered more than once along the path length of the instrument. Several scattering phase functions describing bubble clouds at different bubble void fractions in the water are considered. Owing to forward-scattering error, a beam-attenuation meter (beam transmissometer) with a half-angle of receiver acceptance of 1.0 degrees and a path length of 0.1 m can underestimate the true beam attenuation within the bubble cloud by more than 50%. For bubble clouds with a beam attenuation of as much as 100 m(-1), the multiple-scattering error is no more than a few percent. These results are compared with simulations for some example phase functions that are representative of other scattering regimes found in natural waters. The forward-scattering error for the Petzold phase function of turbid waters is 16% for a typical instrument geometry, whereas for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function with the asymmetry parameter of 0.7 and 0.9 the error range is 8-28%.

  6. Coherent effects in the scattering of light from two-dimensional rough metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Letnes, Paul Anton; Nordam, Tor; Simonsen, Ingve

    2013-06-01

    We investigate numerically multiple light-scattering phenomena for two-dimensional randomly rough metallic surfaces, where surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mediate several surface scattering effects. The scattering problem is solved by numerical solution of the reduced Rayleigh equation for reflection. The multiple scattering phenomena of enhanced backscattering and enhanced forward scattering are observed in the same system, and their presence is due to the excitation of SPPs. The numerical results discussed are qualitatively different from previous results for one-dimensionally rough surfaces, as one-dimensional surfaces have a limited influence on the polarization of light.

  7. Possibilities of implanted control in stimulated light scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarenko, Anatoliy G.; Andreev, Alexandr N.; Kanaev, Andrey V.

    2004-09-01

    Some possibilities of simple and thus reliable schemes of experiment "self-control" exploiting intrinsic features of studied non-linear phenomena like wave front reversal under stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) rather than outer sensors and controls are described. The schemes discussed provide input signal dynamic region broadening in stimulated scattering converters and angle of synchronism self-tuning while two frequency pumping.

  8. Results to be expected from light scattering dust analyzer during a rendezvous mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerull, R. H.; Giese, R. H.; Kneissel, B.

    1981-01-01

    The light scattering principle for particle detection is customary for the measurement of aerosols. Light scattering techniques can be applied to mixtures of particles (nephelometers) and to single particles as well. Measuring particle mixtures simplify detection because of the higher intensity level, however, information concerning the individual particle is lost. To provide well defined conditions over the whole rendezvous period, i.e., constant illumination beam and unchangeable scattering angle, the use of an artificial light source (instead of the sun) and a scattering volume located within the S/C is desirable. Considering this and the relatively low particle densities to be expected, the measurement of particle mixtures must be excluded.

  9. Small-angle light scattering from polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Loiko, V. A. Maschke, U.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Konkolovich, A. V.; Misckevich, A. A.

    2008-10-15

    A method is developed for modeling and computing the angular distribution of light scattered forward from a single-layer polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) film. The method is based on effective-medium approximation, anomalous diffraction approximation, and far-field single-scattering approximation. The angular distribution of forward-scattered light is analyzed for PDLC films with droplet size larger than the optical wavelength. The method can be used to study field-and temperature-induced phase transitions in LC droplets with cylindrical symmetry by measuring polarized scattered light intensity.

  10. Doppler effect's contribution to ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Elazar, Jovan M; Steshenko, Oleg

    2008-01-15

    Modulation of light by ultrasound in turbid media is investigated by modified public domain software based on the Monte Carlo algorithm. Apart from the recognized modulation mechanisms, originating in scatterers' displacements and refractive index modulation, an additional mechanism, evolving from Doppler shift during photon scattering, is considered. Comparison of the relative contributions from all three mechanisms to light modulation by ultrasound is performed for different medium scattering properties and ultrasound frequencies. Refractive index modulation remains the strongest mechanism for light modulation by ultrasound, but for high ultrasound frequencies and for large scattering coefficients the Doppler effect can become dominant.

  11. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.

    PubMed

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-04-01

    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  12. Spectral structure of laser light scattering revisited: bandwidths of nonresonant scattering lidars.

    PubMed

    She, C Y

    2001-09-20

    It is well known that scattering lidars, i.e., Mie, aerosol-wind, Rayleigh, high-spectral-resolution, molecular-wind, rotational Raman, and vibrational Raman lidars, are workhorses for probing atmospheric properties, including the backscatter ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient, temperature, pressure, density, and winds. The spectral structure of molecular scattering (strength and bandwidth) and its constituent spectra associated with Rayleigh and vibrational Raman scattering are reviewed. Revisiting the correct name by distinguishing Cabannes scattering from Rayleigh scattering, and sharpening the definition of each scattering component in the Rayleigh scattering spectrum, the review allows a systematic, logical, and useful comparison in strength and bandwidth between each scattering component and in receiver bandwidths (for both nighttime and daytime operation) between the various scattering lidars for atmospheric sensing. PMID:18360530

  13. Light scattering by bubbles in a bubble chamber.

    PubMed

    Withrington, R J

    1968-01-01

    A discussion of the angular scattering expected from small bubbles in liquids of refractive indices 1.1 and 1.025 is given ogether with the inverse, i.e., of small spheres of the liquids in air. The similarities between the two scattering functions are compared with a view to the simulation of bubble chamber tracks using readily available materials. Fraunhofer scattering is significant on axis while larger angle scattering is geometrical. Some experimental verification of the scattering functions is also reported.

  14. Elastic and inelastic light scattering of colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerker, M.

    1985-06-01

    The project has been primarily concerned with both theoretical and experimental aspects of surface enhanced scattering. The theory has been extended to include concentric spherical particles, the effect of surface coverage, enhancement of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and the effect of dielectric cavities. The experimental work included SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) from citrate on silver hydrosols, surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) for dabsylaspartate on silver hydrosols, silver organosols and roughened silver electrodes, the effect of aggregates on SERS. In addition there have been ancillary studies dealing with absorption and luminescence by dye coated silver particles, analysis of biological cells by flow fluorimetry, and electromagnetic scattering by magnetic particles.

  15. Dynamic light scattering of xanthan gum biopolymer in colloidal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Rahdar, Abbas; Almasi-Kashi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The dynamical properties of nanogels of xanthan gum (XG) with hydrodynamic radius controlled in a size range from 5 nm to 35 nm, were studied at the different XG concentrations in water/sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl-sulfosuccinate (AOT)/decane reverse micelles (RMs) vs. mass fraction of nano-droplet (MFD) at W = 40, using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The diffusion study of nanometer-sized droplets by DLS technique indicated that enhancing concentration of the XG polysaccharide resulted in exchanging the attractive interaction between nano-gels to repulsive interaction, as the mass fraction of nano-droplets increased. The reorientation time (τr ) of water nanodroplets decreased with MFD for water-in-oil AOT micro-emulsion comprising high concentration (0.0000625) of XG. On the other hand, decreasing concentration of biopolymer led to increasing the rotational correlation time of water nanodroplets with MFD. In conclusion, a single relaxation curve was observed for AOT inverse microemulsions containing different XG concentrations. Furthermore, the interaction between nanogels was changed from attractive to repulsive versus concentration of XG in the AOT RMs. PMID:27489730

  16. Improved evaporative light scattering detection for carbohydrate analysis.

    PubMed

    Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Pérez-López, Elena; Rupérez, Pilar

    2015-08-01

    Optimization and validation of evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), aided by response surface methodology (RSM), has been developed for the liquid chromatography analysis of a wide molecular weight (MW) range of carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Optimal experimental parameters for the ELSD detection were: 88.8°C evaporator temperature, 77.9°C nebulizer temperature and 1.1 standard litres per minute nitrogen flow rate. Optimal ELSD detection, used together with high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) of carbohydrates, gave a linear range from 250 to 1000 mg L(-1) (R(2)>0.998), with limits of detection and quantitation of 4.83-11.67 and 16.11-38.91 mg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation was lower than 1.8% for intra-day and inter-day repeatability for apple pectin, inulin, verbascose, stachyose and raffinose. Recovery ranged from 103.7% to 118.3% for fructo-oligosaccharides, α-galacto-oligosaccharides and disaccharides. Optimized and validated ELSD detection is proposed for the analysis of high- to low-MW carbohydrates with high sensitivity, precision and accuracy. PMID:25766827

  17. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs’) has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs’, 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs’ obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs’ was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3− at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3− at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs’. Brain μs’ depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth. PMID:27511644

  18. An ultra-efficient energy transfer beyond plasmonic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Sze-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Kai; Lin, Albert

    2014-11-14

    The energy transfer between nano-particles is of great importance for, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, nano-particle waveguides, and other photonic devices. This study shows through novel design and algorithm optimization, the energy transfer efficiency between plasmonic and dielectric nano-particles can be greatly improved. Using versatile designs including core-shell wrapping, supercells and dielectric mediated plasmonic scattering, 0.05 dB/μm attenuation can be achieved, which is 20-fold reduction over the baseline plasmonic nano-particle chain, and 8-fold reduction over the baseline dielectric nano-particle chain. In addition, it is also found that the dielectric nano-particle chains can actually be more efficient than the plasmonic ones, at their respective optimized geometry. The underlying physics is that although plasmonic nano-particles provide stronger coupling and field emission, the effect of plasmonic absorption loss is actually more dominant resulting in high attenuation. Finally, the group velocity for all design schemes proposed in this work is shown to be maintained above 0.4c, and it is found that the geometry optimization for transmission also boosts the group velocity.

  19. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs') has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs', 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs' obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs' was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3(-) at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3(-) at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs'. Brain μs' depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth. PMID:27511644

  20. Miniaturized dynamic light scattering instrumentation for use in microfluidic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chastek, Thomas Q.; Beers, Kathryn L.; Amis, Eric J.

    2007-07-15

    Five designs for a miniaturized dynamic light scattering (DLS) instrument are described that incorporate microfluidic flow of the sample volume and fiber optic probes directly embedded into the sample. These instruments were demonstrated to accurately determine the size of 10-100 nm particles dispersed in organic and aqueous solvents with most sample sizes less than 150 {mu}l. Small stir bars were incorporated directly into the instruments, and enabled blending of different solutions immediately prior to DLS measurements. Demonstration of the instruments' capabilities include high throughput measurements of the micelle to unimer transition for poly(styrene-b-isoprene) in mixed toluene/hexadecane solvent, obtained by systematically blending toluene-rich and hexadecane-rich polymer solutions. The critical solvent composition was quickly identified with less than 20 mg of polymer. Further capabilities include temperature control, demonstrated by identification of a critical micelle temperature of poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide), as well as multiangle DLS measurements.

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic light waves from a deterministic anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chang, Liping; Wu, Pinghui

    2015-11-01

    Based on the weak scattering theory of electromagnetic waves, analytical expressions are derived for the spectral densities and degrees of polarization of an electromagnetic plane wave scattered from a deterministic anisotropic medium. It is shown that the normalized spectral densities of scattered field is highly dependent of changes of the scattering angle and degrees of polarization of incident plane waves. The degrees of polarization of scattered field are also subjective to variations of these parameters. In addition, the anisotropic effective radii of the dielectric susceptibility can lead essential influences on both spectral densities and degrees of polarization of scattered field. They are highly dependent of the effective radii of the medium. The obtained results may be applicable to determine anisotropic parameters of medium by quantitatively measuring statistics of a far-zone scattered field.

  2. High-definition imaging system based on spatial light modulators with light-scattering mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takanori; Kawakita, Masahiro; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Fumio; Takizawa, Kuniharu

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a prototype high-definition imaging system using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) light valves, which can modulate unpolarized light with high spatial resolution and exhibit a high optical efficiency, based on the light-scattering effect. We fabricated high-definition light valves with a fine polymer-matrix structure in a PDLC film by controlling the curing conditions used during the photopolymerization-induced phase separation and formation process. This device has excellent characteristics, such as a high resolution, with 50 lp/mm for a limiting resolution and greater than 20 lp/mm at the 50% modulation transfer function point, and a reflectivity of greater than 60%. An optically addressable full-color projection display was designed, consisting of three PDLC light valves, a schlieren optical system based on shift-decentralization optics with a xenon lamp illumination and input-image sources with 1.5 million pixels, including electrical image compensation of the gamma characteristics. We succeeded in displaying pictures on a 110-inch screen with a resolution of 810 TV lines and a luminous flux of 1900-2100 American National Standards Institute lumens.

  3. Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves in a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre

    PubMed Central

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Sylvie; Pauliat, Gilles; Maillotte, Hervé; Laude, Vincent; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin scattering in optical fibres is a fundamental interaction between light and sound with important implications ranging from optical sensors to slow and fast light. In usual optical fibres, light both excites and feels shear and longitudinal bulk elastic waves, giving rise to forward-guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering and backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering. In a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, the situation changes dramatically, as we here report with the first experimental observation of Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves. These Rayleigh-type surface waves travel the wire surface at a specific velocity of 3,400 m s−1 and backscatter the light with a Doppler shift of about 6 GHz. As these acoustic resonances are sensitive to surface defects or features, surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering opens new opportunities for various sensing applications, but also in other domains such as microwave photonics and nonlinear plasmonics. PMID:25341638

  4. Modulation of Light-Enhancement to Symbiotic Algae by Light-Scattering in Corals and Evolutionary Trends in Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, Luisa A.; Westneat, Mark W.; Stoyneva, Valentina; Henss, Jillian; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Radosevich, Andrew; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Siple, Margaret; Fang, Andrew; Swain, Timothy D.; Fung, Jennifer; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbonate skeletons of scleractinian corals amplify light availability to their algal symbionts by diffuse scattering, optimizing photosynthetic energy acquisition. However, the mechanism of scattering and its role in coral evolution and dissolution of algal symbioses during “bleaching” events are largely unknown. Here we show that differences in skeletal fractal architecture at nano/micro-lengthscales within 96 coral taxa result in an 8-fold variation in light-scattering and considerably alter the algal light environment. We identified a continuum of properties that fall between two extremes: (1) corals with low skeletal fractality that are efficient at transporting and redistributing light throughout the colony with low scatter but are at higher risk of bleaching and (2) corals with high skeletal fractality that are inefficient at transporting and redistributing light with high scatter and are at lower risk of bleaching. While levels of excess light derived from the coral skeleton is similar in both groups, the low-scatter corals have a higher rate of light-amplification increase when symbiont concentration is reduced during bleaching, thus creating a positive feedback-loop between symbiont concentration and light-amplification that exposes the remaining symbionts to increasingly higher light intensities. By placing our findings in an evolutionary framework, in conjunction with a novel empirical index of coral bleaching susceptibility, we find significant correlations between bleaching susceptibility and light-scattering despite rich homoplasy in both characters; suggesting that the cost of enhancing light-amplification to the algae is revealed in decreased resilience of the partnership to stress. PMID:23630594

  5. Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Glena, Richard E.; Featherstone, John D. B.; Seka, Wolf

    1995-03-01

    The light-scattering properties of dental enamel and dentin were measured at 543, 632, and 1053 nm. Angularly resolved scattering distributions for these materials were measured from 0 deg to 180 deg using a rotating goniometer. Surface scattering was minimized by immersing the samples in an index-matching bath. The scattering and absorption coefficients and the scattering phase function were deduced by comparing the measured scattering data with angularly resolved Monte Carlo light-scattering simulations. Enamel and dentin were best represented by a linear combination of a highly forward-peaked Henyey-Greenstein (HG) phase function and an isotropic phase function. Enamel weakly scatters light between 543 nm and 1.06 mu m, with the scattering coefficient ( mu s) ranging from mu s = 15 to 105 cm-1. The phase function is a combination of a HG function with g = 0.96 and a 30-60% isotropic phase function. For enamel, absorption is negligible. Dentin scatters strongly in the visible and near IR ( mu s approximately equals 260 cm-1) and absorbs weakly ( mu a approximately equals 4 cm-1). The scattering phase function for dentin is described by a HG function with g = 0.93 and a very weak isotropic scattering component ( approximately 2%).

  6. Light scattering and cell volumes in osmotically stressed and frozen-thawed cells.

    PubMed

    McGann, L E; Walterson, M L; Hogg, L M

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports, indicating that under some conditions the intensity of light scattering from cells is a nonlinear function of cell volume, have led to the widespread generalization that intensity of low-angle light scattering indicates cell size. This study was performed to measure the relationships between light scattering and cell volumes in an-isotonic solutions and after a freeze-thaw stress. Cell volumes in isolated human lymphocytes, human granulocytes, and hamster fibroblasts were deliberately altered by exposure to anisotonic solutions. Boyle-vant Hoff plots of cell volume as a function of inverse osmotic pressure showed that the cells behaved as osmometers. Similar plots of right-angle and low-angle light scattering showed that the intensity of light scattering varied inversely with cell volume. In other experiments where cells were frozen without cryoprotectant at various sub zero temperatures to -25 degrees C and then thawed rapidly, cell viability decreased progressively with decreasing temperature, as did the intensity of both low-angle and right-angle light scattering, although cell volumes remained relatively constant. The intensity of both low- and high-angle light scattering varied inversely with cell volumes in hypertonic and hypotonic solutions, but cell damage induced by freezing and thawing resulted in significant reductions in the intensity of low-angle light scattering with little change in cell volume. These observations show that light scattering and cell volumes can vary independently, and they underline the need for a better understanding of the phenomenon of light scattering from living cells. PMID:3409784

  7. Observing light-by-light scattering at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    d'Enterria, David; da Silveira, Gustavo G

    2013-08-23

    Elastic light-by-light scattering (γγ→γγ) is open to study at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large quasireal photon fluxes available in electromagnetic interactions of protons (p) and lead (Pb) ions. The γγ→γγ cross sections for diphoton masses m(γγ)>5 GeV amount to 12 fb, 26 pb, and 35 nb in p-p, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies √(s(NN))=14, 8.8, and 5.5 TeV, respectively. Such a measurement has no substantial background in Pb-Pb collisions where one expects about 20 signal events per run, after typical detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency selections.

  8. In-field stray light due to surface scattering effects in infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Jiang, Hou-man; Cheng, Xiang-ai

    2011-08-01

    In-field stray light caused by surface scattering is a serious problem in many infrared imaging systems. Light that scattered from lenses in infrared imaging system produces a halo of stray light within the field of view and often degrades the performance of an optical system especially irradiated by intensive light such as laser. The experiments are performed by using infrared thermal imaging system, irradiated by CW DF infrared laser. The relationship between the diameter of saturated area on the detector and the incident laser irradiance is obtained, which can be well explained by the point spread function (PSF) of the optics including both diffraction and scattering components.

  9. Pulsed dye laser does not seem as effective as red light in Basal cell carcinoma mal-pdt: a small pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guarino, M; Harto, A; Jaén, P

    2012-01-01

    Multiple light sources can be used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) with good results, but there are few comparative studies. This study compares the efficacy of treatment of basal cell carcinoma with PDT and two light sources, the non-coherent red light and pulsed dye laser 595 nm. In this small pilot study red light is more effective, but many more studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions.

  10. Pulsed Dye Laser Does Not Seem as Effective as Red Light in Basal Cell Carcinoma Mal-Pdt: A Small Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guarino, M.; Harto, A.; Jaén, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple light sources can be used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) with good results, but there are few comparative studies. This study compares the efficacy of treatment of basal cell carcinoma with PDT and two light sources, the non-coherent red light and pulsed dye laser 595 nm. In this small pilot study red light is more effective, but many more studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:23209908

  11. Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    de Grooth, B.G.; Terstappen, L.W.; Puppels, G.J.; Greve, J.

    1987-11-01

    Polarization measurement of orthogonal light scattering is introduced as a new optical parameter in flow cytometry. In the experimental setup, the electrical field of the incident laser beam is polarized in the direction of the sample flow. The intensity of the orthogonal light scattering polarized along the direction of the incoming laser beam is called depolarized orthogonal light scattering. Theoretical analysis shows that for small values of the detection aperture, the measured depolarization is caused by anisotropic cell structures and multiple scattering processes inside the cell. Measurements of the orthogonal depolarized light scattering in combination with the normal orthogonal light scattering of human leucocytes revealed two populations of granulocytes. By means of cell sorting it was shown that the granulocytes with a relatively high depolarization are eosinophilic granulocytes. Similar experiments with human lymphocytes revealed a minor subpopulation of yet-unidentified lymphocytes with a relative large orthogonal light-scattering depolarization. The results were obtained with an argon ion laser tuned at different wavelengths as well as with a 630-nm helium neon laser. These results show that measurement of depolarized orthogonal light scattering is a useful new parameter for flow-cytometric cell differentiation.

  12. Experimental demonstration and modeling of the internal light scattering profile within solar cells due to random dielectric scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2016-01-01

    Many photovoltaic technologies are shifting toward thin-film devices to simultaneously reduce costs and improve carrier collection efficiencies; however, the need for nearly complete light absorption within the semiconductor to achieve large short-circuit currents constrains this thickness reduction. Light trapping strategies can be employed to increase absorption in thinner devices. Random scattering coatings offer a simple, cost-effective way to increase solar cell absorption without the drawback of increased surface recombination or reduced bandwidth that occurs when using surface texturing or gratings. However, coatings that show excellent performance as scatterers in free space generally do not enhance device absorption as much as an ideal Lambertian scatterer. Here, we present an experimental technique and theoretical model that accurately describes the absorption improvement that is achievable with coatings based on random ensembles of dielectric scatterers. We find that the ideal Lambertian model substantially overestimates the experimental scattering results, but significant path length enhancements are still achievable. The experimental techniques presented here should enable the testing of various optical models that attempt to surpass the ray optics light trapping limit, which have in many cases been hindered by the experimental difficulty of coupling the incident light into the optical modes of the absorber.

  13. Polarized light imaging specifies the anisotropy of light scattering in the superficial layer of a tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Roussel, Stéphane; Samatham, Ravikant

    2016-07-01

    This report describes how optical images acquired using linearly polarized light can specify the anisotropy of scattering (g) and the ratio of reduced scattering [μs‧=μs(1-g)] to absorption (μa), i.e., N‧=μs‧/μa. A camera acquired copolarized (HH) and crosspolarized (HV) reflectance images of a tissue (skin), which yielded images based on the intensity (I=HH+HV) and difference (Q=HH-HV) of reflectance images. Monte Carlo simulations generated an analysis grid (or lookup table), which mapped Q and I into a grid of g versus N‧, i.e., g(Q,I) and N‧(Q,I). The anisotropy g is interesting because it is sensitive to the submicrometer structure of biological tissues. Hence, polarized light imaging can monitor shifts in the submicrometer (50 to 1000 nm) structure of tissues. The Q values for forearm skin on two subjects (one Caucasian, one pigmented) were in the range of 0.046±0.007 (24), which is the mean±SD for 24 measurements on 8 skin sites×3 visible wavelengths, 470, 524, and 625 nm, which indicated g values of 0.67±0.07 (24).

  14. Polarized light imaging specifies the anisotropy of light scattering in the superficial layer of a tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Roussel, Stéphane; Samatham, Ravikant

    2016-07-01

    This report describes how optical images acquired using linearly polarized light can specify the anisotropy of scattering (g) and the ratio of reduced scattering [μs‧=μs(1-g)] to absorption (μa), i.e., N‧=μs‧/μa. A camera acquired copolarized (HH) and crosspolarized (HV) reflectance images of a tissue (skin), which yielded images based on the intensity (I=HH+HV) and difference (Q=HH-HV) of reflectance images. Monte Carlo simulations generated an analysis grid (or lookup table), which mapped Q and I into a grid of g versus N‧, i.e., g(Q,I) and N‧(Q,I). The anisotropy g is interesting because it is sensitive to the submicrometer structure of biological tissues. Hence, polarized light imaging can monitor shifts in the submicrometer (50 to 1000 nm) structure of tissues. The Q values for forearm skin on two subjects (one Caucasian, one pigmented) were in the range of 0.046±0.007 (24), which is the mean±SD for 24 measurements on 8 skin sites×3 visible wavelengths, 470, 524, and 625 nm, which indicated g values of 0.67±0.07 (24).

  15. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku

    2015-01-01

    The most compelling possibility for a new law of nature beyond the four fundamental forces comprising the standard model of high-energy physics is the discrepancy between measurements and calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Until now a key part of the calculation, the hadronic light-by-light contribution, has only been accessible from models of QCD, the quantum description of the strong force, whose accuracy at the required level may be questioned. A first principles calculation with systematically improvable errors is needed, along with the upcoming experiments, to decisively settle the matter. For the first time, the form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in such a framework, lattice QCD+QED and QED. A nonperturbative treatment of QED is used and checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed for which statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results are promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  16. Literature survey for suppression of scattered light in large space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tifft, W. G.; Fannin, B. B.

    1973-01-01

    A literature survey is presented of articles dealing with all aspects of predicting, measuring, and controlling unwanted scattered (stray) light. The survey is divided into four broad classifications: (1) existing baffle/telescope designs; (2) computer programs for the analysis/design of light suppression systems; (3) the mechanism, measurement, and control of light scattering; and (4) the advantages and problems introduced by the space environment for the operation of diffraction-limited optical systems.

  17. In vivo assessment of diabetic lenses using dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Chenault, V Michelle; Ediger, Marwood N; Ansari, Rafat R

    2002-01-01

    One of the most threatening aspects of diabetes mellitus is the development of visual impairment. For example, cataracts are 1.6 times more common in people with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Cataract extraction is the only treatment. In many cases, diabetes-related ocular pathologies go undiagnosed until visual function is compromised. This paper compares and contrasts the ocular changes observed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and conventional ophthalmic techniques during long-term maintenance of the sand rat (Psammomys obesus) on a high caloric diet. P. obesus is a wild rodent in the subfamily Gerbillinae that inhabits the desert areas of the Middle East and Africa. This animal is unique in that it develops mild to moderate obesity, hyperglycemia, pancreatic atrophy, impaired renal function, ketoacidosis, vision loss, and other diabetic complications when it consumes a high caloric diet. In this study, five animals were fed Purina sand rat chow and thus served as normal control animals. Five animals were fed a commercially prepared rodent diet (Purina 5002) consisting of only 4-5% fiber and a grain-based rabbit supplement (BioServe Rabbit Stix Appetite Stimulant) consisting of 50% carbohydrate to provide a high caloric (diabetogenic) diet and thus induce diabetes. Blood samples for the biochemical analyses, DLS, and other optical examinations were obtained on alternate weeks. Our preliminary results have demonstrated subtle changes in the lens of the diabetic sand rats as early as 2 months on a diabetogenic diet. This is an ongoing joint project with Food and Drug Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This technique is proving to be a practical, sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic tool useful for the early detection of ocular pathologies and understanding the mechanism of cataract formation.

  18. Dynamic Light Scattering Based Microelectrophoresis: Main Prospects and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Microelectrophoresis based on the dynamic light scattering (DLS) effect has been a major tool for assessing and controlling the conditions for stability of colloidal systems. However, both the DLS methods for characterization of the hydrodynamic size of dispersed submicron particles and the theory behind the electrokinetic phenomena are associated with fundamental and practical approximations that limit their sensitivity and information output. Some of these fundamental limitations, including the spherical approximation of DLS measurements and an inability of microelectrophoretic analyses of colloidal systems to detect discrete charges and differ between differently charged particle surfaces due to rotational diffusion and particle orientation averaging, are revisited in this work. Along with that, the main prospects of these two analytical methods are mentioned. A detailed review of the role of zeta potential in processes of biochemical nature is given too. It is argued that although zeta potential has been used as one of the main parameters in controlling the stability of colloidal dispersions, its application potentials are much broader. Manipulating surface charges of interacting species in designing complex soft matter morphologies using the concept of zeta potential, intensively investigated recently, is given as one of the examples. Branching out from the field of colloid chemistry, DLS and zeta potential analyses are now increasingly finding application in drug delivery, biotechnologies, physical chemistry of nanoscale phenomena and other research fields that stand on the frontier of the contemporary science. Coupling the DLS-based microelectrophoretic systems with complementary characterization methods is mentioned as one of the prosperous paths for increasing the information output of these two analytical techniques. PMID:23904690

  19. Spiral arms in scattered light images of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing

    2015-12-01

    In the past few years, resolved observations with high angular resolution have revealed rich structures in gaseous protoplanetary disks. Among all discoveries, one of the most prominent is the giant double-spiral structure, found in MWC 758, SAO 206462, and HD 100453. The NIR images of these disks taken by Subaru/HiCIAO, VLT/NACO, and VLT/SPHERE showed two spiral arms at tens of AU from the center. The arms are very open with large pitch angles, and are in a nearly m=2 rotational symmetry. Although planets are known to be able to excite density waves in protoplanetary disks, fitting observations with linear theory of the density wave demands unreasonably big scale height in the disk, thus temperature, in order to make the arms as open as observed (and no need to mention the coincidence that they all have two nearly m=2 arms). Using 3D hydro and radiative transfer simulations, we find that a massive perturber (giant planet, brown dwarf, or stellar mass companion) can excite multiple spiral arms in the density structure, and the arms inside the perturber's orbit are very prominent in NIR scattered light images, in striking similarity with observations. Very recently, the perturber was found for the first time in the HD 100453 disk, as a M dwarf companion. This gives us great confidence of our models, and suggests that the double spirals in the other two objects, MWC 758 and SAO 206462, are very likely to be excited in a similar way, by a currently unseen perturber outside the arms. In particular, by measuring the angular distance between the two arms and comparing it with our models, we determine that the perturber in SAO 206462 is about 6 Jupiter mass.

  20. Seasonal variations in light scattering in the New York region and their relation to sources

    SciTech Connect

    Leaderer, B.P.; Tanner, R.L.; Lioy, P.J.; Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Light scattering data collected during two periods of intensive sampling in New York City (one during summer months and one during winter months) are discussed and analyzed for diurnal patterns, their relationship to pollutant emission sources, meteorological parameters, and the size distribution and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol. The lack of a diurnal pattern for light scattering in summer in combination with a strong positive association with ozone and wind direction dependency suggests that in summer the transport of an aged aerosol in photochemically rich air masses rather than local emissions of primary pollutants is largely responsible for the observed levels of light scattering in New York City. Winter levels of light scattering observed in New York City, while approximately 50% lower than summer levels, were much less dependent on wind direction and closely related to pollutant emissions from local sources. This suggests that locally generated aerosol dominates light scattering in the winter. Particles 0.1..mu..m to 1.3..mu..m in diameter were strongly correlated with light scattering in New York City during both summer and winter periods. However, a given volume of aerosol between 0.1..mu..m and 1.3..mu..m scattered more light in summer than in winter, indicating the fresher nature of the winter aerosol. Variance in dry particulate light scattering was found to principally account for light extinction variance (calculated from airport visibility observations) in summer and winter. Sulfate aerosol was strongly correlated with light scattering during both summer and winter periods.

  1. Spectral polarimetric light-scattering by particulate media: 1. Theory of spectral Vector Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceolato, Romain; Riviere, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Spectral polarimetric light-scattering by particulate media has recently attracted growing interests for various applications due to the production of directional broadband light sources. Here the spectral polarimetric light-scattering signatures of particulate media are simulated using a numerical model based on the spectral Vector Radiative Transfer Equation (VRTE). A microphysical analysis is conducted to understand the dependence of the light-scattering signatures upon the microphysical parameters of particles. We reveal that depolarization from multiple scattering results in remarkable spectral and directional features, which are simulated by our model over a wide spectral range from visible to near-infrared. We propose to use these features to improve the inversion of the scattering problem in the fields of remote sensing, astrophysics, material science, or biomedical.

  2. Large Scale Simulations of Elastic Light Scattering by a Fast Discrete Dipole Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, A. G.; Grimminck, M. D.; Sloot, P. M. A.

    Simulation of Elastic Light Scattering from arbitrary shaped particles in the resonance region (i.e., with a dimension of several wavelengths of the incident light) is a long standing challenge. By employing the combination of a simulation kernel with low computational complexity, implemented on powerful High Performance Computing systems, we are now able to push the limits of simulation of scattering of visible light towards particles with dimensions up to 10 micrometers. This allows for the first time the simulation of realistic and highly relevant light scattering experiments, such as scattering from human red — or white blood cells, or scattering from large soot — or dust particles. We use the Discrete Dipole Approximation to simulate the light scattering process. In this paper we report on a parallel Fast Discrete Dipole Approximation, and we will show the performance of the resulting code, running under PVM on a 32-node Parsytec CC. Furthermore, as an example we present results of a simulation of scattering from human white blood cells. In a first approximation the Lymphocyte is modeled as a sphere with a spherical inclusion. We investigate the influence of the position of the inner sphere, modeling the nucleus of a Lymphocyte, on the light scattering signals.

  3. Measuring the dynamics of structural changes in biological macromolecules from light scattering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Adriel D.

    1993-01-01

    Examining techniques to study the dynamics of structural changes in various molecules has been an ongoing goal of the space program. Knowing how these phenomena occur in biological systems is fundamental to understanding what is necessary for life to remain functional in the space environment. A hierarchy of biological organization is functionally described when cells join together small organic molecules to form larger and more complex molecules. Characterizing the architecture of a particular macromolecule helps determine how that molecule works in the living cell and is basic to the diversity of life. Understanding this arrangement involves the correlation of the structure of macromolecules with their functions. A light scattering photometer was developed for detecting continuous measurement of the angular spectrum of light scattered by dynamically changing systems. The analysis of light scattered by biological macromolecules can be used to determine concentration, size, shape, molecular weight, and structural changes of cells, such as erythrocytes. Some light scattering photometers can collect and store 120 angular scattering spectra per minute, with an angular resolution of 0.2 deg which can be displayed with computer graphics. The light scattering photometer does the following: functions to produce and detect scattered light; determines scatter angles; and collects, stores, and analyzes data.

  4. Coherent scattering of light into high frequency radiowaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J.

    1983-03-01

    The coherent radiation interaction, and scattering, by nuclei of a crystal for which each volume element has the same sign of the interaction with an incident beam, and for which the coupling of scatters with each other is important, is computed. Experiments are described which appear to verify the theory.

  5. Stochastic description of the light scattered by a polydisperse colloidal suspension: simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-07-21

    In this work, the stochastic properties of the detected signal in dynamic light scattering experiments are examined in light of Doob's theorem. For Markovian observations of the Brownian particle position, we prove from this theorem that the electric field scattered by a polydisperse suspension can be accounted for by a linear combination of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. A new algorithm for generating the fluctuating field scattered by a polydisperse system is proposed from this alternative formalism. The statistics of our synthetic data is compared satisfactorily with that resulting from the experimental signal scattered by a binary suspension of polystyrene microspheres. PMID:19624211

  6. Elastic light scattering by the atoms of a Bose gas confined in a parabolic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, V. A.

    2008-09-15

    It is shown that the emergence of a condensate fraction in a gas confined in a trap leads to a sharp increase in the intensity of elastic scattering (scattering not accompanied by a change in the quantum numbers describing the motion of gas atoms in the trap) of light. Under typical experimental conditions, this intensity may be thousands of times greater than the intensity of inelastic scattering, which is hardly affected by the condensate. The angular distribution of elastic scattering of light allows one to determine the size of the condensate, and its intensity makes it possible to determine the number of particles trapped in the condensate.

  7. Stochastic description of the light scattered by a polydisperse colloidal suspension: simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-07-21

    In this work, the stochastic properties of the detected signal in dynamic light scattering experiments are examined in light of Doob's theorem. For Markovian observations of the Brownian particle position, we prove from this theorem that the electric field scattered by a polydisperse suspension can be accounted for by a linear combination of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. A new algorithm for generating the fluctuating field scattered by a polydisperse system is proposed from this alternative formalism. The statistics of our synthetic data is compared satisfactorily with that resulting from the experimental signal scattered by a binary suspension of polystyrene microspheres.

  8. Characterization of aggregates of surface modified fullerenes by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Astefanei, Alina; Kok, Wim Th; Bäuerlein, Patrick; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa; de Voogt, Pim; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-08-21

    Fullerenes are carbon nanoparticles with widespread biomedical, commercial and industrial applications. Attributes such as their tendency to aggregate and aggregate size and shape impact their ability to be transported into and through the environment and living tissues. Knowledge of these properties is therefore valuable for their human and environmental risk assessment as well as to control their synthesis and manufacture. In this work, asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) was used for the first time to study the size distribution of surface modified fullerenes with both polyhydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups in aqueous solutions having different pH (6.5-11) and ionic strength values (0-200mM) of environmental relevance. Fractionation key parameters such as flow rates, flow programming, and membrane material were optimized for the selected fullerenes. The aggregation of the compounds studied appeared to be indifferent to changes in solution pH, but was affected by changes in the ionic strength. Polyhydroxy-fullerenes were found to be present mostly as 4nm aggregates in water without added salt, but showed more aggregation at high ionic strength, with an up to 10-fold increase in their mean hydrodynamic radii (200mM), due to a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the nanoparticles. Carboxy-fullerenes showed a much stronger aggregation degree in water (50-100nm). Their average size and recoveries decreased with the increase in the salt concentration. This behavior can be due to enhanced adsorption of the large particles to the membrane at high ionic strength, because of their higher hydrophobicity and much larger particle sizes compared to polyhydroxy-fullerenes. The method performance was evaluated by calculating the run-to-run precision of the retention time (hydrodynamic radii), and the obtained RSD values were lower than 1%. MALS measurements showed aggregate sizes that were in good

  9. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  10. Ribosome formation from subunits studied by stopped-flow and Rayleigh light scattering.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Ayman; Pavlov, Michael Y.; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg M, M åNs

    2004-01-01

    Light scattering and standard stopped-flow techniques were used to monitor rapid association of ribosomal subunits during initiation of eubacterial protein synthesis. The effects of the initiation factors IF1, IF2, IF3 and buffer conditions on subunit association were studied along with the role of GTP in this process. The part of light scattering theory that is essential for kinetic measurements is high-lighted in the main text and a more general treatment of Rayleigh scattering from macromolecules is given in an appendix. PMID:15103398

  11. Equivalence theorem for the spectral density of light waves on weak scattering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-07-01

    The Equivalence theorem for the spectral density of light waves on weak scattering is discussed. It is shown that when a spatially coherent plane light wave is scattered from two entirely different media, the far-zone spectral density may have identical distribution provided the low-frequency antidiagonal spatial Fourier components of the correlation function of the media are the same. An example of light waves on scattering from a Gaussian Schell model medium is discussed, and the condition on which two different media may produce identical spectral densities is presented.

  12. Differentiation of normal and leukemic cells by 2D light scattering label-free static cytometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linyan; Liu, Qiao; Shao, Changshun; Su, Xuantao

    2016-09-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) light scattering patterns of single microspheres, normal granulocytes and leukemic cells are obtained by label-free static cytometry. Statistical results of experimental 2D light scattering patterns obtained from standard microspheres with a mean diameter of 4.19 μm agree well with theoretical simulations. High accuracy rates (greater than 92%) for label-free differentiation of normal granulocytes and leukemic cells, both the acute and chronic leukemic cells, are achieved by analyzing the 2D light scattering patterns. Our label-free static cytometry is promising for leukemia screening in clinics. PMID:27661908

  13. Influence of Forward and Multiple Light Scatter on the Measurement of Beam Attenuation in Highly Scattering Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W. Kendall

    2004-08-01

    Using three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, we examine the effect of beam transmissometer geometry on the relative error in the measurement of the beam-attenuation coefficient in an aquatic environment characterized by intense light scattering, especially within submerged bubble clouds entrained by surface-wave breaking. We discuss the forward-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered at small angles (< 1°) and the multiple-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered more than once along the path length of the instrument. Several scattering phase functions describing bubble clouds at different bubble void fractions in the water are considered. Owing to forward-scattering error, a beam-attenuation meter (beam transmissometer) with a half-angle of receiver acceptance of 1.0° and a path length of 0.1 m can underestimate the true beam attenuation within the bubble cloud by more than 50%. For bubble clouds with a beam attenuation of as much as 100 m^-1, the multiple-scattering error is no more than a few percent. These results are compared with simulations for some example phase functions that are representative of other scattering regimes found in natural waters. The forward-scattering error for the Petzold phase function of turbid waters is 16% for a typical instrument geometry, whereas for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function with the asymmetry parameter of 0.7 and 0.9 the error range is 8-28%.

  14. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halaney, David L.; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture.

  15. A study of the polarization of light scattered by vegetation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover and grass in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of leaves were measured. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The light scattered from the upper leaf surface was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for qualitatively but not quantitatively by the Fresnel reflection coefficients modified by a shadowing function of the form cos sup2 (g/2), where g is the phase angle. Findings indicate that the polarization of light scattered by vegetation is a more complex process than previously thought, and that besides the surface-scattered component of light, the volume-scattered and multiply-scattered components also contribute significantly to the polarization.

  16. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  17. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A; Heap, Lucy A; Scott, Ethan K; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-06-25

    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam's degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics.

  18. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A.; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heap, Lucy A.; Scott, Ethan K.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam’s degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz–Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics. PMID:26108566

  19. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Halaney, David L; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E; Feldman, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture. PMID:26538329

  20. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A.; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heap, Lucy A.; Scott, Ethan K.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam’s degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics.

  1. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A; Heap, Lucy A; Scott, Ethan K; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam's degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics. PMID:26108566

  2. Planet signatures in collisionally active debris discs: scattered light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Ertel, S.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Planet perturbations have been often invoked as a potential explanation for many spatial structures that have been imaged in debris discs. So far this issue has been mostly investigated with pure N-body numerical models, which neglect the crucial effect collisions within the disc can have on the disc's response to dynamical perturbations. Aims: We numerically investigate how the coupled effect of collisions and radiation pressure can affect the formation and survival of radial and azimutal structures in a disc perturbed by a planet. We consider two different set-ups: a planet embedded within an extended disc and a planet exterior to an inner debris ring. One important issue we want to address is under which conditions a planet's signature can be observable in a collisionally active disc. Methods: We use our DyCoSS code, which is designed to investigate the structure of perturbed debris discs at dynamical and collisional steady-state, and derive synthetic images of the system in scattered light. The planet's mass and orbit, as well as the disc's collisional activity (parameterized by its average vertical optical depth τ0) are explored as free parameters. Results: We find that collisions always significantly damp planet-induced spatial structures. For the case of an embedded planet, the planet's signature, mostly a density gap around its radial position, should remain detectable in head-on images if Mplanet ≥ MSaturn. If the system is seen edge-on, however, inferring the presence of the planet is much more difficult, as only weak asymmetries remain in a collisionally active disc, although some planet-induced signatures might be observable under very favourable conditions. For the case of an inner ring and an external planet, planetary perturbations cannot prevent collision-produced small fragments from populating the regions beyond the ring. The radial luminosity profile exterior to the ring is in most cases close to the one it should have in the absence

  3. Dynamic Properties of Langmuir Films by Laser Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, John Newell

    A technique and instrumentation for measuring visco-elastic properties of Langmuir film organic monolayers has been developed. This technique is used to characterize certain films used in the manufacture of Langmuir-Blodgett solid films. Furthermore a comparison of the dynamic viscous and elastic moduli determined by this technique is made with static values determined from the Pressure versus Area Isotherm. Briefly, a Langmuir film consists of amphiphilic organic molecules spread in a trough filled with pure water. The hydrophobic ends of the molecules trap them on the water surface. When spread at a dilute concentration the molecules exhibit two dimensional ideal gas behavior. By increasing the surface concentration one obtains two dimensional liquid and finally two dimensional solid behavior. The measurement is performed by electrodynamically driving the liquid surface with the electric field from a razor blade brought to within less than 1 mm of the surface. A sinusoidally varying electric field induces dipoles in the water subphase and generates waves at twice the driving frequency (Attractive dipoles are generated whether the field is positive or negative). The space propagation and damping of these waves is measured by laser light scattering. A focused laser beam incident on the surface is reflected at an angle due to the slope of the waves on the surface. By observing the movement of the beam the amplitude and phase of the oscillation with respect to the driving function may be determined (via a Lock-In amplifier) at various distances from the razor blade. One may directly profile the waves by translating the profiler, or one may observe the variation in amplitude and phase while scanning the frequency or surface pressure. In the latter cases one uses a known reference state to determine the wavelength and damping from the amplitude and phase change. This data is fit by a non-linear least squares curve fitting program to determine the wavelength and space

  4. Effects of static magnetic fields on light scattering in red chromatophore of goldfish scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaka, M.

    2010-05-01

    Light scattering in a guanine crystal plate of goldfish scales was observed with and without static magnetic field exposure. Under a microscopic image with dark-field-illumination, the structural color of the scale by guanine plates was observed, and isolated chromatophores showed a twinkling which was the intermittent light scattering of the light from the side. The light scattering was quenched by static magnetic fields of more than 0.26 tesla (T). The quenching was reversibly occurred when the applied external magnetic fields were changed between ambient fields and 5 T. The quenched light scattering did not improve when the magnetic field was decreased from 5 to 0.3 T. It recovered to the original twinkling state about one minute after reaching an ambient geomagnetic field level. The mechanism of the quenched light scattering was speculated to be concerned with the possible magnetic orientation of guanine crystal plates, which were sustained by protein fibers in the red chromatophore. The diamagnetic complex of guanine crystal plates and protein fibers are the candidates for the nanosized light scattering controller based on the magnetic orientation mechanism.

  5. Light-scattering thermal cross-linking material using morphology of nanoparticle free polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    A newly light-scattering thermal cross-linking material based on self-assembly for forming the morphology of nanoparticle free polymer blends was reported. The material design concept to use light-scattering thermal cross-linking material with high uniformity of light on display panel from LED for high quality such as brightness and evenness, mechanical properties, and gas and water barrier properties. The high light scattering rate of 8 % at 350-450 nm of wavelength, fast cure film at 140 ºC and 120 s, and thermal stability at 190 ºC in bake condition for high productivity were indicated in the light-scattering thermal cross-linking material using the nanoparticle free polymers with carboxylic acid functional groups. These novel system using morphology of nanoparticle free polymer blends in light-scattering package material for a LCD using LED was a valuable approach to the design of material formulations for newly light-scattering thermal cross-linking material.

  6. Light Scattering by Ice Crystals Containing Air Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Panetta, R. L.; Yang, P.; Bi, L.

    2014-12-01

    The radiative effects of ice clouds are often difficult to estimate accurately, but are very important for interpretation of observations and for climate modeling. Our understanding of these effects is primarily based on scattering calculations, but due to the variability in ice habit it is computationally difficult to determine the required scattering and absorption properties, and the difficulties are only compounded by the need to include consideration of air and carbon inclusions of the sort frequently observed in collected samples. Much of the previous work on effects of inclusions in ice particles on scattering properties has been conducted with variants of geometric optics methods. We report on simulations of scattering by ice crystals with enclosed air bubbles using the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) and improved geometric optics method (IGOM). A Bouncing Ball Model (BBM) is proposed as a parametrization of air bubbles, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that air inclusions lead to a smoothing of variations in the phase function, weakening of halos, and a reduction of backscattering. We extend these studies by examining the effects of the particular arrangement of a fixed number of bubbles, as well as the effects of splitting a given number of bubbles into a greater number of smaller bubbles with the same total volume fraction. The result shows that the phase function will not change much for stochastic distributed air bubbles. It also shows that local maxima of phase functions are smoothed out for backward directions, when we break bubbles into small ones, single big bubble scatter favors more forward scattering than multi small internal scatters.

  7. T-Matrix Computations of Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    We review the current status of Waterman's T-matrix approach which is one of the most powerful and widely used tools for accurately computing light scattering by nonspherical particles, both single and composite, based on directly solving Maxwell's equations. Specifically, we discuss the analytical method for computing orientationally-averaged light-scattering characteristics for ensembles of nonspherical particles, the methods for overcoming the numerical instability in calculating the T matrix for single nonspherical particles with large size parameters and/or extreme geometries, and the superposition approach for computing light scattering by composite/aggregated particles. Our discussion is accompanies by multiple numerical examples demonstrating the capabilities of the T-matrix approach and showing effects of nonsphericity of simple convex particles (spheroids) on light scattering.

  8. Cancer detection using NIR elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B; Gandour-Edwards, R; deVere White, R

    2000-12-04

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence under long-wavelength laser excitation are explored for cancer detection. Various types of normal and malignant human tissue samples were utilized in this investigation.

  9. Coherent Scattering of Near-Resonant Light by a Dense Microscopic Cold Atomic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, S.; Besbes, M.; Schilder, N. J.; Jenkins, S. D.; Sauvan, C.; Ruostekoski, J.; Greffet, J.-J.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Browaeys, A.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the coherent scattering of light by a cloud of laser-cooled atoms with a size comparable to the wavelength of light. By interfering a laser beam tuned near an atomic resonance with the field scattered by the atoms, we observe a resonance with a redshift, a broadening, and a saturation of the extinction for increasing atom numbers. We attribute these features to enhanced light-induced dipole-dipole interactions in a cold, dense atomic ensemble that result in a failure of standard predictions such as the "cooperative Lamb shift". The description of the atomic cloud by a mean-field model based on the Lorentz-Lorenz formula that ignores scattering events where light is scattered recurrently by the same atom and by a microscopic discrete dipole model that incorporates these effects lead to progressively closer agreement with the observations, despite remaining differences.

  10. In vivo measurement of mid-infrared light scattering from human skin

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anna P. M.; Liakat, Sabbir; Bors, Kevin; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2013-01-01

    Two mid-infrared light sources, a broadband source from a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and a pulsed Quantum Cascade (QC) Laser, are used to measure angle-resolved backscattering in vivo from human skin across a broad spectral range. Scattering profiles measured using the FTIR suggest limited penetration of the light into the skin, with most of the light interacting with the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis. Scattering profiles from the QC laser show modulation patterns with angle suggesting interaction with scattering centers in the skin. The scattering is attributed to interaction of the laser light with components such as collagen fibers and capillaries in the dermis layer of the skin. PMID:23577287

  11. Coherent Scattering of Near-Resonant Light by a Dense Microscopic Cold Atomic Cloud.

    PubMed

    Jennewein, S; Besbes, M; Schilder, N J; Jenkins, S D; Sauvan, C; Ruostekoski, J; Greffet, J-J; Sortais, Y R P; Browaeys, A

    2016-06-10

    We measure the coherent scattering of light by a cloud of laser-cooled atoms with a size comparable to the wavelength of light. By interfering a laser beam tuned near an atomic resonance with the field scattered by the atoms, we observe a resonance with a redshift, a broadening, and a saturation of the extinction for increasing atom numbers. We attribute these features to enhanced light-induced dipole-dipole interactions in a cold, dense atomic ensemble that result in a failure of standard predictions such as the "cooperative Lamb shift". The description of the atomic cloud by a mean-field model based on the Lorentz-Lorenz formula that ignores scattering events where light is scattered recurrently by the same atom and by a microscopic discrete dipole model that incorporates these effects lead to progressively closer agreement with the observations, despite remaining differences. PMID:27341230

  12. Coherent reflectometer with a two-fibre scattered-light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vdovenko, V S; Gorshkov, B G; Zazirnyi, M V; Kulakov, A T; Kurkov, Andrei S; Paramonov, Vladimir M

    2011-02-28

    We have designed and implemented a new fibre-optic phase-sensitive coherent reflectometer configuration, which allows one to avoid signal fading owing to the use of a two-fibre scattered-light interferometer. (fiber optics)

  13. Dynamic light scattering (DLS)-based immunoassay for ultra-sensitive detection of tumor marker protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ma, Jiehua; Fan, Qiongxuan; Tao, Yaqin; Li, Genxi

    2016-06-14

    A novel dynamic light scattering (DLS)-based immunoassay that utilizes manganese dioxide nanosheet-modified gold nanoparticles (MnO2-GNPs) as an activatable nanoprobe has been developed to detect tumor markers down to femtomolar levels. PMID:27247980

  14. Spectrum of laser light scattered by nanoparticles in an ablation-induced cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Masato; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of the laser light scattered by nanoparticles in a cavitation bubble, which was induced by laser ablation of a titanium target in water, was measured using a triple-grating spectrograph. The scattered laser light observed at 100 \\upmu s after laser ablation had no wavelength-shifted component, suggesting that nanoparticles at this delay time were metallic. The wavelength-shifted component was observed in the spectrum at a delay time of 200 \\upmu s, suggesting the formation of oxidized nanoparticles. However, we observed no peaks in the spectrum of the scattered laser light in the present in situ laser-light scattering experiment. On the other hand, we observed clear peaks in the Raman spectrum of synthesized nanoparticles. The experimental results suggest slow crystallization of nanoparticles in liquid in liquid-phase laser ablation.

  15. Diffuse light scattering from a dense and cold microscopic 87Rb sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kasie; Roof, S. J.; Havey, M. D.; Sokolov, I. M.; Kupriyanov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    We report investigation of near-resonance light scattering from a cold atomic sample of 87Rb. Measurements are made on the F = 2 -->F' = 3 nearly closed hyperfine transition for atomic densities ranging from ~1010 to ~1013 atoms/cm3. The sample, initially prepared in a magneto-optical trap, is loaded into a far-off-resonance trap (FORT) in which the ensemble has a temperature ~100 μK and initial Gaussian radii of ~3 μm and ~280 μm in the transverse and longitudinal directions, respectively. The experimental geometry consists of projecting a near-resonance collimated laser beam onto the entire volume of the FORT and detecting the diffusely scattered light. The measured scattered light intensity as a function of detuning, atomic density, and sample size suggests that collective light scattering plays an important role in the experimental results. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NSF-PHY-1068159).

  16. Light scattering by marine algae: two-layer spherical and nonspherical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirantes, Arturo; Bernard, Stewart

    2004-11-01

    Light scattering properties of algae-like particles are modeled using the T-matrix for coated scatterers. Two basic geometries have been considered: off-centered coated spheres and centered spheroids. Extinction, scattering and absorption efficiencies, plus scattering in the backward plane, are compared to simpler models like homogeneous (Mie) and coated (Aden-Kerker) models. The anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA), of widespread use in the oceanographic light-scattering community, has also been used as a first approximation, for both homogeneous and coated spheres. T-matrix calculations show that some light scattering values, such as extinction and scattering efficiencies, have little dependence on particle shape, thus reinforcing the view that simpler (Mie, Aden-Kerker) models can be applied to infer refractive index (RI) data from absorption curves. The backscattering efficiency, on the other hand, is quite sensitive to shape. This calls into question the use of light scattering techniques where the phase function plays a pivotal role, and can help explain the observed discrepancy between theoretical and experimental values of the backscattering coefficient in observed in oceanic studies.

  17. The GEA methods for light scattering by dielectric cylinder with fixed orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jounghoon

    1999-11-01

    The GEA method is employed to study light scattering by dielectric cylinder with fixed orientations. A simple formula is obtained for a thin cylinder. The results from a dielectric cylinder with fixed orientations are compared numerically and found to agree well with T- matrix method for small angle scattering. The numerical results for a cylinder are obtained.

  18. Measurement of defects by measuring of light scattering from surfaces using focused illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, O.; Bruce, Neil C.

    2016-04-01

    Light scattering has been used as a method of characterizing material or surface roughness in different areas of the science and technology, usually the surface is illuminated with light and the pattern of scattering is measured above the surface. In the literature, the scattered light has been measured using an incident beam with a diameter on the order of a few cm for surfaces with roughness scales of the order of microns, mainly to avoid problems with the speckle pattern of light. However, this kind of measurement does not give information on local variations in roughness or defects present in the sample. Also, it has been reported in many studies that the polarization of the scattered light is affected by the surface material and roughness. In this paper we present a novel experimental device used to identify local defects on surfaces by the measurement of the scattered light pattern using laser light focused onto the surface. We present results of experimental measurements for two surfaces with roughness and defects of the order of 6 to 60 microns using sizes of incident beam of the same order and we compare the results of experimental cases with results of numerical calculation based on the Kirchhoff Approximation of light scattering by rough surfaces. We include preliminary results from the effect on the pattern of light scattering as a function of the polarization state by using focused light to illuminate the surface, we calculate the Mueller matrix for the equivalent period of the surface micro-manufactured experimentally. Finally we conclude about the validity of the method.

  19. Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeremy D.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Yi, Ji; Backman, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Optical interactions with biological tissue provide powerful tools for study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. When optical methods are used in applications involving tissue, scattering of light is an important phenomenon. In imaging modalities, scattering provides contrast, but also limits imaging depth, so models help optimize an imaging technique. Scattering can also be used to collect information about the tissue itself providing diagnostic value. Therapies involving focused beams require scattering models to assess dose distribution. In all cases, models of light scattering in tissue are crucial to correctly interpreting the measured signal. Here, we review a versatile model of light scattering that uses the Whittle–Matérn correlation family to describe the refractive index correlation function Bn (rd). In weakly scattering media such as tissue, Bn (rd) determines the shape of the power spectral density from which all other scattering characteristics are derived. This model encompasses many forms such as mass fractal and the Henyey–Greenstein function as special cases. We discuss normalization and calculation of optical properties including the scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor. Experimental methods using the model are also described to quantify tissue properties that depend on length scales of only a few tens of nanometers. PMID:25587211

  20. Light scattering characterization of single biological cells in a microfluidic cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xuantao; Kirkwood, Sean E.; Gul, Hilal; Singh, Kirat; Islam, Md. Z.; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Rozmus, Wojciech; Tsui, Ying Y.

    2009-06-01

    The characterization of single biological cells in a microfluidic flow by using a 2D light scattering microfluidic cytometric technique is described. Laser light is coupled into a microfluidic cytometer via an optical fiber to illuminate a single scatterer in a fluidic flow. The 2D light scattering patterns are obtained by using a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. The system is tested by using standard polystyrene beads of 4 μm and 9.6 μm in diameter, and the bead experimental results agree well with 1D Mie theory simulation results. Experiments on yeast cells are performed using the microfluidic cytometer. Cell results are studied by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which can simulate light scattering from non-homogeneous cells. For example, a complex biological cell model with inner mitochondrial distribution is studied by FDTD in this paper. Considering the yeast cell size variations, the yeast cell 2D scatter patterns agree well with the FDTD 2D simulation patterns. The system is capable of obtaining 2D side scatter patterns from a single biological cell which may contain rich information on the biological cell inner structures. The integration of light scattering, microfluidics and fiber optics described here may ultimately allow the development of a lab-on-chip cytometer for label-free detection of diseases at a single cell level.

  1. A review of light-scattering techniques for the study of colloids in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the movement of colloidal materials in natural waters, we first need to have a means of quantifying their physical characteristics. This paper reviews three techniques which utilize light-scattering phenomena to measure the translational diffusion coefficient, the rotational diffusion coefficient, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloids suspended in water. Primary emphasis is to provide sufficient theoretical detail so that hydrologists can evaluate the utility of photon correlation spectrometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and electric birefringence analysis. ?? 1987.

  2. Protein crystal nucleation kinetics using relative light-scattering techniques: Center director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc Lee

    1989-01-01

    Light-scattering intensity measurements are a sensitive method for following changes in the hydrodynamic radius of particles in solution. The approach used in this report utilizes the light-scattering intensity ratios of a polydisperse to a monodisperse system. By numerically modeling the process, and fitting the model curves to the data, estimates have been obtained for the dimerization equilibrium constant, the dimer + dimer yields tetramer equilibrium constant, and the association rate constant for the dimerization process.

  3. Experimental and theoretical realization of enhanced light scattering spectroscopy of gold nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunbo; Song, Linlin; Qiao, Yisha

    2015-01-12

    Assisted with transmission electron microscopy and extinction spectra, the enhanced light scattering (ELS) experiments were performed with gold nanoparticles. Although both the nanospheres and nanorods can enhance light scattering in study aggregation, the spectral characteristics of gold nanorods is relatively simple compared to that of nanospheres. This will further extend the application range of ELS method to determinate the amounts of inorganic ions in analytical field and investigate on the macromolecular aggregation in polymeric research due to its simplicity, rapidity, and sensitivity.

  4. Dynamic light scattering investigations of nanoparticle aggregation following a light-induced pH jump.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ryan J; Pristinski, Denis; Migler, Kalman; Douglas, Jack F; Prabhu, Vivek M

    2010-05-21

    There are many important processes where the stability of nanoparticles can change due to changes in solution environment. These processes are often difficult to study under controlled changes to the solution conditions. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the initial kinetics of aggregation of carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles after well-defined pH jumps using aqueous solutions of photoacid generator (PAG). With this approach, the pH of the solution was controlled by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light without the delays from mixing or stirring. The aggregation kinetics of the nanoparticles was extremely sensitive to the solution pH. The UV exposure dose is inversely correlated with the resulting surface charge of the nanoparticles. Decreasing pH decreases the electrostatic repulsion force between particles and leads to aggregation. The reaction-limited or diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics was sensitive to the pH quench depth, relative to the acid-equilibrium constant (pK(a)) of the surface carboxylic acid groups on the nanoparticles. Since numerous PAGs are commercially available, this approach provides a flexible method to study the aggregation of a variety of solvent-dispersed nanoparticle systems. PMID:20499988

  5. Light scattering by absorbing hexagonal ice crystals in cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Xu, L

    1995-09-01

    An improved ray-optics theory for single scattering and polarization of hexagonal columns and plates randomly oriented in space has been developed by considering absorption and by using the Chebyshev solution for diffraction integrals. The vector-tracing method and statistics technique of random sampling are employed. The equivalent forms of Snell's law and Fresnel formulas for absorbing ice crystals are derived, and two equivalent optical constants, m' and m″, are obtained. Comparison is made of the computed results of our model and the Takano and Liou model for asymmetry factors, single-scattering albedos, and scattering phase matrix elements. Some characteristics of our model are discussed, and these analyses demonstrate that our ray-optics model is practical and much improved.

  6. Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kotlarchyk, M; Chen, S H; Asano, S

    1979-07-15

    The quasi-elastic light scattering has become an established technique for a rapid and quantitative characterization of an average motility pattern of motile bacteria in suspensions. Essentially all interpretations of the measured light scattering intensities and spectra so far are based on the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) approximation. Since the range of sizes of bacteria of interest is generally larger than the wavelength of light used in the measurement, one is not certain of the justification for the use of the RGD approximation. In this paper we formulate a method by which both the scattering intensity and the quasi-elastic light scattering spectra can be calculated from a rigorous scattering theory. For a specific application we study the case of bacteria Escherichia coli (about 1 microm in size) by using numerical solutions of the scattering field amplitudes from a prolate spheroid, which is known to simulate optical properties of the bacteria well. We have computed (1) polarized scattered light intensity vs scattering angle for a randomly oriented bacteria population; (2) polarized scattered field correlation functions for both a freely diffusing bacterium and for a bacterium undergoing a straight line motion in random directions and with a Maxwellian speed distribution; and (3) the corresponding depolarized scattered intensity and field correlation functions. In each case sensitivity of the result to variations of the index of refraction and size of the bacterium is investigated. The conclusion is that within a reasonable range of parameters applicable to E. coli, the accuracy of the RGD is good to within 10% at all angles for the properties (1) and (2), and the depolarized contributions in (3) are generally very small. PMID:20212685

  7. Features of polarization decay in the transition between the low-step and multiple scattering of laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Taskina, L. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Isaeva, A. A.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of increase in the uncertainty of local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by random media was studied in the experiments with phantom scatterers. At macroscopic level this effect is related to decay in the degree of polarization of scattered light in the course of transition from single to multiple scattering. Gelatin layers with embedded titania particles were used as the phantom scatterers. Features of distributions of local polarization states in various polarization coordinates were considered.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of light scattering from size distributed homogenous and coated spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Ankur

    Light scattering is a subject of intensive research at the present time in diverse fields of research namely, physics, astronomy, meteorology, biology, nanotechnology, etc. Observation and theoretical calculation of the absorption and scattering properties of particles, whose size ranges from micrometer to nanometer, are not only essential to deduce their physical properties but also capable of giving useful information for better understanding of radiation transfer through a medium containing such scatterer. In addition to such experimental and theoretical studies on light scattering by particulate matter several other groups have been extensively using Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate light (photon) propagation in scattering media. Importantly such methods of simulating light scattering properties of artificial particles are proving to be a very useful tool in verifying the experimental observations with real samples as well as providing new clues to improve the accuracy of the existing theoretical models. In this contribution we report a MC method developed by implementing Mie theory to simulate the light scattering pattern from size distributed homogenous and coated spherical particles in single scattering regime. The computer program was written in ANSI C-language. The accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the MC method were validated by comparing the results generated by using the MC method with other benchmark theoretical results and experimental results with standard samples. Notably the MC method reported here is found to be stable even for very large spherical particles (size parameters > 1000) with large values of real (= 10) and imaginary part (= 10) of the refractive index. The promising field of application of the reported MC method will be in simulating the light (or electromagnetic) scattering properties of different types of planetary and interplanetary dust particles.

  9. Investigation of light scattering as a technique for detecting discrete soot particles in a luminous flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The practicability of using a classical light-scattering technique, involving comparison of angular scattering intensity patterns with theoretically determined Mie and Rayleight patterns, to detect discrete soot particles (diameter less than 50 nm) in premixed propane/air and propane/oxygen-helium flames is considered. The experimental apparatus employed in this investigation included a laser light source, a flat-flame burner, specially coated optics, a cooled photomultiplier detector, and a lock-in voltmeter readout. Although large, agglomerated soot particles were detected and sized, it was not possible to detect small, discrete particles. The limiting factor appears to be background scattering by the system's optics.

  10. Double scattering of light from Biophotonic Nanostructures with short-range order

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui

    2010-07-28

    We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.

  11. Optimal control of light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of noise

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Vos, Willem L.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the control of coherent light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of measurement noise. In our experiments, we use a two-step optimization procedure to find the optimal incident wavefront that generates a bright focal spot behind the medium. We conclude that the control of coherent light propagation through a multiple-scattering medium is only determined by the number of photoelectrons detected per optimized segment. The prediction of our model agrees well with the experimental results. Our results offer opportunities for imaging applications through scattering media such as biological tissue in the shot noise limit. PMID:24049696

  12. Multipole analysis of unidirectional light scattering from plasmonic dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutrina, E.; Urbas, A.

    2014-11-01

    We analyze unidirectional scattering produced by sub-wavelength plasmonic dimers formed by two silver strips separated by a thin dielectric spacer and embedded in a uniform dielectric medium. Achieving the Kerker condition, which requires matching the strengths of the electric and magnetic-type contributions of the same multipolar order, is possible with such structures for both forward and backward unidirectional scattering by matching the geometric shape-leveraged resonant magnetic dipolar response with the off-resonant electric dipolar contribution. However, unidirectionality is strongly affected by coupling between the two elements in the dimer structure, leading to the manifestation of the electric quadrupole response in the far field. We develop an approach allowing for an easy inverse scattering retrieval of various multipole contributions to the far-field pattern produced by this type of geometry. The retrieval shows unambiguously that the electric quadrupole response contributes up to 30% of the scattered far-field intensity, in addition to strong manifestation of both electric and magnetic dipolar modes. A modified condition for unidirectionality can be developed based on the principle that suppression of radiation in either the forward or backward direction can be achieved whenever the combined strength of multipolar modes of a certain parity, radiating along the propagation direction, matches that of an opposite parity, and noting that parities of electric and magnetic modes interchange with increasing multipole order. With this condition satisfied, unidirectionality of 26 dB/17 dB for forward/backward scattering, respectively, can be achieved with dimer geometries. We also perform a detailed quantitative analysis of scattering cross sections of dimer structures compared to those of Si and gold spheres, accounting for the actual material losses. We show that dimer structures allow for improving backscattering unidirectionality by 10 dB compared to what

  13. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-04-01

    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.

  14. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-04-01

    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric. PMID:27140772

  15. Angle-Resolved Second-Harmonic Light Scattering from Colloidal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, N.; Angerer, W. E.; Yodh, A. G.

    2001-09-01

    We report angle-resolved second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements from suspensions of centrosymmetric micron-size polystyrene spheres with surface-adsorbed dye (malachite green). The second-harmonic scattering profiles differ qualitatively from linear light scattering profiles of the same particles. We investigated these radiation patterns using several polarization configurations and particle diameters. We introduce a simple Rayleigh-Gans-Debye model to account for the SHG scattering anisotropy. The model compares favorably with our experimental data. Our measurements suggest scattering anisotropy may be used to isolate particle nonlinear optics from other bulk nonlinear optical effects in suspension.

  16. Angle-Resolved Second-Harmonic Light Scattering from Colloidal Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, N.; Angerer, W. E.; Yodh, A. G.

    2001-09-03

    We report angle-resolved second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements from suspensions of centrosymmetric micron-size polystyrene spheres with surface-adsorbed dye (malachite green). The second-harmonic scattering profiles differ qualitatively from linear light scattering profiles of the same particles. We investigated these radiation patterns using several polarization configurations and particle diameters. We introduce a simple Rayleigh-Gans-Debye model to account for the SHG scattering anisotropy. The model compares favorably with our experimental data. Our measurements suggest scattering anisotropy may be used to isolate particle nonlinear optics from other bulk nonlinear optical effects in suspension.

  17. Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

  18. Light scattering by hexagonal ice crystals with distributed inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, R. Lee; Zhang, Jia-Ning; Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Tang, Guanlin

    2016-07-01

    Inclusions of air bubbles or soot particles have significant effects on the single-scattering properties of ice crystals, effects that in turn have significant impacts on the radiation budget of an atmosphere containing the crystals. This study investigates some of the single-scattering effects in the case of hexagonal ice crystals, including effects on the backscattering depolarization ratio, a quantity of practical importance in the interpretation of lidar observations. One distinguishing feature of the study is an investigation of scattering properties at a visible wavelength for a crystal with size parameter (x) above 100, a size regime where one expects some agreement between exact methods and geometrical optics methods. This expectation is generally borne out in a test comparison of how the sensitivity of scattering properties to the distribution of a given volume fraction of included air is represented using (i) an approximate Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method and (ii) a numerically exact pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) method. Another distinguishing feature of the study is a close examination, using the numerically exact Invariant-Imbedding T-Matrix (II-TM) method, of how some optical properties of importance to satellite remote sensing vary as the volume fraction of inclusions and size of crystal are varied. Although such an investigation of properties in the x>100 regime faces serious computational burdens that force a large number of idealizations and simplifications in the study, the results nevertheless provide an intriguing glimpse of what is evidently a quite complex sensitivity of optical scattering properties to inclusions of air or soot as volume fraction and size parameter are varied.

  19. Comparison of near-forward light scattering on oceanic turbulence and particles.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, D J; Domaradzki, J A; Stramski, D; Zaneveld, J R

    1998-07-20

    We examine and compare near-forward light scattering that is caused by turbulence and typical particulate assemblages in the ocean. The near-forward scattering by particles was calculated using Mie theory for homogeneous spheres and particle size distributions representative of natural assemblages in the ocean. Direct numerical simulations of a passive scalar with Prandtl number 7 mixed by homogeneous turbulence were used to represent temperature fluctuations and resulting inhomogeneities in the refractive index of water. Light scattering on the simulated turbulent flow was calculated using the geometrical-optics approximation. We found that the smallest temperature scales contribute the most to scattering, and that scattering on turbulence typically dominates over scattering on particles for small angles as large as 0.1 degrees . The scattering angle deviation that is due to turbulence for a light beam propagating over a 0.25-m path length in the oceanic water can be as large as 0.1 degrees . In addition, we carried out a preliminary laboratory experiment that illustrates the differences in the near-forward scattering on refractive-index inhomogeneities and particles. PMID:18285924

  20. Far Ultraviolet and Visible Light Scatter Measurements for CVD Silicon Carbide Mirrors for SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Gardner, Larry D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemically-vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) has become a popular mirror material for spaceborne solar instrumentation for the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range due to its appreciable broadband reflectance and favorable thermal and opto-mechanical properties. Scatter from surfaces of mirrors operating in this wavelength range can destroy otherwise good image contrast especially for extended targets such as the sun. While visible light scatter measurements are relatively easy to conduct, far ultraviolet (FUV) scatter measurements are not so easy. Visible light (633 nm) scatter measurements were performed on CVD SiC telescope mirrors (from the same vendor) for two instruments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) -- Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) and Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER). Additionally, extensive FUV scatter measurements were made for SUMER telescope mirrors. We attempt to correlate the results for those visible light scatter measurements and to explore the usefulness of visible scatter measurements to predictions of FUV scatter for this important material.

  1. The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, Iain; Cunningham, Alex; McKee, David

    2004-07-01

    A procedure has been devised for measuring the angular dependence of light scattering from suspensions of phytoplankton cells at forward angles from 0.25° to 8°. The cells were illuminated with a spatially-filtered laser beam and the angular distribution of scattered light measured by tracking a photodetector across the Fourier plane of a collecting lens using a stepper-motor driven stage. The procedure was calibrated by measuring scattering from latex bead suspensions with known size distributions. It was then used to examine the scattering from cultures of the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (4 µm × 5 µm), Dunaliella primolecta (6 µm × 7 µm) and Rhinomonas reticulata (5 µm × 11 µm). The results were compared with the predictions of Mie theory. Excellent agreement was obtained for spherical particles. A suitable choice of spherical-equivalent scattering parameters was required to enable reasonable agreement within the first diffraction lobe for ellipsoidal particles.

  2. Scattering of a Young’s diffractive electromagnetic light wave by quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping; Wu, Zhefu

    2015-09-01

    While remaining accurate under the first-order Born approximation and the paraxial assumption, the scattering of a Young’s diffractive electromagnetic light wave by a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is specifically addressed in this study. Analytical expressions are derived for spectral density as well as the spectral degree of coherence of the scattered field. As long as the components of the complex amplitude of incident waves are proportional to each other, the resultant scattered light in the far field is proven to satisfy two reciprocity relations, namely, that the spectral density is proportional to the spatial Fourier transformation of the normalized correlation coefficient of the scattering potential, while the spectral degree of coherence is dependent only on the spatial Fourier transformation of the strength of the scattering potential.

  3. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains.

  4. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains. PMID:26458562

  5. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou.

  6. On the role of strong gravity in polarization from scattering of light in relativistic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horák, J.; Karas, V.

    2006-01-01

    We study linear polarization due to scattering of light on a cloudlet of particles, taking into account the radiation drag and the gravitational pull exerted on them by a central body. The effects of special and general relativity are included by connecting a model of Beloborodov for the local polarization of scattered light with Abramowicz et al. formalism for the particle motion near an ultracompact star. The compactness of the central body and its luminosity are two critical parameters of the model. We discuss the polarization magnitude of photons, which are Thomson-scattered into direct and higher-order images. The importance of the latter is only moderate under typical conditions, but they may give rise to distinct features, which we explore in terms of a toy model. The scattered signal exhibits variations of intensity and of polarization with mutual time-lags depending on the beaming/focusing effects and the light traveltime.

  7. Use of fast scopes to enable Thomson scattering measurement in presence of fluctuating plasma light.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, H; Moller, J; Hill, D

    2004-04-19

    The addition of inexpensive high-speed oscilloscopes has enabled higher Te Thomson scattering measurements on the SSPX spheromak. Along with signal correlation techniques, the scopes allow new analyses based on the shape of the scattered laser pulse to discriminate against fluctuating background plasma light that often make gated-integrator measurements unreliable. A 1.4 J Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm is the scattering source. Spatial locations are coupled by viewing optics and fibers to 4-wavelength-channel filter polychrometers. Ratios between the channels determine Te while summations of the channels determine density. Typically, the channel that provides scattered signal at higher Te is contaminated by fluctuating background light. Individual channels are correlated with either a modeled representation of the laser pulse or a noise-free stray light signal to extract channel amplitudes.

  8. Stray light analysis for the Thomson scattering diagnostic of the ETE Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Berni, L A; Albuquerque, B F C

    2010-12-01

    Thomson scattering is a well-established diagnostic for measuring local electron temperature and density in fusion plasma, but this technique is particularly difficult to implement due to stray light that can easily mask the scattered signal from plasma. To mitigate this problem in the multipoint Thomson scattering system implemented at the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esférico) a detailed stray light analysis was performed. The diagnostic system was simulated in ZEMAX software and scattering profiles of the mechanical parts were measured in the laboratory in order to have near realistic results. From simulation, it was possible to identify the main points that contribute to the stray signals and changes in the dump were implemented reducing the stray light signals up to 60 times. PMID:21198020

  9. Stray light analysis for the Thomson scattering diagnostic of the ETE Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Berni, L A; Albuquerque, B F C

    2010-12-01

    Thomson scattering is a well-established diagnostic for measuring local electron temperature and density in fusion plasma, but this technique is particularly difficult to implement due to stray light that can easily mask the scattered signal from plasma. To mitigate this problem in the multipoint Thomson scattering system implemented at the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esférico) a detailed stray light analysis was performed. The diagnostic system was simulated in ZEMAX software and scattering profiles of the mechanical parts were measured in the laboratory in order to have near realistic results. From simulation, it was possible to identify the main points that contribute to the stray signals and changes in the dump were implemented reducing the stray light signals up to 60 times.

  10. Dynamic Light Scattering Microscopy. A Novel Optical Technique to Image Submicroscopic Motions. I: Theory

    PubMed Central

    Dzakpasu, Rhonda; Axelrod, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical basis of an optical microscope technique to image dynamically scattered light fluctuation decay rates (dynamic light scattering microscopy) is developed. It is shown that relative motions between scattering centers even smaller than the optical resolution of the microscope are sufficient to produce significant phase variations resulting in interference intensity fluctuations in the image plane. The timescale and time dependence for the temporal autocorrelation function of these intensity fluctuations is derived. The spatial correlation distance, which reports the average distance between constructive and destructive interference in the image plane, is calculated and compared with the pixel size, and the distance dependence of the spatial correlation function is derived. The accompanying article in this issue describes an experimental implementation of dynamic light scattering microscopy. PMID:15298930

  11. Impact of polishing on the light scattering at aerogel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Katcin, A. A.; Kononov, S. A.; Kirilenko, P. S.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Predein, A. Yu.; Protsenko, R. S.

    2016-07-01

    Particle identification power of modern aerogel RICH detectors strongly depends on optical quality of radiators. It was shown that wavelength dependence of aerogel tile transparency after polishing cannot be described by the standard Hunt formula. The Hunt formula has been modified to describe scattering in a thin layer of silica dust on the surface of aerogel tile. Several procedures of polishing of aerogel tile have been tested. The best result has been achieved while using natural silk tissue. The resulting block has optical smooth surfaces. The measured decrease of aerogel transparency due to surface scattering is about few percent. This result could be used for production of radiators for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detectors.

  12. Analytical {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude and the light scalars

    SciTech Connect

    Achasov, N. N.; Kiselev, A. V.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we construct the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude T{sub 0}{sup 0} with regular analytical properties in the s complex plane, which describes simultaneously the data on the {pi}{pi} scattering, {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}0{gamma} decay, and {pi}{pi}{yields}KK reaction. The chiral shielding of the {sigma}(600) meson and its mixing with the f{sub 0}(980) meson are also taken into account. The data agrees with the four-quark nature of the {sigma}(600) and f{sub 0}(980) mesons. The amplitude in the range -5m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}

  13. Light scattering by randomly oriented cubes and parallelepipeds. [for interpretation of observed data from planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, K. N.; Cai, Q.; Pollack, J. B.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the geometric ray tracing theory for the scattering of light by hexagonal cylinders to cubes and parallelepipeds has been modified. Effects of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index and aspect ratio of the particle on the scattering phase function and the degree of linear polarization are investigated. Causes of the physical features in the scattering polarization patterns are identified in terms of the scattering contribution due to geometric reflections and refractions. The single-scattering phase function and polarization data presented in this paper should be of some use for the interpretation of observed scattering and polarization data from planetary atmospheres and for the physical understanding of the transfer of radiation in an atmosphere containing nonspherical particles.

  14. High-resolution angle-resolved measurements of light scattered at small angles by red blood cells in suspension.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Ioan; Pop, Cristian V L; Neamtu, Silvia

    2006-03-20

    Red blood cells (RBCs) scatter light mainly in the forward direction, where the scattering phase function has a narrow peak. We performed an experimental investigation into the angular distribution of light scattered by blood in the small-angle domain. A highly diluted suspension of RBCs (hematocrits in the range 5 x 10(-5)-10(-2)) was illuminated with a He-Ne laser with 633 nm wavelength. We focused our research on two main topics: the scattering efficiency of the RBCs given by the mean scattering cross section and the scattering anisotropy obtained from the angular distribution of the scattered photons. The collimated beam transmission and the angular distribution of scattered light were measured and compared with the predictions of the effective phase function model. The RBCs' mean scattering cross section and scattering anisotropy were obtained by fitting of the experimental data. PMID:16579566

  15. Scattering of light from metamaterial gratings with finite length.

    PubMed

    Grünhut, Vivian; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A

    2012-06-01

    Using an integral equation approach based on the Rayleigh hypothesis, we investigate the scattering of a plane wave at the rough surface of a metamaterial with a finite number of sinusoidal grooves. To show the adequacy of the model, we present results that are in agreement with the predictions of physical optics and that quantitatively reproduce the polarization and angular dependences predicted by the C-formalism for metamaterial gratings with an infinite number of grooves.

  16. A Novel Effect of Scattered-Light Interference in Misted Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, N. James

    2005-01-01

    Interference rings can be observed in mirrors clouded by condensation, even in diffuse lighting. The effect depends on individual droplets acting as point sources by refracting light into the mirror, so producing coherent wave-trains which are reflected and then scattered again by diffraction round the same source droplet. The secondary wave-train…

  17. Dust particle size measurement by the multi-channel laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, W.; Seon, C. R.; Chai, K. B.; Park, H. Y.; Shin, Y. H.; Chung, K. H.

    2006-10-01

    The measurement of the spatial distribution of dust particle size was performed by the multi-channel laser light scattering method. To self-consistently determine the time evolution of the particle size, in-situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering was used using a 30 mW He-Ne laser. Polarization light intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with the same polarization) were measured at 71 . Before applying the method to the dusty plasmas, the measurement accuracy was confirmed using a distilled water solution of the size-known particles. In addition, the size-known particles were injected into the argon plasma, and the particles trapped inside the plasma were used for the accurate measurement of the light scattering angle. The measured size of the dust particles in an argon diluted silane capacitively-coupled plasma at 160 mTorr, 150 W, (11.4-11.8) s after the plasma on was (80-110) nm. In comparison, the scanning electron microscope photographs of the fallout particles showed (90-100) nm spherical particles under the similar experimental condition. The time evolution of the spatially distributed particle size at various plasma conditions was studied by using a 2-dimensional 16 channel photomultiplier tube as a detector of scattered laser light.

  18. Method for measuring changes in light absorption of highly scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.; Mourant, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    The noninvasive measurement of variations in absorption that are due to changes in concentrations of biochemically relevant compounds in tissue is important in many clinical settings. One problem with such measurements is that the pathlength traveled by the collected light through the tissue depends on the scattering properties of the tissue. It is demonstrated, using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, that for an appropriate separation between light-delivery and light-collection fibers, the pathlength of the collected photons is insensitive to scattering parameters for the range of parameters typically found in tissue. This is important for developing rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate methods for measuring absorption changes in tissue.

  19. Study of light-scattering by ferro-nematic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrych, A. L.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2007-05-01

    At present time a liquid crystals using in engineering are based on their optical properties such as strong anisotropy, specific equilibrium of molecular skeleton, sensitivity to external action, appearance of compound and involute structure which selectively respond to the light with adjusted frequency and polarization, etc. This behaviour make them are perspective environment for application in optical devices like mesomorphic active components (electrooptic shutters, spherical and cylindrical lenses, optical filters, light-induced time and space grids, nonlinear mirrors).

  20. Determination of molecular weight distributions of large water soluble macromolecules using dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mettille, M.J.; Hester, R.D.

    1988-05-01

    Characterization of polymer molecular weight is an extremely important aspect of polymer research, and a vast number of analytical techniques has been used to determine molecular weights. One method is dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS is also referred to as photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS), and may other appellations. The phenomenon that gives rise to the DLS technique was first observed in the early 1930's. In the mid 1950's, measurement techniques similar to modern dynamic light scattering were developed. Two major technical developments have greatly enhanced the use of DLS. The first was the development of the laser. This provided a light source with very high intensity at a single frequency. Also, major advances in digital electronics have allowed better data acquisition and faster data analysis than were previously available.

  1. Characterizing string-of-pearls colloidal silica by multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography and comparison to multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, off-line multiangle static light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2011-04-15

    The string-of-pearls-type morphology is ubiquitous, manifesting itself variously in proteins, vesicles, bacteria, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers. Characterizing the size and shape of analytes with such morphology, however, presents a challenge, due chiefly to the ease with which the "strings" can be broken during chromatographic analysis or to the paucity of information obtained from the benchmark microscopy and off-line light scattering methods. Here, we address this challenge with multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC), which has the ability to determine, simultaneously, the size, shape, and compactness and their distributions of string-of-pearls samples. We present the quadruple-detector HDC analysis of colloidal string-of-pearls silica, employing static multiangle and quasielastic light scattering, differential viscometry, and differential refractometry as detection methods. The multidetector approach shows a sample that is broadly polydisperse in both molar mass and size, with strings ranging from two to five particles, but which also contains a high concentration of single, unattached "pearls". Synergistic combination of the various size parameters obtained from the multiplicity of detectors employed shows that the strings with higher degrees of polymerization have a shape similar to the theory-predicted shape of a Gaussian random coil chain of nonoverlapping beads, while the strings with lower degrees of polymerization have a prolate ellipsoidal shape. The HDC technique is contrasted experimentally with multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, where, even under extremely gentle conditions, the strings still degraded during analysis. Such degradation is shown to be absent in HDC, as evidenced by the fact that the molar mass and radius of gyration obtained by HDC with multiangle static light scattering detection (HDC/MALS) compare quite favorably to those determined by off-line MALS analysis under otherwise identical conditions. The

  2. Characterizing string-of-pearls colloidal silica by multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography and comparison to multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, off-line multiangle static light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2011-04-15

    The string-of-pearls-type morphology is ubiquitous, manifesting itself variously in proteins, vesicles, bacteria, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers. Characterizing the size and shape of analytes with such morphology, however, presents a challenge, due chiefly to the ease with which the "strings" can be broken during chromatographic analysis or to the paucity of information obtained from the benchmark microscopy and off-line light scattering methods. Here, we address this challenge with multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC), which has the ability to determine, simultaneously, the size, shape, and compactness and their distributions of string-of-pearls samples. We present the quadruple-detector HDC analysis of colloidal string-of-pearls silica, employing static multiangle and quasielastic light scattering, differential viscometry, and differential refractometry as detection methods. The multidetector approach shows a sample that is broadly polydisperse in both molar mass and size, with strings ranging from two to five particles, but which also contains a high concentration of single, unattached "pearls". Synergistic combination of the various size parameters obtained from the multiplicity of detectors employed shows that the strings with higher degrees of polymerization have a shape similar to the theory-predicted shape of a Gaussian random coil chain of nonoverlapping beads, while the strings with lower degrees of polymerization have a prolate ellipsoidal shape. The HDC technique is contrasted experimentally with multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, where, even under extremely gentle conditions, the strings still degraded during analysis. Such degradation is shown to be absent in HDC, as evidenced by the fact that the molar mass and radius of gyration obtained by HDC with multiangle static light scattering detection (HDC/MALS) compare quite favorably to those determined by off-line MALS analysis under otherwise identical conditions. The

  3. Light scattering measurement in an arc lamp-based flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Steen, H B

    1990-01-01

    The epi-illumination optics employed in most arc lamp-based flow cytometers may be modified so as to produce a dark-field configuration which facilitates highly sensitive detection of both forward and large angle light scattering in an instrument with a "jet on open surface" flow chamber. Forward scattering is detected at angles upwards from about 2 degrees, while large angle scattering includes angles above 18 degrees. Theoretical considerations suggest that large angle scattering measured around 20 degrees may be as efficient as that measured at 90 degrees for the purpose of distinguishing cells on the basis of intracellular structure. This was supported by the finding that dual parameter light scattering histograms of leukocyte suspensions obtained with the arc lamp-based instrument were closely similar to such histograms recorded with a laser-based instrument with the large angle detector at 90 degrees. Different species of bacteria could be distinguished by means of the dual parameter light scattering device, as could different species of sea algae. The sensitivity of the device is sufficient to measure 0.2 microns polystyrene particles in both forward and large angle scattering.

  4. Angle-resolved second harmonic light scattering from colloidal suspensions and second harmonic particle microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ningping

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out two nonlinear optical experiments with colloidal particles. Our first nonlinear optical experiment studied Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG) light scattering from colloidal suspension. In particular, we measured the angle-resolved second-harmonic generation light scattering from suspensions of centrosymmetric micron-size polystyrene spheres with surface-adsorbed dye (malachite green). The second-harmonic scattering angular profiles differ qualitatively from the linear light scattering angular profiles of the same particles. We have investigated these radiation patterns using several polarization configurations and particle diameters. We introduce a simple Rayleigh-Gans-Debye model to account for the SHG scattering anisotropy. The model compares favorably with our experimental data. Our measurements suggest scattering anisotropy may be used to isolate particle nonlinear optical effect from other bulk nonlinear optical effects in suspension. Our second nonlinear optical experiment studied the Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG) from single micron-size particles. We built a nonlinear optical microscope for this purpose. We report experimental observations of second harmonic generation from single micron-size polystyrene (PS), silica, and PolyMethylMethAcrylate (PMMA) spheres on flat substrates by SHG microscopy. At low input light intensities the SH signals depend quadratically on the intensity of the excitation beam, but at larger input intensities some of the SH signals increase exponentially with increasing input intensity. This exponential enhancement depends on particle size and sphere composition. We describe the experiments, report the observations and provide an approximate analytical framework for understanding our measurements.

  5. On the scattered light by dilute aqueous dispersions of nanogel particles.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Fernández, J; Ramos, J; Forcada, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2015-07-15

    This work deals with the scattered light by nanoparticles formed by a temperature sensitive polymer networks, namely nanogel particles. The scattered light is measured as a function of the scattering angle at temperatures below and above the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of nanogel particles. Our experimental results indicate that nanogel particles have a core-shell structure, formed by a uniform highly cross-linked core surrounded by a fuzzy shell where the polymer density decays to zero gradually for swollen configurations and sharply for shrunken states. The theoretical fitting of the experimental curves shows that the scattered light at low angle obeys a decreasing power law with the scattering vector, q(-α). The value of exponent α provides information about the radial dependence of the polymer density at the external shell of the particles for swollen nanogels, and about the degree of roughness of the surface for the case of shrunken nanogels. On the one hand, at low temperatures (below the VPPT), the nanogel particle is in the swollen state and the light scattering data show that its shell structure follows a fractal behaviour, with a polymer density that decays as r(α-3), where r is the distance to the particle centre. On the other hand, above the VPPT the results indicate that nanogel collapses into a core of uniform polymer density and a rough shell, with a fractal surface dimension of 2.5. PMID:25837408

  6. Light Scattering by Gaussian Particles: A Solution with Finite-Difference Time Domain Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, W.; Nousiainen, T.; Fu, Q.; Loeb, N. G.; Videen, G.; Muinonen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals has significance in atmospheric radiative transfer and remote-sensing applications. In this work, light scattering by irregularly shaped Gaussian ice crystals is studied with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For given sample particle shapes and size parameters in the resonance region, the scattering phase matrices and asymmetry factors are calculated. It is found that the deformation of the particle surface can significantly smooth the scattering phase functions and slightly reduce the asymmetry factors. The polarization properties of irregular ice crystals are also significantly different from those of spherical cloud particles. These FDTD results could provide a reference for approximate light-scattering models developed for irregular particle shapes and can have potential applications in developing a much simpler practical light scattering model for ice clouds angular-distribution models and for remote sensing of ice clouds and aerosols using polarized light. (copyright) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ko-Ting; Lee, Po-Yi; Qasim, Malik M; Liu, Cheng-Kai; Cheng, Wen-Fa; Wilkinson, Timothy D

    2016-04-27

    Negative dielectric nematic liquid crystals (LCs) doped with two azobenzene materials provide electrically switchable and permanently stable scattering mode light modulators based on dynamic fingerprint chiral textures (DFCT) with inhomogeneously helical axes. These light modulators can be switched between transparent (stable large domains of DFCT) states and scattering (stable small domains of DFCT) states by applying electric fields with different frequencies. The generation of DFCT results from the long flexible side chains of the doped chiral dopant. That is, if the DFCT can be obtained, then the large domains of DFCT reflect an intrinsically stable state. Moreover, the stabilization of the small domains of DFCT are caused by the terminal rigid restricted side chains of the other doped chiral dopant. Experimentally, the required amplitude to switch the light modulator from a scattering (transparent) state to a transparent (scattering) state decreases as the frequency of the applied electric field increases (decreases) within the set limits. This study is the first report on the advantages of the light scattering mode of DFCT, including low operating voltage, permanently stable transmission, wide viewing angle, high contrast, and polarization-independent scattering and transparency.

  8. On the scattered light by dilute aqueous dispersions of nanogel particles.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Fernández, J; Ramos, J; Forcada, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2015-07-15

    This work deals with the scattered light by nanoparticles formed by a temperature sensitive polymer networks, namely nanogel particles. The scattered light is measured as a function of the scattering angle at temperatures below and above the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of nanogel particles. Our experimental results indicate that nanogel particles have a core-shell structure, formed by a uniform highly cross-linked core surrounded by a fuzzy shell where the polymer density decays to zero gradually for swollen configurations and sharply for shrunken states. The theoretical fitting of the experimental curves shows that the scattered light at low angle obeys a decreasing power law with the scattering vector, q(-α). The value of exponent α provides information about the radial dependence of the polymer density at the external shell of the particles for swollen nanogels, and about the degree of roughness of the surface for the case of shrunken nanogels. On the one hand, at low temperatures (below the VPPT), the nanogel particle is in the swollen state and the light scattering data show that its shell structure follows a fractal behaviour, with a polymer density that decays as r(α-3), where r is the distance to the particle centre. On the other hand, above the VPPT the results indicate that nanogel collapses into a core of uniform polymer density and a rough shell, with a fractal surface dimension of 2.5.

  9. Light scattering measurements of the repetitive supersonic implosion of a sonoluminescing bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Bradley P.; Putterman, Seth J.

    1992-12-01

    Light scattering is used to measure the dynamics of the repetitive collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble of gas trapped in water. It is found that the surface of the bubble is collapsing with a supersonic velocity at about the time of light emission which in turn precedes the minimum bubble radius by about 0.03% of the period of the acoustic drive. These observations suggest that the shedding of an imploding shock mediates between the bubble collapse and light emission.

  10. Quasi-elastic light scattering from structured particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, S H; Holz, M; Tartaglia, P

    1977-01-01

    We present a formulation by which the scattered field correlation function of a nonstationary structured particle can be calculated. Specifically, we consider the case of micron-size bacteria, where the Rayleigh- Gans-Debye approximation may be used to evaluate the correlation function. We show that the width of the intensity correlation spectrum (as measured, for example, by the photon correlation technique) exhibits I an oscillatory behavior which is characteristic of the interference pattern produced by the internal structure. Two cases are of interest: diffusion and motility are considered in detail, and some evidence of the predicted behavior is shown from the photon correlation measurement of E. coli bacteria. PMID:20168450

  11. Light scattering and dynamics of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Tang, H. T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative motions of interacting Brownian particles in liquids may be described as radial diffusion in an effective potential of the mean force. By using a harmonic approximation for the effective potential, the intermediate scattering function may also be evaluated. For polystyrene spheres of 250 A mean radius in aqueous environment at 0.00125 g/cu cm concentration, the results for the calculated mean square displacement are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from photon correlation spectroscopy. Because of the interactions, the functions deviate considerably from the exponential forms for the free particles.

  12. Multiangle light scattering flow photometry of cultured human fibroblasts: comparison of normal cells with a mutant line containing cytoplasmic inclusions.

    PubMed

    Schafer, I A; Jamieson, A M; Petrelli, M; Price, B J; Salzman, G C

    1979-01-01

    Multi-angle light scattering flow photometry was used to study the light scattering properties of normal cultured fibroblasts and a mutant fibroblast line containing cytoplasmic lysosomal inclusions. The effect of glutaraldehyde fixation on the light scattering properties of the cells was also examined and correlated with their ultrastructure. Normal fibroblasts showed uniform organelle distribution with few vacuoles or dense bodies in the cytoplasm while the mutant line showed abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions of varying morphology, density and lucency. As predicted by light scattering theory, the mutant cells containing the cytoplasmic inclusions scattered more light at large angles (greater than theta = 1.85 degrees) than did the normal cells. Glutaraldehyde fixation decreased light scattering at small angles (less than theta = 1.85 degrees), increased light scattering at larger angles (greater than theta = 1.85 degrees) in both normal and mutant cells and enhanced resolution of the light scattering signatures. The mutant line scattered 2-3 times more light at a wide angle (greater than theta = 12.74 degrees) than did the normal cells. These data suggest that abnormal lysosomal storage inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of the cells can be detected by differential light scattering methods.

  13. Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy for detection of dysplastic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canpolat, Murat; Denkçeken, Tuba; Akman, Ayşe.; Alpsoy, Erkan; Tuncer, Recai; Akyüz, Mahmut; Baykara, Mehmet; Yücel, Selçuk; Başsorgun, Ibrahim; ćiftçioǧlu, M. Akif; Gökhan, Güzide Ayşe.; Gürer, ElifInanç; Peştereli, Elif; Karaveli, Šeyda

    2013-11-01

    Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy (ELSSS) system has been developed and tested in diagnosis of cancerous tissues of different organs. ELSSS system consists of a miniature visible light spectrometer, a single fiber optical probe, a halogen tungsten light source and a laptop. Measurements were performed on excised brain, skin, cervix and prostate tumor specimens and surrounding normal tissues. Single fiber optical probe with a core diameter of 100 μm was used to deliver white light to and from tissue. Single optical fiber probe mostly detects singly scattered light from tissue rather than diffused light. Therefore, measured spectra are sensitive to size of scatters in tissue such as cells, nuclei, mitochondria and other organelles of cells. Usually, nuclei of tumor cells are larger than nuclei of normal cells. Therefore, spectrum of singly scattered light of tumor tissue is different than normal tissue. The spectral slopes were shown to be positive for normal brain, skin and prostate and cervix tissues and negative for the tumors of the same tissues. Signs of the spectral slopes were used as a discrimination parameter to differentiate tumor from normal tissues for the three organ tissues. Sensitivity and specificity of the system in differentiation between tumors from normal tissues were 93% and %100 for brain, 87% and 85% for skin, 93.7% and 46.1% for cervix and 98% and 100% for prostate.

  14. Enhancing Localized Evaporation through Separated Light Absorbing Centers and Scattering Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dengwu; Duan, Haoze; Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; He, Jiaqing; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This report investigates the enhancement of localized evaporation via separated light absorbing particles (plasmonic absorbers) and scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles). Evaporation has been considered as one of the most important phase-change processes in modern industries. To improve the efficiency of evaporation, one of the most feasible methods is to localize heat at the top water layer rather than heating the bulk water. In this work, the mixture of purely light absorptive plasmonic nanostructures such as gold nanoparticles and purely scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles) are employed to confine the incident light at the top of the solution and convert light to heat. Different concentrations of both the light absorbing centers and the light scattering centers were evaluated and the evaporation performance can be largely enhanced with the balance between absorbing centers and scattering centers. The findings in this study not only provide a new way to improve evaporation efficiency in plasmonic particle-based solution, but also shed lights on the design of new solar-driven localized evaporation systems. PMID:26606898

  15. Enhancing Localized Evaporation through Separated Light Absorbing Centers and Scattering Centers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dengwu; Duan, Haoze; Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; He, Jiaqing; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-11-26

    This report investigates the enhancement of localized evaporation via separated light absorbing particles (plasmonic absorbers) and scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles). Evaporation has been considered as one of the most important phase-change processes in modern industries. To improve the efficiency of evaporation, one of the most feasible methods is to localize heat at the top water layer rather than heating the bulk water. In this work, the mixture of purely light absorptive plasmonic nanostructures such as gold nanoparticles and purely scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles) are employed to confine the incident light at the top of the solution and convert light to heat. Different concentrations of both the light absorbing centers and the light scattering centers were evaluated and the evaporation performance can be largely enhanced with the balance between absorbing centers and scattering centers. The findings in this study not only provide a new way to improve evaporation efficiency in plasmonic particle-based solution, but also shed lights on the design of new solar-driven localized evaporation systems.

  16. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: model experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated the particle density detectability and particle size detectivity of our fiber-optic light-scattering measurement system. In order to prevent the multiple pregnancy on current in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, we have aimed to develop a new quantitative and non- invasive method to select a single viable human embryo. We employed the measurement of mitochondria localization in an embryo, which may have the correlation with development ability. We applied the angular distribution measurement of the light-scattering intensity from the embryo to obtain the information originated from the mitochondria. The latex spheres with a diameter of 1.0 micrometers were used to simulate the scattering intensity of the mitochondria. The measurement probes of our system consisted of two fibers for illumination and sensing. They were arranged at a right angle to a microscope optical axis to measure the angular distribution of the light-scattering intensity. We observed that the light-scattering intensity increased monotonically in the range from 106 to 1010 particles per ml. Since the mitochondria density in a human embryo corresponded to 2.5 X 107 per ml in the measurement chamber, we may measure the mitochondria density in the human embryo. The angular dependence of light-scattering intensity changed with the sphere diameters. This result showed the possibility of the selective measurement of the mitochondria density in the embryo in spite of the presence of the other cell organelle. We think that our light-scattering measurement system might be applicable to the evaluation method for the embryo viability.

  17. Light scattering and optical diffusion from willemite spherulites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Kevin M.; Butt, Haider; Batal, Afif; Sabouri, Aydin; Anthony, Carl J.

    2016-02-01

    Willemite is a zinc silicate mineral used in modern day pottery as a decorative feature within glazes. It is produced by controlled heat treatment of zinc oxide-containing ceramic glazes. The heat-treated glazes devitrify, producing thin nanoscale needle-like willemite crystals growing in spherulitic morphologies through branching of the needles. We show here that this resulting morphology of willemite crystals in an inorganic glass matrix has a previously unreported strong interaction with light, displaying remarkable optical diffraction patterns. Thin sections of such spherulites act as optical diffusers, enabling light beams to be spread up to 160° in width. Analysis of the interaction between the willemite spherulites and light suggests that the high density of willemite crystals in the spherulites and the length scales associated with both the thickness of the needles and the spacings between branches are together responsible for this optical diffusion behaviour.

  18. Fiber optic probes for laser light scattering: Ground based evaluation for micgrogravity flight experimentation. Integrated coherent imaging fiber optic systems for laser light scattering and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans Singh

    1994-01-01

    The research work presented in this report has established a new class of backscatter fiber optics probes for remote dynamic light scattering capability over a range of scattering angles from 94 degrees to 175 degrees. The fiber optic probes provide remote access to scattering systems, and can be utilized in either a noninvasive or invasive configuration. The fiber optics create an interference free data channel to inaccessible and harsh environments. Results from several studies of concentrated suspension, microemulsions, and protein systems are presented. The second part of the report describes the development of a new technology of wavefront processing within the optical fiber, that is, integrated fiber optics. Results have been very encouraging and the technology promises to have significant impact on the development of fiber optic sensors in a variety of fields ranging from environmental monitoring to optical recording, from biomedical sensing to photolithography.

  19. Rigorous modelling of light scattering in solar cells based on finite element method and Huygens' expansion.

    PubMed

    Sever, Martin; Krč, Janez; Čampa, Andrej; Topič, Marko

    2015-11-30

    Finite element method is coupled with Huygens' expansion to determine light intensity distribution of scattered light in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. The rigorous foundation of the modelling enables calculation of the light intensity distribution at a chosen distance and surface of observation in chosen material in reflection or in transmission for given wavelength of the incident light. The calculation of scattering or anti-reflection properties is not limited to a single textured interface, but can be done above more complex structures with several scattering interfaces or even with particles involved. Both scattering at periodic and at random textures can be efficiently handled with the modelling approach. A procedure for minimisation of the effect of small-area sample, which is considered in the finite element method calculation, is proposed and implemented into the modelling. Angular distribution function, total transmission and total reflection of the scattering interface or structure can be determined using the model. Furthermore, a method for calculation of the haze parameter of reflected or transmitted light is proposed. The modelling approach is applied to periodic and random nano-textured samples for photovoltaic applications, showing good agreement with measured data. PMID:26698803

  20. Rigorous modelling of light scattering in solar cells based on finite element method and Huygens' expansion.

    PubMed

    Sever, Martin; Krč, Janez; Čampa, Andrej; Topič, Marko

    2015-11-30

    Finite element method is coupled with Huygens' expansion to determine light intensity distribution of scattered light in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. The rigorous foundation of the modelling enables calculation of the light intensity distribution at a chosen distance and surface of observation in chosen material in reflection or in transmission for given wavelength of the incident light. The calculation of scattering or anti-reflection properties is not limited to a single textured interface, but can be done above more complex structures with several scattering interfaces or even with particles involved. Both scattering at periodic and at random textures can be efficiently handled with the modelling approach. A procedure for minimisation of the effect of small-area sample, which is considered in the finite element method calculation, is proposed and implemented into the modelling. Angular distribution function, total transmission and total reflection of the scattering interface or structure can be determined using the model. Furthermore, a method for calculation of the haze parameter of reflected or transmitted light is proposed. The modelling approach is applied to periodic and random nano-textured samples for photovoltaic applications, showing good agreement with measured data.

  1. Measurement of Concentration Distribution of Hydrogen Gas Flow by Measuring the Intensity of Raman Scattering Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, Ippei; Ninomiya, Hideki

    An experimental study to visualize and measure the concentration distribution of hydrogen gas flow using the Raman scattering was performed. A Nd:YAG laser of wavelength at 355 nm was used, and the beam pattern was transformed into a rectangle and a sheet beam was formed. The Raman scattered light was observed at a right angle with respect to the laser beam axis using a gated ICCD camera and an interference filter. Shadowgraph images were obtained at the same condition. The Raman scattering light image from atmospheric nitrogen was first acquired and the function of Raman scattering light acquisition and the background light suppression was confirmed. Next, images of the Raman scattering light image and shadowgraph of hydrogen gas discharged from a nozzle into the atmosphere were acquired. The two obtained Raman images were compared and the spatial concentration distribution of the flow of the hydrogen gas at different flow rates was calculated. This method is effective for visualizing the gas flow and measuring the concentration distribution of the Raman active molecules, such as hydrogen gas.

  2. Myofibroblast Differentiation Modulates Keratocyte Crystallin Protein Expression, Concentration, and Cellular Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Donald; Pappa, Aglaia; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether myofibroblast differentiation altered keratocyte crystallin protein concentration and increased cellular light scattering. Methods. Serum-free cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes and TGFβ (5 ng/mL) induced myofibroblasts were harvested and counted and protein/RNA extracted. Expression of myofibroblast and keratocyte markers was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The cell volume of calcein AM–loaded keratocytes and myofibroblasts was determined by using nonlinear optical microscopy. Cellular light scattering of transformed myofibroblasts expressing human keratocyte crystallins was measured by reflectance confocal microscopy. Results. Differentiated myofibroblasts showed a significant decrease in RNA levels for the keratocyte markers ALDH1A1, lumican, and keratocan and a significant increase in the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. Volumetric and protein measurements showed that myofibroblast differentiation significantly increased cytoplasmic volume (293%; P < 0.001) and water-soluble and -insoluble protein content per cell (respectively, 442% and 431%; P < 0.002) compared to keratocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the level of ALDH1A1 protein per cell was similar between myofibroblasts and keratocytes, but was substantially reduced as a percentage of total water-soluble protein. Light scattering measurements showed that induced expression of corneal crystallins significantly decreased light scattering. Conclusions. These data suggest that myofibroblast differentiation leads to a marked increase in cell volume and dilution of corneal crystallins associated with an increase in cellular light scattering. PMID:22247459

  3. Scattered and reflected light intensities above the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Thompson, B C; Wells, M B

    1971-07-01

    A calculational method is described that was developed for use in predicting the angular distribution of the upwelling flux of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and reflected by the ground. Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation escaping the top of a plane-parallel model atmosphere were used as input in a computer procedure that integrates the reflected intensities over the sunlit portion of the top of the earth's atmosphere, which is visible by a receiver located on a spacecraft. Calculations were performed for a model maritime atmosphere, with and without low-altitude cloud layer, and a model continental atmosphere, which includes treatment of the effects of aerosol, Rayleigh scattering, and ozone absorption. The ground surface was assumed to be a Lambert reflector. The results of the Monte Carlo calculation for five wavelengths between 370 nm and 780 nm were compared with measured data from the Ames Research Center earth albedo experiment on the OSO-3 satellite. Agreement between calculated and measured values was sufficiently good to warrant the conclusion that reasonable estimates of the angular distribution of the radiation reaching a near-earth spacecraft from different atmospheric conditions could be calculated.

  4. Light scattering properties vary across different regions of the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Saif I; Dondzillo, Anna; Stubblefield, Elizabeth A; Felsen, Gidon; Lei, Tim C; Klug, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed optogenetic tools provide powerful approaches to optically excite or inhibit neural activity. In a typical in-vivo experiment, light is delivered to deep nuclei via an implanted optical fiber. Light intensity attenuates with increasing distance from the fiber tip, determining the volume of tissue in which optogenetic proteins can successfully be activated. However, whether and how this volume of effective light intensity varies as a function of brain region or wavelength has not been systematically studied. The goal of this study was to measure and compare how light scatters in different areas of the mouse brain. We delivered different wavelengths of light via optical fibers to acute slices of mouse brainstem, midbrain and forebrain tissue. We measured light intensity as a function of distance from the fiber tip, and used the data to model the spread of light in specific regions of the mouse brain. We found substantial differences in effective attenuation coefficients among different brain areas, which lead to substantial differences in light intensity demands for optogenetic experiments. The use of light of different wavelengths additionally changes how light illuminates a given brain area. We created a brain atlas of effective attenuation coefficients of the adult mouse brain, and integrated our data into an application that can be used to estimate light scattering as well as required light intensity for optogenetic manipulation within a given volume of tissue.

  5. Light Scattering Properties Vary across Different Regions of the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Stubblefield, Elizabeth A.; Felsen, Gidon

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed optogenetic tools provide powerful approaches to optically excite or inhibit neural activity. In a typical in-vivo experiment, light is delivered to deep nuclei via an implanted optical fiber. Light intensity attenuates with increasing distance from the fiber tip, determining the volume of tissue in which optogenetic proteins can successfully be activated. However, whether and how this volume of effective light intensity varies as a function of brain region or wavelength has not been systematically studied. The goal of this study was to measure and compare how light scatters in different areas of the mouse brain. We delivered different wavelengths of light via optical fibers to acute slices of mouse brainstem, midbrain and forebrain tissue. We measured light intensity as a function of distance from the fiber tip, and used the data to model the spread of light in specific regions of the mouse brain. We found substantial differences in effective attenuation coefficients among different brain areas, which lead to substantial differences in light intensity demands for optogenetic experiments. The use of light of different wavelengths additionally changes how light illuminates a given brain area. We created a brain atlas of effective attenuation coefficients of the adult mouse brain, and integrated our data into an application that can be used to estimate light scattering as well as required light intensity for optogenetic manipulation within a given volume of tissue. PMID:23874433

  6. Light scattering properties vary across different regions of the adult mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Juboori, Saif I.

    Recently developed optogenetic tools provide powerful approaches to optically excite or inhibit neural activity. In a typical in-vivo experiment, light is delivered to deep nuclei via an implanted optical fiber. Light intensity attenuates with increasing distance from the fiber tip, determining the volume of tissue in which optogenetic proteins can successfully be activated. However, whether and how this volume of effective light intensity varies as a function of brain region or wavelength has not been systematically studied. The goal of this study was to measure and compare how light scatters in different areas of the mouse brain. We delivered different wavelengths of light via optical fibers to acute slices of mouse brainstem, midbrain and forebrain tissue. We measured light intensity as a function of distance from the fiber tip, and used the data to model the spread of light in specific regions of the mouse brain. We found substantial differences in effective attenuation coefficients among different brain areas, which lead to substantial differences in light intensity demands for optogenetic experiments. The use of light of different wavelengths additionally changes how light illuminates a given brain area. We created a brain atlas of effective attenuation coefficients of the adult mouse brain, and integrated our data into an application that can be used to estimate light scattering as well as required light intensity for optogenetic manipulation within a given volume of tissue.

  7. Influence of optical polarization on the improvement of light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wierer, J. J. Allerman, A. A.; Montaño, I.; Moseley, M. W.

    2014-08-11

    The improvement in light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) emitting at ∼270 nm is shown to be influenced by optical polarization. Three UVLEDs with different reflective scattering structures are investigated and compared to standard UVLEDs without scattering structures. The optical polarization and therefore the direction of light propagation within the various UVLEDs are altered by changes in the quantum well (QW) thickness. The improvement in light extraction efficiency of the UVLEDs with reflective scattering structures increases, compared to the UVLEDs without scattering structures, as the fraction of emitted light propagating parallel to the QW plane increases. Additionally, the light extraction efficiency increases as the average distance to the reflective scattering structures decreases.

  8. Measuring spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from biological material.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple

  9. Measuring Spatially- and Directionally-varying Light Scattering from Biological Material

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S.; Marschner, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple

  10. The Influence of Structural Features of Particles on their Light Scattering Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilheim, K. O.

    The theory of the scattering of light by ensembles of particles with ir regular shape is of interest in the context of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains and particles associated with comets or observed in aerosols and hydrosols. The scattering properties of homogeneous particles are determined by both geometrical features and chemical composition as represented by the complex frequency dependent index of refraction. We have performed a systematic investigation on the former aspect, namely the influence of structural features of the surface of large dielectric particles on their light scattering properties. The geometrical surface structure will be discussed in terms of macro roughness and micro roughness as two limiting cases of a more general type of roughness. Some results will also be presented for composite roughness models. Finally I will discuss preliminary results of a scattering theory applicable to ensembles of particles with irregular shape and arbitrary size based on the method of perturbed boundary conditions.

  11. Microscopic particle discrimination using spatially-resolved Fourier-holographic light scattering angular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Timothy R.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Gutzler, Thomas; Sampson, David D.

    2006-11-01

    We utilize Fourier-holographic light scattering angular spectroscopy to record the spatially resolved complex angular scattering spectra of samples over wide fields of view in a single or few image captures. Without resolving individual scatterers, we are able to generate spatially-resolved particle size maps for samples composed of spherical scatterers, by comparing generated spectra with Mie-theory predictions. We present a theoretical discussion of the fundamental principles of our technique and, in addition to the sphere samples, apply it experimentally to a biological sample which comprises red blood cells. Our method could possibly represent an efficient alternative to the time-consuming and laborious conventional procedure in light microscopy of image tiling and inspection, for the characterization of microscopic morphology over wide fields of view.

  12. High-angle light scattering to determine the optical fiber core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świrniak, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the possibility of non-invasive sizing of a step-index optical fiber with the use of a beam of light of low temporal coherence. For this purpose we examine the angular profile of light scattered from the fiber at a high angle. The scattered pattern comprises chiefly two coupled, twin rainbows and depends on the fiber physical characteristics, i.e. its dimensions, shape, and refractive index profile. In order to find a causal link between the scattering pattern and the fiber morphology, a spectral analysis (Fast Fourier Transform, FFT) is performed over the scattering intensity. From the spectral data, the core diameter of a step-index optical fiber is extracted inversely.

  13. Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) of Aqueous C60 Aggregates with Dynamic Light Scattering Size and LC-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for the size determination of nanomaterials in aqueous suspension include dynamic or static light scattering and electron or atomic force microscopy techniques. Light scattering techniques are limited by poor resolution and the scattering intensity dependence on p...

  14. A semiclassical method in the theory of light scattering by semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, I. G.; Korovin, L. I. Pavlov, S. T.

    2008-06-15

    A semiclassical method is proposed for the theoretical description of elastic light scattering by arbitrary semiconductor quantum dots under conditions of size quantization. This method involves retarded potentials and allows one to dispense with boundary conditions for electric and magnetic fields. Exact results for the Umov-Poynting vector at large distances from quantum dots in the case of monochromatic and pulsed irradiation and formulas for differential scattering cross sections are obtained.

  15. In vivo transcranial measurement of light scattering in rat brains during hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2009-02-01

    Measurement of intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) is attractive for noninvasive, real-time monitoring of tissue viability in brains. We previously performed measurement of IOSs for a rat global ischemic brain model that was made by rapidly removing blood by saline infusion, and observed that after an induction of ischemia, a unique triphasic change in light scattering occurred. This scattering change preceded the reduction of CuA in cytochrome c oxidase which has been shown to correlate with cerebral ATP decrease. In the present study, we examined whether such triphasic scattering change can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo. Transcranial measurement of diffuse reflectance was performed using a broadband tungsten lamp for a rat brain during hypoxia that was induced by N2 inhalation. The reflectance spectral changes in the visible (500-600 nm) and near-infrared (NIR) (650-850 nm) regions were analyzed to monitor changes in hemodynamics and light scattering, respectively. After starting N2 inhalation, reflectance signals in the visible region showed an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin concentration, and about 80 s after full deoxygenation of hemoglobins, reflectance signals in the NIR region showed a similar triphasic change, which was attributable to change in light scattering. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral EEG showed that neuronal activity ceased about 50 s before this triphasic scattering change. These results show that light scattering will become an important indicator of loss of tissue viability in brain; brain tissue can probably be saved if reoxygenation is achieved before starting this scattering change.

  16. Solution to the inverse scattering problem for strongly fluctuating media using partially coherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Wolf, Emil

    2002-10-01

    We investigate the inverse scattering problem for statistically homogeneous, isotropic random media under conditions of strong fluctuations of optical wavefields. We present a method for determining the spectral density of the dielectric constant fluctuations in such media from scattering of partially coherent light. The method may find applications to a wide class of turbulent media such as the turbulent atmosphere and certain turbulent plasmas where backscattering and depolarization effects are negligible.

  17. Far-ultraviolet studies. III - A search for light scattered at large angles by dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. C.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, P. D.; Fastie, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Apollo 17 far-ultraviolet spectrometer was used during trans-earth coast to measure the brightness of two regions at moderate galactic latitudes. The signal obtained can be entirely accounted for by light from stars in the field of view, with no contribution from galactic-plane starlight scattered off interstellar dust. It is concluded that the interstellar grains are extremely poor large-angle scatterers in the far-ultraviolet.

  18. Angular intensity of nonequilibrium interfacial dynamic light scattering: Succinonitrile and naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, L. M.; Cummins, H. Z.; Ladeira, L. O.; Mesquita, O. N.

    1992-03-01

    We have investigated the phenomenon of intense dynamic light scattering at the nonequilibrium crystal-melt interface in succinonitrile and naphthalene, in order to resolve the ongoing controversy over its origin. Of the several models that have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, the microbubble model of H. Z. Cummins et al. [Solid State Commun. 60, 857 (1986)] and the mesophase model proposed by J. Bilgram and co-workers [P. Boni, J. H. Bilgram, and W. Kanzig, Phys. Rev. A 28, 2953 (1983)] are the only two still considered to be consistent with most of the experimental observations. In these experiments the angular dependence of the scattered light was investigated. In the mesophase model the angular dependence of the scattered light is described by the Ornstein-Zernike form I(q)=I0(1+q2ξ2)-1, whereas light scattered by bubbles can be modeled by the Mie scattering theory. The data for both materials were found to be incompatible with the Ornstein-Zernike form, but could be reasonably well fit by the Mie theory. The behavior of the onset of scattering was also investigated, and it was found that the product R0t0v2g was a constant, where R0 is the onset radius, t0 the onset time, and vg the crystal growth velocity. This result is consistent with the analysis of Mesquita et al. [Phys. Rev. B 38, 1550 (1988)], in which the onset of the scattering was modeled by considering the rate of buildup of dissolved gas at the advancing crystal-melt interface. The time taken for the disappearance of the scattering after growth was terminated was also investigated. Lastly, the gases dissolved in our samples of succinonitrile were identified by mass spectroscopy and found to have a composition similar to air.

  19. Understanding disability glare: light scatter and retinal illuminance as predictors of sensitivity to contrast.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emily J; Bargary, Gary; Barbur, John L

    2015-04-01

    The presence of a bright light in the visual field has two main effects on the retinal image: reduced contrast and increased retinal illuminance because of scattered light; the latter can, under some conditions, lead to an improvement in retinal sensitivity. The combined effect remains poorly understood, particularly at low light levels. A psychophysical flicker-cancellation test was used to measure the amount and angular distribution of scattered light in the eye for 40 observers. Contrast thresholds were measured using a functional contrast sensitivity test. Pupil-plane glare-source illuminances (i.e., 0, 1.35, and 19.21  lm/m2), eccentricities (5°, 10°, and 15°), and background luminances (1, 2.6, and 26  cd/m2) were investigated. Visual performance was better than predicted, based on a loss of retinal image contrast caused by scattered light, particularly in the mesopic range. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when the expected increase in retinal sensitivity in the presence of scattered light was also incorporated in the model. PMID:26366766

  20. Moisture-insensitive optical fingerprint scanner based on polarization resolved in-finger scattered light.

    PubMed

    Back, Seon-Woo; Lee, Yong-Geon; Lee, Sang-Shin; Son, Geun-Sik

    2016-08-22

    A moisture-insensitive optical fingerprint scanner (FPS) that is based on polarization resolved in-finger light is proposed and realized. Incident visible light, which is selectively fed to a fingerprint sample via a polarization beam splitter (PBS), is deemed to be partially scattered backward by tissues associated with the skin of the finger. The backscattered light is mostly index-guided in the ridge comprising the fingerprint, which has a higher refractive index, and is drastically dispersed in the valley, which is typically filled with water or air and so has a lower index. However, when light reflects directly off the surface of the finger skin, it fundamentally prevents the scanned image from being determined. The proposed FPS produces bright and dark intensity patterns that are alternately created on the surface of the PBS and correspond to the ridges and valleys, respectively. Thus, this method can especially distinguish between a fake synthetic fingerprint and a genuine fingerprint due to its use of in-finger scattered light. The scanner has been rigorously designed by carrying out ray-optic simulations depending on the wavelength, with tissue-induced scattering taken into account. The device was constructed by incorporating a wire-grid type PBS in conjunction with visible LED sources, including blue, green and red. The scanner adopting a blue LED, which exhibits the strongest light scattering, resulted in the best fingerprint image, enabling enhanced fidelity under the wet and dry situations. Finally, a fake synthetic fingerprint could be successfully discriminated. PMID:27557199

  1. Moisture-insensitive optical fingerprint scanner based on polarization resolved in-finger scattered light.

    PubMed

    Back, Seon-Woo; Lee, Yong-Geon; Lee, Sang-Shin; Son, Geun-Sik

    2016-08-22

    A moisture-insensitive optical fingerprint scanner (FPS) that is based on polarization resolved in-finger light is proposed and realized. Incident visible light, which is selectively fed to a fingerprint sample via a polarization beam splitter (PBS), is deemed to be partially scattered backward by tissues associated with the skin of the finger. The backscattered light is mostly index-guided in the ridge comprising the fingerprint, which has a higher refractive index, and is drastically dispersed in the valley, which is typically filled with water or air and so has a lower index. However, when light reflects directly off the surface of the finger skin, it fundamentally prevents the scanned image from being determined. The proposed FPS produces bright and dark intensity patterns that are alternately created on the surface of the PBS and correspond to the ridges and valleys, respectively. Thus, this method can especially distinguish between a fake synthetic fingerprint and a genuine fingerprint due to its use of in-finger scattered light. The scanner has been rigorously designed by carrying out ray-optic simulations depending on the wavelength, with tissue-induced scattering taken into account. The device was constructed by incorporating a wire-grid type PBS in conjunction with visible LED sources, including blue, green and red. The scanner adopting a blue LED, which exhibits the strongest light scattering, resulted in the best fingerprint image, enabling enhanced fidelity under the wet and dry situations. Finally, a fake synthetic fingerprint could be successfully discriminated.

  2. Understanding disability glare: light scatter and retinal illuminance as predictors of sensitivity to contrast.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emily J; Bargary, Gary; Barbur, John L

    2015-04-01

    The presence of a bright light in the visual field has two main effects on the retinal image: reduced contrast and increased retinal illuminance because of scattered light; the latter can, under some conditions, lead to an improvement in retinal sensitivity. The combined effect remains poorly understood, particularly at low light levels. A psychophysical flicker-cancellation test was used to measure the amount and angular distribution of scattered light in the eye for 40 observers. Contrast thresholds were measured using a functional contrast sensitivity test. Pupil-plane glare-source illuminances (i.e., 0, 1.35, and 19.21  lm/m2), eccentricities (5°, 10°, and 15°), and background luminances (1, 2.6, and 26  cd/m2) were investigated. Visual performance was better than predicted, based on a loss of retinal image contrast caused by scattered light, particularly in the mesopic range. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when the expected increase in retinal sensitivity in the presence of scattered light was also incorporated in the model.

  3. Measurement of dust particle size and density by a laser light scattering and extinction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Changrae; Chai, Kilbyoung; Park, Hoyong; Shin, Yonghyun; Chung, Kwanghwa; Choe, Wonho

    2006-10-01

    The measurement of dust particle density was performed using the laser light extinction method. Using two spherical mirrors, a multi-pass setup was used for lowering the measurement limit of the system. In parallel, the particle size was measured using the laser light scattering method. To self-consistently determine the time evolution of the particle size, in-situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering was used. Polarization light intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with the same polarization) were measured at 71 . Before applying the method to the dusty plasmas, the measurement accuracy was confirmed using a distilled water solution of the size-known particles. In addition, the size-known particles were injected into the argon plasma, and the particles trapped inside the plasma were used for the accurate measurement of the light scattering angle. The measured size of the dust particles in a Ar+SiH4 (5%) 13.56 MHz capacitively-coupled plasma (160 mTorr, 150 W, 10 s after plasma on) was about 118 nm, which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscope photographs. The time evolution of the particle size and its number density was studied by both methods.

  4. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-18

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers. PMID:26074598

  5. Radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light from haze and clouds.

    PubMed

    Kattawar, G W; Plass, G N

    1968-08-01

    The radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light is calculated from the Stokes' vectors by a Monte Carlo method. The exact scattering matrix for a typical haze and for a cloud whose spherical drops have an average radius of 12 mu is calculated from the Mie theory. The Stokes' vector is transformed in a collision by this scattering matrix and the rotation matrix. The two angles that define the photon direction after scattering are chosen by a random process that correctly simulates the actual distribution functions for both angles. The Monte Carlo results for Rayleigh scattering compare favorably with well known tabulated results. Curves are given of the reflected and transmitted radiances and polarizations for both the haze and cloud models and for several solar angles, optical thicknesses, and surface albedos. The dependence on these various parameters is discussed.

  6. Characteristics and applications of two-dimensional light scattering by cylindrical tubes based on ray tracing.

    PubMed

    You, Zhihong; Jiang, Daya; Stamnes, Jakob; Chen, Jianjun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-12-10

    The intensity distribution of light scattered by a capillary tube filled with a liquid is studied using geometrical optics or ray tracing. Several intensity step points are found in the scattering pattern due to contributions from different geometrical rays. The scattering angles of these intensity step points vary with the capillary parameters, i.e., with the inner and outer radii of the capillary wall and the refractive indices of the liquid and the wall material. The relations between the scattering angles of the step points and the capillary parameters are analyzed using the reflection law and Snell's law. A method is developed to determine the capillary parameters from measurements of the scattering angles of the step points. An experiment is designed to provide measured data from which the capillary parameters can be obtained by the proposed method. It is shown that this method provides capillary parameters of high precision.

  7. NONLINEAR OPTICS PHENOMENA: Nonlinear light scattering in a carbon nanotube suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, Gen M.; Mogileva, T. N.; Okotrub, Aleksandr V.; Bulatov, D. L.; Vanyukov, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear scattering of 1064-nm laser light in an aqueous suspension of purified carbon nanotubes has been studied in relation to their optical power limiting behaviour using z-scan measurements to simultaneously determine the energy and shape of the transmitted and 90° circ-scattered pulses. The results indicate that the reduction in transmitted laser pulse energy with increasing incident power density is mainly due to the associated increase in scattered pulse energy. The shape, duration and time shift of the transmitted and 90° circ-scattered pulses are intricate functions of incident power density. The data are interpreted in terms of thermally induced nonlinear and Rayleigh scattering processes at high and low incident power densities, respectively.

  8. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-18

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers.

  9. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues. It therefore grants access to superficial layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations (`angular memory effect') are of very short range and, in theory, only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range (and thus the possible field-of-view) by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for $\\sim$1\\,mm thick tissue layers.

  10. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases. PMID:27475558

  11. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  12. Development of 3D control of a tiny dew droplet by scattered laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki

    2009-06-01

    In order to study dropwise condensation on a metal plate, the method for controlling a tiny dew droplet deposited on a copper plate has been developed by using scattered laser light. The method employed the proportional control combined with shifting movement by an integrator to control the intensity of the scattered laser light constantly. Also, the control simulation of the method has been developed to confirm the usefulness of the method and the simulated three-dimensional shape of controlled dew droplet was obtained with the control action. A tiny thin dew droplet, of which the diameter was of handreds micrometers and the mass was about 10-7 g, was controlled in the atmosphere at room temperature for 60 minutes at the preset level of the intensity of scattered laser light and the three-dimensional shape of the controlled dew droplet was shown from the interference fringes.

  13. Light scattering by red blood cells in ektacytometry: Fraunhofer versus anomalous diffraction.

    PubMed

    Streekstra, G J; Hoekstra, A G; Nijhof, E J; Heethaar, R M

    1993-05-01

    In the present literature on ektacytometry, small angle light scattering by ellipsoidal red blood cells is commonly approximated by Fraunhofer diffraction. Calculations on a sphere with the size and relative refractive index of a red cell, however, show that Fraunhofer diffraction deviates significantly from exact Mie theory. Anomalous diffraction is found to be a much better approximation. The anomalous diffraction theory is used to calculate the intensity distribution of the light scattered by an ellipsoidally deformed red blood cell. The derived expression shows that the ellipticity of isointensity curves in forward scattered light are equal to the ellipticity of the red blood cell. The theoretical expression is fitted to the intensity patterns measured with an ektacytometer. For the small observation angles used in ektacytometry, the experimental results confirm the validity of the anomalous diffraction approach.

  14. A preview of a modular surface light scattering instrument with autotracking optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tin, Padetha; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.; Cheung, H. Michael; Rogers, Richard B.; Lading, Lars

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program is sponsoring the development of a new generation of surface light scattering hardware. This instrument is designed to non-invasively measure the surface response function of liquids over a wide range of operating conditions while automatically compensating for a sloshing surface. The surface response function can be used to compute surface tension, properties of monolayers present, viscosity, surface tension gradient and surface temperature. The instrument uses optical and electronic building blocks developed for the laser light scattering program at NASA Lewis along with several unique surface light scattering components. The emphasis of this paper is the compensation for bulk surface motion (slosh). Some data processing background information is also included.

  15. Beam-splitting code for light scattering by ice crystal particles within geometric-optics approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Borovoi, Anatoli G.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source beam-splitting code is described which implements the geometric-optics approximation to light scattering by convex faceted particles. This code is written in C++ as a library which can be easy applied to a particular light scattering problem. The code uses only standard components, that makes it to be a cross-platform solution and provides its compatibility to popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE's). The included example of solving the light scattering by a randomly oriented ice crystal is written using Qt 5.1, consequently it is a cross-platform solution, too. Both physical and computational aspects of the beam-splitting algorithm are discussed. Computational speed of the beam-splitting code is obviously higher compared to the conventional ray-tracing codes. A comparison of the phase matrix as computed by our code with the ray-tracing code by A. Macke shows excellent agreement.

  16. Determination of liquid-liquid critical point composition using 90∘ laser light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, J. Charles; Brown, Allison M.; Helvie, Elise N.; Dean, Kevin M.

    2016-04-01

    Despite over a century of characterization efforts, liquid-liquid critical point compositions are difficult to identify with good accuracy. Reported values vary up to 10% for even well-studied systems. Here, a technique is presented for high-precision determination of the critical composition of a partially miscible binary liquid system. Ninety-degree laser light-scattering intensities from single-phase samples are analyzed using an equation derived from nonclassical power laws and the pseudospinodal approximation. Results are reported for four liquid-liquid systems (aniline + hexane, isobutyric acid + water, methanol + cyclohexane, and methanol + carbon disulfide). Compared to other methods, the 90∘ light-scattering approach has a strong dependence on composition near the critical point, is less affected by temperature fluctuations, and is insensitive to the presence of trace impurities in the samples. Critical compositions found with 90∘ light scattering are precise to the parts-per-thousand level and show long-term reproducibility.

  17. Correlated analysis of cellular DNA, membrane antigens and light scatter of human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Braylan, R.C.; Benson, N.A.; Nourse, V.; Kruth, H.S.

    1982-03-01

    Flow cytometric correlated analysis of membrane antigens, DNA, and light scatter was performed on human lymphoid cells using fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated antibodies to label B- and T-cell antigens and propidium iodide (PI) to stain DNA after ethanol fixation and RNase treatment. A FACS II flow cytometer was modified to obtain digitized measurements of two color fluorescence and light scatter emissions, simultaneously. Software was written to allow single parameter analysis or correlated analysis of any two of the three parameters acquired. Ethanol fixation preserved FITC surface labeling for at least 15 weeks, but produced marked changes in light scatter. No changes in FITC distributions were observed after RNase treatment and PI staining, and the presence of FITC labeling did not affect DNA distributions. Within heterogeneous cell populations, the DNA distribution of cell subpopulations identified by a membrane antigen was clearly demonstrated.

  18. Light-scattering properties of plate and column ice crystals generated in a laboratory cold chamber.

    PubMed

    Barkey, Brian; Bailey, Matt; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Hallett, John

    2002-09-20

    Angular scattering properties of ice crystal particles generated in a laboratory cloud chamber are measured with a lightweight polar nephelometer with a diode laser beam. This cloud chamber produces distinct plate and hollow column ice crystal types for light-scattering experiments and provides a controlled test bed for comparison with results computed from theory. Ice clouds composed predominantly of plates and hollow columns generated noticeable 22 degrees and 46 degrees halo patterns, which are predicted from geometric ray-tracing calculations. With the measured ice crystal shape and size distribution, the angular scattering patterns computed from geometrical optics with a significant contribution by rough surfaces closely match those observed from the nephelometer.

  19. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  20. Theoretical models for near forward light scattering by a Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    A number of experimental elastic light scattering studies have been performed in the past few years with the aim of developing automated in vivo tools for differentiating a healthy red blood cell from a Plasmodium falciparum infected cell. This paper examines some theoretical aspects of the problem. An attempt has been made to simulate the scattering patterns of healthy as well as infected individual red blood cells. Two models, namely, a homogeneous sphere model and a coated sphere model have been considered. The scattering patterns predicted by these models are examined. A possible method for discriminating infected red blood cells from healthy ones has been suggested.

  1. Optical characteristics of LGP depending on the scattering pattern orientation for flat-type LED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sohee; Shin, Yongjin; Oh, Kwanghwan; Bang, Taehwan

    2016-04-01

    In flat-type light-emitting-diode (LED) lighting systems, a planar light is formed using a luminance source positioned on the side of the system and light guide panel (LGP) or reflecting plates. Thus, such systems are favorable for their thinness, which allows a relatively small number of LEDs to be used. However, the application of a high-power LED light to a large-area lighting system yields Lambertian luminaires; therefore, a point or a discomfort glare is produced, which generally causes degradation of the luminance efficiency and uniformity. In this study, we solved the problems of luminance non-uniformity and inefficiency by adjusting the orientation of an applied LGP scattered pattern and removing the remaining glare. Through computer simulation, optical characteristics that increase the efficiency even in the case of low-output LEDs were found. Specifically, a scattered pattern vertically oriented relative to the direction of the incident light improves the luminance uniformity at the side of the system, while a scattered pattern oriented parallel to the direction of the incident light plays the role of a waveguide. We implemented a flat-type LED lighting system by fabricating a large-area LGP based on the computer-simulation results and using an extremely sensitive laser. The optical characteristics observed using the laser-processed LGP were identical to those obtained in the computer simulation. Therefore, for large-area flat-type LED lighting systems, we confirmed that adjusting the orientation of the LGP scattered pattern can increase the luminance efficiency and uniformity.

  2. The LS-CODAG experiment for light scattering measurements by dust particles and their aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Cabane, M.; Chassefière, E.; Haudebourg, V.; Worms, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Light scattering measurements are needed to provide links between the currently available observations of scattering by dust in the solar system, and the still unknown properties of the clouds of dust particles and aggregates. The fragility, the fluffiness, and the size of the aggregates make it almos impossible to obtain realistic measurements through computational models or classical laboratory measurements. In order to measure the scattering by dust particles and their aggregates, we have conceived the Light Scattering (LS) experiment for the COsmic Dust AGgregation (CODAG) module. This small and compact instrument has been developed to operate under microgravity conditions, jointly with the CODAG Sounding Rocket experiment (Blum et al., 1998), during ESA rocket flights. The purpose of the experiment is to determine accurately the intensity and the polarization phase functions of the particles that are dispersed in a low pressure chamber, and to document the temporal evolution of their scattering properties, while an aggregation process representative of the solar system formation is starting and spreading out. The instrumental principle relies on simultaneous measurements, performed on a large number of phase angles, from back to forward scattering, of the two polarized components of the scattered intensity.

  3. Use of polarization to separate on-axis scattered and unscattered light in red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Nemati, Babak; Barrera, Frederick J.

    1991-06-01

    The separation of on-axis scattered and unscattered transmission through turbid media has been a difficult experimental task in recent years. This study suggests the use of a polarimeter to filter out the contribution of scattered light to the net on-axis transmission. Red blood cells (RBC) were used to produce the scattering effect. The scattering level was varied by: (1) altering the distance of the detector from the sample, (2) using erythrocytes from three different species, e.g., the dog, goat, and human, which are know to have different RBC sizes, and (3) allowing the RBCs from each species to shrink and swell osmotically. An He-Ne laser was used as the source of the radiation so that data were obtained at a wavelength in the spectral region used in oximetry and hemoglobinometry. In each case, the difference in the scattering cross sections obtained for each sample, with and without polarization filtering, gave us a measure of the filtered scattered light. The results obtained were in close agreement with the expected contribution of scattered radiation to the net axial transmission. This method may be used effectively for all studies involving measurements of on-axis transmission through turbid media, such as biological tissue.

  4. Spatio-temporal imaging of light transport in scattering media using white light illumination (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badon, Amaury; Li, Dayan; Lerosey, Geoffroy; Boccara, Claude; Fink, Mathias; Aubry, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    We recently showed how the correlations of a broadband and incoherent wave-field can directly yield the time-dependent Green's functions between scatterers of a complex medium [Badon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015]. In this study, we apply this approach to the imaging of optical transport properties in complex media. A parallel measurement of millions of Green's functions at the surface of several strongly scattering samples (ZnO, TiO2, Teflon tape) is performed. A statistical analysis of this Green's matrix allows to investigate locally the spatio-temporal evolution of the diffusive halo within the scattering sample. An image of diffusion tensor is then obtained. It allows to map quantitatively the local concentration of scatterers and their anisotropy within the scattering medium. The next step of this work is to test this approach on biological tissues and illustrate how it can provide an elegant and powerful alternative to diffuse optical imaging techniques.

  5. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2013-09-28

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  6. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

    2013-09-01

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  7. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  8. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  9. Small angle light scattering characterization of single micrometric particles in microfluidic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannhauser, David; Romeo, Giovanni; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2013-04-01

    A CCD-camera based small angle light scattering (SALS) apparatus has been used to characterize single micrometric particles flowing in a micro-channel. The measured scattering vector spans the range 2x10-2 - 6:8x101μm-1. The incident laser light is collimated to a spot of about 50 μm in diameter at the sample position with a divergence lower than 0.045 rad. Such small collimated laser beam opens the possibility to perform on-line SALS of micron-sized particles flowing in micro-channels. By properly designing the micro-channel and using a viscoelastic liquid as suspending medium we are able to realize a precise 3D focusing of the target particles. The forward scattering emitted from the particle is collected by a lens with high numerical aperture. At the focal point of that lens a homemade beam stop is blocking the incident light. Finally, a second lens maps the scattered light on the CCD sensor, allowing to obtain far field images on short distances. Measurements with mono-disperse polystyrene particles, both in quiescent and in-flow conditions have been realized. Experiments in-flow allow to measure the single particle scattering. Results are validated by comparison with calculations based on the Lorenz-Mie theory. The quality of the measured intensity profiles confirms the possibility to use our apparatus in real multiplex applications, with particles down to 1 μm in radius.

  10. Incorporation-efficiency determination of the capsular plague antigen into liposomes based on elastic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, V. V.; Guseva, N. P.; Tatarintsev, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the principle possibility for determining the incorporation efficiency of plague capsular antigen (PCA) into liposomes on the basis of elastic light scattering is shown. To find the most informative index, which characterizes the process of PCA sorption into liposomes, the angular light scattering dependencies for the liposome suspensions containing various PCA concentrations were measured by means of laser polarization nephelometer. Its construction and measurement technique are described in detail. For all preparations to be investigated, the incorporation efficiency was determined using traditional biochemical method and correlation between the scattering matrix element values and the incorporation efficiency was made. The most informative index, characterizing the process of PCA incorporation into the liposomes, appeared to be the light scattering integral intensity (LSII) at an angle of 90 degree(s). It was found that the PCA incorporation into liposomes results in the LSII increasing by a factor of 2 - 5 times in the incorporation efficiency range from 5% to 45%. The electron microscopy data and angular dependencies for the light scattering matrix elements have shown that LSII increase is due to the refraction index variation of the liposome membrane. The obtained LSII dependence on the incorporation efficiency enables us to determine the PCA incorporation efficiency into the liposomes by measuring the LSII.

  11. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berginc, G

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  12. Enhanced light scattering in Si nanostructures produced by pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sberna, P. M.; Scapellato, G. G.; Boninelli, S.; Miritello, M.; Crupi, I.; Bruno, E.; Privitera, V.; Simone, F.; Mirabella, S.; Piluso, N.

    2013-11-25

    An innovative method for Si nanostructures (NS) fabrication is proposed, through nanosecond laser irradiation (λ = 532 nm) of thin Si film (120 nm) on quartz. Varying the laser energy fluences (425–1130 mJ/cm{sup 2}) distinct morphologies of Si NS appear, going from interconnected structures to isolated clusters. Film breaking occurs through a laser-induced dewetting process. Raman scattering is enhanced in all the obtained Si NS, with the largest enhancement in interconnected Si structures, pointing out an increased trapping of light due to multiple scattering. The reported method is fast, scalable and cheap, and can be applied for light management in photovoltaics.

  13. Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, R.G.

    1987-03-23

    Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer. 13 figs.

  14. Interferometric apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.

    1988-01-01

    Interferometric apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer.

  15. Light scattering from metal sol labels on high-density DNA probe arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trulson, Mark O.; Walton, Ian D.; Suseno, Audrey D.; Matsuzaki, Hajime; Stern, David

    1998-04-01

    We have been exploring the use of light scattering as a means to detect the binding of nucleic acids to high density DNA probe arrays. Initial work has concentrated on the use of 100 nanometer gold particles conjugated to monoclonal antibodies. A probe array scanner that utilizes an arc lamp source and a `photocopier grade' linear CCD detector has been developed. The optical configuration of the scanner maximizes dynamic range and minimizes optical backgrounds. Initial development of light scattering detection for the p53 cancer gene application shows that functional performance may be obtained that is essentially equivalent to existing fluorescence detection methodology.

  16. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Corneal Abnormalities Using Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  17. Birefringence and scattering of light in colloidal solutions of magnetite in kerosene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erin, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    The birefringence and dynamic and static scattering of light in colloidal solutions of magnetite nanoparticles in kerosene with different concentrations of the solid phase have been investigated. It is shown that these solutions contain both individual colloidal particles about 12 nm in diameter and their aggregates up to 100‒600 nm in diameter. The largest aggregates are formed in solutions with the lowest concentration (on the order of 0.001 vol % or lower). The presence of relatively large aggregates makes it possible to observe specific features of optical anisotropy relaxation in these solutions, which are related to the non-Rayleigh character of light scattering from magnetite-particle aggregates.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring micro structures, anisotropy and birefringence in polymers using laser scattered light

    DOEpatents

    Grek, Boris; Bartolick, Joseph; Kennedy, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring microstructures, anistropy and birefringence in polymers using laser scattered light includes a laser which provides a beam that can be conditioned and is directed at a fiber or film which causes the beam to scatter. Backscatter light is received and processed with detectors and beam splitters to obtain data. The data is directed to a computer where it is processed to obtain information about the fiber or film, such as the birefringence and diameter. This information provides a basis for modifications to the production process to enhance the process.

  19. Study of colloidal particle Brownian aggregation by low-coherence fiber optic dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Pang, Ru Yi; Zhang, Rui; Miao, Cai Xia; Wu, Xiao Yun; Hou, Xue Shun; Zhong, Cheng

    2012-06-15

    The aggregation kinetics of particles in dense polystyrene latex suspensions is studied by low-coherence fiber optic dynamic light scattering. Low-coherence fiber optic dynamic light scattering is used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates. The aggregation kinetics data obtained can be fitted into a single exponential function, which is the characteristic of slow aggregation. It is found that the aggregation rate of particles increased with higher electrolyte levels and with larger particle concentrations. The experimental results can be explained by use of the Derjaruin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeer (DLVO) theory. PMID:22446146

  20. Scattered light diagnostics of overdense plasma cavity in solid targets irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Andreev, A A; Zhidkov, A G; Uesaka, M; Kinoshita, K; Platonov, K Yu

    2002-09-01

    The light scattered backward from a target illuminated by ultraintense laser pulses carries important information about the nonlinear laser-plasma interaction. We analyze the usefulness of this information by plasma corona analysis with the help of an analytical model we developed, and particle-in-cell simulation. The spectrum of scattered light is shown to be shifted, to be broadened, and to be modulated, in comparison with the initial laser spectrum, and the spectral shift is an indicator of laser pulse contrast ratio.

  1. HSI colour-coded analysis of scattered light of single plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Lei, Gang; Zheng, Lin Ling; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level. PMID:27194457

  2. Quasi-elastic light scattering studies of membrane motion in single red blood cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tishler, R B; Carlson, F D

    1987-01-01

    Studies of red blood cells (RBCs) and RBC ghosts, using a quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) microscope spectrometer, have identified the membrane as the primary source of the light scattering signal. This is the first report in which motion of the cell membrane has been demonstrated to be the primary source of the QELS signal from a cell. Cytoplasmic changes induced in the RBC by varying the osmotic strength of the medium were also detected using this technique. Comparison of the data from white blood cells (WBCs) with the RBC data demonstrated significant differences between different types of cells. PMID:3607216

  3. Electron scattering disintegration processes on light nuclei in covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznietsov, P. E.; Kasatkin, Yu. A.; Klepikov, V. F.

    2016-07-01

    We provide general analysis of electro-break up process of compound scalar system. We use covariant approach with conserved EM current, which gives the ability to include strong interaction into QED. Therefore, we receive the ability to describe disintegration processes on nonlocal matter fields applying standard Feynman rules of QED. Inclusion of phase exponent into wave function receives a physical sense while we deal with the dominance of strong interaction in the process. We apply Green's function (GF) formalism to describe disintegration processes. Generalized gauge invariant electro-break up process amplitude is considered. One is a sum of traditional pole series and the regular part. We explore the deposits of regular part of amplitude, and its physical sense. A transition from virtual to real photon considered in photon point limit. The general analysis for electro-break up process of component scalar system is given. Precisely conserved nuclear electromagnetic currents at arbitrary square of transited momentum are received. The only undefined quantity in theory is vertex function. Therefore, we have the opportunity to describe electron scattering processes taking into account minimal necessary set of parameters.

  4. Specular, diffuse, and polarized light scattered by two wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Grant, L.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    Using polarization measurements, the reflectance factor of two wheat canopies is divided into components due to specularly and diffusely reflected light. The data show that two key angles may be predicted, the angle of the polarizer for minimum flux and the angle of incidence of sunlight specularly reflected by a leaf to a sensor. The results show that specular reflection is a key aspect to radiation transfer by two canopies. Results suggest that the advent of heading in wheat may be remotely sensed from polarization measurements of the canopy reflectance.

  5. Light-wave mixing and scattering with quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.; Zhu, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    We show that optical processes originating from elementary excitations with dominant collective atomic recoil motion in a quantum gas can profoundly change many nonlinear optical processes routinely observed in a normal gas. Not only multi-photon wave mixing processes all become stimulated Raman or hyper-Raman in nature but the usual forward wave-mixing process, which is the most efficient process in normal gases, is strongly reduced by the condensate structure factor. On the other hand, in the backward direction the Bogoliubov dispersion automatically compensates the optical- wave phase mismatch, resulting in efficient backward light field generation that usually is not supported in normal gases.

  6. Laser light scattering spectroscopy: a new method to measure tracheobronchial mucociliary activity.

    PubMed Central

    Svartengren, K; Wiman, L G; Thyberg, P; Rigler, R

    1989-01-01

    Laser light scattering spectroscopy is based on the evaluation of the frequency shift of coherent light scattered by moving particles. This makes it particularly suitable for use in light guiding systems. In this study laser light scattering spectroscopy was assessed for its ability to provide information on the motility of respiratory cilia. In vitro and in vivo measurements were undertaken with animal tracheal mucosa. The intensity fluctuations of laser light scattered from moving cilia were analysed in terms of their autocorrelation functions to provide information on the frequency and synchrony of beating cilia. In vitro measurements were performed on fresh bovine trachea to estimate a safe laser power level for mucosal exposure and to test the method by defining the temperature dependence of the ciliary beat frequency. Power densities not exceeding 0.3 kW/cm2 were found to be the upper limit for long term exposure of the mucosa in vitro. Ciliary beat frequency showed a pronounced temperature dependence, ranging from 5.8 to 28.3 Hz over the temperature range 20-43.5 degrees C. A maximum frequency was found at 41.5 degrees C. In vivo measurements of ciliary activity were performed in six pigs by means of optical fibres for light transmission combined with fibreoptic bronchoscopy. A ciliary beat frequency of 5 Hz was obtained; heart and breathing frequencies could be separated and identified. These results suggest that laser light scattering spectroscopy might provide a convenient method of studying the mucociliary system of the lower airways. PMID:2772854

  7. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Oaster, L; Lanning, H; Olsen, K; Smith, R C; Becker, A C; Bergmann, M; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K H; Damke, G; Garg, A; Huber, M E; Matheson, T; Minniti, D; Prieto, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2008-05-06

    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane.

  8. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers in cervical tissue by in vivo light scattering.

    PubMed

    Mourant, Judith R; Bocklage, Thérese J; Powers, Tamara M; Greene, Heather M; Dorin, Maxine H; Waxman, Alan G; Zsemlye, Meggan M; Smith, Harriet O

    2009-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of in vivo elastic light scattering measurements to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) 2/3 and cancers in women undergoing colposcopy and to determine the effects of patient characteristics such as menstrual status on the elastic light scattering spectroscopic measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A fiber optic probe was used to measure light transport in the cervical epithelium of patients undergoing colposcopy. Spectroscopic results from 151 patients were compared with histopathology of the measured and biopsied sites. A method of classifying the measured sites into two clinically relevant categories was developed and tested using five-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Statistically significant effects by age at diagnosis, menopausal status, timing of the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use were identified, and adjustments based upon these measurements were incorporated in the classification algorithm. A sensitivity of 77±5% and a specificity of 62±2% were obtained for separating CIN 2/3 and cancer from other pathologies and normal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of both menstrual status and age should be taken into account in the algorithm for classifying tissue sites based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy. When this is done, elastic light scattering spectroscopy shows good potential for real-time diagnosis of cervical tissue at colposcopy. Guiding biopsy location is one potential near-term clinical application area, while facilitating "see and treat" protocols is a longer term goal. Improvements in accuracy are essential. PMID:20694193

  9. Light scattering on a single dust grain in the ultrasonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Light scattering by dust grains is a complex phenomenon playing an important role in all dust-light interactions. This includes light passing through dense dusty clouds in space as well as in the upper atmosphere, dust charging by photoemission, etc. When the size of the grain is close to the wavelength of the incident light, the Mie theory is often used to characterize the scattering process. However, our knowledge of necessary material constants for most of the space-related materials is limited. Moreover, solutions of Mie equations for general grain shapes is difficult and often not known. Objective of our work is development of an apparatus for observations of light scattering on small (micrometer-sized) arbitrary shaped dust grains. We measure scattering directly by levitating grains in the field created by the standing-wave ultrasonic trap. Such setup allows us to study single grains or small grain clusters. The experiment is performed at atmosphere - unlike other experiments, where grains were measured in water or other liquids, thus, the background effects are significantly reduced. Currently, the trap is under development and first tests are carried out. In this paper, we also focus on theoretical computation of the ultrasonic field of the selected trap.

  10. Results from computer program for analyzing scattered light suppression systems for large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tifft, W. G.; Fannin, B. B.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program was developed which has the ability to analyze the performance of most light suppression systems so as to predict the amount of scattered light which will reach the image plane for various conditions of unwanted light input from the sun, earth, or moon. This program was used to analyze three different configurations of the large space telescope (LST): an LST with a truncated sunshield, an LST with an extended cylindrical sunshield, and an LST with a conical sunshield which is tilted upwards. The computer program gives the user detailed information as to the paths taken by the unwanted stray light to reach the image plane, and pinpoints those portions of the light suppression system which contribute most of the stray light, so that areas requiring improvements are evident. Certain design guide lines were formulated for any light suppression system selected for the LST, and one which meets these requirements (the tilted sunshade) is described in detail.

  11. Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ignatius N.

    1996-08-01

    The extensive thermodynamic and optical properties recently reported [Tang and Munkelwitz, 1994a] for sulfate and nitrate solution droplets are incorporated into a visibility model for computing light scattering by hygroscopic aerosols. The following aerosol systems are considered: NH4HSO4, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)3H(SO4), NaHSO4, Na2SO4, NH4NO3, and NaNO3. In addition, H2SO4 and NaCl are included to represent freshly formed sulfate and background sea-salt aerosols, respectively. Scattering coefficients, based on 1 μg dry salt per cubic meter of air, are calculated as a function of relative humidity for aerosols of various chemical compositions and lognormal size distributions. For a given size distribution the light scattered by aerosol particles per unit dry-salt mass concentration is only weakly dependent on chemical constituents of the hygroscopic sulfate and nitrate aerosols. Sulfuric acid and sodium chloride aerosols, however, are exceptions and scatter light more efficiently than all other inorganic salt aerosols considered in this study. Both internal and external mixtures exhibit similar light-scattering properties. Thus for common sulfate and nitrate aerosols, since the chemical effect is outweighed by the size effect, it follows that observed light scattering by the ambient aerosol can be approximated, within practical measurement uncertainties, by assuming the aerosol being an external mixture. This has a definite advantage for either visibility degradation or climatic impact modeling calculations, because relevant data are now available for external mixtures but only very scarce for internal mixtures.

  12. Robust sensor for turbidity measurement from light scattering and absorbing liquids.

    PubMed

    Kontturi, Ville; Turunen, Petri; Uozumi, Jun; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2009-12-01

    Internationally standardized turbidity measurements for probing solid particles in liquid are problematic in the case of simultaneous light scattering and absorption. A method and a sensor to determine the turbidity in the presence of light absorption are presented. The developed sensor makes use of the total internal reflection of a laser beam at the liquid-prism interface, and the turbidity is assessed using the concept of laser speckle pattern. Using average filtering in speckle data analyzing the observed dynamic speckle pattern, which is due to light scattering from particles and the static speckle due to stray light of the sensor, can be separated from each other. Good correlation between the standard deviation of dynamic speckle and turbidity value for nonabsorbing and for absorbing liquids was observed. The sensor is suggested, for instance, for the measurement of ill-behaved as well as small-volume turbid liquids in both medicine and process industry.

  13. Reducing Scattered Light in CCD Images at the CTIO 0.9m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, D.; Rauscher, B. J.

    1998-12-01

    We have been studying luminous halos around spiral galaxies in very deep near-infrared K-band images (limiting surface brightness =24 mag arcsec(-2) ; lambda_ {c} = 2.35 mu m). Following our successful detection of a halo around the southern spiral galaxy ESO 240-G11 (Rauscher et al. 1998), we collected optical CCD images of candidate galaxies at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO) 0.9 m telescope from 17-21 Sept 1998. Because light scattered by the telescope can mask or mimic faint, extended emission, we took precautions to minimize stray and scattered light. To assess the amount of scattered light, we collected images of the telescope pupil using a pinhole camera, which we constructed by laying a sheet of aluminum foil, perforated with a submillimeter hole, 19 mm in front of the CCD. These images showed that the telescope did scatter light on the order of a few percent over a radius of about 2 arcminutes. Supressing this extraneous light was highly desirable, since halo surface brightness can be < 0.2% of the disk central surface brightness. To reduce the scattered light, the staff of CTIO and we added 3 baffles. One baffle consisted of a 0.95 m diameter tube added as an extension to the telescope, which has a closed-tube design. The other 2 baffles were diaphragms mounted between the primary baffle (the ``chimney'') and the shutter. These baffles effectively eliminated the largest sources of scattered light, which appear to be the edge of the secondary baffle and the inner surface of the chimney (Figure 1, http:// astro.uchicago.edu/home/web/barnaby/sctrdlite98.html). In this paper, we quantify the reduction in scattered light and examine the most useful location to add baffles to this telescope. Acknowledgements. We thank the CTIO Telescope Operations staff for their help in constructing and installing the baffles. We also thank support astronomer Nick Suntzeff for suggesting the pinhole tests. Rauscher, B. J. et al. 1998, ApJ, 506, 116

  14. Monitoring of UVA-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by light-scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, N.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2006-08-01

    We report the use of light scattering to monitor the morphological changes in mammalian breast cancer cells (MCF-7) undergoing UVA irradiation induced apoptosis. The values for the scattering anisotropy parameter (g) and reduced scattering coefficient [μ s / = μ s (1-g), where μ s is the scattering coefficient] of the control cell suspensions and cell suspensions irradiated to varying dosage of UVA (80 - 160 kJ / m2) were estimated for the wavelength range 450nm - 750 nm using integrating sphere measurements of diffuse reflectance and transmittance. These estimates were used to determine the Mie equivalent scatterer radius (r Mie) and thus quantify the morphological alterations of the cells. The value for r Mie was observed to decrease monotonically with increase in the UVA dose to up to a dose of 140 KJ/m2 and showed an increasing behavior beyond this dose. Since it is known that while apoptosis leads to shrinkage in volume of the cells and fragmentation of nuclei, necrosis of the cells is associated with a swelling of cells, the results suggest that at doses below 1 40 kJ/m2 cells undergo apoptosis and beyond this dose necrosis takes place. We also used the light scattering approach to monitor effect of He-Ne pre-irradiation on UVA induced damage in cells. Results were consistent with previous reports that suggest that He- Ne pre-irradiation can induce protection against the UVA damage to the cells.

  15. A study of electric dipole radiation via scattering of polarized laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Natthi L.; Behringer, Ernest R.; Crombez, Rene C.

    2003-12-01

    We have developed an advanced undergraduate experiment to explore electric dipole radiation in the optical frequency domain. A polarized laser beam is used to illuminate an aqueous suspension of skim milk, and the light scattered from the suspension is measured in the plane perpendicular to the laser beam as a function of the angle θ with respect to the polarization direction and as a function of the perpendicular distance R from the laser beam. When the length of the scattering region, d, is much smaller than R, the measurements agree very well with the sin2 θ/R2 dependence of electric dipole radiation. Increasing the scatterer concentration increases the background of multiply scattered light and decreases the degree of polarization of the scattered light with no appreciable change in the observed sin2 θ/R2 dependence. We discuss variations of the experiment for different instructional needs and describe how an understanding of dipole radiation helps students to appreciate a number of optical phenomena.

  16. Angular resolved light scattering for discriminating among marine picoplankton: modeling and experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Bing; Jaffe, Jules S.; Chachisvilis, Mirianas; Esener, Sadik C.

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the capability to optically identify small marine microbes, both simulations and experiments of angular resolved light scattering (ARLS) were performed. After calibration with 30-nm vesicles characterized by a nearly constant scattering distribution for vertically polarized light (azimuthal angle=90°), ARLS from suspensions of three types of marine picoplankton (two prokaryotes and one eukaryote) in seawater was measured with a scattering device that consisted of an elliptical mirror, a rotating aperture, and a PMT. Scattered light was recorded with adequate signal-to-noise in the 40-140°. Simulations modeled the cells as prolate spheroids with independently measured dimensions. For the prokaryotes, approximated as homogeneous spheroids, simulations were performed using the RM (Rayleigh-Mie) - I method, a hybrid of the Rayleigh-Debye approximation and the generalized Lorentz-Mie theory. For the picoeukaryote, an extended RM - I method was developed for a coated spheroid with different shell thickness distributions. The picoeukaryote was then modeled as a coated sphere with a spherical core. Good overall agreements were obtained between simulations and experiments. The distinctive scattering patterns of the different species hold promise for an identification system based on ARLS.

  17. Investigation of unburned carbon particles in fly ash by means of laser light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, R. Q.; Morlacchi, R.; Calabria, R.; Massoli, P.

    2011-02-01

    A new optical method to determine the percentage of unburned carbon particles in fly ash from combustion of pulverized coal has been developed. The technique exploits the different properties of particles of ash and coal in the elastic scattering of polarized light. The polarization measurements were performed using a linearly polarized laser source and a receiving system able to simultaneously detect the scattered radiation polarized in parallel and orthogonal planes, under the scattering angle of 60°. The parallel and perpendicular components of the scattered light intensities are measured in order to determine the polarization ratio. The operation of the system was tested under various conditions using monodisperse glass spheres. The performance of the novel device was assessed in several sets of measurements with samples of fly ash produced from coal fired power plants. A correlation between the relative content of coal and ashes and the polarization ratio of scattered light was demonstrated. The resulting polarization ratio showed values ranging from 1.25 to 0.94 for a carbon content of 1.17 wt% and 16.3 wt%, respectively. The uncertainty on the measured percentage of unburned carbon was about 1%. The proposed device represents an attractive tool for monitoring real-time burnout and combustion efficiency.

  18. Flow cytometry of human embryonic kidney cells: A light scattering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.; Goolsby, C. L.; Todd, P. W.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The mammalian kidney contains cells that transport water, convert vitamin D to active forms, synthesize hormones such a renin and erythropoietin, and produce enzymes such as urokinase, a plasminogen activator. Several of these functions are maintained by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) cultivated in vitro. Biochemical study of these functions in their individual cell types in vitro requires purified populations of cells. Light-scattering activated cell sorting (LACS) was explored as a means of achieving such purifications. It was found that HEK cells at the first 1 to 5 passages in culture were heterogeneous with respect to 2-parameter light scattering intensity distribution, in which combined measurements included forward angle scattering (2.5 to 19 deg), 90 deg scattering, and time-of-flight size measurements. Size was measured at a resolution of 0.15 microns/channel in 256 channels using pulse-height independent pulse-width measurements. Two-parameter distributions combining these measurements were obtained for HEK cell subpopulations that had been purified by microgravity electrophoresis and subsequently propagated in culture. These distributions contained at least 3 subpopulations in all purified fractions, and results of experiments with prepurified cultured HEK cells indicated that subpopulations of living cells that were high in plasminogen-activator activity also contained the highest per cent of cells with high 90 deg light scatter intensity.

  19. Correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain exposed to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Light scattering signal is a potential indicator of tissue viability in brain because cellular and subcellular structural integrity should be associated with cell viability in brain tissue. We previously performed multiwavelength diffuse reflectance measurement for a rat global ischemic brain model and observed a unique triphasic change in light scattering at a certain time after oxygen and glucose deprivation. This triphasic scattering change (TSC) was shown to precede cerebral ATP exhaustion, suggesting that loss of brain tissue viability can be predicted by detecting scattering signal. In the present study, we examined correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain in vivo. We performed transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement for rat brain; under spontaneous respiration, hypoxia was induced for the rat by nitrogen gas inhalation and reoxygenation was started at various time points. We observed a TSC, which started at 140 +/- 15 s after starting nitrogen gas inhalation (mean +/- SD, n=8). When reoxygenation was started before the TSC, all rats survived (n=7), while no rats survived when reoxygenation was started after the TSC (n=8). When reoxygenation was started during the TSC, rats survived probabilistically (n=31). Disability of motor function was not observed for the survived rats. These results indicate that TSC can be used as an indicator of loss of tissue reversibility in brains, providing useful information on the critical time zone for treatment to rescue the brain.

  20. White light photothermal lens spectrophotometer for the determination of absorption in scattering samples.

    PubMed

    Marcano, Aristides; Alvarado, Salvador; Meng, Junwei; Caballero, Daniel; Moares, Ernesto Marín; Edziah, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We developed a pump-probe photothermal lens spectrophotometer that uses a broadband arc-lamp and a set of interference filters to provide tunable, nearly monochromatic radiation between 370 and 730 nm as the pump light source. This light is focused onto an absorbing sample, generating a photothermal lens of millimeter dimensions. A highly collimated monochromatic probe light from a low-power He-Ne laser interrogates the generated lens, yielding a photothermal signal proportional to the absorption of light. We measure the absorption spectra of scattering dye solutions using the device. We show that the spectra are not affected by the presence of scattering, confirming that the method only measures the absorption of light that results in generation of heat. By comparing the photothermal spectra with the usual absorption spectra determined using commercial transmission spectrophotometers, we estimate the quantum yield of scattering of the sample. We discuss applications of the device for spectroscopic characterization of samples such as blood and gold nanoparticles that exhibit a complex behavior upon interaction with light.

  1. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    DOEpatents

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  2. Polarization State of Light Scattered from Quantum Plasmonic Dimer Antennas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longkun; Wang, Hancong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhipeng

    2016-01-26

    Plasmonic antennas are able to concentrate and re-emit light in a controllable manner through strong coupling between metallic nanostructures. Only recently has it found that quantum mechanical effects can drastically change the coupling strength as the feature size approaches atomic scales. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the evolution of the resonance peak and its polarization state as the dimer-antenna gap narrows to subnanometer scale. We clearly can identify the classical plasmonic regime, a crossover regime where nonlocal screening plays an important role, and the quantum regime where a charge transfer plasmon appears due to interparticle electron tunneling. Moreover, as the gap decreases from tens of to a few nanometers, the bonding dipole mode tends to emit photons with increasing polarizability. When the gap narrows to quantum regime, a significant depolarization of the mode emission is observed due to the reduction of the charge density of coupled quantum plasmons. These results would be beneficial for the understanding of quantum effects on emitting-polarization of nanoantennas and the development of quantum-based photonic nanodevices. PMID:26700823

  3. Polarization State of Light Scattered from Quantum Plasmonic Dimer Antennas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longkun; Wang, Hancong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhipeng

    2016-01-26

    Plasmonic antennas are able to concentrate and re-emit light in a controllable manner through strong coupling between metallic nanostructures. Only recently has it found that quantum mechanical effects can drastically change the coupling strength as the feature size approaches atomic scales. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the evolution of the resonance peak and its polarization state as the dimer-antenna gap narrows to subnanometer scale. We clearly can identify the classical plasmonic regime, a crossover regime where nonlocal screening plays an important role, and the quantum regime where a charge transfer plasmon appears due to interparticle electron tunneling. Moreover, as the gap decreases from tens of to a few nanometers, the bonding dipole mode tends to emit photons with increasing polarizability. When the gap narrows to quantum regime, a significant depolarization of the mode emission is observed due to the reduction of the charge density of coupled quantum plasmons. These results would be beneficial for the understanding of quantum effects on emitting-polarization of nanoantennas and the development of quantum-based photonic nanodevices.

  4. Light scattering in a spherical, exponential atmosphere, with applications to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallach, D.; Hapke, B.

    1985-09-01

    The problem of the reflection of light from an optically thick, spherical atmosphere in which the scatterers are distributed exponentially with a scale height small compared to the radius of the planet is discussed. Exact formal solutions are obtained for the single scattered component. Useful approximate analytic solutions, which also include multiply scattered light, are given. The results are applied to the analysis of the Mariner 10 limb and terminator images of Venus. The altitude of the "detached" haze layer discovered by Mariner 10 is at 79 - 85 km, but in places the haze exists above 100 km. This layer apparently is a stable, planetwide feature which forms at the top of the Pioneer Venus upper haze layer. It was similar in location, scale height, and thickness at the times of the two missions, in contrast to the lower, high-altitude haze which changed dramatically. The authors discuss two possibilities for the nature of the limb hazes.

  5. Noise power spectral density of a fibre scattered-light interferometer with a semiconductor laser source

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T

    2013-10-31

    Spectral characteristics of the noise intensity fluctuations at the output of a scattered-light interferometer, caused by phase fluctuations of semiconductor laser radiation are considered. This kind of noise is one of the main factors limiting sensitivity of interferometric sensors. For the first time, to our knowledge, the expression is obtained for the average noise power spectral density at the interferometer output versus the degree of a light source coherence and length of the scattering segment. Also, the approximate expressions are considered which determine the power spectral density in the low-frequency range (up to 200 kHz) and in the limiting case of extended scattering segments. The expression obtained for the noise power spectral density agrees with experimental normalised power spectra with a high accuracy. (interferometry of radiation)

  6. Single-particle light-scattering measurement: photochemical aerosols and atmospheric particulates.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D T; Wyatt, P J

    1972-09-01

    The use of single-particle light-scattering measurements to determine the origin of atmospheric hazes has been explored by measurement of laboratory aerosols, field samples, and computer analysis of the light-scattering data. The refractive index of measured spherical particles 800 nm to 1000 nm in diameter was determined within 2%. For particles of diameter less than 500 nm the measurement of absolute scattering intensity is required for complete analysis. Distinctive nonspherical and absorbing particles were observed both in automotive exhaust and atmospheric samples. Electrostatic suspension of atmospheric particulates is demonstrated to provide a practical approach to optical measurement of single particles. The technique may be used to calibrate optical particle counters or identify particles with unique shape or refractive index.

  7. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  8. Dynamics of caged microemulsion droplets: a neutron spin echo and dynamic light scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Arnaud de; Molle, Boris; Lartigue, Colette; Guillermo, Armel; Farago, Bela

    2004-07-01

    We report a neutron spin echo (NSE) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) study of droplet dynamics in a microemulsion at high droplet packing fraction ( Φdroplet∼62%). NSE measurements in range qr≫1 allow to investigate the short-range Brownian motion of droplets trapped within the cages formed by their nearest neighbors. For a particular scattering contrast, NSE also reveals, for q values around qr∼ π, the shape fluctuations of the caged droplets. In range qr≪1, DLS correlation functions reveal two independent diffusive modes with well separated decay times. Comparing DLS results with NSE and pulsed-field gradient NMR measurements allows to associate both DLS modes with collective dynamics of ‘transient-trapped’ droplets, revealing strong similarity to the long-time and short-time diffusion modes observed by light scattering in concentrated colloidal suspensions below the glass transition.

  9. Visibility of Young's Interference Fringes: Scattered Light from Small Ion Crystals.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian; Wechs, Julian; von Zanthier, Joachim; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2016-05-01

    We observe interference in the light scattered from trapped ^{40}Ca^{+} ion crystals. By varying the intensity of the excitation laser, we study the influence of elastic and inelastic scattering on the visibility of the fringe pattern and discriminate its effect from that of the ion temperature and wave-packet localization. In this way we determine the complex degree of coherence and the mutual coherence of light fields produced by individual atoms. We obtain interference fringes from crystals consisting of two, three, and four ions in a harmonic trap. Control of the trapping potential allows for the adjustment of the interatomic distances and thus the formation of linear arrays of atoms serving as a regular grating of microscopic scatterers.

  10. Bacteria-clay interactions investigated by light scattering and phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimova, Alexandra; Block, Karin; Rudolph, Elizabeth; Katz, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Gottlieb, P.; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-02-01

    Light scattering experiments and phase contrast microscopy are used to evaluate the aggregate-forming characteristics of simple clay-bacteria mixtures. Colloidal suspensions of negatively charged Pseudomonas syringae (Ps) and Mg 2+-, Li + - or Ca 2+ -exchanged smectite (and non-exchanged smectite) are flocculated in neutral (pH 7) aqueous media. Aggregate formation is monitored using changes in optical transmission. Clustering is observed in all the clay-bacteria preparations. The Li +-substituted clay aggregates average 50-300 microns in diameter, in contrast to the Ca 2+- substituted clay that produces aggregates of 10-50 microns in diameter. Light scattering measurements indicate that aggregates begin forming 3 hours after mixing and that the (larger sized) aggregates exhibit less scattering than a mixture with an equivalent concentration of unattached Ps and clay particles.

  11. Using light-scattering intensities to discriminate waterdrops from coal mine dusts. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducts research to protect the health of the Nation's coal miners. The Bureau is pursuing a research program to eliminate coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) by the reduction of respirable coal mine dust in the mine air. A basic requirement for this task is instrumentation to measure respirable coal mine dust concentrations quickly and accurately. The Bureau's research program is applying these advances to develop a photometer that can discriminate between various coal mine aerosols. One objective of this program is to collect scattering signatures of coal mine aerosols. Scattering signatures are the intensities of light scattered by aerosols as a function of angle. Bureau researchers used an instrument, called the DAWN-A, to collect the scattering signatures of various coal mine aerosols for analysis and comparison. The report describes and discusses this work.

  12. Coherence and polarization of light propagating through scattering media and biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Jarry, G; Steimer, E; Damaschini, V; Epifanie, M; Jurczak, M; Kaiser, R

    1998-11-01

    The degree of polarization of light propagating through scattering media was measured as a function of the sample thickness in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at a wavelength of lambda = 633 nm. For polystyrene microspheres of diameters 200, 430, and 940 nm, depolarization began to appear for thicknesses larger than 23, 19, and 15 scattering mean free paths (SMFP's), respectively, where the coherently detected scattered component dominates the ballistic component. For large particles (940 nm) the initial polarization survived partially in the scattering regime and progressively vanished up to the detection limit of our setup. This phenomenon was similarly observed in diluted blood from 12.5 to 280 SMFP's. Beyond this thickness the fluctuating parallel and crossed components of polarization became random. A dual-channel interferometer allowed us to detect simultaneously the low-frequency fluctuations of both polarized components through a few millimeters in liver tissue. PMID:18301570

  13. The effect of simulated cataract light scatter on retinal vessel oximetry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunni R; Hudson, Chris; Flanagan, John G; Heitmar, Rebekka

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of light scatter, similar to that introduced by cataract on retinal vessel blood oxygen saturation measurements using poly-bead solutions of varying concentrations. Eight healthy, young, non-smoking individuals were enrolled for this study. All subjects underwent digital blood pressure measurements, assessment of non-contact intraocular pressure, pupil dilation and retinal vessel oximetry using dual wavelength photography (Oximetry Module, Imedos Systems, Germany). To simulate light scatter, cells comprising a plastic collar and two plano lenses were filled with solutions of differing concentrations (0.001, 0.002 and 0.004%) of polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., USA). The adopted light scatter model showed an artifactual increase in venous optical density ratio (p = 0.036), with the 0.004% condition producing significantly higher venous optical density ratio values when compared to images without a cell in place. Spectrophotometric analysis, and thus retinal vessel oximetry of the retinal vessels, is altered by artificial light scatter.

  14. Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Le; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Chuttani, Ram; Pleskow, Douglas; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Guo, Lianyu; Vitkin, Edward; Itzkan, Irving; Hanlon, Eugene B; Perelman, Lev T

    2012-05-01

    This article reports the evolution of scanning spectral imaging techniques using scattered light for minimally invasive detection of early cancerous changes in tissue and cell biology applications. Optical spectroscopic techniques have shown promising results in the diagnosis of disease on a cellular scale. They do not require tissue removal, can be performed in vivo, and allow for real time diagnoses. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are most effective in revealing molecular properties of tissue. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles, such as epithelial cell nuclei and organelles, to their size, shape and refractive index. It is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue on cellular and sub-cellular scales. However, in order to be useful in the detection of early cancerous changes which are otherwise not visible to the naked eye, it must rapidly survey a comparatively large area while simultaneously detecting these cellular changes. Both goals are achieved by combining LSS with spatial scanning imaging. Two examples are described in this article. The first reviews a clinical system for screening patients with Barrett's esophagus. The second presents a novel advancement in confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy.

  15. Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Le; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Chuttani, Ram; Pleskow, Douglas; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D.; Guo, Lianyu; Vitkin, Edward; Itzkan, Irving; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the evolution of scanning spectral imaging techniques using scattered light for minimally invasive detection of early cancerous changes in tissue and cell biology applications. Optical spectroscopic techniques have shown promising results in the diagnosis of disease on a cellular scale. They do not require tissue removal, can be performed in vivo, and allow for real time diagnoses. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are most effective in revealing molecular properties of tissue. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles, such as epithelial cell nuclei and organelles, to their size, shape and refractive index. It is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue on cellular and sub-cellular scales. However, in order to be useful in the detection of early cancerous changes which are otherwise not visible to the naked eye, it must rapidly survey a comparatively large area while simultaneously detecting these cellular changes. Both goals are achieved by combining LSS with spatial scanning imaging. Two examples are described in this article. The first reviews a clinical system for screening patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The second presents a novel advancement in confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy. PMID:23087592

  16. The dependence of aerosol light-scattering on RH over the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegg, D. A.; Covert, D. S.; Crahan, K.; Jonssen, H.

    2002-04-01

    Measurements of the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering are reported from three experimental venues over the Pacific Ocean. The measurement platform utilized was the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Results are compared with previous measurements at other locales and with theoretical models. The relatively low values of hygroscopicity obtained in marine air are consistent with a substantial organic component to the aerosol.

  17. Physical characterization and profiling of airway epithelial derived exosomes using light scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Gupta, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles have been gaining interest during the last decade due to their emerging role in biology and, disease pathogenesis and their biomarker potential. Almost all published research related to exosomes and other extracellular vesicles include some form of physical characterization. Therefore, these vesicles should be precisely profiled and characterized physically before studying their biological role as intercellular messengers, biomarkers or therapeutic tools. Using a combination of light scattering techniques, including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and multi-angle laser light scattering combined with size exclusion separation (SEC-MALLS), we physically characterized and compared distinct extracellular vesicles derived from the apical secretions of two different cultured airway epithelial cells. The results indicated that epithelial cells release vesicles with distinct physical properties and sizes. Human primary tracheobronchial cell culture (HTBE) derived vesicles have a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of approximately 340 nm while their radius of gyration (Rg) is approximately 200 nm. Electron microscopy analysis, however, revealed that their spherical component is 40-100 nm in size, and they carry filamentous, entangled membrane mucins on their surface that increases their overall radius. The mucin decoration on the surface defines their size and charge as measured using light scattering techniques. Their surface properties mirror the properties of the cells from which they are derived. This may provide a unique tool for researchers to elucidate the unanswered questions in normal airway biology and innate and adaptive defense, including the remodeling of airways during inflammation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:25823850

  18. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  19. Real Time Measurement of the Size Distribution of Particulate Matter by a Light Scattering Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravatt, C. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a light scattering instrument designed to measure the size of particles in an air flow in approximately 25 microseconds and at a concentration as high as 10,000 particles/cc. Indicates that the measurement can be made for all particles, independent of their index of refraction. (CC)

  20. Physical characterization and profiling of airway epithelial derived exosomes using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Gupta, Richa

    2015-10-01

    Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles have been gaining interest during the last decade due to their emerging role in biology and, disease pathogenesis and their biomarker potential. Almost all published research related to exosomes and other extracellular vesicles include some form of physical characterization. Therefore, these vesicles should be precisely profiled and characterized physically before studying their biological role as intercellular messengers, biomarkers or therapeutic tools. Using a combination of light scattering techniques, including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and multi-angle laser light scattering combined with size exclusion separation (SEC-MALLS), we physically characterized and compared distinct extracellular vesicles derived from the apical secretions of two different cultured airway epithelial cells. The results indicated that epithelial cells release vesicles with distinct physical properties and sizes. Human primary tracheobronchial cell culture (HTBE) derived vesicles have a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of approximately 340 nm while their radius of gyration (Rg) is approximately 200 nm. Electron microscopy analysis, however, revealed that their spherical component is 40-100 nm in size, and they carry filamentous, entangled membrane mucins on their surface that increases their overall radius. The mucin decoration on the surface defines their size and charge as measured using light scattering techniques. Their surface properties mirror the properties of the cells from which they are derived. This may provide a unique tool for researchers to elucidate the unanswered questions in normal airway biology and innate and adaptive defense, including the remodeling of airways during inflammation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:25823850