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Sample records for lightcraft flight dynamics

  1. Flight dynamics simulation of lightcraft propelled by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, C. G.; Anderson, K. S.; Myrabo, L. N.

    2006-05-01

    A six degree-of-freedom (DOF) dynamic model was developed to provide insight into the flight behavior of Type 200 Lightcraft, and to serve as a research tool for developing future engine-vehicle configurations for laser launching of nano-satellites (1-10 kg). Accurate engine, beam, and aerodynamics models are included to improve the predictive capability of the 6-DOF code. The aerodynamic forces of lift, drag, and aerodynamic pitching moment were derived from Fluent ® computational fluid dynamics predictions, and calibrated against limited existing wind tunnel data. To facilitate 6-DOF model validation, simulation results are compared with video analysis of flights under comparable conditions. Despite current limitations of the 6-DOF model, the results compared well with experimental flight trajectory data.

  2. Calibration and Validation of a 6-DOF Laser Propelled Lightcraft Flight Dynamics Model vs. Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, David A.; Anderson, Kurt S.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2008-04-28

    A detailed description is provided of the flight dynamics model and development, as well as the procedures used and results obtained in the verification, validation, and calibration of a further refined, flight dynamics system model for a laser lightcraft. The full system model is composed of individual aerodynamic, engine, laser beam, variable vehicle inertial, and 6 DOF dynamics models which have been integrated to represent all major phenomena in a consistent framework. The resulting system level model and associated code was then validated and calibrated using experimental flight information from a 16 flight trajectory data base. This model and code are being developed for the purpose of providing a physics-based predictive tool, which may be used to evaluate the performance of proposed future lightcraft vehicle concepts, engine systems, beam shapes, and active control strategies, thereby aiding in the development of the next generation of laser propelled lightcraft. This paper describes the methods used for isolating the effects of individual component models (e.g. beam, engine, dynamics, etc.) so that the performance of each of these key components could be assessed and adjusted as necessary. As the individual component models were validated, a protocol was developed which permitted the investigators to focus on individual aspects of the system and thereby identify phenomena which explain system behavior, and account for observed deviations between portions of the simulation predictions from experimental flights. These protocols are provided herein, along with physics-based explanations for deviations observed.

  3. The Lightcraft project: Flight technology for a hypersonic mass transit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, Leik; Bouchard, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been developing transatmospheric 'Lightcraft' technology aimed at creating an efficient, economically affordable, hypersonic mass transportation system. The system utilizes laser-energized airbreathing engines to accelerate minimum-volume passenger capsules. The system gains a high level of reliability by using remote 'centralized' space power sources, e.g., satellite solar power stations. The most critical portion of the Lightcraft's acceleration trajectory involves flight propulsion at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere, using a 'Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) Fanjet' mode. Of all the propulsion modes proposed for the Lightcraft's combined-cycle engine, the MHD-Fanjet mode has received the least critical inquiry, largely because of its complexity. During the 1991-1992 academic year, Rensselaer's ADP teams produced a detailed conceptual design for the MHD-Fanjet engine, including the specific details of its integration with the other three propulsive modes. To facilitate this process, students built a full-scale mockup of a 1/12th section of this annular engine, complete with a working model of the shroud translation system. The class also made preliminary design calculations for the double-dipole, 'cuspfield' superconducting magnets that provide the external magnetic field needed by the MHD air accelerator, as well as for an onboard microwave power system to enhance the electrical conductivity of the air plasma working fluid. In addition, a large hypersonic model of the MHD accelerator was designed for future tests in RPI's Hypersonic Shock Tunnel in order to validate present analytical performance models. Another group continued design work on a full-sized prototype of a one-person 'Mercury Lightcraft' (a transatmospheric flight simulator), with major emphasis on the detailed design of the major structure, robotic landing gear, and exterior aeroshell.

  4. The lightcraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messitt, Don G.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    1991-01-01

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been developing a transatmospheric 'Lightcraft' technology which uses beamed laser energy to propel advanced shuttle craft to orbit. In the past several years, Rensselaer students have analyzed the unique combined-cycle Lightcraft engine, designed a small unmanned Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator, and conceptualized larger manned Lightcraft - to name just a few of the interrelated design projects. The 1990-91 class carried out preliminary and detailed design efforts for a one-person 'Mercury' Lightcraft, using computer-aided design and finite-element structural modeling techniques. In addition, they began construction of a 2.6 m-diameter, full-scale engineering prototype mockup. The mockup will be equipped with three robotic legs that 'kneel' for passenger entry and exit. More importantly, the articulated tripod gear is crucial for accurately pointing at, and tracking the laser relay mirrors, a maneuver that must be performed just prior to liftoff. Also accomplished were further design improvements on a 6-inch-diameter Lightcraft model (for testing in RPI's hypersonic tunnel), and new laser propulsion experiments. The resultant experimental data will be used to calibrate Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and analytical laser propulsion models that can simulate vehicle/engine flight conditions along a transatmospheric boost trajectory. These efforts will enable the prediction of distributed aerodynamic and thruster loads over the entire full-scale spacecraft.

  5. Apollo Lightcraft Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Smith, Wayne L. (Editor); Decusatis, Casimer; Frazier, Scott R.; Garrison, James L., Jr.; Meltzer, Jonathan S.; Minucci, Marco A.; Moder, Jeffrey P.; Morales, Ciro; Mueller, Mark T.

    1988-01-01

    This second year of the NASA/USRA-sponsored Advanced Aeronautical Design effort focused on systems integration and analysis of the Apollo Lightcraft. This beam-powered, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is envisioned as the shuttlecraft of the 21st century. The five person vehicle was inspired largely by the Apollo Command Module, then reconfigured to include a new front seat with dual cockpit controls for the pilot and co-pilot, while still retaining the 3-abreast crew accommodations in the rear seat. The gross liftoff mass is 5550 kg, of which 500 kg is the payload and 300 kg is the LH2 propellant. The round trip cost to orbit is projected to be three orders of magnitude lower than the current space shuttle orbiter. The advanced laser-driven 5-speed combined-cycle engine has shiftpoints at Mach 1, 5, 11 and 25+. The Apollo Lightcraft can climb into low Earth orbit in three minutes, or fly to any spot on the globe in less than 45 minutes. Detailed investigations of the Apollo Lightcraft Project this second year further evolved the propulsion system design, while focusing on the following areas: (1) man/machine interface; (2) flight control systems; (3) power beaming system architecture; (4) re-entry aerodynamics; (5) shroud structural dynamics; and (6) optimal trajectory analysis. The principal new findings are documented. Advanced design efforts for the next academic year (1988/1989) will center on a one meter+ diameter spacecraft: the Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD). Detailed engineering design and analyses, as well as critical proof-of-concept experiments, will be carried out on this small, near-term machine. As presently conceived, the LTD could be constructed using state of the art components derived from existing liquid chemical rocket engine technology, advanced composite materials, and high power laser optics.

  6. Metal Matrix Superconductor Composites for Flight-Weight Microwave Lightcraft Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Dan A.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2008-04-28

    Flight-weight superconducting magnets are designed for a 20-m diameter MicroWave LightCraft (MWLC). The twin coil unit with storage capacity of 900 MJ, is made of structural carbon fiber filaments with a superconducting MgCNi{sub 3} high current density film surface layer, imbedded in a beryllium stabilizer matrix of high electrical and thermal conductivity. These 'bucking' magnets run circumferentially about the lightcraft rim, and provide a 2-Tesla magnetic field necessary for the craft's hypersonic MHD slipstream accelerator. Each magnet is comprised of a single 22 cm diameter, hollow cylindrical cable made from metal matrix composites for superconductors (MMC lowbar Sc) with integral coolant passageways for circulating liquid-helium coolant to prevent the magnets from warming above the superconductive transition temperature. Each is suspended inside a 30-cm diameter toroidal vacuum tube, braced by a radial mesh of high-strength insulating fibers loaded in tension. For a coil separation distance of 1.4 m, each coil has a calculated mass of 1365 kg which is within 2x of the ultimate objective.

  7. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  8. Apollo Lightcraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Blandino, John S.; Borkowski, Chris A.; Cross, David P.; Frazier, Scott R.; Hill, Stephen C.; Mitty, Todd J.; Moder, Jeffrey P.; Morales, Ciro; Nyberg, Gregory A.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed design of a beam-powered transatmospheric vehicle, the Apollo Lightcraft, was selected as the project for the design course. The principal goal is to reduce the LEO payload delivery cost by at least three orders of magnitude below the Space Shuttle Orbiter in the post 2020 era. The completely reusable, single-stage-to-orbit shuttlecraft will take off and land vertically, and have a reentry heat shield integrated with its lower surface. At appropriate points along the launch trajectory, the combined cycle propulsion system will transition through three or four airbreathing modes, and finally use a pure rocket mode for orbital insertion. The objective for the Spring semester propulsion source was to design and perform a detailed theoretical analysis on an advanced combined-cycle engine suitable for the Apollo Lightcraft. The preliminary theoretical analysis of this combined-cycle engine is now completed, and the acceleration performance along representative orbital trajectories was simulated. The total round trip cost is $3430 or $686 per person. This represents a payload delivery cost of $3.11/lb, which is a factor of 1000 below the STS. The Apollo Lightcraft concept is now ready for a more detailed investigation during the Fall semester Transatmosphere Vehicle Design course.

  9. Apollo Lightcraft Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Atonison, Mark A. (Editor); Chen, Sammy G. (Editor); Decusatis, Casimer (Editor); Kusche, Karl P. (Editor); Minucci, Marco A. (Editor); Moder, Jeffrey P. (Editor); Morales, Ciro (Editor); Nelson, Caroline V. (Editor); Richard, Jacques C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate goal for this NASA/USRA-sponsored Apollo Lightcraft Project is to develop a revolutionary manned launch vehicle technology which can potentially reduce payload transport costs by a factor of 1000 below the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The Rensselaer design team proposes to utilize advanced, highly energetic, beamed-energy sources (laser, microwave) and innovative combined-cycle (airbreathing/rocket) engines to accomplish this goal. The research effort focuses on the concept of a 100 MW-class, laser-boosted Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD) drone. The preliminary conceptual design of this 1.4 meter diameter microspacecraft involved an analytical performance analysis of the transatmospheric engine in its two modes of operation (including an assessment of propellant and tankage requirements), and a detailed design of internal structure and external aeroshell configuration. The central theme of this advanced propulsion research was to pick a known excellent working fluid (i.e., air or LN sub 2), and then to design a combined-cycle engine concept around it. Also, a structural vibration analysis was performed on the annular shroud pulsejet engine. Finally, the sensor satellite mission was examined to identify the requisite subsystem hardware: e.g., electrical power supply, optics and sensors, communications and attitude control systems.

  10. Spaceborne Lightcraft Applications--an Experimental Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Trommer, Jens; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Eigenbrod, Christian

    2008-04-28

    An experimental approach is proposed for the near-term demonstration of space-borne laser propulsion. A feasibility study at the ZARM Drop Tower Bremen is planned. The facility provides microgravity conditions within a drop capsule for {approx}9 seconds. An excimer laser is used for energy beaming operating at a wavelength of 248 nm with max. 500 mJ pulse energy and a repetition rate of 250 Hz. Within the drop capsule, free flights of a lightcraft are intended to be conducted in air as well as under vacuum conditions. Different propellants are reviewed regarding their features for propulsion with a UV laser. The scalability of previous ground-based flight experiments is discussed with respect to microgravity conditions and moderate pulse energies. Space logistic and sample return missions are discussed as possible applications.

  11. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  12. Analysis of the Laser Propelled Lightcraft Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Advanced propulsion research and technology require launch and space flight technologies, which can drastically reduce mission costs. Laser propulsion is a concept in which energy of a thrust producing reaction mass is supplied via beamed energy from an off-board power source. A variety of laser/beamed energy concepts were theoretically and experimentally investigated since the early 1970's. During the 1980's the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) research lead to the invention of the Laser Lightcraft concept. Based upon the Laser Lightcraft concept, the U.S. Air Force and NASA have jointly set out to develop technologies required for launching small payloads into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for a cost of $1.0M or $1000/lb to $ 100/lb. The near term objectives are to demonstrate technologies and capabilities essential for a future earth to orbit launch capability. Laser propulsion offers the advantages of both high thrust and good specific impulse, I(sub sp), in excess of 1000 s. Other advantages are the simplicity and reliability of the engine because of few moving parts, simpler propellant feed system, and high specific impulse. Major limitations of this approach are the laser power available, absorption and distortion of the pulsed laser beam through the atmosphere, and coupling laser power into thrust throughout the flight envelope, The objective of this paper is to assist efforts towards optimizing the performance of the laser engine. In order to accomplish this goal (1) defocusing of the primary optic was investigated using optical ray tracing and (2), time dependent calculations were conducted of the optically induced blast wave to predict pressure and temperature in the vicinity of the cowl. Defocusing of the primary parabolic reflector causes blurring and reduction in the intensity of the laser ignition site on the cowl. However, because of the caustic effect of ray-tracing optics the laser radiation still forms a well-defined ignition line on the cowl. The

  13. Simplified Analysis of Airspike Heat Flux Into Lightcraft Thermal Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Dean R.; Seo, Junghwa; Cassenti, Brice N.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    An approximate method is presented for estimating the airspike heat flux into a 9-meter diameter lightcraft, integrated over its flight to low Earth orbit. The super-pressure lightcraft's exotic twin-hull, sandwich structure is assumed to be fabricated from SiC/SiC thin-film ceramic matrix composites of semiconductor grade purity, giving superior structural properties while being transparent to 35-GHz microwave radiation. The vehicle's MHD slipstream accelerator engine is energized by an annular microwave power beam — converted on-board into DC electric power by two concentric, water-cooled microwave rectenna arrays. The vehicle's airspike is created by a central 3-m diameter laser beam that sustains a laser-supported detonation wave at a distance of 10-m ahead of the craft; the LSD wave propagates up the beam with a velocity that matches the lightcraft's flight speed. The simplified analysis, which is based on aerodynamic heating during re-entry, shows that helium flowing at a velocity of 10 m/s through the lightcraft's double-hull is sufficient to keep the outer, 0.13-mm thick SiC skin safely under its maximum service temperature. The interior helium pressurant that maintains the structural integrity of this exotic pressure-airship, increases in temperature by only 25 K during the flight to LEO.

  14. LACE flight dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1989-01-01

    The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

  15. Review Of Laser Lightcraft Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Eric W.; Mead, Franklin B. Jr

    2008-04-28

    Laser-powered 'Lightcraft' systems that deliver nano-satellites to LEO have been studied for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The study was built on the extensive Lightcraft laser propulsion technology already developed by theoretical and experimental work by the AFRL's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB, CA. Here we review the history and engineering-physics of the laser Lightcraft system and its propulsive performance. We will also review the effectiveness and cost of a Lightcraft vehicle powered by a high-energy laser beam. One result of this study is the significant influence of laser wavelength on the power lost during laser beam propagation through Earth's atmosphere and in space. It was discovered that energy and power losses in the laser beam are extremely sensitive to wavelength for Earth-To-Orbit missions, and this significantly affects the amount of mass that can be placed into orbit for a given maximum amount of radiated power from a ground-based laser.

  16. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  17. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  18. Performance Modeling of Experimental Laser Lightcrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Myrabo, Leik N.; Mead, Franklin B., Jr.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A computational plasma aerodynamics model is developed to study the performance of a laser propelled Lightcraft. The computational methodology is based on a time-accurate, three-dimensional, finite-difference, chemically reacting, unstructured grid, pressure-based formulation. The underlying physics are added and tested systematically using a building-block approach. The physics modeled include non-equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium air-plasma finite-rate kinetics, specular ray tracing, laser beam energy absorption and refraction by plasma, non-equilibrium plasma radiation, and plasma resonance. A series of transient computations are performed at several laser pulse energy levels and the simulated physics are discussed and compared with those of tests and literatures. The predicted coupling coefficients for the Lightcraft compared reasonably well with those of tests conducted on a pendulum apparatus.

  19. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  20. Earth-to-Orbit Laser Launch Simulation for a Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, J. C.; Morales, C.; Smith, W. L.; Myrabo, L. N.

    2006-05-01

    Optimized laser launch trajectories have been developed for a 1.4 m diameter, 120 kg (empty mass) Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD). The lightcraft's combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket engine is designed for single-stage-to-orbit flights with a mass ratio of 2 propelled by a 100 MW class ground-based laser built on a 3 km mountain peak. Once in orbit, the vehicle becomes an autonomous micro-satellite. Two types of trajectories were simulated with the SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) software package: a) direct GBL boost to orbit, and b) GBL boost aided by laser relay satellite. Several new subroutines were constructed for SORT to input engine performance (as a function of Mach number and altitude), vehicle aerodynamics, guidance algorithms, and mass history. A new guidance/steering option required the lightcraft to always point at the GBL or laser relay satellite. SORT iterates on trajectory parameters to optimize vehicle performance, achieve a desired criteria, or constrain the solution to avoid some specific limit. The predicted laser-boost performance for the LTD is undoubtedly revolutionary, and SORT simulations have helped to define this new frontier.

  1. Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. T.; Tobak, M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive framework is proposed for the description and analysis of nonlinear problems in flight dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the aerodynamic component as the major source of nonlinearities in the flight dynamic system. Four aerodynamic flows are examined to illustrate the richness and regularity of the flow structures and the nature of the flow structures and the nature of the resulting nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments. A framework to facilitate the study of the aerodynamic system is proposed having parallel observational and mathematical components. The observational component, structure is described in the language of topology. Changes in flow structure are described via bifurcation theory. Chaos or turbulence is related to the analogous chaotic behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems characterized by the existence of strange attractors having fractal dimensionality. Scales of the flow are considered in the light of ideas from group theory. Several one and two degree of freedom dynamical systems with various mathematical models of the nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments are examined to illustrate the resulting types of dynamical behavior. The mathematical ideas that proved useful in the description of fluid flows are shown to be similarly useful in the description of flight dynamic behavior.

  2. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yan; Sun, Mao

    2008-02-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion. The primary findings are as the following. The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one (or two) unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion. At hovering to medium flight speed [flight speed u e = (0-3.5) m s-1; advance ratio J = 0-0.44], the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable; at high speed ( u e = 4.5 m s-1; J = 0.57), the flight becomes strongly unstable (initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  3. Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Lightcraft ♯200 Aerodynamics at Mach 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droz, I. M.; Myrabo, L. N.; McInerney, J. P.

    2008-04-01

    The combined experimental and numerical research study investigated the supersonic aerodynamics of a Type 200 laser lightcraft at Mach 3 and ˜18 km altitude. Several 1 inch (2.54 cm) and 1.25 inch (3.175 cm) diameter lightcraft models with "closed" axisymmetric inlets were machined from 6061-T6 aluminum and tested in RPI's vacuum-driven Mach 3 wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were taken of the unpowered models in both axial- and lateral-flight (i.e., "Frisbee" mode) directions, then compared and contrasted with CFD predictions using Fluent®. One 1.25 inch axial flight model was fitted with a piezoelectric load cell to measure axial drag forces. Preliminary measurements of aerodynamic lift forces in the lateral flight mode were recorded as a function of angle of attack, using a special strain guage sting balance with an adjustable elbow. The bow shock structure captured in Schlieren photographs correlated well with CFD simulations, as well as with shockwave theory for common conical noses. In these axial flight model tests, slight differences were noted between the Schlieren photos and CFD density contour plots, especially with regard to the secondary shock structure; CFD results predicted these shocks closer to the shroud than nature would have it.

  4. Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Lightcraft no. 200 Aerodynamics at Mach 3

    SciTech Connect

    Droz, I. M.; Myrabo, L. N.; McInerney, J. P.

    2008-04-28

    The combined experimental and numerical research study investigated the supersonic aerodynamics of a Type 200 laser lightcraft at Mach 3 and {approx}18 km altitude. Several 1 inch (2.54 cm) and 1.25 inch (3.175 cm) diameter lightcraft models with 'closed' axisymmetric inlets were machined from 6061-T6 aluminum and tested in RPI's vacuum-driven Mach 3 wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were taken of the unpowered models in both axial- and lateral-flight (i.e., 'Frisbee' mode) directions, then compared and contrasted with CFD predictions using Fluent registered . One 1.25 inch axial flight model was fitted with a piezoelectric load cell to measure axial drag forces. Preliminary measurements of aerodynamic lift forces in the lateral flight mode were recorded as a function of angle of attack, using a special strain guage sting balance with an adjustable elbow. The bow shock structure captured in Schlieren photographs correlated well with CFD simulations, as well as with shockwave theory for common conical noses. In these axial flight model tests, slight differences were noted between the Schlieren photos and CFD density contour plots, especially with regard to the secondary shock structure; CFD results predicted these shocks closer to the shroud than nature would have it.

  5. Laser-boosted lightcraft technology demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, J. C.; Morales, C.; Smith, W. L.; Myrabo, L. N.

    1990-01-01

    The detailed description and performance analysis of a 1.4 meter diameter Lightcraft Technology Demonstator (LTD) is presented. The launch system employs a 100 MW-class ground-based laser to transmit power directly to an advanced combined-cycle engine that propels the 120 kg LTD to orbit - with a mass ratio of two. The single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) LTD machine then becomes an autonomous sensor satellite that can deliver precise, high quality information typical of today's large orbital platforms. The dominant motivation behind this study is to provide an example of how laser propulsion and its low launch costs can induce a comparable order-of-magnitude reduction in sensor satellite packaging costs. The issue is simply one of production technology for future, survivable SSTO aerospace vehicles that intimately share both laser propulsion engine and satellite functional hardware.

  6. Flight Dynamics and Controls Discipline Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.

  7. Post Flight Dynamic Analysis Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, B. R.

    1970-01-01

    Digital six-degrees-of-freedom, open loop Saturn 5 first stage flight evaluation simulation program obtains post flight simulation of the launch vehicle using actual flight data as input. Results are compared with measured data. For preflight analysis, the program uses predicted flight data as input.

  8. Dynamic Flight Envelope Assessment with Flight Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandita, Rohit

    Aircraft have a manufacturer prescribed operating flight envelope for safe operation, exceeding these limits can result in unrecoverable departures or even structural failure. Numerous commercial aircraft accidents in the past have been attributed to loss-of-control (LOC) resulting from exceeding the safe operating flight envelope. Hence, real-time knowledge of the safe operating flight envelope is essential for safe flight operation, a problem known as dynamic flight envelope assessment. This dissertation explores dynamic flight envelope assessment from a control theoretic perspective. Two notions of the flight envelope, namely, the reachable sets and the region-of-attraction analysis are investigated. The NASA generic transport model (GTM) aircraft dynamics is used as an application problem. Linear and nonlinear techniques for flight envelope assessment are formulated in the linear matrix inequality (LMI) and sum-of-squares (SOS) framework, respectively. LMI and SOS problems are computationally tractable convex optimization problems for which many semi-definite programming solvers are available. This thesis also investigated fault detection and isolation strategies. Commercial jet transport aircrafts make extensive use of active controls. Faults or failures in the flight control system (FCS) elements like sensors or control effectors can lead to catastrophic failure. Model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters can provide analytical redundancy by reliably detecting such faults in the system. Practical application of model-based FDI filters is limited so far due to poor performance, false alarms and missed detection arising out of uncertain dynamics of the aircraft, effect of nonlinearities in the system and the influence of closed-loop controllers. An application of closed-loop metrics to assess worst case FDI filter performance in the presence of a controller and uncertain dynamics is presented. Longitudinal GTM dynamics are considered. An Hinfinity

  9. Propulsion Systems Integration for a `Tractor Beam' Mercury Lightcraft: Liftoff Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    2003-05-01

    Described herein is the concept and propulsion systems integration for a revolutionary beam-propelled shuttle called the ``Mercury'' lightcraft - emphasizing the liftoff engine mode. This one-person, ultra-energetic vehicle is designed to ride `tractor beams' into space, transmitted from a future network of satellite solar power stations. The objective is to create a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) space transportation system for human life, one that is completely `green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine operates in a rotary pulsed detonation mode PDE for lift-offs and landings; at hypersonic speeds it transitions into a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator mode. For the latter, the transatmospheric flight path is momentarily transformed into an extremely long, electromagnetic ``mass-driver'' channel with an effective `fuel' specific impulse in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds. These future single-stage-to-orbit, highly-reusuable vehicles will ride ``Highways of Light,'' accelerating at 3 Gs into space, with their throttles just barely beyond `idle' power.

  10. Inlet Aerodynamics and Ram Drag of Laser-Propelled Lightcraft Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langener, Tobias; Myrabo, Leik; Rusak, Zvi

    2010-05-01

    Numerical simulations are used to study the aerodynamic inlet properties of three axisymmetric configurations of laser-propelled Lightcraft vehicles operating at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds up to Mach 5. The 60 cm vehicles were sized for launching 0.1-1.0 kg nanosatellites with combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket engines, transitioning between propulsion modes at roughly Mach 5-6. Results provide the pressure, temperature, density, and velocity flowfields around and through the three representative vehicle/engine configurations, as well as giving the resulting ram drag and total drag coefficients—all as a function of flight Mach number. Simulations with rotating boundaries were also carried out, since for stability reasons, Lightcraft are normally spun up before lift-off. Given the three alternatives, it is demonstrated that the optimal geometry for minimum drag is the configuration with a parabola nose; hence, these inlet flow conditions are being applied in subsequent "direct connect" 2D laser propulsion experiments in a small transonic flow facility.

  11. Insect flight dynamics: Stability and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mao

    2014-04-01

    Insects can hover, fly forward, climb, and descend with ease while demonstrating amazing stability, and they can also maneuver in impressive ways as no other organisms can. Is their flight inherently stable? If so, how can they maneuver so well? In recent years, significant progress has been made in revealing the dynamic flight stability and flight control mechanisms of insects and has partially answered these questions. Here the most recent advances in this active area are reviewed. The aim is to provide the background necessary to do research in the area and raise questions that need to be addressed in the future. This review begins with an overview of the flapping kinematics and aerodynamics of insect flight. It is followed by a summary of the governing equations of insect motion and the simplified theoretical models used for analysis of dynamic stability and control. Next, the stability properties of hovering flight and forward flight are scrutinized. Then the flight control properties are explored, dealing in turn with flight stabilization control, steady-state control for changing from hovering to forward flight and from one forward-flight speed to another, and control for maneuvers near hovering. Finally, remarks are given on the state of the art of this research field and speculation is made on its outlook in the near future.

  12. Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L.N.; Rosa, R.J.

    2004-03-30

    Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant 'Mercury' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a 'tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off and landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic 'mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond 'idle' power, or virtually 'disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely 'green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves.

  13. Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Rosa, R. J.

    2004-03-01

    Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant ``Mercury'' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a `tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off & landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic `mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond `idle' power, or virtually `disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely `green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves.

  14. Flight Simulation of Taketombo Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Flight Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kohei; Ueno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    In the present study we have developed a numerical method to simulate the flight dynamics of a small flying body with unsteady motion, where both aerodynamics and flight dynamics are fully considered. A key point of this numerical code is to use computational fluid dynamics and computational flight dynamics at the same time, which is referred to as CFD2, or double CFDs, where several new ideas are adopted in the governing equations, the method to make each quantity nondimensional, and the coupling method between aerodynamics and flight dynamics. This numerical code can be applied to simulate the unsteady motion of small vehicles such as micro air vehicles (MAV). As a sample calculation, we take up Taketombo, or a bamboo dragonfly, and its free flight in the air is demonstrated. The eventual aim of this research is to virtually fly an aircraft with arbitrary motion to obtain aerodynamic and flight dynamic data, which cannot be taken in the conventional wind tunnel.

  15. Performance Modeling of an Experimental Laser Propelled Lightcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Myrabo, Leik N.; Mead, Franklin B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A computational plasma aerodynamics model is developed to study the performance of an experimental laser propelled lightcraft. The computational methodology is based on a time-accurate, three-dimensional, finite-difference, chemically reacting, unstructured grid, pressure- based formulation. The underlying physics are added and tested systematically using a building-block approach. The physics modeled include non-equilibn'um thermodynamics, non-equilibrium air-plasma finite-rate kinetics, specular ray tracing, laser beam energy absorption and equi refraction by plasma, non-equilibrium plasma radiation, and plasma resonance. A series of transient computations are performed at several laser pulse energy levels and the simulated physics are discussed and compared with those of tests and literature. The predicted coupling coefficients for the lightcraft compared reasonably well with those of tests conducted on a pendulum apparatus.

  16. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  17. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  18. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  19. Space station configuration and flight dynamics identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metter, E.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will be assembled in low earth orbit by a combination of deployable and space erectable modules that are progressively integrated during successive flights of the Shuttle. The crew assisted space construction will result in a configuration which is a large scale composite of structural elements having connectivity with a wide range of possible end conditions and imprecisely known dynamic characteristics. The generic applications of Flight Dynamics Identification to the candidate Space Station configurations currently under consideration are described. Identification functions are categorized, and the various methods for extracting parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of specific characteristics of interest to both engineering subsystems and users of the Station's commercial and scientific facilities. Onboard implementation architecture and constraints are discussed from the viewpoint of maximizing integration of the Identification process with the flight subsystem's data and signal flow.

  20. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  1. Lunar libration point flight dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two satellite concepts, Halo and Hummingbird, for a lunar libration point satellite to be used as a tracking and communications link with the far side of the moon were evaluated. Study areas included flight dynamics, communications, attitude control, propulsion, and system integration. Both concepts were proved feasible, but Halo was shown to be the better concept.

  2. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  3. Dynamic assertion testing of flight control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Assertions are used to dynamically test fault tolerant flight software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters.

  4. Dynamic assertion testing of flight control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment in using assertions to dynamically test fault tolerant flight software is described. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters.

  5. Flight dynamics research for highly agile aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Luat T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights recent results of research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of a broad flight dynamics program aimed at developing technology that will enable future combat aircraft to achieve greatly enhanced agility capability at subsonic combat conditions. Studies of advanced control concepts encompassing both propulsive and aerodynamic approaches are reviewed. Dynamic stall phenomena and their potential impact on maneuvering performance and stability are summarized. Finally, issues of mathematical modeling of complex aerodynamics occurring during rapid, large amplitude maneuvers are discussed.

  6. Air Plasma Formation in MHD Slipstream Accelerator for Mercury Lightcraft

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L.N.; Raizer, Y.P.; Surzhikov, S.

    2004-03-30

    This paper investigates the physics of air plasma formation at the entrance of the MHD slipstream accelerator for the 'tractor-beam' Mercury Lightcraft. Two scenarios are analyzed. The first addresses the needs of the minimum power airspike assuming that all the power required for air plasma formation must come from the remote laser beam. The second case considers the constant-focus airspike and assumes that the breakdown criteria is satisfied by an on-board auxiliary source (e.g., electric discharge, RF source, microwave source, or E-beam)

  7. Air Plasma Formation in MHD Slipstream Accelerator for Mercury Lightcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Raizer, Y. P.; Surzhikov, S.

    2004-03-01

    This paper investigates the physics of air plasma formation at the entrance of the MHD slipstream accelerator for the `tractor-beam' Mercury Lightcraft. Two scenarios are analyzed. The first addresses the needs of the minimum power airspike assuming that all the power required for air plasma formation must come from the remote laser beam. The second case considers the constant-focus airspike and assumes that the breakdown criteria is satisfied by an on-board auxiliary source (e.g., electric discharge, RF source, microwave source, or E-beam).

  8. Flight Dynamics of High Altitude Research Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, Ian

    2010-10-01

    Dramatic motions have been observed by instrumentation loaded in payloads attached to high altitude weather balloons. Several HARBOR flights have been completed with six-axis attitude sensors and a high definition video camera that allowed us to analyze the balloon's motion. Turbulence in the atmosphere, especially near the jet stream, results in dramatic oscillations---sometimes swinging the payload above the balloon. Other unexpected motions include rapid spinning (as in a barrel roll) of the entire package. We are correlating these motions with observed atmospheric conditions and addressing issues related to payload safety, mission tracking, and recovery. Also of interest are the dynamics of balloon rupture at low atmospheric pressure and the response of the parachute recovery system to that environment. HARBOR (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a program in which scientific payloads are designed, constructed, and flown by students using weather balloons to reach the edge of space. These flights are similar to the hundreds of weather balloons launched twice a day by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for which very little is actually known about the flight dynamics.

  9. 2-D Airbreathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Quiescent Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.

    2011-11-01

    Ground-breaking laser propulsion (LP) experiments were performed under quiescent conditions with a 25 cm wide, two-dimensional Lightcraft model using a Lumonics TEA-622 CO2 laser emitting ˜ 1 μs pulses. In preparation for subsequent hypersonic experiments, this static test campaign was conducted at ambient pressures of 0.06, 0.15, 0.30 and 1 bar with laser pulse energies of 150 to 230 J. Time-variant pressure distributions, generated over engine "absorption chamber" walls, were integrated to obtain total impulse and momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) representative of a single propulsion cycle. Schlieren visualization of laser-induced air breakdown and expanding blast waves was also accomplished. Surprisingly, the Cm results of 600-3000 Ns/MJ were 2.5x to 5x greater than previous results from smaller Lightcraft models; this suggests that higher static Cm performance can likely be achieved in larger scale LP engines. This research collaboration, forged between the USAF and Brazilian Air Force, was carried out at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics in Brazil.

  10. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  11. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  12. The Lightcraft Project: Multidisciplinary Framework With Some Questions for Discussion and Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Yuri M.

    2005-04-01

    The primary motive for this article is that the Lightcraft project is far more likely to make progress toward its realization when an adequate plan is made available. The role of technical and social dimensions should be discussed on a multidisciplinary basis, since here are many useful ways to speculate about the future. This article is concerned with identifying certain non-physical trends that seem to be influencing the substance of the Lightcraft project.

  13. Exchange of Standardized Flight Dynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Berry, David; Flores-Amaya, Felipe; Folliard, J.; Kiehling, R.; Ogawa, M.; Pallaschke, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft operations require the knowledge of the vehicle trajectory and attitude and also that of other spacecraft or natural bodies. This knowledge is normally provided by the Flight Dynamics teams of the different space organizations and, as very often spacecraft operations involve more than one organization, this information needs to be exchanged between Agencies. This is why the Navigation Working Group within the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems), has been instituted with the task of establishing standards for the exchange of Flight Dynamics data. This exchange encompasses trajectory data, attitude data, and tracking data. The Navigation Working Group includes regular members and observers representing the participating Space Agencies. Currently the group includes representatives from CNES, DLR, ESA, NASA and JAXA. This Working Group meets twice per year in order to devise standardized language, methods, and formats for the description and exchange of Navigation data. Early versions of some of these standards have been used to support mutual tracking of ESA and NASA interplanetary spacecraft, especially during the arrival of the 2003 missions to Mars. This paper provides a summary of the activities carried out by the group, briefly outlines the current and envisioned standards, describes the tests and operational activities that have been performed using the standards, and lists and discusses the lessons learned from these activities.

  14. Animal flight dynamics II. Longitudinal stability in flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G K; Thomas, A L R

    2002-02-01

    Stability is essential to flying and is usually assumed to be especially problematic in flapping flight. If so, problems of stability may have presented a particular hurdle to the evolution of flapping flight. In spite of this, the stability of flapping flight has never been properly analysed. Here we use quasi-static and blade element approaches to analyse the stability provided by a flapping wing. By using reduced order approximations to the natural modes of motion, we show that wing beat frequencies are generally high enough compared to the natural frequencies of motion for a quasi-static approach to be valid as a first approximation. Contrary to expectations, we find that there is noting inherently destabilizing about flapping: beating the wings faster simply amplifies any existing stability or instability, and flapping can even enhance stability compared to gliding at the same air speed. This suggests that aerodynamic stability may not have been a particular hurdle in the evolution of flapping flight. Hovering animals, like hovering helicopters, are predicted to possess neutral static stability. Flapping animals, like fixed wing aircraft, are predicted to be stable in forward flight if the mean flight force acts above and/or behind the centre of gravity. In this case, the downstroke will always be stabilizing. The stabilizing contribution may be diminished by an active upstroke with a low advance ratio and more horizontal stroke plane; other forms of the upstroke may make a small positive contribution to stability. An active upstroke could, therefore, be used to lower stability and enhance manoeuvrability. Translatory mechanisms of unsteady lift production are predicted to amplify the stability predicted by a quasi-static analysis. Non-translatory mechanisms will make little or no contribution to stability. This may be one reason why flies, and other animals which rely upon non-translatory aerodynamic mechanisms, often appear inherently unstable.

  15. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  16. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  17. Animal flight dynamics I. Stability in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A L; Taylor, G K

    2001-10-01

    Stability is as essential to flying as lift itself, but previous discussions of how flying animals maintain stability have been limited in both number and scope. By developing the pitching moment equations for gliding animals and by discussing potential sources of roll and yaw stability, we consider the various sources of static stability used by gliding animals. We find that gliding animals differ markedly from aircraft in how they maintain stability. In particular, the pendulum stability provided when the centre of gravity lies below the wings is a much more important source of stability in flying animals than in most conventional aircraft. Drag-based stability also appears to be important for many gliding animals, whereas in aircraft, drag is usually kept to a minimum. One unexpected consequence of these differences is that the golden measure of static pitching stability in aircraft--the static margin--can only strictly be applied to flying animals if the equilibrium angle of attack is specified. We also derive several rules of thumb by which stable fliers can be identified. Stable fliers are expected to exhibit one or more of the following features: (1) Wings that are swept forward in slow flight. (2) Wings that are twisted down at the tips when swept back (wash-out) and twisted up at the tips when swept forwards (wash-in). (3) Additional lifting surfaces (canard, hindwings or a tail) inclined nose-up to the main wing if they lie forward of it, and nose-down if they lie behind it (longitudinal dihedral). Each of these predictions is directional--the opposite is expected to apply in unstable animals. In addition, animals with reduced stability are expected to display direct flight patterns in turbulent conditions, in contrast to the erratic flight patterns predicted for stable animals, in which large restoring forces are generated. Using these predictions, we find that flying animals possess a far higher degree of inherent stability than has generally been

  18. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  19. Practical aspects of modeling aircraft dynamics from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of parameter estimation, a subset of system identification, is to estimate the coefficients (such as stability and control derivatives) of the aircraft differential equations of motion from sampled measured dynamic responses. In the past, the primary reason for estimating stability and control derivatives from flight tests was to make comparisons with wind tunnel estimates. As aircraft became more complex, and as flight envelopes were expanded to include flight regimes that were not well understood, new requirements for the derivative estimates evolved. For many years, the flight determined derivatives were used in simulations to aid in flight planning and in pilot training. The simulations were particularly important in research flight test programs in which an envelope expansion into new flight regimes was required. Parameter estimation techniques for estimating stability and control derivatives from flight data became more sophisticated to support the flight test programs. As knowledge of these new flight regimes increased, more complex aircraft were flown. Much of this increased complexity was in sophisticated flight control systems. The design and refinement of the control system required higher fidelity simulations than were previously required.

  20. In-flight measurement of upwind dynamic soaring in albatrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2016-03-01

    In-flight measurement results on upwind flight of albatrosses using dynamic soaring are presented. It is shown how the birds manage to make progress against the wind on the basis of small-scale dynamic soaring maneuvers. For this purpose, trajectory features, motion quantities and mechanical energy relationships as well as force characteristics are analyzed. The movement on a large-scale basis consists of a tacking type flight technique which is composed of dynamic soaring cycle sequences with alternating orientation to the left and right. It is shown how this is performed by the birds so that they can achieve a net upwind flight without a transversal large-scale movement and how this compares with downwind or across wind flight. Results on upwind dynamic soaring are presented for low and high wind speed cases. It is quantified how much the tacking trajectory length is increased when compared with the beeline distance. The presented results which are based on in-flight measurements of free flying albatrosses were achieved with an in-house developed GPS-signal tracking method yielding the required high precision for the small-scale dynamic soaring flight maneuvers.

  1. X-38 Application of Dynamic Inversion Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, Roger; Munday, Steve; Merkle, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of a nonlinear dynamic inversion (DI) flight control system (FCS) to an autonomous flight test vehicle in NASA's X-38 Project, a predecessor to the International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). Honeywell's Multi-Application Control-H (MACH) is a parameterized FCS design architecture including both model-based DI rate-compensation and classical P+I command-tracking. MACH was adopted by X-38 in order to shorten the design cycle time for different vehicle shapes and flight envelopes and evolving aerodynamic databases. Specific design issues and analysis results are presented for the application of MACH to the 3rd free flight (FF3) of X-38 Vehicle 132 (V132). This B-52 drop test, occurring on March 30, 2000, represents the first flight test of MACH and one of the first few known applications of DI in the primary FCS of an autonomous flight test vehicle.

  2. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The document is intended to serve as both an introduction to the type of support carried out by the FDAB (Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch), as well as a concise reference summarizing key analysis results and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles assumed over the past year. The major accomplishments in the FDAB in FY99 were: 1) Provided flight dynamics support to the Lunar Prospector and TRIANA missions among a variety of spacecraft missions; 2) Sponsored the Flight Mechanics Symposium; 3) Supported the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) workshops; 4) Performed numerous analyses and studies for future missions; 5) Started the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch Lab for in-house mission analysis and support; and 6) Complied with all requirements in support of GSFC IS09000 certification.

  3. Flight Dynamics Mission Support and Quality Assurance Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, InHwan

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the method of the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Operation (FDO) quality assurance approach to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Support Branch. Historically, a strong need has existed for developing systematic quality assurance using methods that account for the unique nature and environment of satellite Flight Dynamics mission support. Over the past few years FDO has developed and implemented proactive quality assurance processes applied to each of the six phases of the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle: systems and operations concept, system requirements and specifications, software development support, operations planing and training, launch support, and on-orbit mission operations. Rather than performing quality assurance as a final step after work is completed, quality assurance has been built in as work progresses in the form of process assurance. Process assurance activities occur throughout the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle. The FDO Product Assurance Office developed process checklists for prephase process reviews, mission team orientations, in-progress reviews, and end-of-phase audits. This paper will outline the evolving history of FDO quality assurance approaches, discuss the tailoring of Computer Science Corporations's process assurance cycle procedures, describe some of the quality assurance approaches that have been or are being developed, and present some of the successful results.

  4. Dynamic wake distortion model for helicopter maneuvering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinggen

    A new rotor dynamic wake distortion model, which can be used to account for the rotor transient wake distortion effect on inflow across the rotor disk during helicopter maneuvering and transitional flight in both hover and forward flight conditions, is developed. The dynamic growths of the induced inflow perturbation across rotor disk during different transient maneuvers, such as a step pitch or roll rate, a step climb rate and a step change of advance ratio are investigated by using a dynamic vortex tube analysis. Based on the vortex tube results, a rotor dynamic wake distortion model, which is expressed in terms of a set of ordinary differential equations, with rotor longitudinal and lateral wake curvatures, wake skew and wake spacing as states, is developed. Also, both the Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model and the Peters-He finite state inflow model for axial or forward flight are augmented to account for rotor dynamic wake distortion effect during helicopter maneuvering flight. To model the aerodynamic interaction among main rotor, tail rotor and empennage caused by rotor wake curvature effect during helicopter maneuvering flight, a reduced order model based on a vortex tube analysis is developed. Both the augmented Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model and the augmented Peters-He finite state inflow model, combined with the developed dynamic wake distortion model, together with the interaction model are implemented in a generic helicopter simulation program of UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and the simulated vehicle control responses in both time domain and frequency domain are compared with flight test data of a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in both hover and low speed forward flight conditions.

  5. Mercury Lightcraft Project Update: 3-D Modeling, Systems Analysis and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckton, Thomas W.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a progress report on the laser-propelled Mercury Lightcraft Project at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The laser-propelled, 1-person craft has a diameter of 252-cm, height of 217-cm, internal volume of 3 m3, `dry' mass of 700 kg, and gross liftoff mass of 1 metric ton. Expendable liquids including 70 kg of liquid hydrogen, and an equivalent mass (at least) of de-ionized water serves as open-cycle coolants for the 520 MWe laser/electric power conversion system. Its hyper-energetic airbreathing engine can easily accelerate the vehicle at 10 Gs or more. The tractor-beam lightcraft is intended as a prototype for use in a future global aerospace transportation system based on a constellation of satellite solar power stations in geostationary orbit, with laser relay stations in low Earth orbit. Using SolidWorks® 3-D modeling software, several important features were successfully integrated into the Mercury lightcraft model - principally: a rotating shroud (for spin stabilization) simple actuation system for a new variable-geometry air inlet; refined optical train for the laser-heated H2 plasma generators; pneumatically deployed, robotic quadra-pod landing gear; ejection seat/pod/hatch system; and a more detailed airframe structural concept. The CAD effort has brought the Mercury Lightcraft concept one significant step closer to reality.

  6. Quasi-satellite dynamics in formation flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, Seppo; Prioroc, Claudiu-Lucian

    2016-04-01

    The quasi-satellite phenomenon makes two celestial bodies to fly near each other (Mikkola et al.) and that effect can be used also to make artificial satellites move in tandem. We consider formation flight of two or three satellites in low eccentricity near Earth orbits. With the help of weak ion thrusters, it is possible to accomplish tandem flight. With ion thrusters, it is also possible to mimic many kinds of mutual force laws between the satellites. We found that both a constant repulsive force or an attractive force that decreases with the distance are able to preserve the formation in which the eccentricities cause the actual relative motion and the weak thrusters keep the mean longitude difference small. Initial values are important for the formation flight but very exact adjustment of orbital elements is not important. Simplicity is one of our goals in this study and this result is achieved at least in the way that, when constant force thrusters are used, the satellites only need to detect the directions of the other ones to fly in tandem. A repulsive acceleration of the order of 10-6 times the Earth attraction, is enough to effectively eliminate the disruptive effects of all the perturbations at least for a time-scale of years.

  7. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  8. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model bumblebee in hovering and forward flight.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Sun, Mao

    2013-02-21

    The lateral dynamic flight stability of a model bumblebee in hovering and forward flight is studied, using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the stability derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis for solving the equations of motion. The lateral motion of the model bumblebee is unstable at hovering and low flight speed (advance ratio J=0, 0.13), and becomes neutral or weakly stable at medium and high flight speeds (J=0.31-0.57). The instability at hovering and low speed is mainly caused by a positive roll-moment derivative with respect to the side-slip velocity, which is due to the effect of changing the axial velocity of the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) (i.e. the 'lateral wind' due to the side motion of the insect increases the axial velocity of the LEV on one wing and decreases that on the other wing). As flight speed increases, because the mean position of the wings moves more and more backward, the effect of 'changing-LEV-axial-velocity' becomes weaker and weaker and the roll-moment derivative decreases first and then changes its sign to become negative, resulting in the neutrally or weakly stable motion at medium and high flight speeds.

  9. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  10. Progress Toward a Format Standard for Flight Dynamics Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    In the beginning, there was FORTRAN, and it was... not so good. But it was universal, and all flight simulator equations of motion were coded with it. Then came ACSL, C, Ada, C++, C#, Java, FORTRAN-90, Matlab/Simulink, and a number of other programming languages. Since the halcyon punch card days of 1968, models of aircraft flight dynamics have proliferated in training devices, desktop engineering and development computers, and control design textbooks. With the rise of industry teaming and increased reliance on simulation for procurement decisions, aircraft and missile simulation models are created, updated, and exchanged with increasing frequency. However, there is no real lingua franca to facilitate the exchange of models from one simulation user to another. The current state-of-the-art is such that several staff-months if not staff-years are required to 'rehost' each release of a flight dynamics model from one simulation environment to another one. If a standard data package or exchange format were to be universally adopted, the cost and time of sharing and updating aerodynamics, control laws, mass and inertia, and other flight dynamic components of the equations of motion of an aircraft or spacecraft simulation could be drastically reduced. A 2002 paper estimated over $ 6 million in savings could be realized for one military aircraft type alone. This paper describes the efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) to develop a standard flight dynamic model exchange standard based on XML and HDF-5 data formats.

  11. Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao

    2013-08-01

    Current analyses on insect dynamic flight stability are based on linear theory and limited to small disturbance motions. However, insects' aerial environment is filled with swirling eddies and wind gusts, and large disturbances are common. Here, we numerically solve the equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to simulate the large disturbance motions and analyse the nonlinear flight dynamics of hovering model insects. We consider two representative model insects, a model hawkmoth (large size, low wingbeat frequency) and a model dronefly (small size, high wingbeat frequency). For small and large initial disturbances, the disturbance motion grows with time, and the insects tumble and never return to the equilibrium state; the hovering flight is inherently (passively) unstable. The instability is caused by a pitch moment produced by forward/backward motion and/or a roll moment produced by side motion of the insect.

  12. Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao

    2013-01-01

    Current analyses on insect dynamic flight stability are based on linear theory and limited to small disturbance motions. However, insects' aerial environment is filled with swirling eddies and wind gusts, and large disturbances are common. Here, we numerically solve the equations of motion coupled with the Navier–Stokes equations to simulate the large disturbance motions and analyse the nonlinear flight dynamics of hovering model insects. We consider two representative model insects, a model hawkmoth (large size, low wingbeat frequency) and a model dronefly (small size, high wingbeat frequency). For small and large initial disturbances, the disturbance motion grows with time, and the insects tumble and never return to the equilibrium state; the hovering flight is inherently (passively) unstable. The instability is caused by a pitch moment produced by forward/backward motion and/or a roll moment produced by side motion of the insect. PMID:23697714

  13. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 2004 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLion, Anne (Editor); Stengle, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  14. Adaptive integral dynamic surface control of a hypersonic flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam Butt, Waseem; Yan, Lin; Amezquita S., Kendrick

    2015-07-01

    In this article, non-linear adaptive dynamic surface air speed and flight path angle control designs are presented for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle. The tracking performance of the control design is enhanced by introducing a novel integral term that caters to avoiding a large initial control signal. To ensure feasibility, the design scheme incorporates magnitude and rate constraints on the actuator commands. The uncertain non-linear functions are approximated by an efficient use of the neural networks to reduce the computational load. A detailed stability analysis shows that all closed-loop signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and the ? tracking performance is guaranteed. The robustness of the design scheme is verified through numerical simulations of the flexible flight vehicle model.

  15. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, T.; Flores-Amaya, F.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key analysis results and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the discipline of flight dynamics, which involves spacecraft trajectory (orbit) and attitude analysis, as well as orbit and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions involving NASA, government, university, and commercial space missions, at various stages in the mission life cycle.

  16. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 2005 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based), spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning, attitude analysis, attitude determination and sensor calibration, and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  17. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, David (Editor); Mendelsohn, Chad (Editor); Starin, Scott (Editor); Stengle, Tom (Editor); Truong, Son (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including navigation, spacecraft trajectory design, attitude analysis, attitude determination and attitude control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  18. Flight dynamics - a bridge for the Agency's worldwide cooperative endeavours.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, R. E.

    ESA, itself a multi-national European endeavour, cooperates with a number of other space interested bodies around the World on a variety of space projects and programmes. Distant countries participate in this international cooperation. These joint ventures often involve sophisticated satellite control scenarios and thereby provide challenging tasks for ESOC's Flight Dynamics Team.

  19. Software conversion history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the overall history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) applications software conversion project. It describes the background and nature of the project; traces the actual course of conversion; assesses the process, product, and personnel involved; and offers suggestions for future projects. It also contains lists of pertinent reference material and examples of supporting data.

  20. Aerodynamic role of dynamic wing morphing in hummingbird maneuvering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Shallcross, Gregory; Dong, Haibo; Deng, Xinyan; Tobalske, Bret; Flow Simulation Research Group Team; Bio-robotics lab Collaboration; University of Montana Flight Laboratory Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The flexibility and deformation of hummingbird wing gives hummingbird a great degree of control over fluid forces in flapping flight. Unlike insect wing's passive deformation, hummingbird wing employs a more complicated wing morphing mechanism through both active muscle control and passive feather-air interaction, which results in highly complex 3D wing topology variations during the unsteady flight. Three camera high speed (1000 fps) high resolution digital video was taken and digitized to measure 3D wing conformation in all its complexity during steady flying and maneuvering. Results have shown that the dynamic wing morphing is more prominent in maneuvering flight. Complicated cambering and twisting patterns are observed along the wing pitching axis. A newly developed immersed boundary method which realistically models wing-joint-body of the hummingbird is then employed to simulate the flow associated with dynamic morphing. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with dynamic wing morphing and aerodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of force producing mechanisms in hummingbird maneuvering flight. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-12-1-007 and NSF CEBT-1313217.

  1. Flight dynamics system software development environment (FDS/SDE) tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, John; Myers, Philip

    1986-01-01

    A sample development scenario using the Flight Dynamics System Software Development Environment (FDS/SDE) is presented. The SDE uses a menu-driven, fill-in-the-blanks format that provides online help at all steps, thus eliminating lengthy training and allowing immediate use of this new software development tool.

  2. ATS-6 flight accelerometers. [in-flight monitoring of spacecraft dynamic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, R.; Honeycutt, G.; Lindner, F.

    1978-01-01

    Five accelerometers mounted near the adapter base of the Titan 3-C launch vehicle and three on the hub of the ATS-F spacecraft provided (1) data for verifying basic spacecraft mode shapes and frequencies during powered flight while attached to the launch vehicle; (2) failure mode detection and diagnostic information on in-flight anomalies; and (3) data to be used in the design of future spacecraft to be flown on the Titan 3-C. Because data from the instruments mounted on the spacecraft hub passed through an in-flight disconnect at the separation plane between the transtage and ATS-F, the moment this connector was broken, the signal to the telemetry system showed a step function change. By monitoring these telemetry traces on the ground at appropriate times during flight sequences, a positive indication of spacecraft separation was obtained. Flight data showing dynamic response at spacecraft launch vehicle interface and at the top of ATS spacecraft during significant launch events are presented in tables.

  3. Operational computer graphics in the flight dynamics environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past five years, the Flight Dynamics Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center has incorporated computer graphics technology into its operational environment. In an attempt to increase the effectiveness and productivity of the Division, computer graphics software systems have been developed that display spacecraft tracking and telemetry data in 2-d and 3-d graphic formats that are more comprehensible than the alphanumeric tables of the past. These systems vary in functionality from real-time mission monitoring system, to mission planning utilities, to system development tools. Here, the capabilities and architecture of these systems are discussed.

  4. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  5. Dynamical continuous time random Lévy flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    The Lévy flights' diffusive behavior is studied within the framework of the dynamical continuous time random walk (DCTRW) method, while the nonlinear friction is introduced in each step. Through the DCTRW method, Lévy random walker in each step flies by obeying the Newton's Second Law while the nonlinear friction f(v) = - γ0v - γ2v3 being considered instead of Stokes friction. It is shown that after introducing the nonlinear friction, the superdiffusive Lévy flights converges, behaves localization phenomenon with long time limit, but for the Lévy index μ = 2 case, it is still Brownian motion.

  6. Dynamic flight stability of a hovering model dragonfly.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao

    2014-05-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a model dragonfly at hovering flight is studied, using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the stability derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis for solving the equations of motion. Three natural modes of motion are identified for the hovering flight: one unstable oscillatory mode, one stable fast subsidence mode and one stable slow subsidence mode. The flight is dynamically unstable owing to the unstable oscillatory mode. The instability is caused by a pitch-moment derivative with respect to horizontal velocity. The damping force and moment derivatives (with respect to horizontal and vertical velocities and pitch-rotational velocity, respectively) weaken the instability considerably. The aerodynamic interaction between the forewing and the hindwing does not have significant effect on the stability properties. The dragonfly has similar stability derivatives, hence stability properties, to that of a one-wing-pair insect at normal hovering, but there are differences in how the derivatives are produced because of the highly inclined stroke plane of the dragonfly.

  7. Flight Dynamic Model Exchange using XML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XML-defined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.

  8. Overview of Dynamic Test Techniques for Flight Dynamics Research at NASA LaRC (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, D. Bruce; Brandon, Jay M.; Croom, Mark A.; Fremaux, C. Michael; Heim, Eugene H.; Vicroy, Dan D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of dynamic test techniques used at NASA Langley Research Center on scale models to obtain a comprehensive flight dynamics characterization of aerospace vehicles is presented. Dynamic test techniques have been used at Langley Research Center since the 1920s. This paper will provide a partial overview of the current techniques available at Langley Research Center. The paper will discuss the dynamic scaling necessary to address the often hard-to-achieve similitude requirements for these techniques. Dynamic test techniques are categorized as captive, wind tunnel single degree-of-freedom and free-flying, and outside free-flying. The test facilities, technique specifications, data reduction, issues and future work are presented for each technique. The battery of tests conducted using the Blended Wing Body aircraft serves to illustrate how the techniques, when used together, are capable of characterizing the flight dynamics of a vehicle over a large range of critical flight conditions.

  9. BOLERO: on board software library for space flight dynamics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontet, B.; Laurichesse, D.

    2002-07-01

    The BOLERO library ("Bibliothèque d'Objets Logiciels Embarqués pour la Restitution d'Orbite" or "on board object software library for orbit determination") gathers CNES skills in space flight dynamics for orbit determination applications. This library offers a set of objects and services that can be used to make applications as on board real time navigator that can be integrated in various targets such as an ERC32 calculator. The aim of this paper is to describe this library: its development process and the principles of its use. The space flight dynamics detailed aspects are out of the scope of this paper. First, the library content and the architecture are specified. Then the library is developed and tested on a target computer for qualification. An application (DIONE) is developed in order to test BOLERO performances. Then a "customised supply" is generated: it contains a subset of BOLERO services with the associated documentation.

  10. Multiagent Flight Control in Dynamic Environments with Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudson, Matthew D.; Colby, Mitchell; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic flight environments in which objectives and environmental features change with respect to time pose a difficult problem with regards to planning optimal flight paths. Path planning methods are typically computationally expensive, and are often difficult to implement in real time if system objectives are changed. This computational problem is compounded when multiple agents are present in the system, as the state and action space grows exponentially. In this work, we use cooperative coevolutionary algorithms in order to develop policies which control agent motion in a dynamic multiagent unmanned aerial system environment such that goals and perceptions change, while ensuring safety constraints are not violated. Rather than replanning new paths when the environment changes, we develop a policy which can map the new environmental features to a trajectory for the agent while ensuring safe and reliable operation, while providing 92% of the theoretically optimal performance

  11. Pattern Recognition for a Flight Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Restrepo, Carolina; Hurtado, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The design, analysis, and verification and validation of a spacecraft relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulations. Modern computational techniques are able to generate large amounts of Monte Carlo data but flight dynamics engineers lack the time and resources to analyze it all. The growing amounts of data combined with the diminished available time of engineers motivates the need to automate the analysis process. Pattern recognition algorithms are an innovative way of analyzing flight dynamics data efficiently. They can search large data sets for specific patterns and highlight critical variables so analysts can focus their analysis efforts. This work combines a few tractable pattern recognition algorithms with basic flight dynamics concepts to build a practical analysis tool for Monte Carlo simulations. Current results show that this tool can quickly and automatically identify individual design parameters, and most importantly, specific combinations of parameters that should be avoided in order to prevent specific system failures. The current version uses a kernel density estimation algorithm and a sequential feature selection algorithm combined with a k-nearest neighbor classifier to find and rank important design parameters. This provides an increased level of confidence in the analysis and saves a significant amount of time.

  12. Flight Dynamics and Control of Elastic Hypersonic Vehicles Uncertainty Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown previously that hypersonic air-breathing aircraft exhibit strong aeroelastic/aeropropulsive dynamic interactions. To investigate these, especially from the perspective of the vehicle dynamics and control, analytical expressions for key stability derivatives were derived, and an analysis of the dynamics was performed. In this paper, the important issue of model uncertainty, and the appropriate forms for representing this uncertainty, is addressed. It is shown that the methods suggested in the literature for analyzing the robustness of multivariable feedback systems, which as a prerequisite to their application assume particular forms of model uncertainty, can be difficult to apply on real atmospheric flight vehicles. Also, the extent to which available methods are conservative is demonstrated for this class of vehicle dynamics.

  13. Solar array flight experiment/dynamic augmentation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.; Pack, Homer C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the objectives, design, testing, and data analyses of the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE) that was tested aboard Shuttle in September 1984. The SAFE was a lightweight, flat-fold array that employed a thin polyimide film (Kapton) as a substrate for the solar cells. Extension/retraction, dynamics, electrical and thermal tests, were performed. Of particular interest is the dynamic behavior of such a large lightweight structure in space. Three techniques for measuring and analyzing this behavior were employed. The methodology for performing these tests, gathering data, and data analyses are presented. The report shows that the SAFE solar array technology is ready for application and that new methods are available to assess the dynamics of large structures in space.

  14. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  15. Verification Challenges of Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Six Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a test facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas for performing dynamic verification of space structures and hardware. Some examples of past and current tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility is able to integrate a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or demating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is utilized for input to the simulation during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents many unique challenges, one particular area of interest is with respect to the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. There are many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) measurement systems available on the market, and the test facility measurement systems have evolved over time to include two separate COTS systems. The first system incorporates infra-red sensing cameras, while the second system employs a laser interferometer to determine position and orientation data. The specific technical challenges with the measurement systems in a large dynamic environment include changing thermal and humidity levels, operational area and measurement volume, dynamic tracking, and data synchronization. The facility is located in an expansive high-bay area that is occasionally exposed to outside temperature when large retractable doors at each end of the building are opened. The laser interferometer system, in particular, is vulnerable to the environmental changes in the building. The operational area of the test facility itself is sizeable, ranging from seven meters wide and five meters deep to as much as seven meters high. Both facility measurement systems have desirable measurement volumes and the accuracies vary

  16. Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weihua

    This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation

  17. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite In-Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    1997-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite flight data from the first 737 days after launch (September 1991) was used to investigate spacecraft disturbances and responses. The investigation included two in-flight dynamics experiments (approximately three orbits each). Orbital and configuration influences on spacecraft dynamic response were also examined. Orbital influences were due to temperature variation from crossing the Earth's terminator and variation of the solar incident energy as the orbit precessed. During the terminator crossing, the rapid ambient temperature change caused the spacecraft's two flexible appendages to experience thermal elastic bending (thermal snap). The resulting response was dependent upon the orientation of the solar array and the solar incident energy. Orbital influences were also caused by on-board and environmental disturbances and spacecraft configuration changes resulting in dynamic responses which were repeated each orbit. Configuration influences were due to solar array rotation changing spacecraft modal properties. The investigation quantified the spacecraft dynamic response produced by the solar array and high gain antenna harmonic drive disturbances. The solar array's harmonic drive output resonated two solar array modes. Friction in the solar array gear drive provided sufficient energy dissipation which prevented the solar panels from resonating catastrophically; however, the solar array vibration amplitude was excessively large. The resulting vibration had a latitude-specific pattern.

  18. Dynamic flight stability in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2003-08-01

    Here we provide the first formal quantitative analysis of dynamic stability in a flying animal. By measuring the longitudinal static stability derivatives and mass distribution of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria, we find that their static stability and static control responses are insufficient to provide asymptotic longitudinal dynamic stability unless they are sensitive to pitch attitude (measured with respect to an inertial or earth-fixed frame) as well as aerodynamic incidence (measured relative to the direction of flight). We find no evidence for a 'constant-lift reaction', previously supposed to keep lift production constant over a range of body angles, and show that such a reaction would be inconsequential because locusts can potentially correct for pitch disturbances within a single wingbeat. The static stability derivatives identify three natural longitudinal modes of motion: one stable subsidence mode, one unstable divergence mode, and one stable oscillatory mode (which is present with or without pitch attitude control). The latter is identified with the short period mode of aircraft, and shown to consist of rapid pitch oscillations with negligible changes in forward speed. The frequency of the short period mode (approx. 10 Hz) is only half the wingbeat frequency (approx. 22 Hz), so the mode would become coupled with the flapping cycle without adequate damping. Pitch rate damping is shown to be highly effective for this purpose - especially at the small scales associated with insect flight - and may be essential in stabilising locust flight. Although having a short period mode frequency close to the wingbeat frequency risks coupling, it is essential for control inputs made at the level of a single wingbeat to be effective. This is identified as a general constraint on flight control in flying animals.

  19. Visual stabilization dynamics are enhanced by standing flight velocity.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Jamie C; Ringach, Dario L; Frye, Mark A

    2010-06-23

    A flying insect must travel to find food, mates and sites for oviposition, but for a small animal in a turbulent world this means dealing with frequent unplanned deviations from course. We measured a fly's sensory-motor impulse response to perturbations in optic flow. After an abrupt change in its apparent visual position, a fly generates a compensatory dynamical steering response in the opposite direction. The response dynamics, however, may be influenced by superimposed background velocity generated by the animal's flight direction. Here we show that constant forward velocity has no effect on the steering responses to orthogonal sideslip perturbations, whereas constant parallel sideslip substantially shortens the lags and relaxation times of the linear dynamical responses. This implies that for flies stabilizing in sideslip, the control effort is strongly affected by the direction of background motion.

  20. Space Station/Orbiter berthing dynamics during an assembly flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Wu, Shih-Chin

    1993-01-01

    A large-angle, multi-body, dynamic modeling capability was developed to help validate numerical simulations of the dynamic motion and control forces which occur while berthing Space Station Freedom to the Shuttle Orbiter during early assembly flights. The paper describes the dynamics and control of the station, the attached Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, and the Orbiter during a maneuver from a gravity-gradient attitude to a torque equilibrium attitude using the station reaction control jets. The influence of the elastic behavior of the station and of the remote manipulator system on the attitude control of the station/Orbiter system during the maneuver is investigated. The flexibility of the station and the arm had only a minor influence on the attitude control of the system during the maneuver.

  1. Experimental study on the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter: free flight testing and wind tunnel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2012-09-01

    This study experimentally shows the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter using two different types of approach: (1) free flight testing, and (2) wind tunnel testing. An ornithopter is flown in straight and level flight with a fixed wingbeat frequency and tail elevation angle. A three-dimensional visual tracking system is applied to follow the retro-reflective markers on the ornithopter and record the flight trajectories. The unique oscillatory behavior of the body in the longitudinal plane is observed in the free flight testing and the detailed wing and tail deformations are also obtained. Based on the trim flight data, a specially devised tether device is designed and employed to emulate the free flight conditions in the wind tunnel. The tether device provides minimal mechanical interference and longitudinal flight dynamic characteristics similar to those of free flight. On introducing a pitching moment disturbance to the body, the oscillation recovered to the original trajectory turns out to be a stable limit-cycle oscillation (LCO). During the wind tunnel testing, the magnitude of LCO is effectively suppressed by active tail motion.

  2. Robust Aerial Object Tracking in High Dynamic Flight Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussberger, A.; Grabner, H.; van Gool, L.

    2015-08-01

    Integrating drones into the civil airspace is one of the biggest challenges for civil aviation, responsible authorities and involved com- panies around the world in the upcoming years. For a full integration into non-segregated airspace such a system has to provide the capability to automatically detect and avoid other airspace users. Electro-optical cameras have proven to be an adequate sensor to detect all types of aerial objects, especially for smaller ones such as gliders or paragliders. Robust detection and tracking of approaching traffic on a potential collision course is the key component for a successful avoidance maneuver. In this paper we focus on the aerial object tracking during dynamic flight maneuvers of the own-ship where accurate attitude information corresponding to the camera images is essential. Because the 'detect and avoid' functionality typically extends existing autopilot systems the received attitude measurements have unknown delays and dynamics. We present an efficient method to calculate the angular rates from a multi camera rig which we fuse with the delayed attitude measurements. This allows for estimating accurate absolute attitude angles for every camera frame. The proposed method is further integrated into an aerial object tracking framework. A detailed evaluation of the pipeline on real collision encounter scenarios shows that the multi camera rig based attitude estimation enables the correct tracking of approaching traffic during dynamic flight, at which the tracking framework previously failed.

  3. Dynamic test techniques - Concepts and practices. [flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlings, K., III; Cooper, J. M.; Hughes, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    An initial investigation of dynamic flight test analysis techniques indicated that a strict, comprehensive force-moment accounting system would be necessary. An implementation of the longitudinal force-moment accounting system provided excellent results in accounting for small lift/drag and tail deflection changes. Attention is given to gross thrust calculation, instrumentation, maneuvers, and aspects of data correlation. The results of the studies demonstrate that it is possible to generate a lift/drag model which is capable of predicting performance from nearly any maneuver.

  4. Model for Vortex Ring State Influence on Rotorcraft Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The influence of vortex ring state (VRS) on rotorcraft flight dynamics is investigated, specifically the vertical velocity drop of helicopters and the roll-off of tiltrotors encountering VRS. The available wind tunnel and flight test data for rotors in vortex ring state are reviewed. Test data for axial flow, nonaxial flow, two rotors, unsteadiness, and vortex ring state boundaries are described and discussed. Based on the available measured data, a VRS model is developed. The VRS model is a parametric extension of momentum theory for calculation of the mean inflow of a rotor, hence suitable for simple calculations and real-time simulations. This inflow model is primarily defined in terms of the stability boundary of the aircraft motion. Calculations of helicopter response during VRS encounter were performed, and good correlation is shown with the vertical velocity drop measured in flight tests. Calculations of tiltrotor response during VRS encounter were performed, showing the roll-off behavior characteristic of tiltrotors. Hence it is possible, using a model of the mean inflow of an isolated rotor, to explain the basic behavior of both helicopters and tiltrotors in vortex ring state.

  5. Model for Vortex Ring State Influence on Rotorcraft Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The influence of vortex ring state (VRS) on rotorcraft flight dynamics is investigated, specifically the vertical velocity drop of helicopters and the roll-off of tiltrotors encountering VRS. The available wind tunnel and flight test data for rotors in vortex ring state are reviewed. Test data for axial flow, non-axial flow, two rotors, unsteadiness, and vortex ring state boundaries are described and discussed. Based on the available measured data, a VRS model is developed. The VRS model is a parametric extension of momentum theory for calculation of the mean inflow of a rotor, hence suitable for simple calculations and real-time simulations. This inflow model is primarily defined in terms of the stability boundary of the aircraft motion. Calculations of helicopter response during VRS encounter were performed, and good correlation is shown with the vertical velocity drop measured in flight tests. Calculations of tiltrotor response during VRS encounter were performed, showing the roll-off behavior characteristic of tiltrotors. Hence it is possible, using a model of the mean inflow of an isolated rotor, to explain the basic behavior of both helicopters and tiltrotors in vortex ring state.

  6. Dynamic Echo Information Guides Flight in the Big Brown Bat.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Michaela; Lee, Wu-Jung; Krishnan, Anand; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on sensory feedback from their environment to guide locomotion. For instance, visually guided animals use patterns of optic flow to control their velocity and to estimate their distance to objects (e.g., Srinivasan et al., 1991, 1996). In this study, we investigated how acoustic information guides locomotion of animals that use hearing as a primary sensory modality to orient and navigate in the dark, where visual information is unavailable. We studied flight and echolocation behaviors of big brown bats as they flew under infrared illumination through a corridor with walls constructed from a series of individual vertical wooden poles. The spacing between poles on opposite walls of the corridor was experimentally manipulated to create dense/sparse and balanced/imbalanced spatial structure. The bats' flight trajectories and echolocation signals were recorded with high-speed infrared motion-capture cameras and ultrasound microphones, respectively. As bats flew through the corridor, successive biosonar emissions returned cascades of echoes from the walls of the corridor. The bats flew through the center of the corridor when the pole spacing on opposite walls was balanced and closer to the side with wider pole spacing when opposite walls had an imbalanced density. Moreover, bats produced shorter duration echolocation calls when they flew through corridors with smaller spacing between poles, suggesting that clutter density influences features of the bat's sonar signals. Flight speed and echolocation call rate did not, however, vary with dense and sparse spacing between the poles forming the corridor walls. Overall, these data demonstrate that bats adapt their flight and echolocation behavior dynamically when flying through acoustically complex environments.

  7. Dynamic Echo Information Guides Flight in the Big Brown Bat

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Michaela; Lee, Wu-Jung; Krishnan, Anand; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on sensory feedback from their environment to guide locomotion. For instance, visually guided animals use patterns of optic flow to control their velocity and to estimate their distance to objects (e.g., Srinivasan et al., 1991, 1996). In this study, we investigated how acoustic information guides locomotion of animals that use hearing as a primary sensory modality to orient and navigate in the dark, where visual information is unavailable. We studied flight and echolocation behaviors of big brown bats as they flew under infrared illumination through a corridor with walls constructed from a series of individual vertical wooden poles. The spacing between poles on opposite walls of the corridor was experimentally manipulated to create dense/sparse and balanced/imbalanced spatial structure. The bats’ flight trajectories and echolocation signals were recorded with high-speed infrared motion-capture cameras and ultrasound microphones, respectively. As bats flew through the corridor, successive biosonar emissions returned cascades of echoes from the walls of the corridor. The bats flew through the center of the corridor when the pole spacing on opposite walls was balanced and closer to the side with wider pole spacing when opposite walls had an imbalanced density. Moreover, bats produced shorter duration echolocation calls when they flew through corridors with smaller spacing between poles, suggesting that clutter density influences features of the bat’s sonar signals. Flight speed and echolocation call rate did not, however, vary with dense and sparse spacing between the poles forming the corridor walls. Overall, these data demonstrate that bats adapt their flight and echolocation behavior dynamically when flying through acoustically complex environments. PMID:27199690

  8. Dynamic Echo Information Guides Flight in the Big Brown Bat.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Michaela; Lee, Wu-Jung; Krishnan, Anand; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on sensory feedback from their environment to guide locomotion. For instance, visually guided animals use patterns of optic flow to control their velocity and to estimate their distance to objects (e.g., Srinivasan et al., 1991, 1996). In this study, we investigated how acoustic information guides locomotion of animals that use hearing as a primary sensory modality to orient and navigate in the dark, where visual information is unavailable. We studied flight and echolocation behaviors of big brown bats as they flew under infrared illumination through a corridor with walls constructed from a series of individual vertical wooden poles. The spacing between poles on opposite walls of the corridor was experimentally manipulated to create dense/sparse and balanced/imbalanced spatial structure. The bats' flight trajectories and echolocation signals were recorded with high-speed infrared motion-capture cameras and ultrasound microphones, respectively. As bats flew through the corridor, successive biosonar emissions returned cascades of echoes from the walls of the corridor. The bats flew through the center of the corridor when the pole spacing on opposite walls was balanced and closer to the side with wider pole spacing when opposite walls had an imbalanced density. Moreover, bats produced shorter duration echolocation calls when they flew through corridors with smaller spacing between poles, suggesting that clutter density influences features of the bat's sonar signals. Flight speed and echolocation call rate did not, however, vary with dense and sparse spacing between the poles forming the corridor walls. Overall, these data demonstrate that bats adapt their flight and echolocation behavior dynamically when flying through acoustically complex environments. PMID:27199690

  9. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, the Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a real-time, six degree-of-freedom, short range motion base simulator originally designed to simulate the relative dynamics of two bodies in space mating together (i.e., docking or berthing). The SDTS has the capability to test full scale docking and berthing systems utilizing a two body dynamic docking simulation for docking operations and a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) simulation for berthing operations. The SDTS can also be used for nonmating applications such as sensors and instruments evaluations requiring proximity or short range motion operations. The motion base is a hydraulic powered Stewart platform, capable of supporting a 3,500 lb payload with a positional accuracy of 0.03 inches. The SDTS is currently being used for the NASA Docking System testing and has been also used by other government agencies. The SDTS is also under consideration for use by commercial companies. Examples of tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility integrates a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or de-mating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is used for input during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents unique challenges, one particular area of interest involves the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. The measurement systems for the test facility have two separate functions. The first is to take static measurements of facility and test hardware to determine both the static and moving frames used in the simulation and control system. The test hardware must be measured after each configuration change to determine both sets of reference frames. The second function is to take dynamic

  10. Evolution and Reengineering of NASA's Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas; Hoge, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) is a multimission support facility that performs ground navigation and spacecraft trajectory design services for a wide range of scientific satellites. The FDF also supports the NASA Space Network by providing orbit determination and tracking data evaluation services for the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The FDF traces its history to early NASA missions in the 1960's, including navigation support to the Apollo lunar missions. Over its 40 year history, the FDF has undergone many changes in its architecture, services offered, missions supported, management approach, and business operation. As a fully reimbursable facility (users now pay 100% of all costs for FDF operations and sustaining engineering activities), the FDF has faced significant challenges in recent years in providing mission critical products and services at minimal cost while defining and implementing upgrades necessary to meet future mission demands. This paper traces the history of the FDF and discusses significant events in the past that impacted the FDF infrastructure and/or business model, and the events today that are shaping the plans for the FDF in the next decade. Today's drivers for change include new mission requirements, the availability of new technology for spacecraft navigation, and continued pressures for cost reduction from FDF users. Recently, the FDF completed an architecture study based on these drivers that defines significant changes planned for the facility. This paper discusses the results of this study and a proposed implementation plan. As a case study in how flight dynamics operations have evolved and will continue to evolve, this paper focuses on two periods of time (1992 and the present) in order to contrast the dramatic changes that have taken place in the FDF. This paper offers observations and plans for the evolution of the FDF over the next ten years. Finally, this paper defines the

  11. Micro air vehicle-motivated computational biomechanics in bio-flights: aerodynamics, flight dynamics and maneuvering stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Gao, Na; Maeda, Masateru; Aono, Hikaru; Shyy, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Aiming at developing an effective tool to unveil key mechanisms in bio-flight as well as to provide guidelines for bio-inspired micro air vehicles (MAVs) design, we propose a comprehensive computational framework, which integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, vehicle stability and maneuverability. This framework consists of (1) a Navier-Stokes unsteady aerodynamic model; (2) a linear finite element model for structural dynamics; (3) a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for coupled flexible wing aerodynamics aeroelasticity; (4) a free-flying rigid body dynamic (RBD) model utilizing the Newtonian-Euler equations of 6DoF motion; and (5) flight simulator accounting for realistic wing-body morphology, flapping-wing and body kinematics, and a coupling model accounting for the nonlinear 6DoF flight dynamics and stability of insect flapping flight. Results are presented based on hovering aerodynamics with rigid and flexible wings of hawkmoth and fruitfly. The present approach can support systematic analyses of bio- and bio-inspired flight.

  12. Dipteran insect flight dynamics. Part 1 Longitudinal motion about hover.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Imraan; Sean Humbert, J

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a reduced-order model of longitudinal hovering flight dynamics for dipteran insects. The quasi-steady wing aerodynamics model is extended by including perturbation states from equilibrium and paired with rigid body equations of motion to create a nonlinear simulation of a Drosophila-like insect. Frequency-based system identification tools are used to identify the transfer functions from biologically inspired control inputs to rigid body states. Stability derivatives and a state space linear system describing the dynamics are also identified. The vehicle control requirements are quantified with respect to traditional human pilot handling qualities specification. The heave dynamics are found to be decoupled from the pitch/fore/aft dynamics. The haltere-on system revealed a stabilized system with a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode, and a stable oscillatory mode. The haltere-off (bare airframe) system revealed a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode and an unstable oscillatory mode, a modal structure in agreement with CFD studies. The analysis indicates that passive aerodynamic mechanisms contribute to stability, which may help explain how insects are able to achieve stable locomotion on a very small computational budget.

  13. Dipteran insect flight dynamics. Part 1 Longitudinal motion about hover.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Imraan; Sean Humbert, J

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a reduced-order model of longitudinal hovering flight dynamics for dipteran insects. The quasi-steady wing aerodynamics model is extended by including perturbation states from equilibrium and paired with rigid body equations of motion to create a nonlinear simulation of a Drosophila-like insect. Frequency-based system identification tools are used to identify the transfer functions from biologically inspired control inputs to rigid body states. Stability derivatives and a state space linear system describing the dynamics are also identified. The vehicle control requirements are quantified with respect to traditional human pilot handling qualities specification. The heave dynamics are found to be decoupled from the pitch/fore/aft dynamics. The haltere-on system revealed a stabilized system with a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode, and a stable oscillatory mode. The haltere-off (bare airframe) system revealed a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode and an unstable oscillatory mode, a modal structure in agreement with CFD studies. The analysis indicates that passive aerodynamic mechanisms contribute to stability, which may help explain how insects are able to achieve stable locomotion on a very small computational budget. PMID:20170664

  14. A Preliminary Data Model for Orbital Flight Dynamics in Shuttle Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, John; Shalin, Valerie L.

    2000-01-01

    The Orbital Flight Dynamics group in Shuttle Mission Control is investigating new user interfaces in a project called RIOTS [RIOTS 2000]. Traditionally, the individual functions of hardware and software guide the design of displays, which results in an aggregated, if not integrated interface. The human work system has then been designed and trained to navigate, operate and integrate the processors and displays. The aim of RIOTS is to reduce the cognitive demands of the flight controllers by redesigning the user interface to support the work of the flight controller. This document supports the RIOTS project by defining a preliminary data model for Orbital Flight Dynamics. Section 2 defines an information-centric perspective. An information-centric approach aims to reduce the cognitive workload of the flight controllers by reducing the need for manual integration of information across processors and displays. Section 3 describes the Orbital Flight Dynamics domain. Section 4 defines the preliminary data model for Orbital Flight Dynamics. Section 5 examines the implications of mapping the data model to Orbital Flight Dynamics current information systems. Two recurring patterns are identified in the Orbital Flight Dynamics work the iteration/rework cycle and the decision-making/information integration/mirroring role relationship. Section 6 identifies new requirements on Orbital Flight Dynamics work and makes recommendations based on changing the information environment, changing the implementation of the data model, and changing the two recurring patterns.

  15. Reentry Vehicle Flight Controls Design Guidelines: Dynamic Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Daigoro; Georgie, Jennifer; Valasek, John; Ward, Donald T.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses issues in developing a flight control design for vehicles operating across a broad flight regime and with highly nonlinear physical descriptions of motion. Specifically it addresses the need for reentry vehicles that could operate through reentry from space to controlled touchdown on Earth. The latter part of controlled descent is achieved by parachute or paraglider - or by all automatic or a human-controlled landing similar to that of the Orbiter. Since this report addresses the specific needs of human-carrying (not necessarily piloted) reentry vehicles, it deals with highly nonlinear equations of motion, and then-generated control systems must be robust across a very wide range of physics. Thus, this report deals almost exclusively with some form of dynamic inversion (DI). Two vital aspects of control theory - noninteracting control laws and the transformation of nonlinear systems into equivalent linear systems - are embodied in DI. Though there is no doubt that the mathematical tools and underlying theory are widely available, there are open issues as to the practicality of using DI as the only or primary design approach for reentry articles. This report provides a set of guidelines that can be used to determine the practical usefulness of the technique.

  16. Dynamics of tilting proprotor aircraft in cruise flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    A nine degree-of-freedom theoretical model is developed for investigations of the dynamics of a proprotor operating in high inflow axial flight on a cantilever wing. The basic characteristics of the rotor high inflow aerodynamics and the resulting rotor aeroelastic behavior are discussed. The problems of classical whirl flutter, the two-bladed rotor, and the influence of the proprotor on the stability derivatives of the aircraft are treated briefly. The influence of various elements of the theoretical model is discussed, including the modeling used for the blade and wing aerodynamics, and the influence of the rotor lag degree of freedom. The results from tests of two full-scale proprotors - a gimballed, stiff-inplane rotor and a hingeless, soft-inplane rotor - are presented; comparisons with the theoretical results show good correlation.

  17. Investigation of Dynamic Flight Maneuvers With an Iced Tailplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith Foss; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed analysis of two of the dynamic maneuvers, the pushover and elevator doublet, from the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program are discussed. For this series of flight tests, artificial ice shapes were attached to the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer of the NASA Lewis Research Center icing aircraft, a DHC-6 Twin Otter. The purpose of these tests was to learn more about ice-contaminated tailplane stall (ICTS), the known cause of 16 accidents resulting in 139 fatalities. The pushover has been employed by the FAA, JAA and Transport Canada for tailplane icing certification. This research analyzes the pushover and reports on the maneuver performance degradation due to ice shape severity and flap deflection. A repeatability analysis suggests tolerances for meeting the required targets of the maneuver. A second maneuver, the elevator doublet, is also studied.

  18. Neural dynamic programming applied to rotorcraft flight control and reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enns, Russell James

    This dissertation introduces a new rotorcraft flight control methodology based on a relatively new form of neural control, neural dynamic programming (NDP). NDP is an on-line learning control scheme that is in its infancy and has only been applied to simple systems, such as those possessing a single control and a handful of states. This dissertation builds on the existing NDP concept to provide a comprehensive control system framework that can perform well as a learning controller for more realistic and practical systems of higher dimension such as helicopters. To accommodate such complex systems, the dissertation introduces the concept of a trim network that is seamlessly integrated into the NDP control structure and is also trained using this structure. This is the first time that neural networks have been applied to the helicopter control problem as a direct form of control without using other controller methodologies to augment the neural controller and without using order reducing simplifications such as axes decoupling. The dissertation focuses on providing a viable alternative helicopter control system design approach rather than providing extensive comparisons among various available controllers. As such, results showing the system's ability to stabilize the helicopter and to perform command tracking, without explicit comparison to other methods, are presented. In this research, design robustness was addressed by performing simulations under various disturbance conditions. All designs were tested using FLYRT, a sophisticated, industrial-scale, nonlinear, validated model of the Apache helicopter. Though illustrated for helicopters, the NDP control system framework should be applicable to general purpose multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control. In addition, this dissertation tackles the helicopter reconfigurable flight control problem, finding control solutions when the aircraft, and in particular its control actuators, are damaged. Such solutions have

  19. Improved Real-Time Helicopter Flight Dynamics Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haycock, Bruce Charles

    The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies has a number of previously developed real-time helicopter models for piloted simulations. An area of concern with physics-based helicopter models is that they often have an inaccurate off-axis response to cyclic control inputs compared to flight test data. To explain the cause of this problem, several theories have been put forth in the literature concerning which aspects are modelled incorrectly or not at all, including blade elasticity, rotor wake distortion and curvature, and unsteady aerodynamic effects. In this thesis these modelling improvements were implemented and their effectiveness evaluated. To include blade elasticity, a rotor model was developed using a Ritz expansion approach with constrained elastic modes. The effect of including these features on the on-axis and off-axis response of the UTIAS helicopter models was examined. The various improvements were successful in altering the off-axis response, with notable improvements in some areas, without disrupting the on-axis response. In some conditions, the magnitude of change due to flexibility was greater than differences noted due to dynamic wake distortion or unsteady aerodynamics. The best results were obtained when blade flexibility and wake distortion were used together, which is also the most physically accurate model. The impact of these changes was also evaluated from a pilot-in-the-loop perspective, quantifying the perceived changes using simulation fidelity ratings. Since this is a newly developed metric, the simulator was first evaluated using the original baseline vehicle models. Through this process, experience could be gained in the usage of the fidelity rating scale, while also examining what effect changes to the dynamics had on the overall simulator fidelity rating obtained. While an improved match to flight test data was found to lead to a higher rated fidelity, there was a limit to how high these improvements could increase

  20. Dynamically Multiplexed Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Prior, David C.; Danielson, William F.; Liyu, Andrei V.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (IMS-TOFMS) has been increasingly used in analysis of complex biological samples. A major challenge is to transform IMS-TOFMS to a high-sensitivity high-throughput platform for e.g. proteomics applications. In this work, we have developed and integrated three advanced technologies, enabling (1) efficient ion accumulation in the ion funnel trap prior to IMS separation, (2) multiplexing (MP) of ion packet introduction into the IMS drift tube and (3) signal detection with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), into the IMS-TOFMS system for the high-throughput analysis of highly complex proteolytic digests of e.g. blood plasma. To better address variable sample complexity, we have additionally developed and rigorously evaluated a new dynamic MP approach that ensures correlation of the analyzer performance with an ion source function, and provides the improved dynamic range and sensitivity. The MP IMS-TOF MS instrument has been shown to reliably detect peptides at a concentration of 1 nM in a highly complex matrix, as well as to provide a four orders of magnitude dynamic range and a mass measurement accuracy of better than 5 ppm. When matched against human blood plasma database, the detected IMS-TOF features yielded ~ 700 unique peptide identifications at a false discovery rate (FDR) of ~ 7.5 %. Accounting for IMS information gave rise to a projected FDR of ~ 4 %. Signal reproducibility was found to be greater than 80 %, while the variations in the number of unique peptide identifications were < 15 %. A single sample analysis was completed in 15 min, corresponding to approximately an order of magnitude improvement compared to a more conventional LC-MS approach.

  1. Program of research in flight dynamics in the JIAFS at NASA-Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives are fully defined in the original proposal entitled 'Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in the Joint Institute for the Advancement of Flight Sciences (JIAFS) at NASA-Langley Research Center,' which was originated March 20, 1975 and in the renewal of the research program dated December 1, 1991. The program includes four major topics: (1) the improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for flight test data analysis; (2) the application of these methods to real flight test data obtained from advanced airplanes; (3) the correlation of flight results with wind tunnel measurements; and (4) the modeling, and control of aircraft, space structures, and spacecraft.

  2. The Dynamics of Miscible Fluids: A Space Flight Experiment (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Meiburg, E.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.; Lauver, R.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a space flight experiment to study the dynamics of miscible interfaces. A less viscous fluid displaces one of higher viscosity within a tube. The two fluids are miscible in all proportions. An intruding "finger" forms that occupies a fraction of the tube. As time progresses diffusion at the interface combined with flow induced straining between the two fluids modifies the concentration and velocity distributions within the whole tube. Also, under such circumstances it has been proposed that the interfacial stresses could depend on the local concentration gradients (Korteweg stresses) and that the divergence of the velocity need not be zero, even though the flow is incompressible. We have obtained reasonable agreement for the tip velocity between numerical simulations (that ignored the Korteweg stress and divergence effects) and physical experiments only at high Peelet Numbers. However at moderate to low Pe agreement was poor. As one possibility we attributed this lack of agreement to the disregard of these effects. We propose a space experiment to measure the finger shape, tip velocity, and the velocity and concentration fields. From intercomparisons between the experiment and the calculations we can then extract values for the coefficients of the Korteweg stress terms and confirm or deny the importance of these stresses.

  3. Goddard Space Flight Center's Structural Dynamics Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Turnkey Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) data acquisition systems typically perform well and meet most of the objectives of the manufacturer. The problem is that they seldom meet most of the objectives of the end user. The analysis software, if any, is unlikely to be tailored to the end users specific application; and there is seldom the chance of incorporating preferred algorithms to solve unique problems. Purchasing a customized system allows the end user to get a system tailored to the actual application, but the cost can be prohibitive. Once the system has been accepted, future changes come with a cost and response time that's often not workable. When it came time to replace the primary digital data acquisition system used in the Goddard Space Flight Center's Structural Dynamics Test Section, the decision was made to use a combination of COTS hardware and in-house developed software. The COTS hardware used is the DataMAX II Instrumentation Recorder built by R.C. Electronics Inc. and a desktop Pentium 4 computer system. The in-house software was developed using MATLAB from The MathWorks. This paper will describe the design and development of the new data acquisition and analysis system.

  4. Goddard Space Flight Center's Structural Dynamics Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Turnkey Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) data acquisition systems typically perform well and meet most of the objectives of the manufacturer. The problem is that they seldom meet most of the objectives of the end user. The analysis software, if any, is unlikely to be tailored to the end users specific application; and there is seldom the chance of incorporating preferred algorithms to solve unique problems. Purchasing a customized system allows the end user to get a system tailored to the actual application, but the cost can be prohibitive. Once the system has been accepted, future changes come with a cost and response time that's often not workable. When it came time to replace the primary digital data acquisition system used in the Goddard Space Flight Center's Structural Dynamics Test Section, the decision was made to use a combination of COTS hardware and in-house developed software. The COTS hardware used is the DataMAX II Instrumentation Recorder built by R.C. Electronics Inc. and a desktop Pentium 4 computer system. The in-house software was developed using MATLAF3 from The Mathworks. This paper will describe the design and development of the new data acquisition and analysis system.

  5. Measurement of human pilot dynamic characteristics in flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, James T.

    1987-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Least Square Error (LSE) estimation techniques were applied to the problem of identifying pilot-vehicle dynamic characteristics in flight simulation. A brief investigation of the effects of noise, input bandwidth and system delay upon the FFT and LSE techniques was undertaken using synthetic data. Data from a piloted simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center was then analyzed. The simulation was performed in the NASA Ames Research Center Variable Stability CH-47B helicopter operating in fixed-basis simulator mode. The piloting task consisted of maintaining the simulated vehicle over a moving hover pad whose motion was described by a random-appearing sum of sinusoids. The two test subjects used a head-down, color cathode ray tube (CRT) display for guidance and control information. Test configurations differed in the number of axes being controlled by the pilot (longitudinal only versus longitudinal and lateral), and in the presence or absence of an important display indicator called an 'acceleration ball'. A number of different pilot-vehicle transfer functions were measured, and where appropriate, qualitatively compared with theoretical pilot- vehicle models. Some indirect evidence suggesting pursuit behavior on the part of the test subjects is discussed.

  6. The Dynamics of Miscible Fluids: A Space Flight Experiment (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Meiburg, E.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.; Lauver, R.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a space flight experiment to study the dynamics of miscible interfaces. A less viscous fluid displaces one of higher viscosity within a tube. The two fluids are miscible in all proportions. An intruding "finger" forms that occupies a fraction of the tube. As time progresses diffusion at the interface combined with flow induced straining between the two fluids modifies the concentration and velocity distributions within the whole tube. Also, under such circumstances it has been proposed that the interfacial stresses could depend on the local concentration gradients (Korteweg stresses) and that the divergence of the velocity need not be zero, even though the flow is incompressible. We have obtained reasonable agreement for the tip velocity between numerical simulations (that ignored the Korteweg stress and divergence effects) and physical experiments only at high Peclet Numbers. However at moderate to low Pe agreement was poor. As one possibility we attributed this lack of agreement to the disregard of these effects. We propose a space experiment to measure the finger shape, tip velocity, and the velocity and concentration fields. From intercomparisons between the experiment and the calculations we can then extract values for the coefficients of the Korteweg stress terms and confirm or deny the importance of these stresses.

  7. Dynamic ground effects flight test of an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Stephenson, Mark T.; Burcham, Frank W.; Curry, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests to determine the changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of an F-15 aircraft caused by dynamic ground effects are described. Data were obtained for low and high sink rates between 0.7 and 6.5 ft/sec and at two landing approach speeds and flap settings: 150 kn with the flaps down and 170 kn with the flaps up. Simple correlation curves are given for the change in aerodynamic coefficients because of ground effects as a function of sink rate. Ground effects generally caused an increase in the lift, drag, and nose-down pitching movement coefficients. The change in the lift coefficient increased from approximately 0.05 at the high-sink rate to approximately 0.10 at the low-sink rate. The change in the drag coefficient increased from approximately 0 to 0.03 over this decreasing sink rate range. No significant difference because of the approach configuration was evident for lift and drag; however, a significant difference in pitching movement was observed for the two approach speeds and flap settings. For the 170 kn with the flaps up configuration, the change in the nose-down pitching movement increased from approximately -0.008 to -0.016. For the 150 kn with the flaps down configuration, the change was approximately -0.008 to -0.038.

  8. Axial Impulse Generation of Lightcraft Engines with ˜ 1 μs Pulsed TEA CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, D. A.; Salvador, I. I.; Myrabo, L. N.

    2011-11-01

    A twin Lumonics K922M pulsed TEA CO2 laser system (˜50 ns FWHM spike, with selectable 1.5 or 2.5 μs tail—depending upon laser gas mixture) was employed to experimentally measure the axial impulse behavior of a family of lightcraft engine geometries, using a lightweight ballistic pendulum. Axial impulse performance in both airbreathing and solid ablative rocket (SAR) modes was examined as a function of: a) laser pulse energy (˜12 to 40 Joules); b) pulse duration (˜50 ns spike with 1.5 or 2.5 μs tail); and, c) engine geometry. The four engines under investigation were the Lightcraft Types ♯150, ♯200 and ♯250, and a 11 cm parabolic bell. Lightcraft ♯200 axial CM performance reached 250 N/MW, which is sharply higher than the 120 N/MW previously reported for the engine using long pulse (e.g., 10-18 μs) CO2 electric discharge lasers.

  9. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Declerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    An overview of pre-flight aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a large helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. The first flight test (SFDT-1) delivered a 6 meter diameter robotic mission class decelerator (SIAD-R) to several seconds of flight on June 28, 2014, and was successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R. The trajectory was off-nominal, however, lofting to over 8 km higher than predicted in flight simulations. Comparisons between reconstructed flight data and aerodynamic models show that SIAD-R aerodynamic performance was in good agreement with pre-flight predictions. Similar comparisons of powered ascent phase aerodynamics show that the pre-flight model overpredicted TV pitch stability, leading to underprediction of trajectory peak altitude. Comparisons between pre-flight aerodynamic models and reconstructed flight data are shown, and changes to aerodynamic models using improved fidelity and knowledge gained from SFDT-1 are discussed.

  10. On the generation of flight dynamics aerodynamic tables by computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Ronch, A.; Ghoreyshi, M.; Badcock, K. J.

    2011-11-01

    An approach for the generation of aerodynamic tables using computational fluid dynamics is discussed. For aircraft flight dynamics, forces and moments are often tabulated in multi-dimensional look-up tables, requiring a large number of calculations to fill the tables. A method to efficiently reduce the number of high-fidelity analyses is reviewed. The method uses a kriging-based surrogate model. Low-fidelity (computationally cheap) estimates are augmented with higher fidelity data. Data fusion combines the two datasets into one single database. The approach can also handle changes in aircraft geometry. Once constructed, the look-up tables can be used in real-time to fly the aircraft through the database. To demonstrate the capabilities of the framework presented, five test cases are considered. These include a transonic cruiser concept design, an unconventional configuration, two passenger jet aircraft, and a jet trainer aircraft. Investigations into the areas of flight handling qualities, stability and control characteristics and manoeuvring aircraft are made. To assess the accuracy of the simulations, numerical results are also compared with wind tunnel and flight test data.

  11. Optical feather and foil for shape and dynamic load sensing of critical flight surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad; Pakmehr, Mehrdad; Schlavin, Jon; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Zagrai, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    Future flight vehicles may comprise complex flight surfaces requiring coordinated in-situ sensing and actuation. Inspired by the complexity of the flight surfaces on the wings and tail of a bird, it is argued that increasing the number of interdependent flight surfaces from just a few, as is normal in an airplane, to many, as in the feathers of a bird, can significantly enlarge the flight envelope. To enable elements of an eco-inspired Dynamic Servo-Elastic (DSE) flight control system, IFOS is developing a multiple functionality-sensing element analogous to a feather, consisting of a very thin tube with optical fiber based strain sensors and algorithms for deducing the shape of the "feather" by measuring strain at multiple points. It is envisaged that the "feather" will act as a unit of sensing and/or actuation for establishing shape, position, static and dynamic loads on flight surfaces and in critical parts. Advanced sensing hardware and software control algorithms will enable the proposed DSE flight control concept. The hardware development involves an array of optical fiber based sensorized needle tubes for attachment to key parts for dynamic flight surface measurement. Once installed the optical fiber sensors, which can be interrogated over a wide frequency range, also allow damage detection and structural health monitoring.

  12. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Sholtis, Katherine M.; Shelton, Ryan M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder. PMID:26039101

  13. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    PubMed

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  14. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    PubMed

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder. PMID:26039101

  15. Flight test of the X-29A at high angle of attack: Flight dynamics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.; Clarke, Robert; Burken, John J.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has flight tested two X-29A aircraft at low and high angles of attack. The high-angle-of-attack tests evaluate the feasibility of integrated X-29A technologies. More specific objectives focus on evaluating the high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, defining multiaxis controllability limits, and determining the maximum pitch-pointing capability. A pilot-selectable gain system allows examination of tradeoffs in airplane stability and maneuverability. Basic fighter maneuvers provide qualitative evaluation. Bank angle captures permit qualitative data analysis. This paper discusses the design goals and approach for high-angle-of-attack control laws and provides results from the envelope expansion and handling qualities testing at intermediate angles of attack. Comparisons of the flight test results to the predictions are made where appropriate. The pitch rate command structure of the longitudinal control system is shown to be a valid design for high-angle-of-attack control laws. Flight test results show that wing rock amplitude was overpredicted and aileron and rudder effectiveness were underpredicted. Flight tests show the X-29A airplane to be a good aircraft up to 40 deg angle of attack.

  16. Flight Dynamics of Flexible Aircraft with Aeroelastic and Inertial Force Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Tuzcu, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated flight dynamic modeling method for flexible aircraft that captures coupled physics effects due to inertial forces, aeroelasticity, and propulsive forces that are normally present in flight. The present approach formulates the coupled flight dynamics using a structural dynamic modeling method that describes the elasticity of a flexible, twisted, swept wing using an equivalent beam-rod model. The structural dynamic model allows for three types of wing elastic motion: flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion. Inertial force coupling with the wing elasticity is formulated to account for aircraft acceleration. The structural deflections create an effective aeroelastic angle of attack that affects the rigid-body motion of flexible aircraft. The aeroelastic effect contributes to aerodynamic damping forces that can influence aerodynamic stability. For wing-mounted engines, wing flexibility can cause the propulsive forces and moments to couple with the wing elastic motion. The integrated flight dynamics for a flexible aircraft are formulated by including generalized coordinate variables associated with the aeroelastic-propulsive forces and moments in the standard state-space form for six degree-of-freedom flight dynamics. A computational structural model for a generic transport aircraft has been created. The eigenvalue analysis is performed to compute aeroelastic frequencies and aerodynamic damping. The results will be used to construct an integrated flight dynamic model of a flexible generic transport aircraft.

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Flight Control Law Using the Hierarchy-structured Dynamic Inversion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Miyazawa, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Tetsujiro

    This paper focuses on design and evaluation of a flight control law based on the hierarchy-structured dynamic inversion approach, where a general fixed-wing aircraft system is decomposed into four small subsystems according to the time scales inherent in the dynamics and dynamic inversion is applied to each subsystem. The hierarchy-structured dynamic inversion approach considerably simplifies the flight control design and also features universal design of flight control systems through real-time utilization of the vehicle's 6DOF simulation model on board. In this paper, the outline of the proposed approach is presented in the first place followed by a numerical simulation using the highly reliable ALFLEX flight simulation model to ensure the validity of the approach. A root sum square (RSS) analysis is finally conducted to guarantee robustness against wind conditions and some influential parameters.

  18. Program of Research in Flight Dynamics, The George Washington University at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C. (Technical Monitor); Klein, Vladislav

    2005-01-01

    The program objectives are fully defined in the original proposal entitled Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in GW at NASA Langley Research Center, which was originated March 20, 1975, and in the renewals of the research program from January 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005. The program in its present form includes three major topics: 1. the improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for wind tunnel and flight data analysis, 2. the application of these methods to wind tunnel and flight test data obtained from advanced airplanes, 3. the correlation of flight results with wind tunnel measurements, and theoretical predictions.

  19. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  20. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  1. Design and implementation of the flight dynamics system for COMS satellite mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Hwang, Yoola; Kim, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Jaehoon

    2011-04-01

    The first Korean multi-mission geostationary Earth orbit satellite, Communications, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) was launched by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle in June 26, 2010. The COMS satellite has three payloads including Ka-band communications, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager, and Meteorological Imager. Although the COMS spacecraft bus is based on the Astrium Eurostar 3000 series, it has only one solar array to the south panel because all of the imaging sensors are located on the north panel. In order to maintain the spacecraft attitude with 5 wheels and 7 thrusters, COMS should perform twice a day wheel off-loading thruster firing operations, which affect on the satellite orbit. COMS flight dynamics system provides the general on-station functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, station-keeping maneuver planning, station-relocation maneuver planning, and fuel accounting. All orbit related functions in flight dynamics system consider the orbital perturbations due to wheel off-loading operations. There are some specific flight dynamics functions to operate the spacecraft bus such as wheel off-loading management, oscillator updating management, and on-station attitude reacquisition management. In this paper, the design and implementation of the COMS flight dynamics system is presented. An object oriented analysis and design methodology is applied to the flight dynamics system design. Programming language C# within Microsoft .NET framework is used for the implementation of COMS flight dynamics system on Windows based personal computer.

  2. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  3. `Horizon Mission': 2025 Space Command's Ultra-Energetic Lightcraft with Super-Pressure Airship Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    The Horizon Mission Methodology (HMM) is applied in the design of a 20-m diameter hyper-energetic lightcraft capable of transporting 6-12 occupants around the planet or directly to low Earth orbit - without resorting to staging or refueling, in the usual sense. As conceived, the lenticular double-hull of this super-pressure, balloon-type craft is fabricated from microwave-transparent silicon carbide films of superior strength, inflated with 2-atm of helium. A perimeter toriodal tube, serving as the primary structural `backbone,' is pressurized to 25-atm. The remote beam-energized MHD propulsion system (with directed-energy airspike) is intimately integrated with the craft's tensile-type structure and is not distinguishable as an item separate from the vehicle, as in conventional spacecraft. The design assumption of liquid immersion G-suits, individualized escape pods, and (optional) partial liquid ventilation, imparts super-human levels of crew survivability, enabling accelerations of 25 to 50 Gs, or more. The vehicle dry mass is 1200-kg payload is 1200-kg (crew and escape pods) expendable coolant is 2400-kg of ultra-pure, deionized water for waste heat rejection from rectenna arrays, during orbital boosts.

  4. Subsonic Aerodynamics of Spinning and Non-Spinning Type 200 Lightcraft: Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, David A.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2010-05-01

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation of subsonic aerodynamics for Type 200 laser lightcraft is underway for both spinning and non-spinning cases. A 12.2 cm diameter aluminum model with a "closed" annular airbreathing inlet was fitted to a sting balance in RPI's 61 cm by 61 cm subsonic wind tunnel. Aerodynamic forces and moments were measured first for the non-spinning case vs. angle of attack, at several freestream flow velocities (e.g., 30, 45, and 60 m/s) to assess Reynolds number effects. The CFD analysis was performed for 0-180° angles of attack for a fixed coordinate system (i.e., non-spinning Type 200 model), and predictions compared favorably with the experimental data. In the near future, for the spinning case, a brushless electric motor has been installed to rotate the wind tunnel model at 3000 to 13,000 RPM; Magnus force effects upon the coefficients (Cd, Cl, and Cm) are expected to reveal interesting departures from the non-spinning database in forthcoming experiments.

  5. Swarm dynamics may give rise to Lévy flights

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Andrew M.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    “Continuous-time correlated random walks” are now gaining traction as models of scale-finite animal movement patterns because they overcome inherent shortcomings with the prevailing paradigm - discrete random walk models. Continuous-time correlated random walk models are founded on the classic Langevin equation that is driven by purely additive noise. The Langevin equation is, however, changed fundamentally by the smallest of multiplicative noises. The inclusion of such noises gives rise to Lévy flights, a popular but controversial model of scale-free movement patterns. Multiplicative noises have not featured prominently in the literature on biological Lévy flights, being seen, perhaps, as no more than a mathematical contrivance. Here we show how Langevin equations driven by multiplicative noises and incumbent Lévy flights arise naturally in the modelling of swarms. Model predictions find some support in three-dimensional, time-resolved measurements of the positions of individual insects in laboratory swarms of the midge Chironomus riparius. We hereby provide a new window on Lévy flights as models of movement pattern data, linking patterns to generative processes. PMID:27465971

  6. Swarm dynamics may give rise to Lévy flights.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew M; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2016-01-01

    "Continuous-time correlated random walks" are now gaining traction as models of scale-finite animal movement patterns because they overcome inherent shortcomings with the prevailing paradigm - discrete random walk models. Continuous-time correlated random walk models are founded on the classic Langevin equation that is driven by purely additive noise. The Langevin equation is, however, changed fundamentally by the smallest of multiplicative noises. The inclusion of such noises gives rise to Lévy flights, a popular but controversial model of scale-free movement patterns. Multiplicative noises have not featured prominently in the literature on biological Lévy flights, being seen, perhaps, as no more than a mathematical contrivance. Here we show how Langevin equations driven by multiplicative noises and incumbent Lévy flights arise naturally in the modelling of swarms. Model predictions find some support in three-dimensional, time-resolved measurements of the positions of individual insects in laboratory swarms of the midge Chironomus riparius. We hereby provide a new window on Lévy flights as models of movement pattern data, linking patterns to generative processes. PMID:27465971

  7. Flight Dynamics Operations: Methods and Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri-Kohart, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Officer is responsible for trajectory maintenance of the Space Shuttle. This paper will cover high level operational considerations, methodology, procedures, and lessons learned involved in performing the functions of orbit and rendezvous Flight Dynamics Officer and leading the team of flight dynamics specialists during different phases of flight. The primary functions that will be address are: onboard state vector maintenance, ground ephemeris maintenance, calculation of ground and spacecraft acquisitions, collision avoidance, burn targeting for the primary mission, rendezvous, deorbit and contingencies, separation sequences, emergency deorbit preparation, mass properties coordination, payload deployment planning, coordination with the International Space Station, and coordination with worldwide trajectory customers. Each of these tasks require the Flight Dynamics Officer to have cognizance of the current trajectory state as well as the impact of future events on the trajectory plan in order to properly analyze and react to real-time changes. Additionally, considerations are made to prepare flexible alternative trajectory plans in the case timeline changes or a systems failure impact the primary plan. The evolution of the methodology, procedures, and techniques used by the Flight Dynamics Officer to perform these tasks will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to how specific Space Shuttle mission and training simulation experiences, particularly off-nominal or unexpected events such as shortened mission durations, tank failures, contingency deorbit, navigation errors, conjunctions, and unexpected payload deployments, have influenced the operational procedures and training for performing Space Shuttle flight dynamics operations over the history of the program. These lessons learned can then be extended to future vehicle trajectory operations.

  8. Flight and attitude dynamics measurements of an instrumented Frisbee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2005-03-01

    In-flight measurements are made of the translational accelerations and attitude motion of a hand-thrown flying disc using miniaturized accelerometers and other sensors and a microcontroller data acquisition system. The experiments explore the capabilities and limitations of sensors on a rapidly rotating platform moving in air, and illustrate several of the complex gyrodynamic aspects of Frisbee flight. The data give insight into the biomechanics of Frisbee launch, and indicate lift, drag and pitch moment coefficients consistent with previous wind-tunnel measurements. The experiments constitute an instructive exercise in aerospace vehicle systems integration and in attitude reconstruction, and open the way to guided disc wings using control surfaces actuated during specific spin phases determined by onboard sensors.

  9. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  10. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe

    1995-01-01

    The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

  11. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    The 19th of October 2006 at 16:28 UTC the first MetOp satellite (MetOp A) was successfully launched from the Baykonur cosmodrome by a Soyuz/Fregat launcher. After only three days of LEOP operations, performed by ESOC, the satellite was handed over to EUMETSAT, who is since then taking care of all satellite operations. MetOp A is the first European operational satellite for meteorology flying in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), all previous satellites operated by EUMETSAT, belonging to the METEOSAT family, being located in the Geo-stationary orbit. To ensure safe operations for a LEO satellite accurate and continuous commanding from ground of the on-board AOCS is required. That makes the operational transition at the end of the LEOP quite challenging, as the continuity of the Flight Dynamics operations is to be maintained. That means that the main functions of the Flight Dynamics have to be fully validated on-flight during the LEOP, before taking over the operational responsibility on the spacecraft, and continuously monitored during the entire mission. Due to the nature of a meteorological operational mission, very stringent requirements in terms of overall service availability (99 % of the collected data), timeliness of processing of the observation data (3 hours after sensing) and accuracy of the geo-location of the meteorological products (1 km) are to be fulfilled. That translates in tight requirements imposed to the Flight Dynamics facility (FDF) in terms of accuracy, timeliness and availability of the generated orbit and clock solutions; a detailed monitoring of the quality of these products is thus mandatory. Besides, being the accuracy of the image geo-location strongly related with the pointing performance of the platform and with the on-board timing stability, monitoring from ground of the behaviour of the on-board sensors and clock is needed. This paper presents an overview of the Flight Dynamics operations performed during the different phases of the MetOp A

  12. Predicting the effects of unmodeled dynamics on an aircraft flight control system design using eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric N.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1994-01-01

    When using eigenspace assignment to design an aircraft flight control system, one must first develop a model of the plant. Certain questions arise when creating this model as to which dynamics of the plant need to be included in the model and which dynamics can be left out or approximated. The answers to these questions are important because a poor choice can lead to closed-loop dynamics that are unpredicted by the design model. To alleviate this problem, a method has been developed for predicting the effect of not including certain dynamics in the design model on the final closed-loop eigenspace. This development provides insight as to which characteristics of unmodeled dynamics will ultimately affect the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics. What results from this insight is a guide for eigenstructure control law designers to aid them in determining which dynamics need or do not need to be included and a new way to include these dynamics in the flight control system design model to achieve a required accuracy in the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics. The method is illustrated for a lateral-directional flight control system design using eigenspace assignment for the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV).

  13. Automated Flight Dynamics Product Generation for the EOS AM-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matusow, Carla

    1999-01-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft is designed to monitor long-term, global, environmental changes. Because of the complexity of the AM-1 spacecraft, the mission operations center requires more than 80 distinct flight dynamics products (reports). To create these products, the AM-1 Flight Dynamics Team (FDT) will use a combination of modified commercial software packages (e.g., Analytical Graphic's Satellite ToolKit) and NASA-developed software applications. While providing the most cost-effective solution to meeting the mission requirements, the integration of these software applications raises several operational concerns: (1) Routine product generation requires knowledge of multiple applications executing on variety of hardware platforms. (2) Generating products is a highly interactive process requiring a user to interact with each application multiple times to generate each product. (3) Routine product generation requires several hours to complete. (4) User interaction with each application introduces the potential for errors, since users are required to manually enter filenames and input parameters as well as run applications in the correct sequence. Generating products requires some level of flight dynamics expertise to determine the appropriate inputs and sequencing. To address these issues, the FDT developed an automation software tool called AutoProducts, which runs on a single hardware platform and provides all necessary coordination and communication among the various flight dynamics software applications. AutoProducts, autonomously retrieves necessary files, sequences and executes applications with correct input parameters, and deliver the final flight dynamics products to the appropriate customers. Although AutoProducts will normally generate pre-programmed sets of routine products, its graphical interface allows for easy configuration of customized and one-of-a-kind products. Additionally, Auto

  14. Dynamic ground effects flight test of the NASA F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft may significantly differ when flying close to the ground rather than when flying up and away. Recent research has also determined that dynamic effects (i.e., sink rate) influence ground effects (GE). A ground effects flight test program of the F-15 aircraft was conducted to support the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Flight data was collected for 24 landings on seven test flights. Dynamic ground effects data were obtained for low- and high-sink rates, between 0.8 and 6.5 ft/sec, at two approach speed and flap combinations. These combinations consisted of 150 kt with the flaps down (30 deg deflection) and 170 kt with the flaps up (0 deg deflection), both with the inlet ramps in the full-up position. The aerodynamic coefficients caused by ground effects were estimated from the flight data. These ground effects data were correlated with the aircraft speed, flap setting, and sink rate. Results are compared to previous flight test and wind-tunnel ground effects data for various wings and for complete aircraft.

  15. Reproductive plasticity, ovarian dynamics and maternal effects in response to temperature and flight in Pararge aegeria.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Melanie; Van Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt

    2010-09-01

    In nature, ovipositing females may be subjected to multiple extrinsic and intrinsic environmental factors simultaneously. To adequately assess a species response to environmental conditions during oviposition it may therefore be necessary to consider the interaction between multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors simultaneously. Using the butterfly, Pararge aegeria, this study examined the combined effects of extrinsic (temperature and flight) and intrinsic (body mass and age) factors on ovarian dynamics, egg provisioning and reproductive output, and explored how these effects subsequently influenced offspring fitness when egg-stage development occurred in a low humidity environment. Both temperature- and flight-mediated plasticity in female reproductive output was observed, and there were strong temperature by flight interaction effects for the traits oocyte size and egg mass. As females aged, mean daily fecundity differed across temperature treatments, but not across flight treatments. Overall, temperature had more pronounced effects on ovarian dynamics than flight. Flight mainly influenced egg mass via changes in relative water content. A mismatch between the physiological response of females to high temperature and the requirements of their offspring had a negative impact on offspring fitness via effects on egg hatching success.

  16. Evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust calculation techniques during throttle transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    New flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques for evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust models during throttle transients have been developed and validated. The approach is based on the aircraft and engine performance relationship between thrust and drag. Two flight test maneuvers, a throttle step and a throttle frequency sweep, were developed and used in the study. Graphical analysis techniques, including a frequency domain analysis method, were also developed and evaluated. They provide quantitative and qualitative results. Four thrust calculation methods were used to demonstrate and validate the test technique. Flight test applications on two high-performance aircraft confirmed the test methods as valid and accurate. These maneuvers and analysis techniques were easy to implement and use. Flight test results indicate the analysis techniques can identify the combined effects of model error and instrumentation response limitations on the calculated thrust value. The methods developed in this report provide an accurate approach for evaluating, validating, or comparing thrust calculation methods for dynamic flight applications.

  17. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Dynamics and Controls Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    NASA Armstrong continues its legacy of exciting work in the area of Dynamics and Control of advanced vehicle concepts. This presentation describes Armstrongs research in control of flexible structures, peak seeking control and adaptive control in the Spring of 2015.

  18. [EEG-correlates of pilots' functional condition in simulated flight dynamics].

    PubMed

    Kiroy, V N; Aslanyan, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the EEG recorded on two professional pilots in the simulator TU-154 aircraft in flight dynamics, including takeoff, landing and horizontal flight (in particular during difficult conditions) were analyzed. EEG recording was made with frequency band 0.1-70 Hz continuously from 15 electrodes. The EEG recordings were evaluated using analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Statistical significant of the identified differences and the influence of the main factors and their interactions were evaluated using Greenhouse - Gaiser corrections. It was shown that the spectral characteristics of the EEG are highly informative features of the state of the pilots, reflecting the different flight phases. High validity ofthe differences including individual characteristic, indicates their non-random nature and the possibility of constructing a system of pilots' state control during all phases of flight, based on EEG features.

  19. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics of the CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Flight-determined longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives are presented for the CV-990 airplane for various combinations of Mach number, altitude, and flap setting throughout the flight envelope up to a Mach number of 0.87. Also presented are the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft calculated from the flight-obtained derivatives and the measured phugoid characteristics. The derivative characteristics were obtained from flight records of longitudinal and lateral-directional transient oscillation maneuvers by using a modified Newton-Raphson digital derivative determination technique. Generally the derivatives exhibited consistent variation with lift coefficient in the low-speed data and with Mach number and altitude in the high-speed data. Many also varied with flap deflection, notably spoiler effectiveness and directional stability.

  20. Flight Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of a Damaged Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Gautam H.; Hill, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to establish, demonstrate, and apply methodology for modeling and implementing the aerodynamic effects of MANPADS damage to a transport aircraft into real-time flight simulation, and to demonstrate a preliminary capability of using such a simulation to conduct an assessment of aircraft survivability. Key findings from this study include: superpositioning of incremental aerodynamic characteristics to the baseline simulation aerodynamic model proved to be a simple and effective way of modeling damage effects; the primary effect of wing damage rolling moment asymmetry may limit minimum airspeed for adequate controllability, but this can be mitigated by the use of sideslip; combined effects of aerodynamics, control degradation, and thrust loss can result in significantly degraded controllability for a safe landing; and high landing speeds may be required to maintain adequate control if large excursions from the nominal approach path are allowed, but high-gain pilot control during landing can mitigate this risk.

  1. Flight Dynamics of an Aeroshell Using an Attached Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Axdahl, Erik; Wilhite, Alan

    2009-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis of the behavior of an entry vehicle utilizing an attached inflatable aerodynamic decelerator during supersonic flight is presented. The analysis consists of a planar, four degree of freedom simulation. The aeroshell and the IAD are assumed to be separate, rigid bodies connected with a spring-damper at an interface point constraining the relative motion of the two bodies. Aerodynamic forces and moments are modeled using modified Newtonian aerodynamics. The analysis includes the contribution of static aerodynamic forces and moments as well as pitch damping. Two cases are considered in the analysis: constant velocity flight and planar free flight. For the constant velocity and free flight cases with neutral pitch damping, configurations with highly-stiff interfaces exhibit statically stable but dynamically unstable aeroshell angle of attack. Moderately stiff interfaces exhibit static and dynamic stability of aeroshell angle of attack due to damping induced by the pitch angle rate lag between the aeroshell and IAD. For the free-flight case, low values of both the interface stiffness and damping cause divergence of the aeroshell angle of attack due to the offset of the IAD drag force with respect to the aeroshell center of mass. The presence of dynamic aerodynamic moments was found to influence the stability characteristics of the vehicle. The effect of gravity on the aeroshell angle of attack stability characteristics was determined to be negligible for the cases investigated.

  2. A survey of nonuniform inflow models for rotorcraft flight dynamics and control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a brief survey of nonuniform inflow models was summarized for the calculation of induced velocities at and near a lifting rotor in and out of ground effect. The survey, conducted from the perspective of flight dynamics and control applications, covers a spectrum of flight conditions including hover, vertical flight, and low-speed and high-speed forward flight, and reviews both static and dynamic aspects of the inflow. A primary emphasis is on the evaluation of various simple first harmonic inflow models developed over the years, in comparison with more sophisticated methods developed for use in performance and airload computations. The results of correlation with several sets of test data obtained at the rotor out of ground effect indicate that the Pitt/Peters first harmonic inflow model works well overall. For inflow near the rotor or in ground effect, it is suggested that charts similar to those of Heyson/Katzoff and Castles/De Leeuw of NACA be produced using modern free-wake methods for use in flight dynamic analyses and simulations.

  3. Flight dynamic investigations of flying wing with winglet configured unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Kapseong

    2006-05-01

    A swept wing tailless vehicle platform is well known in the radio control (RC) and sailing aircraft community for excellent spiral stability during soaring or thermaling, while exhibiting no Dutch roll behavior at high speed. When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is subjected to fly a mission in a rugged mountainous terrain where air current or thermal up-drift is frequently present, this is great aerodynamic benefit over the conventional cross-tailed aircraft which requires careful balance between lateral and directional stability. Such dynamic characteristics can be studied through vehicle dynamic modeling and simulation, but it requires configuration aerodynamic data through wind tunnel experiments. Obtaining such data is very costly and time consuming, and it is not feasible especially for low cost and dispensable UAVs. On the other hand, the vehicle autonomy is quite demanding which requires substantial understanding of aircraft dynamic characteristics. In this study, flight dynamics of an UAV platform based on flying wing with a large winglet was investigated through analytical modeling and numerical simulation. Flight dynamic modeling software and experimental formulae were used to obtain essential configuration aerodynamic characteristics, and linear flight dynamic analysis was carried out to understand the effect of wing sweep angle and winglet size on the vehicle dynamic characteristics.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Icing: a Predictive Tool for In-Flight Icing Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppetelli, Danial

    In-flight icing is a hazard that continues to afflict the aviation industry, despite all the research and efforts to mitigate the risks. The recurrence of these types of accidents has given renewed impetus to the development of advanced analytical predictive tools to study both the accretion of ice on aircraft components in flight, and the aerodynamic consequences of such ice accumulations. In this work, an in-depth analysis of the occurrence of in-flight icing accidents and incidents was conducted to identify high-risk flight conditions. To investigate these conditions more thoroughly, a computational fluid dynamics model of a representative airfoil was developed to recreate experiments from the icing wind tunnel that occurred in controlled flight conditions. The ice accumulations and resulting aerodynamic performance degradations of the airfoil were computed for a range or pitch angles and flight speeds. These simulations revealed substantial performance losses such as reduced maximum lift, and decreased stall angle. From these results, an icing hazard analysis tool was developed, using risk management principles, to evaluate the dangers of in-flight icing for a specific aircraft based on the atmospheric conditions it is expected to encounter, as well as the effectiveness of aircraft certification procedures. This method is then demonstrated through the simulation of in-flight icing scenarios based on real flight data from accidents and incidents. The risk management methodology is applied to the results of the simulations and the predicted performance degradation is compared to recorded aircraft performance characteristics at the time of the occurrence. The aircraft performance predictions and resulting risk assessment are found to correspond strongly to the pilot's comments as well as to the severity of the incident.

  5. Engineering evaluation of SSME dynamic data from engine tests and SSV flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of dynamic data from SSME hot firing tests and SSV flights is summarized. The basic objective of the study is to provide analyses of vibration, strain and dynamic pressure measurements in support of MSFC performance and reliability improvement programs. A brief description of the SSME test program is given and a typical test evaluation cycle reviewed. Data banks generated to characterize SSME component dynamic characteristics are described and statistical analyses performed on these data base measurements are discussed. Analytical models applied to define the dynamic behavior of SSME components (such as turbopump bearing elements and the flight accelerometer safety cut-off system) are also summarized. Appendices are included to illustrate some typical tasks performed under this study.

  6. Dynamic analysis of ocular torsion in parabolic flight using video-oculography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teiwes, W.; Clarke, A. H.; Scherer, H.

    Dynamic ocular torsion was investigated in a group of healthy subjects during the course of parabolic flight by means of our video-based eye movement recording method—video-oculography. This technique enables a non-invasive dynamic measurement of all three dimensions of eye movement in a harsh experimental environment such as parabolic flight. The test subjects were positioned so that the changing resultant gravito-inertial field in the aircraft was aligned with their interaural ( y) axis, primarily stimulating the utricular organs. The analysis of the torsional component of eye movement during the change of gravity between 1.8-0 and 0-1.8 g demonstrated a static component—well known as the ocular counter roll—and a dynamic component, which leads to a slight overshoot in the torsional response. These static and dynamic component of ocular torsion correlate with previous neurophysiological findings.

  7. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Implementation/testing phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda; Miller, John; Smith, Laurie; Stark, Mike; Mcgarry, Frank

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the software engineering issues related to the use of Ada for the implementation and system testing phases of four Ada projects developed in the flight dynamics area. These projects reflect an evolving understanding of more effective use of Ada features. In addition, the testing methodology used on these projects has changed substantially from that used on previous FORTRAN projects.

  8. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  9. Multiagent Flight Control in Dynamic Environments with Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, Mitchell; Knudson, Matthew D.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic environments in which objectives and environmental features change with respect to time pose a difficult problem with regards to planning optimal paths through these environments. Path planning methods are typically computationally expensive, and are often difficult to implement in real time if system objectives are changed. This computational problem is compounded when multiple agents are present in the system, as the state and action space grows exponentially with the number of agents in the system. In this work, we use cooperative coevolutionary algorithms in order to develop policies which control agent motion in a dynamic multiagent unmanned aerial system environment such that goals and perceptions change, while ensuring safety constraints are not violated. Rather than replanning new paths when the environment changes, we develop a policy which can map the new environmental features to a trajectory for the agent while ensuring safe and reliable operation, while providing 92% of the theoretically optimal performance.

  10. Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex-shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

  11. Flight dynamics of a spinning projectile descending on a parachute

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetti, G.A.

    1989-02-01

    During the past twenty years Sandia National Laboratories and the US Army have vertically gun launched numerous 155mm and eight-inch diameter flight test projectiles. These projectiles are subsequently recovered using an on-board parachute recovery system which is attached to the forward case structure of the projectile. There have been at least five attempts to describe, through analytical and numerical simulations, the translational and rotational motions of a spinning projectile descending on a parachute. However, none of these investigations have correctly described the large nutational motion of the projectile since all of them overlooked the fundamental mechanism which causes these angular motions. Numerical simulations as well as a closed form analytical solution show conclusively that the Magnus moment is responsible for the large nutational motion of the projectile. That is, when the center of pressure for the Magnus force is aft of the center of mass for the projectile, the Magnus moment causes an unstable (or large) nutational motion which always tends to turn the spinning projectile upside down while it is descending on the parachute. Conversely, when the center of mass for the projectile is aft of the center of pressure for the Magnus force, the Magnus moment stabilizes the nutational motion tending to always point the base of the spinning projectile down. The results of this work are utilized to render projectile parachute recovery systems more reliable and to explain what initially may appear to be strange gyrodynamic behavior of a spinning projectile descending on a parachute. 14 refs., 20 figs.

  12. Lévy flights and nonlocal quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Garbaczewski, Piotr; Stephanovich, Vladimir

    2013-07-15

    We develop a fully fledged theory of quantum dynamical patterns of behavior that are nonlocally induced. To this end we generalize the standard Laplacian-based framework of the Schrödinger picture quantum evolution to that employing nonlocal (pseudodifferential) operators. Special attention is paid to the Salpeter (here, m⩾ 0) quasirelativistic equation and the evolution of various wave packets, in particular to their radial expansion in 3D. Foldy's synthesis of “covariant particle equations” is extended to encompass free Maxwell theory, which however is devoid of any “particle” content. Links with the photon wave mechanics are explored.

  13. The significance of error dynamics in model-following for flight control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.; Anderson, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the system error dynamics in model-following control systems is discussed, along with the use of handling quality specifications, actuation bandwidth constraints, stability, and closed-loop performance requirements in flight control design. The model-following problem is formulated using both direct state-space and linear, quadratic, optimization techniques. The results are then demonstrated using several examples involving a generic forward-swept-wing vehicle and a conventional flight vehicle with large parameter uncertainty in order to illustrate the trade-off in closed-loop performance and control law complexity.

  14. Perturbation analysis of 6DoF flight dynamics and passive dynamic stability of hovering fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Aono, Hikaru; Liu, Hao

    2011-02-01

    Insects exhibit exquisite control of their flapping flight, capable of performing precise stability and steering maneuverability. Here we develop an integrated computational model to investigate flight dynamics of insect hovering based on coupling the equations of 6 degree of freedom (6DoF) motion with the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Unsteady aerodynamics is resolved by using a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator that integrates models of realistic wing-body morphology and kinematics, and a NS solver. We further develop a dynamic model to solve the rigid body equations of 6DoF motion by using a 4th-order Runge-Kutta method. In this model, instantaneous forces and moments based on the NS-solutions are represented in terms of Fourier series. With this model, we perform a systematic simulation-based analysis on the passive dynamic stability of a hovering fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, with a specific focus on responses of state variables to six one-directional perturbation conditions during latency period. Our results reveal that the flight dynamics of fruit fly hovering does not have a straightforward dynamic stability in a conventional sense that perturbations damp out in a manner of monotonous convergence. However, it is found to exist a transient interval containing an initial converging response observed for all the six perturbation variables and a terminal instability that at least one state variable subsequently tends to diverge after several wing beat cycles. Furthermore, our results illustrate that a fruit fly does have sufficient time to apply some active mediation to sustain a steady hovering before losing body attitudes. PMID:21093456

  15. Mechanics of Flapping Flight: Analytical Formulations of Unsteady Aerodynamics, Kinematic Optimization, Flight Dynamics, and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Jayant Kumar

    Electricity is an indispensable commodity to modern society, yet it is delivered via a grid architecture that remains largely unchanged over the past century. A host of factors are conspiring to topple this dated yet venerated design: developments in renewable electricity generation technology, policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and advances in information technology for managing energy systems. Modern electric grids are emerging as complex distributed systems in which a portfolio of power generation resources, often incorporating fluctuating renewable resources such as wind and solar, must be managed dynamically to meet uncontrolled, time-varying demand. Uncertainty in both supply and demand makes control of modern electric grids fundamentally more challenging, and growing portfolios of renewables exacerbate the challenge. We study three electricity grids: the state of California, the province of Ontario, and the country of Germany. To understand the effects of increasing renewables, we develop a methodology to scale renewables penetration. Analyzing these grids yields key insights about rigid limits to renewables penetration and their implications in meeting long-term emissions targets. We argue that to achieve deep penetration of renewables, the operational model of the grid must be inverted, changing the paradigm from load-following supplies to supply-following loads. To alleviate the challenge of supply-demand matching on deeply renewable grids, we first examine well-known techniques, including altering management of existing supply resources, employing utility-scale energy storage, targeting energy efficiency improvements, and exercising basic demand-side management. Then, we create several instantiations of supply-following loads -- including refrigerators, heating and cooling systems, and laptop computers -- by employing a combination of sensor networks, advanced control techniques, and enhanced energy storage. We examine the capacity of each load

  16. Inverse simulation as a tool for flight dynamics research—Principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Douglas; Bradley, Roy

    2006-05-01

    The technique of inverse simulation is finding application in many and varied fields. As the name implies this technique is used to calculate the control action required to achieve a specified system response. The field of aircraft flight dynamics is particularly suited to this form of simulation as the question of what control actions must the pilot (or automatic flight control system) take for the aircraft to fly along a particular trajectory (a landing approach, for example) is often asked. This paper looks specifically at the application of inverse simulation in flight dynamics. The aim is not only to give an overview of the various techniques and applications but also to provide guidance to potential users of the technique on several of the physical and numerical features often observed in the results. An extensive review of the methodologies used within the family of inverse simulations is presented followed by a formal treatment of the theoretical development of inverse simulation as an established technique. A case study involving the inverse simulation of a helicopter flying a slalom manoeuvre is presented to demonstrate the application of inverse simulation in a flight dynamics analysis. An important feature of the use of inverse simulation is that it is necessary to define the output response required-in the case of flight dynamics the required flight path has to be modelled. Some of the methods used are documented, and their validity discussed. The paper also gives an insight into the types of problem which can be addressed by inverse simulation by detailing some of the many applications to which it has been put in the past. These include studies of rotorcraft handling qualities, performance and design, and pilot modelling as well as model validation. An important element of this paper is the formal, theoretical analysis of some of the numerical and physical features exhibited by inverse simulation which should aid potential users to interpret their

  17. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission Attitude Dynamics: Observations from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Shulman, Seth; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Ottenstein, Neil; Lounsbury, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, launched on Mar. 12, 2015, is flying four spinning spacecraft in highly elliptical orbits to study the magnetosphere of the Earth. Extensive attitude data is being collected, including spin rate, spin axis orientation, and nutation rate. The paper will discuss the various environmental disturbance torques that act on the spacecraft, and will describe the observed results of these torques. In addition, a slow decay in spin rate has been observed for all four spacecraft in the extended periods between maneuvers. It is shown that this despin is consistent with the effects of an additional disturbance mechanism, namely that produced by the Active Spacecraft Potential Control devices. Finally, attitude dynamics data is used to analyze a micrometeoroid/orbital debris impact event with MMS4 that occurred on Feb. 2, 2016.

  18. Neural Network Assisted Inverse Dynamic Guidance for Terminally Constrained Entry Flight

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network assisted entry guidance law that is designed by applying Bézier approximation. It is shown that a fully constrained approximation of a reference trajectory can be made by using the Bézier curve. Applying this approximation, an inverse dynamic system for an entry flight is solved to generate guidance command. The guidance solution thus gotten ensures terminal constraints for position, flight path, and azimuth angle. In order to ensure terminal velocity constraint, a prediction of the terminal velocity is required, based on which, the approximated Bézier curve is adjusted. An artificial neural network is used for this prediction of the terminal velocity. The method enables faster implementation in achieving fully constrained entry flight. Results from simulations indicate improved performance of the neural network assisted method. The scheme is expected to have prospect for further research on automated onboard control of terminal velocity for both reentry and terminal guidance laws. PMID:24723821

  19. Neural network assisted inverse dynamic guidance for terminally constrained entry flight.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Rahman, Tawfiqur; Chen, Wanchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network assisted entry guidance law that is designed by applying Bézier approximation. It is shown that a fully constrained approximation of a reference trajectory can be made by using the Bézier curve. Applying this approximation, an inverse dynamic system for an entry flight is solved to generate guidance command. The guidance solution thus gotten ensures terminal constraints for position, flight path, and azimuth angle. In order to ensure terminal velocity constraint, a prediction of the terminal velocity is required, based on which, the approximated Bézier curve is adjusted. An artificial neural network is used for this prediction of the terminal velocity. The method enables faster implementation in achieving fully constrained entry flight. Results from simulations indicate improved performance of the neural network assisted method. The scheme is expected to have prospect for further research on automated onboard control of terminal velocity for both reentry and terminal guidance laws.

  20. Vision-based control for flight relative to dynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causey, Ryan Scott

    The concept of autonomous systems has been considered an enabling technology for a diverse group of military and civilian applications. The current direction for autonomous systems is increased capabilities through more advanced systems that are useful for missions that require autonomous avoidance, navigation, tracking, and docking. To facilitate this level of mission capability, passive sensors, such as cameras, and complex software are added to the vehicle. By incorporating an on-board camera, visual information can be processed to interpret the surroundings. This information allows decision making with increased situational awareness without the cost of a sensor signature, which is critical in military applications. The concepts presented in this dissertation facilitate the issues inherent to vision-based state estimation of moving objects for a monocular camera configuration. The process consists of several stages involving image processing such as detection, estimation, and modeling. The detection algorithm segments the motion field through a least-squares approach and classifies motions not obeying the dominant trend as independently moving objects. An approach to state estimation of moving targets is derived using a homography approach. The algorithm requires knowledge of the camera motion, a reference motion, and additional feature point geometry for both the target and reference objects. The target state estimates are then observed over time to model the dynamics using a probabilistic technique. The effects of uncertainty on state estimation due to camera calibration are considered through a bounded deterministic approach. The system framework focuses on an aircraft platform of which the system dynamics are derived to relate vehicle states to image plane quantities. Control designs using standard guidance and navigation schemes are then applied to the tracking and homing problems using the derived state estimation. Four simulations are implemented in

  1. Advanced Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Flight Dynamics; Interim Results and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, David C.; Shweyk, Kamal M.; Brown, Frank; Shah, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST), Assuring Safe and Effective Aircraft Control Under Hazardous Conditions (Technical Challenge #3), an effort is underway within Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to address Advanced Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Flight Dynamics (VSST1-7). The scope of the effort is to develop and evaluate advanced multidisciplinary flight dynamics modeling techniques, including integrated uncertainties, to facilitate higher fidelity response characterization of current and future aircraft configurations approaching and during loss-of-control conditions. This approach is to incorporate multiple flight dynamics modeling methods for aerodynamics, structures, and propulsion, including experimental, computational, and analytical. Also to be included are techniques for data integration and uncertainty characterization and quantification. This research shall introduce new and updated multidisciplinary modeling and simulation technologies designed to improve the ability to characterize airplane response in off-nominal flight conditions. The research shall also introduce new techniques for uncertainty modeling that will provide a unified database model comprised of multiple sources, as well as an uncertainty bounds database for each data source such that a full vehicle uncertainty analysis is possible even when approaching or beyond Loss of Control boundaries. Methodologies developed as part of this research shall be instrumental in predicting and mitigating loss of control precursors and events directly linked to causal and contributing factors, such as stall, failures, damage, or icing. The tasks will include utilizing the BR&T Water Tunnel to collect static and dynamic data to be compared to the GTM extended WT database, characterizing flight dynamics in off-nominal conditions, developing tools for structural load estimation under dynamic conditions, devising methods for integrating various modeling elements

  2. Suited Occupant Injury Potential During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dub, Mark O.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Constellation Space Suit Element [CSSE], a new space-suit architecture will be created for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Microgravity Extra- Vehicular Activity [EVA], and post-landing crew operations, safety and, under emergency conditions, survival. The space suit is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort [LEA] suit architectures in that it utilizes rigid mobility elements in the scye (i.e., shoulder) and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also utilizes rigid thigh disconnect elements to create a quick disconnect approximately located above the knee. This feature allows commonality of the lower portion of the suit (from the thigh disconnect down), making the lower legs common across two suit configurations. This suit must interface with the Orion vehicle seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to the unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic vehicle events, risks have been identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series has been developed in coordination with the Injury Biomechanics Research Laboratory [IBRL] to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing includes use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices [ATDs; vernacularly referred to as "crash test dummies"], Post Mortem Human Subjects [PMHS], and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on test purpose and objectives; test hardware, facility, and setup; and preliminary results.

  3. Wing wear reduces bumblebee flight performance in a dynamic obstacle course.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Alexander, Teressa M; Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-06-01

    Previous work has shown that wing wear increases mortality in bumblebees. Although a proximate mechanism for this phenomenon has remained elusive, a leading hypothesis is that wing wear increases predation risk by reducing flight manoeuvrability. We tested the effects of simulated wing wear on flight manoeuvrability in Bombus impatiens bumblebees using a dynamic obstacle course designed to push bees towards their performance limits. We found that removing 22% wing area from the tips of both forewings (symmetric wear) caused a 9% reduction in peak acceleration during manoeuvring flight, while performing the same manipulation on only one wing (asymmetric wear) did not significantly reduce maximum acceleration. The rate at which bees collided with obstacles was correlated with body length across all treatments, but wing wear did not increase collision rate, possibly because shorter wingspans allow more room for bees to manoeuvre. This study presents a novel method for exploring extreme flight manoeuvres in flying insects, eliciting peak accelerations that exceed those measured during flight through a stationary obstacle course. If escape from aerial predation is constrained by acceleration capacity, then our results offer a potential explanation for the observed increase in bumblebee mortality with wing wear.

  4. Characterization of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics Analysis using Computational Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    Insect flight comes with a lot of intricacies that cannot be explained by conventional aerodynamics. Even with their small-size, insects have the ability to generate the required aerodynamic forces using high frequency flapping motion of their wings to perform different maneuvers. The maneuverability obtained by these flyers using flapping motion belies the classical aerodynamics theory and calls for a new approach to study this highly unsteady aerodynamics. Research is on to find new ways to realize the flight capabilities of these insects and engineer a micro-flyer which would have various applications, ranging from autonomous pollination of crop fields and oil & gas exploration to area surveillance and detection & rescue missions. In this research, a parametric study of flapping trajectories is performed using a two-dimensional wing to identify the factors that affect the force production. These factors are then non-dimensionalized and used in a design of experiments set-up to conduct sensitivity analysis. A procedure to determine an aerodynamic model comprising cycle-averaged force coefficients is described. This aerodynamic model is then used in a nonlinear dynamics framework to perform flight dynamics analysis using a micro-flyer with model properties based on Drosophila. Stability analysis is conducted to determine different steady state flight conditions that could achieved by the micro-flyer with the given model properties. The effect of scaling the mass properties is discussed. An LQR design is used for closed-loop control. Open and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results show that nonlinear dynamics framework can be used to determine values for model properties of a micro-flyer that would enable it to perform different flight maneuvers.

  5. Influence of wing tip morphology on vortex dynamics of flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Swathi; Mulleners, Karen

    2013-11-01

    The mechanism of flapping wing flight provides insects with extraordinary flight capabilities. The uniquely shaped wing tips give insects an edge in flight performance and the interaction between the leading edge vortices and wing tip vortices enhance their propelling efficiencies and manoeuvrability. These are qualities that are sought after in current-day Micro Air Vehicles. A detailed understanding of the vortex dynamics of flapping flight and the influence of the wing tip planform is imperative for technical application. An experimental study is conducted to investigate the effects of different wing tip planforms on the formation, evolution and interaction of vortical structures. We thereby focus on the interaction between the coherent structures evolving from the leading edge and the wing tip during pitching and flapping motions.The spatial and temporal evolution of the three-dimensional flow structures are determined using Scanning (Stereo) Particle Image Velocimetry and an in-depth coherent structure analysis. By comparing the vortex dynamics, the aerodynamic performance of various wing tip planforms are evaluated.

  6. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei

    This research focuses on dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of large flexible launch vehicles such as the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the Ares-I, incorporating its propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, and structural flexibility, is developed. NASA's Ares-I reference model and the SAVANT Simulink-based program are utilized to develop a Matlab-based simulation and linearization tool for an independent validation of the performance and stability of the ascent flight control system of large flexible launch vehicles. A linearized state-space model as well as a non-minimum-phase transfer function model (which is typical for flexible vehicles with non-collocated actuators and sensors) are validated for ascent flight control design and analysis. This research also investigates fundamental principles of flight control analysis and design for launch vehicles, in particular the classical "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack can significantly improve overall performance and stability, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbances. For a typical "non-collocated actuator and sensor" control problem for large flexible launch vehicles, non-minimum-phase filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes is also shown to be effective. The uncertainty model of a flexible launch vehicle is derived. The robust stability of an ascent flight control system design, which directly controls the inertial attitude-error quaternion and also employs the non-minimum-phase filters, is verified by the framework of structured singular value (mu) analysis. Furthermore, nonlinear coupled dynamic simulation results are presented for a reference model of the Ares-I CLV as another validation of the feasibility of the ascent flight control system design. Another important issue for a single main engine launch vehicle is

  7. Integrating Flight Dynamics & Control Analysis and Simulation in Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Ben; Berger, Tom; Tischler, Mark B.; Theodore, Colin R; Elmore, Josh; Gallaher, Andrew; Tobias, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a toolset, SIMPLI-FLYD ('SIMPLIfied FLight dynamics for conceptual Design') is described. SIMPLI-FLYD is a collection of tools that perform flight dynamics and control modeling and analysis of rotorcraft conceptual designs including a capability to evaluate the designs in an X-Plane-based real-time simulation. The establishment of this framework is now facilitating the exploration of this new capability, in terms of modeling fidelity and data requirements, and the investigation of which stability and control and handling qualities requirements are appropriate for conceptual design. Illustrative design variation studies for single main rotor and tiltrotor vehicle configurations show sensitivity of the stability and control characteristics and an approach to highlight potential weight savings by identifying over-design.

  8. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  9. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors, prediction cases, and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  10. Blended-Wing-Body Low-Speed Flight Dynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of low-speed wind tunnel tests of a Blended-Wing-Body tri-jet configuration to evaluate the low-speed static and dynamic stability and control characteristics over the full envelope of angle of attack and sideslip are summarized. These data were collected for use in simulation studies of the edge-of-the-envelope and potential out-of-control flight characteristics. Some selected results with lessons learned are presented.

  11. Development of a Dynamically Scaled Generic Transport Model Testbed for Flight Research Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas; Langford, William; Belcastro, Christine; Foster, John; Shah, Gautam; Howland, Gregory; Kidd, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the design and development of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The aircraft is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, remotely piloted, twin-turbine, swept wing, Generic Transport Model (GTM) which will be used to provide an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. The unique design challenges arising from the dimensional, weight, dynamic (inertial), and actuator scaling requirements necessitated by the research community are described along with the specific telemetry and control issues associated with a remotely piloted subscale research aircraft. Development of the necessary operational infrastructure, including operational and safety procedures, test site identification, and research pilots is also discussed. The GTM is a unique vehicle that provides significant research capacity due to its scaling, data gathering, and control characteristics. By combining data from this testbed with full-scale flight and accident data, wind tunnel data, and simulation results, NASA will advance and validate control upset prevention and recovery technologies for transport aircraft, thereby reducing vehicle loss-of-control accidents resulting from adverse and upset conditions.

  12. Rotorcraft flight control design using quantitative feedback theory and dynamic crossfeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output controls design with robust crossfeeds is presented for a rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Decoupling criteria are developed for dynamic crossfeed design and implementation. Frequency dependent performance metrics focusing on piloted flight are developed and tested on 23 flight configurations. The metrics show that the resulting design is superior to alternative control system designs using conventional fixed-gain crossfeeds and to feedback-only designs which rely on high gains to suppress undesired off-axis responses. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets current handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensator successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective.

  13. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) calibration of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) responsibilities for calibration of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) sensors included alignment calibration of the fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and the fine Sun sensor (FSS), determination of misalignments and scale factors for the inertial reference units (IRU's), determination of biases for the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) and Earth sensor assemblies (ESA's), determination of gimbal misalignments of the Solar/Stellar Pointing Platform (SSPP), and field-of-view calibration for the FSS's mounted both on the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS) and on the SSPP. The calibrations, which used a combination of new and established algorithms, gave excellent results. Alignment calibration results markedly improved the accuracy of both ground and onboard Computer (OBC) attitude determination. SSPP calibration results allowed UARS to identify stars in the period immediately after yaw maneuvers, removing the delay required for the OBC to reacquire its fine pointing attitude mode. SSPP calibration considerably improved the pointing accuracy of the attached science instrument package. This paper presents a summary of the methods used and the results of all FDF UARS sensor calibration.

  14. Post-Flight Analysis of Dynamic Data Acquired During the ATV-2 Johannes Kepler Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitzner, R.; Abdoly, K.; Newerla, A.

    2012-07-01

    An in-flight data acquisition system called TeleMesure Autonome (TMA) has been implemented on ATV-1 Jules Verne (launched in March 2008) and ATV-2 Johannes Kepler (launched in February 2011). The TMA served the main objective to measure dynamic responses on the ATV spacecraft for comparison with coupled load analysis predictions and to verify that the ATV mechanical flight environment has been sufficiently covered by the respective ATV design specifications. The acquired flight data included low frequency sinusoidal, random vibration and shock measurements. Whereas the TMA on ATV-1 Jules Verne failed to properly work after 17 seconds after liftoff the improved TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler performed its tasks successfully for all flight phases. The flight data have been subsequently evaluated by the ATV prime contractor Astrium. As first step of the performed analyses a correction of the acquired data was necessary to remove any artificial content (spikes, mean truncation, offset correction) followed by a visual inspection of the corrected data to ensure data quality. Then standard post processing methods were applied to the data consisting of generating equivalent sinusoidal responses and transfer functions for the low frequency data, power spectral densities for the random data and shock responses for the high frequency shock data. Although it was noted that the quality of the data was limited by the available transmission bandwidth and the amplitude resolution of the data acquisition system the implementation of the TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler has nevertheless turned out successful and valuable data have been acquired for all relevant flight phases.

  15. A multibody approach for 6-DOF flight dynamics and stability analysis of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics and stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta using a multibody dynamics approach that encompasses the effects of the time varying inertia tensor of all the body segments including two wings. The quasi-steady translational and unsteady rotational aerodynamics of the flapping wings are modeled with the blade element theory with aerodynamic coefficients derived from relevant experimental studies. The aerodynamics is given instantaneously at each integration time step without wingbeat-cycle-averaging. With the multibody dynamic model and the aerodynamic model for the hawkmoth, a direct time integration of the fully coupled 6-DOF nonlinear multibody dynamics equations of motion is performed. First, the passive damping magnitude of each single DOF is quantitatively examined with the measure of the time taken to half the initial velocity (thalf). The results show that the sideslip translation is less damped approximately three times than the other two translational DOFs, and the pitch rotation is less damped approximately five times than the other two rotational DOFs; each DOF has the value of (unit in wingbeat strokes): thalf,forward/backward = 7.10, thalf,sideslip = 17.95, thalf,ascending = 7.13, thalf,descending = 5.77, thalf,roll = 0.68, thalf,pitch = 2.39, and thalf,yaw = 0.25. Second, the natural modes of motion, with the hovering flight as a reference equilibrium condition, are examined by analyzing fully coupled 6-DOF dynamic responses induced by multiple sets of force and moment disturbance combinations. The given disturbance combinations are set to excite the dynamic modes identified in relevant eigenmode analysis studies. The 6-DOF dynamic responses obtained from this study are compared with eigenmode analysis results in the relevant studies. The longitudinal modes of motion showed dynamic modal characteristics similar to the eigenmode analysis results from the relevant literature

  16. Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.

  17. Structural dynamic model obtained from flight use with piloted simulation and handling qualities analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Bruce G.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to use flight data to determine an aircraft model with structural dynamic effects suitable for piloted simulation. and handling qualities analysis has been developed. This technique was demonstrated using SR-71 flight test data. For the SR-71 aircraft, the most significant structural response is the longitudinal first-bending mode. This mode was modeled as a second-order system, and the other higher order modes were modeled as a time delay. The distribution of the modal response at various fuselage locations was developed using a uniform beam solution, which can be calibrated using flight data. This approach was compared to the mode shape obtained from the ground vibration test, and the general form of the uniform beam solution was found to be a good representation of the mode shape in the areas of interest. To calibrate the solution, pitch-rate and normal-acceleration instrumentation is required for at least two locations. With the resulting structural model incorporated into the simulation, a good representation of the flight characteristics was provided for handling qualities analysis and piloted simulation.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Success Stories of X-Plane Design to Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of the design and flight test of three true X-planes are described, particularly X-plane design techniques that relied heavily on computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis. Three examples are presented: the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, the X-45A Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle, and the X-48B Blended Wing Body Demonstrator Aircraft. An overview is presented of the uses of CFD analysis, comparison and contrast with wind tunnel testing, and information derived from CFD analysis that directly related to successful flight test. Lessons learned on the proper and improper application of CFD analysis are presented. Highlights of the flight-test results of the three example X-planes are presented. This report discusses developing an aircraft shape from early concept and three-dimensional modeling through CFD analysis, wind tunnel testing, further refined CFD analysis, and, finally, flight. An overview of the areas in which CFD analysis does and does not perform well during this process is presented. How wind tunnel testing complements, calibrates, and verifies CFD analysis is discussed. Lessons learned revealing circumstances under which CFD analysis results can be misleading are given. Strengths and weaknesses of the various flow solvers, including panel methods, Euler, and Navier-Stokes techniques, are discussed.

  19. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Sun, Mao

    2014-09-01

    Many insects hover with their wings beating in a horizontal plane ('normal hovering'), while some insects, e.g., hoverflies and dragonflies, hover with inclined stroke-planes. Here, we investigate the lateral dynamic flight stability of a hovering model hoverfly. The aerodynamic derivatives are computed using the method of computational fluid dynamics, and the equations of motion are solved by the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis. The following is shown: The flight of the insect is unstable at normal hovering (stroke-plane angle equals 0) and the instability becomes weaker as the stroke-plane angle increases; the flight becomes stable at a relatively large stroke-plane angle (larger than about 24°). As previously shown, the instability at normal hovering is due to a positive roll-moment/side-velocity derivative produced by the 'changing-LEV-axial-velocity' effect. When the stroke-plane angle increases, the wings bend toward the back of the body, and the 'changing-LEV-axial-velocity' effect decreases; in addition, another effect, called the 'changing-relative-velocity' effect (the 'lateral wind', which is due to the side motion of the insect, changes the relative velocity of its wings), becomes increasingly stronger. This causes the roll-moment/side-velocity derivative to first decrease and then become negative, resulting in the above change in stability as a function of the stroke-plane angle.

  20. AirSTAR: A UAV Platform for Flight Dynamics and Control System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.

  1. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  2. Analytical and flight investigation of the influence of rotor and other high-order dynamics on helicopter flight-control system bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Hindson, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing use of highly augmented digital flight-control systems in modern military helicopters prompted an examination of the influence of rotor dynamics and other high-order dynamics on control-system performance. A study was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center to correlate theoretical predictions of feedback gain limits in the roll axis with experimental test data obtained from a variable-stability research helicopter. Feedback gains, the break frequency of the presampling sensor filter, and the computational frame time of the flight computer were systematically varied. The results, which showed excellent theoretical and experimental correlation, indicate that the rotor-dynamics, sensor-filter, and digital-data processing delays can severely limit the usable values of the roll-rate and roll-attitude feedback gains.

  3. Investigation of the Effectiveness of Dynamic Seat in a Black Hawk Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Bengford, Norm; Perry, Chuck; Nicholson, Bob; Wilkinson, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Low cost alternatives have been sought to provide motion cues in ground-based flight simulators to meet mission objectives. The ability to provide high frequency vibrations makes the dynamic seat attractive to helicopter training applications. Previous studies have found that dynamic seat does enhance the realism of the cockpit and affect pilots' workload. This investigation, conducted under the auspices of the Joint Shipboard Helicopter Integration Process (JSHIP), is using a three degree-of-freedom dynamic seat, i.e., heave, surge, and sway, with limited travels in a research simulator configured as a UH-60 Black Hawk at NASA Ames Research Center. The seat's effectiveness is studied using hover, landing, pirouette, bob-up/bob-down, sidestep, and acceleration/deceleration maneuvers. Seat commands consist of constant vibrations in heave and sway which provide the fundamental vibratory cues. Pilot station accelerations and collective controls provide onset and sustained commands. In addition, transient effects due to translational-lift, collective; and normal acceleration are produced by regulating the magnitude and frequency that depend on the rotor rpm. Results are compared to flight test data and two other ground-based motion systems configurations, i.e., a motion condition with very large motion travels and a motion condition that is comparable with commercial simulator travels. Both subjective and objective data will be analyzed to determine the significance of the motion cueing effect in each system for selected maneuvers.

  4. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the flight dynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Turner, Steven G.; Owens, D. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed flight dynamic behavior of a representative advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft concept. Free-flight tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. In support of the free-flight tests, conventional static, dynamic, and free-to-roll oscillation tests were performed. Tests were intended to explore normal operating and post stall flight conditions, and conditions simulating the loss of power in one engine.

  5. Results From F-18B Stability and Control Parameter Estimation Flight Tests at High Dynamic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique has been used to obtain stability and control derivatives for the NASA F-18B Systems Research Aircraft. This work has been performed to support flight testing of the active aeroelastic wing (AAW) F-18A project. The goal of this research is to obtain baseline F-18 stability and control derivatives that will form the foundation of the aerodynamic model for the AAW aircraft configuration. Flight data have been obtained at Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and at dynamic pressures ranging between 600 and 1500 lbf/sq ft. At each test condition, longitudinal and lateral-directional doublets have been performed using an automated onboard excitation system. The doublet maneuver consists of a series of single-surface inputs so that individual control-surface motions cannot be correlated with other control-surface motions. Flight test results have shown that several stability and control derivatives are significantly different than prescribed by the F-18B aerodynamic model. This report defines the parameter estimation technique used, presents stability and control derivative results, compares the results with predictions based on the current F-18B aerodynamic model, and shows improvements to the nonlinear simulation using updated derivatives from this research.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

  7. Flight validated high-order models of UAV helicopter dynamics in hover and forward flight using analytical and parameter identification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Subodh

    There has been a significant growth in the use of UAV helicopters for a multitude of military and civilian applications over the last few years. Due to these numerous applications, from crop dusting to remote sensing, UAV helicopters are now a major topic of interest within the aerospace community. The main research focus is on the development of automatic flight control systems (AFCS). The design of AFCS for these vehicles requires a mathematical model representing the dynamics of the vehicle. The mathematical model is developed either from first-principles, using the equations of motion of the vehicle, or from the flight data, using parameter identification techniques. The traditional six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) dynamics model is not suitable for high-bandwidth control system design. Such models are valid only within the low- to mid-frequency range. The agility and high maneuverability of small-scale helicopters require a high-bandwidth control system for full authority autonomous performance. The design of a high-bandwidth control system in turn requires a high-fidelity simulation model that is able to capture the key dynamics of the helicopter. These dynamics include the rotor dynamics. This dissertation presents the development of a 14-degrees-of-freedom (14-DoF) state-space linear model for the KU Thunder Tiger Raptor 50 UAV helicopter from first-principles and from flight test data using a parameter identification technique for the hovering and forward flight conditions. The model includes rigid body, rotor regressive, rotor inflow, stabilizer bar, and rotor coning dynamics. The model is implemented within The MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the high-order model is able to predict the helicopter's dynamics up to the frequency of 30 rad/sec. The main contributions of this dissertation are the development of a high-order simulation model for a small UAV helicopter from first-principles and the identification of a

  8. Investigations into a potential laser-NASP transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Laser propelled flight/transport technology is surveyed. A detailed conceptual design is presented for an on-place Mercury-Lightcraft: other designs are briefly explored for larger, 15-place Executive Lightcraft, and 150 to 350 passenger Jumbo Lightcraft.

  9. Modeling and Flight Data Analysis of Spacecraft Dynamics with a Large Solar Array Paddle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Takanori; Maeda, Ken; Hoshino, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24 2006 and has been operated successfully since then. This satellite has the attitude dynamics characterized by three large flexible structures, four large moving components, and stringent attitude/pointing stability requirements. In particular, it has one of the largest solar array paddles. Presented in this paper are flight data analyses and modeling of spacecraft attitude motion induced by the large solar array paddle. On orbit attitude dynamics was first characterized and summarized. These characteristic motions associated with the solar array paddle were identified and assessed. These motions are thermally induced motion, the pitch excitation by the paddle drive, and the role excitation. The thermally induced motion and the pitch excitation by the paddle drive were modeled and simulated to verify the mechanics of the motions. The control law updates implemented to mitigate the attitude vibrations are also reported.

  10. NASA LaRC Workshop on Guidance, Navigation, Controls, and Dynamics for Atmospheric Flight, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Carey S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is a collection of materials presented at a NASA workshop on guidance, navigation, controls, and dynamics (GNC&D) for atmospheric flight. The workshop was held at the NASA Langley Research Center on March 18-19, 1993. The workshop presentations describe the status of current research in the GNC&D area at Langley over a broad spectrum of research branches. The workshop was organized in eight sessions: overviews, general, controls, military aircraft, dynamics, guidance, systems, and a panel discussion. A highlight of the workshop was the panel discussion which addressed the following issue: 'Direction of guidance, navigation, and controls research to ensure U.S. competitiveness and leadership in aerospace technologies.'

  11. The fluid dynamics of flight control by kinematic phase lag variation between two robotic insect wings.

    PubMed

    Maybury, Will J; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2004-12-01

    Insects flying with two pairs of wings must contend with the forewing wake passing over the beating hindwing. Some four-winged insects, such as dragonflies, move each wing independently and therefore may alter the relative timing between the fore- and hindwing stroke cycles. The significance of modifying the phase relationship between fore- and hindwing stroke kinematics on total lift production is difficult to assess in the flying animal because the effect of wing-wake interference critically depends on the complex wake pattern produced by the two beating wings. Here we investigate the effect of changing the fore- and hindwing stroke-phase relationship during hovering flight conditions on the aerodynamic performance of each flapping wing by using a dynamically scaled electromechanical insect model. By varying the relative phase difference between fore- and hindwing stroke cycles we found that the performance of the forewing remains approximately constant, while hindwing lift production may vary by a factor of two. Hindwing lift modulation appears to be due to two different fluid dynamic phenomenons: leading edge vortex destruction and changes in strength and orientation of the local flow vector. Unexpectedly, the hindwing regains aerodynamic performance near to that of the wing free from forewing wake interference, when the motion of the hindwing leads the forewing by around a quarter of the stroke cycle. This kinematic relationship between hind- and forewing closely matches the phase-shift commonly used by locusts and some dragonflies in climbing and forward flight. The experiments support previous assumptions that active neuromuscular control of fore- and hindwing stroke phase might enable dragonflies and other functionally four-winged insects to manipulate ipsilateral flight force production without further changes in wing beat kinematics.

  12. Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.

  13. Within-wingbeat damping: dynamics of continuous free-flight yaw turns in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Tyson L; Robinson, Alice K

    2010-06-23

    Free-flight body dynamics and wing kinematics were collected from recordings of continuous, low-speed, multi-wingbeat yaw turns in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) using stereo videography. These data were used to examine the effects of rotational damping arising from interactions between the body rotation and flapping motion (flapping counter-torque, FCT) on continuous turning. The moths were found to accelerate during downstroke, then decelerate during upstroke by an amount consistent with FCT damping. Wing kinematics related to turning were then analysed in a simulation of hawkmoth flight; results were consistent with the observed acceleration-deceleration pattern. However, an alternative wing kinematic which produced more continuous and less damped accelerations was found in the simulation. These findings demonstrate that (i) FCT damping is detectable in the dynamics of continuously turning animals and (ii) FCT-reducing kinematics do exist but were not employed by turning moths, possibly because within-wingbeat damping simplifies control of turning by allowing control systems to target angular velocity rather than acceleration.

  14. Study to Determine the Effectiveness and Cost of A Laser-Powered 'Lightcraft' Vehicle System--Results to Guide Future Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. David; Pike, Alan; McKinney, Leon; Mead, Franklin B. Jr.; Larson, C. William

    2004-03-30

    Laser-powered lightcraft systems that deliver microsatellites to low earth orbit have been studied for the Air Force Research Laboratory. One result of this Study has been discovery of the significant influence of laser wavelength on the power lost during laser beam propagation through Earth's atmosphere and in space. Here, energy and power losses in the laser beam are extremely sensitive to wavelength for earth-to-orbit missions. And this significantly affects the amount of mass that can be placed into orbit for a given maximum amount of radiated power from a ground-based laser.

  15. In-space technology flight experiments: Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) and Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.

    1991-01-01

    The topics addressed are covered in viewgraph form. The objective of the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) programs is to study gravity dependent nonlinearities associated with fluid slosh and truss structure dynamics. MODE provides a reusable facility for on-orbit dynamics testing of small scale test articles in the shirt sleeve environment on the Shuttle middeck. Flight program objective of Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is to study gravity effects on the performance and stability of controlled structures.

  16. Hypersonic Inlet for a Laser Powered Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrland, Alan; Doolan, Con; Wheatley, Vincent; Froning, Dave

    2011-11-01

    Propulsion within the lightcraft concept is produced via laser induced detonation of an incoming hypersonic air stream. This process requires suitable engine configurations that offer good performance over all flight speeds and angles of attack to ensure the required thrust is maintained. Stream traced hypersonic inlets have demonstrated the required performance in conventional hydrocarbon fuelled scramjet engines, and has been applied to the laser powered lightcraft vehicle. This paper will outline the current methodology employed in the inlet design, with a particular focus on the performance of the lightcraft inlet at angles of attack. Fully three-dimensional turbulent computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a variety of inlet configurations. The performance of the lightcraft inlets have been evaluated at differing angles of attack. An idealized laser detonation simulation has also been performed to validate that the lightcraft inlet does not unstart during the laser powered propulsion cycle.

  17. An exploratory investigation of the flight dynamics effects of rotor rpm variations and rotor state feedback in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study conducted to investigate airframe/engine interface dynamics, and the influence of rotor speed variations on the flight dynamics of the helicopter in hover, and to explore the potential benefits of using rotor states as additional feedback signals in the flight control system. The analytical investigation required the development of a parametric high-order helicopter hover model, which included heave/yaw body motion, the rotor speed degree of freedom, rotor blade motion in flapping and lead-lag, inflow dynamics, a drive train model with a flexible rotor shaft, and an engine/rpm governor. First, the model was used to gain insight into the engine/drive train/rotor system dynamics and to obtain an improved simple formula for easy estimation of the dominant first torsional mode, which is important in the dynamic integration of the engine and airframe system. Then, a linearized version of the model was used to investigate the effects of rotor speed variations and rotor state feedback on helicopter flight dynamics. Results show that, by including rotor speed variations, the effective vertical damping decreases significantly from that calculated with a constant speed assumption, thereby providing a better correlation with flight test data. Higher closed-loop bandwidths appear to be more readily achievable with rotor state feedback. The results also indicate that both aircraft and rotor flapping responses to gust disturbance are significantly attenuated when rotor state feedback is used.

  18. Bombs, flyin' high. In-flight dynamics of volcanic bombs from Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Alatorre, Miguel; Cruz Vázquez, Omar; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    Bomb-sized (larger than 64 mm) pyroclasts are a common product of explosive eruptions and a considerable source of hazard, both from directly impacting on people and properties and from wildfires associated with their landing in vegetated areas. The dispersal of bombs is mostly modeled as purely ballistic trajectories controlled by gravity and drag forces associated with still air, and only recently other effects, such as the influence of eruption dynamics, the gas expansion, and in-flight collisions, are starting to be quantified both numerically and observationally. By using high-speed imaging of explosive volcanic eruptions here we attempt to calculate the drag coefficient of free-flying volcanic bombs during an eruption and at the same time we document a wide range of in-flight processes affecting bomb trajectories and introducing deviations from purely ballistic emplacement. High-speed (500 frames per second) videos of explosions at Stromboli and Etna (Italy), Fuego (Gatemala), Sakurajima (Japan), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Batu Tara (Indonesia) volcanoes provide a large assortment of free-flying bombs spanning Strombolian to Vulcanian source eruptions, basaltic to andesitic composition, centimeters to meters in size, and 10 to 300 m/s in fly velocity. By tracking the bombs during their flying trajectories we were able to: 1) measure their size, shape, and vertical component of velocity and related changes over time; and 2) measure the different interactions with the atmosphere and with other bombs. Quantitatively, these data allow us to provide the first direct measurement of the aerodynamic behavior and drag coefficient of volcanic bombs while settling, also including the effect of bomb rotation and changes in bomb shape and frontal section. We also show how our observations have the potential to parameterize a number of previously hypothesized and /or described but yet unquantified processes, including in-flight rotation, deformation, fragmentation, agglutination

  19. First In-Orbit Experience of TerraSAR-X Flight Dynamics Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, R.; Kazeminejad, B.; Kirschner, M.; Yoon, Y.; Kiehling, R.; D'Amico, S.

    2007-01-01

    TerraSAR-X is an advanced synthetic aperture radar satellite system for scientific and commercial applications that is realized in a public-private partnership between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Astrium GmbH. TerraSAR-X was launched at June 15, 2007 on top of a Russian DNEPR-1 rocket into a 514 km sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit with an 11-day repeat cycle and will be operated for a period of at least 5 years during which it will provide high resolution SAR-data in the X-band. Due to the objectives of the interferometric campaigns the satellite has to comply to tight orbit control requirements, which are formulated in the form of a 250 m toroidal tube around a pre-flight determined reference trajectory (see [1] for details). The acquisition of the reference orbit was one of the main and key activities during the Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) and had to compensate for both injection errors and spacecraft safe mode attitude control thruster activities. The paper summarizes the activities of GSOC flight dynamics team during both LEOP and early Commissioning Phase, where the main tasks have been 1) the first-acquisition support via angle-tracking and GPS-based orbit determination, 2) maneuver planning for target orbit acquisition and maintenance, and 3) precise orbit and attitude determination for SAR processing support. Furthermore, a presentation on the achieved results and encountered problems will be addressed.

  20. Methodology to Support Dynamic Function Allocation Policies Between Humans and Flight Deck Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Function allocation assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automation. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically have been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary aspects of function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives have emerged from this comprehensive review of literature on those fields: the technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented perspectives. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), structure and strategy of a team, and work structure and environment. This report offers eight issues with function allocation that can be used to assess the extent to which each of issues exist on a given function allocation. A modeling framework using formal models and simulation was developed to model work as described by the environment, agents, their inherent dynamics, and relationships among them. Finally, to validate the framework and metrics, a case study modeled four different function allocations between a pilot and flight deck automation during the arrival and approach phases of flight.

  1. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  2. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834

  3. The Theory and Practice of Estimating the Accuracy of Dynamic Flight-Determined Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maine, R. E.; Iliff, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    Means of assessing the accuracy of maximum likelihood parameter estimates obtained from dynamic flight data are discussed. The most commonly used analytical predictors of accuracy are derived and compared from both statistical and simplified geometrics standpoints. The accuracy predictions are evaluated with real and simulated data, with an emphasis on practical considerations, such as modeling error. Improved computations of the Cramer-Rao bound to correct large discrepancies due to colored noise and modeling error are presented. The corrected Cramer-Rao bound is shown to be the best available analytical predictor of accuracy, and several practical examples of the use of the Cramer-Rao bound are given. Engineering judgement, aided by such analytical tools, is the final arbiter of accuracy estimation.

  4. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-10-27

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium.

  5. Dipteran insect flight dynamics. Part 2: Lateral-directional motion about hover.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Imraan; Sean Humbert, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine computationally tractable models describing the lateral-directional motion of a Drosophila-like dipteran insect, which may then be used to estimate the requirements for flight control and stabilization. This study continues the work begun in Faruque and Humbert (2010) to extend the quasi-steady aerodynamics model via inclusion of perturbations from the hover state. The aerodynamics model is considered as forcing upon rigid body dynamics, and frequency-based system identification tools used to derive the models. The analysis indicates two stable real poles, and two very lightly damped and nearly unstable complex poles describing a decoupling of roll/sideslip oscillatory motion from a first order subsidence yaw behavior. The results are presented with uncertainty variation for both a smaller male and larger female phenotype.

  6. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-10-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium.

  7. Flight dynamics of a pterosaur-inspired aircraft utilizing a variable-placement vertical tail.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brian; Lind, Rick; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2011-06-01

    Mission performance for small aircraft is often dependent on the turn radius. Various biologically inspired concepts have demonstrated that performance can be improved by morphing the wings in a manner similar to birds and bats; however, the morphing of the vertical tail has received less attention since neither birds nor bats have an appreciable vertical tail. This paper investigates a design that incorporates the morphing of the vertical tail based on the cranial crest of a pterosaur. The aerodynamics demonstrate a reduction in the turn radius of 14% when placing the tail over the nose in comparison to a traditional aft-placed vertical tail. The flight dynamics associated with this configuration has unique characteristics such as a Dutch-roll mode with excessive roll motion and a skid divergence that replaces the roll convergence.

  8. A Flight Dynamics Model for a Multi-Actuated Flexible Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive set of motion equations for a multi-actuated flight vehicle is presented. The dynamics are derived from a vector approach that generalizes the classical linear perturbation equations for flexible launch vehicles into a coupled three-dimensional model. The effects of nozzle and aerosurface inertial coupling, sloshing propellant, and elasticity are incorporated without restrictions on the position, orientation, or number of model elements. The present formulation is well suited to matrix implementation for large-scale linear stability and sensitivity analysis and is also shown to be extensible to nonlinear time-domain simulation through the application of a special form of Lagrange s equations in quasi-coordinates. The model is validated through frequency-domain response comparison with a high-fidelity planar implementation.

  9. Model Structures and Algorithms for Identification of Aerodynamic Models for Flight Dynamics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.

  10. Flight dynamics of a pterosaur-inspired aircraft utilizing a variable-placement vertical tail.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brian; Lind, Rick; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2011-06-01

    Mission performance for small aircraft is often dependent on the turn radius. Various biologically inspired concepts have demonstrated that performance can be improved by morphing the wings in a manner similar to birds and bats; however, the morphing of the vertical tail has received less attention since neither birds nor bats have an appreciable vertical tail. This paper investigates a design that incorporates the morphing of the vertical tail based on the cranial crest of a pterosaur. The aerodynamics demonstrate a reduction in the turn radius of 14% when placing the tail over the nose in comparison to a traditional aft-placed vertical tail. The flight dynamics associated with this configuration has unique characteristics such as a Dutch-roll mode with excessive roll motion and a skid divergence that replaces the roll convergence. PMID:21558603

  11. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834

  12. [Dynamics of the body liquids and composition in long-duration space flight (bio-impedance analysis)].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigor'ev, A I

    2007-01-01

    Bio-impedancemetiy was used to study dynamics of the human hydration status and body composition aboard the International space station (ISS). Body liquids in 12 Russian crewmembers were found reduced in different periods of space flight: the total, intra- and extracellular liquid volumes became less by 5.2 to 10.4% on the group average as compared with baseline values. In-flight changes in body composition also displayed a consistent pattern. While the lean mass loss was insignificant averaging 1.9-4.0%, the fatty mass gain averaged 4.6 to 8.2% in the initial three months on flight. We conclude that the human body hydration status falls along with the muscular mass reduction and fatty mass gain during long-duration space flight.

  13. Design and Preparation of a Particle Dynamics Space Flight Experiment, SHIVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James; L'Esperance, Drew; Rangel, Roger; Coimbra, Carlos; Wiltherow, William

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the flight experiment, supporting ground science, and the design rationale for project SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus). SHIVA is a fundamental study of particle dynamics in fluids in microgravity. Gravity often dominates the equations of motion of a particle in a fluid, so microgravity provides an ideal environment to study the other forces, such as the pressure and viscous drag and especially the Basset history force. We have developed diagnostic recording methods using holography to save all of the particle field optical characteristics, essentially allowing the experiment to be transferred from space back to earth in what we call the "virtual apparatus" for on-earth microgravity experimentation. We can quantify precisely the three-dimensional motion of sets of particles, allowing us to test and apply new analytical solutions developed by members of the team as reported in the 2001 Conference (Banff, Canada). In addition to employing microgravity to augment the fundamental study of these forces, the resulting data will allow us to quantify and understand the ISS environment with great accuracy. This paper shows how we used both experiment and theory to identify and resolve critical issues and produce an optimal the study. We examined the response of particles of specific gravity from 0.1 to 20, with radii from 0.2 to 2mm. to fluid oscillation at frequencies up to 80 Hz with amplitudes up to 200 microns. To observe some of the interesting effects predicted by the new solutions requires the precise location of the position of a particle in three dimensions. To this end we have developed digital holography algorithms that enable particle position location to a small fraction of a pixel in a CCD array. The spaceflight system will record holograms both on film and electronically. The electronic holograms can be downlinked providing real time data, essentially acting like a remote window into the ISS

  14. Combined dynamic inversion and QFT flight control of an unstable high performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Perry Walter

    Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) is a control system synthesis, technique that directly considers system uncertainties and disturbance magnitudes when formulating closed-loop control algorithms. Dynamic Inversion is a nonlinear control system design technique that relies on accurate mathematical models to compute control inputs producing arbitrary system responses. Both techniques have been applied to unstable high performance aircraft flight control, and produced effective aircraft controllers. Both techniques have certain drawbacks: Nonlinear QFT controllers tend to be unnecessarily conservative (the computed controllers have excessive bandwidth) because known system properties are treated as "unknown" disturbances during loop synthesis. Meanwhile Dynamic Inversion control is sensitive to differences between assumed mathematical models and actual system dynamic properties. Combining the two control techniques provides the benefit of both while suffering the drawbacks of neither, as demonstrated by Single Input, Single Output (SISO) control of a constant airspeed, no roll, no yaw nonlinear model of the F-16 aircraft, and by Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) control of a full six-degree-of-freedom version. Design performance of the combined controllers is verified by reduced actuator efforts and by reduced sensor noise to actuator input (U( s)/n(s)) transfer function magnitudes compared to standard QFT versions.

  15. Robust nonlinear dynamic inversion flight control design using structured singular value synthesis based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Sibin; Ai, Jianliang; Luo, Changhang; Wang, Peng

    2006-11-01

    Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) is a technique for control law design, which is based on the feedback linearization and achieving desired dynamic response characteristics. NDI requires an ideal and precise model, however, there must be some errors due to the modeling error or actuator faults, therefore the control law designed by NDI has less robustness. Combining with structured singular value μ synthesis method, the system's robustness can be improved notably. The designed controller, which uses the structured singular value μ synthesis method, has high dimensions, and the dimensions must be reduced when we calculate it. This paper presents a new method for the design of robust flight control, which uses structured singular value μ synthesis based on genetic algorithm. The designed controller, which uses this method, can reduce the dimensions obviously compared with the normal method of structured singular value synthesis, so it is easier for application. The presented method is applied to robustness controller design of some super maneuverable fighter. The simulation results show that the dynamic inversion control law achieves a high level of performance in post-stall maneuver condition, and the whole control system has perfect robustness and anti-disturbance ability.

  16. Identification of Rotorcraft Structural Dynamics from Flight and Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Excessive vibration remains one one of the most difficult problems that faces the helicopter industry today, affecting all production helicopters at some phase of their development. Vibrations in rotating structures may arise from external periodic dynamic airloads whose frequencies are are close to the natural frequencies of the rotating system itself. The goal for the structures engineer would thus be to design a structure as free from resonance effects as possible. In the case of a helicopter rotor blade these dynamic loads are a consequence of asymmetric airload distribution on the rotor blade in forward flight, leading to a rich collection of higher harmonic airloads that force rotor and airframe response. Accurate prediction of the dynamic characteristics of a helicopter rotor blade will provide the opportunity to affect in a positive manner noise intensity, vibration level, durability, reliability and operating costs by reducing objectionable frequencies or moving them to a different frequency range and thus providing us with a lower vibration rotor. In fact, the dynamic characteristics tend to define the operating limits of a rotorcraft. As computing power has increased greatly over the last decade, researchers and engineers have turned to analyzing the vibrational characteristics of aerospace structures at the design and development stage of the production of an aircraft. Modern rotor blade construction methods lead to products with low mass and low inherent damping so careful design and analysis is required to avoid resonance and an undesirable dynamic performance. In addition, accurate modal analysis is necessary for several current approaches in elastic system identification and active control.

  17. Dynamical modeling of collective behavior from pigeon flight data: flock cohesion and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Dieck Kattas, Graciano; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional) Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals) may be inferred. PMID:22479176

  18. Dynamical Modeling of Collective Behavior from Pigeon Flight Data: Flock Cohesion and Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional) Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals) may be inferred. PMID:22479176

  19. Effect of aeroelastic-propulsive interactions on flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    The desire to achieve orbit-on-demand access to space with rapid turn-around capability and aircraft-like processing operations has given rise to numerous hypersonic aerospace plane design concepts which would take off horizontally from a conventional runway and employ air-breathing scramjet propulsion systems for acceleration to orbital speeds. Most of these air-breathing hypersonic vehicle concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody to act as the aerodynamic compression surface for a scramjet combustor module. This type of airframe-integrated scramjet propulsion system tends to be highly sensitive to inlet conditions and angle-of-attack perturbations. Furthermore, the basic configuration of the fuselage, with its elongated and tapered forebody, produces relatively low frequency elastic modes which will cause perturbations in the combustor inlet conditions due to the oscillation of the forebody compression surface. The flexibility of the forebody compression surface, together with sensitivity of scramjet propulsion systems to inlet conditions, creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aeroelastic-propulsive interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the longitudinal flight dynamics and/or excite the elastic modes. These propulsive force and moment variations may have an appreciable impact on the performance, guidance, and control of a hypersonic aerospace plane. The objectives of this research are to quantify the magnitudes of propulsive force and moment perturbations resulting from elastic deformation of a representative hypersonic vehicle, and to assess the potential impact of these perturbations on the vehicle's longitudinal flight dynamics.

  20. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  1. Hovering and forward flight of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: trim search and 6-DOF dynamic stability characterization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jong-Seob; Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-10-01

    We show that the forward flight speed affects the stability characteristics of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a flying hawkmoth; dynamic modal structures of both the planes of motion are altered due to variations in the stability derivatives. The forward flight speed u e is changed from 0.00 to 1.00 m s(-1) with an increment of 0.25 m s(-1). (The equivalent advance ratio is 0.00 to 0.38; the advance ratio is the ratio of the forward flight speed to the average wing tip speed.) As the flight speed increases, for the longitudinal dynamics, an unstable oscillatory mode becomes more unstable. Also, we show that the up/down (w(b)) dynamics become more significant at a faster flight speed due to the prominent increase in the stability derivative Z(u) (up/down force due to the forward/backward velocity). For the lateral dynamics, the decrease in the stability derivative L(v) (roll moment due to side slip velocity) at a faster flight speed affects a slightly damped stable oscillatory mode, causing it to become more stable; however, the t(half) (the time taken to reach half the amplitude) of this slightly damped stable oscillatory mode remains relatively long (∼12T at u(e) = 1 m s(-1); T is wingbeat period) compared to the other modes of motion, meaning that this mode represents the most vulnerable dynamics among the lateral dynamics at all flight speeds. To obtain the stability derivatives, trim conditions for linearization are numerically searched to find the exact trim trajectory and wing kinematics using an algorithm that uses the gradient information of a control effectiveness matrix and fully coupled six-degrees of freedom nonlinear multibody equations of motion. With this algorithm, trim conditions that consider the coupling between the dynamics and aerodynamics can be obtained. The body and wing morphology, and the wing kinematics used in this study are based on actual measurement data from the relevant literature. The aerodynamic model of the flapping

  2. Hovering and forward flight of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: trim search and 6-DOF dynamic stability characterization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jong-Seob; Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-09-28

    We show that the forward flight speed affects the stability characteristics of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a flying hawkmoth; dynamic modal structures of both the planes of motion are altered due to variations in the stability derivatives. The forward flight speed u e is changed from 0.00 to 1.00 m s(-1) with an increment of 0.25 m s(-1). (The equivalent advance ratio is 0.00 to 0.38; the advance ratio is the ratio of the forward flight speed to the average wing tip speed.) As the flight speed increases, for the longitudinal dynamics, an unstable oscillatory mode becomes more unstable. Also, we show that the up/down (w(b)) dynamics become more significant at a faster flight speed due to the prominent increase in the stability derivative Z(u) (up/down force due to the forward/backward velocity). For the lateral dynamics, the decrease in the stability derivative L(v) (roll moment due to side slip velocity) at a faster flight speed affects a slightly damped stable oscillatory mode, causing it to become more stable; however, the t(half) (the time taken to reach half the amplitude) of this slightly damped stable oscillatory mode remains relatively long (∼12T at u(e) = 1 m s(-1); T is wingbeat period) compared to the other modes of motion, meaning that this mode represents the most vulnerable dynamics among the lateral dynamics at all flight speeds. To obtain the stability derivatives, trim conditions for linearization are numerically searched to find the exact trim trajectory and wing kinematics using an algorithm that uses the gradient information of a control effectiveness matrix and fully coupled six-degrees of freedom nonlinear multibody equations of motion. With this algorithm, trim conditions that consider the coupling between the dynamics and aerodynamics can be obtained. The body and wing morphology, and the wing kinematics used in this study are based on actual measurement data from the relevant literature. The aerodynamic model of the flapping

  3. The Direction of Fluid Dynamics for Liquid Propulsion at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-designated center for the development of space launch systems. MSFC is particularly known for propulsion system development. Many engineering skills and technical disciplines are needed to accomplish this mission. This presentation will focus on the work of the Fluid Dynamics Branch (ER42). ER42 resides in the Propulsion Systems Department at MSFC. The branch is responsible for all aspects of the discipline of fluid dynamics applied to propulsion or propulsion-induced loads and environments. This work begins with design trades and parametric studies, and continues through development, risk assessment, anomaly investigation and resolution, and failure investigations. Applications include the propellant delivery system including the main propulsion system (MPS) and turbomachinery; combustion devices for liquid engines and solid rocket motors; coupled systems; and launch environments. An advantage of the branch is that it is neither analysis nor test centric, but discipline centric. Fluid dynamics assessments are made by analysis, from lumped parameter modeling through unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD); testing, which can be cold flow or hot fire; or a combination of analysis and testing. Integration of all discipline methods into one branch enables efficient and accurate support to the projects. To accomplish this work, the branch currently employs approximately fifty engineers divided into four teams -- Propellant Delivery CFD, Combustion Driven Flows CFD, Unsteady and Experimental Flows, and Acoustics and Stability. This discussion will highlight some of the work performed in the branch and the direction in which the branch is headed.

  4. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 2: Materials and Structures, Propulsion and Drive Systems, Flight Dynamics and Control, and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Conference Proceedings is a compilation of over 30 technical papers presented which report on the advances in rotorcraft technical knowledge resulting from NASA, Army, and industry research programs over the last 5 to 10 years. Topics addressed in this volume include: materials and structures; propulsion and drive systems; flight dynamics and control; and acoustics.

  5. Coupled nonlinear flight dynamics, aeroelasticity, and control of very flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Christopher M.

    Flight dynamics and control of rigid aircraft motion coupled with linearized structural dynamics has been studied for several decades. However, new requirements for very flexible aircraft are challenging the validity of most rigid body coupled linearized structural motion formulations, due to the presence of large elastic motions. This dissertation presents, the flight dynamics, integration, and control of the six degree-of-freedom equations of motion of a reference point on a very flexible aircraft coupled with the aeroelastic equations which govern the geometrically nonlinear structural response of the vehicle. A low-order strain-based nonlinear structural analysis coupled with unsteady finite-state potential flow aerodynamics form the basis for the aeroelastic formulation. The nonlinear beam structural model is based upon the finite strain approach. Kinematic differential equations are used to provide orientation and position of the fixed reference point. The resulting governing differential equations are non-linear, first- and second-order differential algebraic equations and provide a low-order complete nonlinear aircraft formulation. The resulting equations are integrated using an implicit Modified Newmark Method. The method incorporates both first- and second-order nonlinear equations without the necessity of transforming second-order equations to first-order form. The method also incorporates a Newton-Raphson sub-iteration scheme to reduce residual error. Due to the inherent flexibility of these aircraft, the low order structural modes couple directly with the rigid body modes. This creates a system which cannot be separated as in traditional control schemes. Trajectory control techniques are developed based upon a combination of linear and nonlinear inner-loop tracking and an outer-loop nonlinear transformation from desired trajectories to reference frame velocities. Numerical simulations are presented validating the proposed integration scheme and the

  6. Interaction of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. E.; Knotts, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of lateral feel system characteristics on fighter aircraft roll flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33. Forty-two evaluation flights were flown by three engineering test pilots. The investigation utilized the power approach, visual landing task and up-and-away tasks including formation, gun tracking, and computer-generated compensatory attitude tracking tasks displayed on the Head-Up Display. Experimental variations included the feel system frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command type (force or position input command), aircraft roll mode time constant, control system prefilter frequency, and control system time delay. The primary data were task performance records and evaluation pilot comments and ratings using the Cooper-Harper scale. The data highlight the unique and powerful effect of the feel system of flying qualities. The data show that the feel system is not 'equivalent' in flying qualities influence to analogous control system elements. A lower limit of allowable feel system frequency appears warranted to ensure good lateral flying qualities. Flying qualities criteria should most properly treat the feel system dynamic influence separately from the control system, since the input and output of this dynamic element is apparent to the pilot and thus, does not produce a 'hidden' effect.

  7. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 < PIORpitch < 4. The GetTF method generally predicted degraded handling qualities for cases with impaired actuators. The results demonstrate GetTF's utility in evaluating the handling qualities during the design phase of flight control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  8. [Functional dynamics of the pilots of heavy transport helicopters in the course of a flight shift].

    PubMed

    Kamenskiĭ, Iu N

    1982-01-01

    Before and after flights about 300 crewmembers of heavy transport helicopters were examined, using psychophysiological and integral methods that yield professionally important information. During a flight shift the health state of helicopter pilots varies via three stages: habituation, initial decline and distinct lassitude, with the latter developing after 5 h flight load. In order to increase human reliability in the pilot-helicopter system, it is advisable to allow 4 h flight time during a flight shift onboard helicopters of the above type. In this case the pilot exposure to vibration effects will also be limited. The paper describes a maximally permissible spectrum of vibration velocity for a 4 h exposure.

  9. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  10. [Dynamics of the biochemical makeup of the blood in cosmonauts during flights].

    PubMed

    Balakhovskiĭ, I S; Orlova, T A

    1978-01-01

    Prolonged space flights (15 to 63 days) led to changes in the biochemical composition of the blood that were observed both during and after flight. Blood samples were withdrawn inflight, stored in a special device onboard and analyzed on return to Earth. The data obtained in real flights were compared with those from the 30-day simulation flight. In real and simulated flights the urea content showed the most significant changes. Inflight it increased to 40 mg% versus 31 mg% preflight. The urea content grew on the 3rd-5th flight day, reaching maximum on the 15-30th day and decreasing again afterwards. The content of glucose and inorganic phosphorus increased slightly whereas that of acid-soluble and lipid phosphorus remained unaltered. The level of cholesterol decreased. The striking similarity between the changes in blood biochemistries during real and simulated flights suggests that they are induced by factors other than weightlessness.

  11. The Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the Center of Excellence for Space Propulsion Technology within NASA. One of MSFC's goals is to lower the cost of access to space. MSFC's Fluid Dynamics Division, a part of the Structures and Dynamics Lab, assists in accomplishing this goal. This division is divided into two branches: experimental and analytical, whose work is complimentary and integrated. In the analysis branch, the emphasis is to apply, rather than develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to reduce the cost of design and development of: (1) pump and turbine feedlines and feed manifolds; (2) all primary and secondary flow paths in pumps; (3) all primary and secondary flow paths in turbines; (4) combustion chambers; (5) rocket engine nozzles and plumes; and (6) launch vehicles ascent. The broad range of applications imposes unique constraints on the software. The use of CFD in evaluating rocket engine hardware, specifically, is of value due to several reasons: (1) Rocket engine hardware is extremely expensive to build and test; (2) high engineering and development cost is due to limited production; (3) the cost of one engine test is greater than the average yearly hardware and software cost; (4) CFD represents a relatively small investment relative to the impact it has on the engine development; and (5) computing costs are continuously decreasing. In terms of accuracy the predictable error is more useful than the inconsistent accuracy. The achievable accuracy varies from application to application. The lack of accuracy is often caused by improper analyses: such as improperly applied or located boundary conditions, or attempting steady analysis of unsteady flows. This report is in viewgraph format.

  12. Modeling Flight: The Role of Dynamically Scaled Free-Flight Models in Support of NASA's Aerospace Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art in aeronautical engineering has been continually accelerated by the development of advanced analysis and design tools. Used in the early design stages for aircraft and spacecraft, these methods have provided a fundamental understanding of physical phenomena and enabled designers to predict and analyze critical characteristics of new vehicles, including the capability to control or modify unsatisfactory behavior. For example, the relatively recent emergence and routine use of extremely powerful digital computer hardware and software has had a major impact on design capabilities and procedures. Sophisticated new airflow measurement and visualization systems permit the analyst to conduct micro- and macro-studies of properties within flow fields on and off the surfaces of models in advanced wind tunnels. Trade studies of the most efficient geometrical shapes for aircraft can be conducted with blazing speed within a broad scope of integrated technical disciplines, and the use of sophisticated piloted simulators in the vehicle development process permits the most important segment of operations the human pilot to make early assessments of the acceptability of the vehicle for its intended mission. Knowledgeable applications of these tools of the trade dramatically reduce risk and redesign, and increase the marketability and safety of new aerospace vehicles. Arguably, one of the more viable and valuable design tools since the advent of flight has been testing of subscale models. As used herein, the term "model" refers to a physical article used in experimental analyses of a larger full-scale vehicle. The reader is probably aware that many other forms of mathematical and computer-based models are also used in aerospace design; however, such topics are beyond the intended scope of this document. Model aircraft have always been a source of fascination, inspiration, and recreation for humans since the earliest days of flight. Within the scientific

  13. In-house experiments in large space structures at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Flight Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Ozguner, Umit; Yurkovich, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory is committed to an in-house, experimental investigation of several technical areas critical to the dynamic performance of future Air Force large space structures. The advanced beam experiment was successfully completed and provided much experience in the implementation of active control approaches on real hardware. A series of experiments is under way in evaluating ground test methods on the 12 meter trusses with significant passive damping. Ground simulated zero-g response data from the undamped truss will be compared directly with true zero-g flight test data. The performance of several leading active control approaches will be measured and compared on one of the trusses in the presence of significant passive damping. In the future, the PACOSS dynamic test article will be set up as a test bed for the evaluation of system identification and control techniques on a complex, representative structure with high modal density and significant passive damping.

  14. Shuttle payload bay dynamic environments: Summary and conclusion report for STS flights 1-5 and 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, M.; Garba, J.; Kern, D.

    1984-01-01

    The vibration, acoustic and low frequency loads data from the first 5 shuttle flights are presented. The engineering analysis of that data is also presented. Vibroacoustic data from STS-9 are also presented because they represent the only data taken on a large payload. Payload dynamic environment predictions developed by the participation of various NASA and industrial centers are presented along with a comparison of analytical loads methodology predictions with flight data, including a brief description of the methodologies employed in developing those predictions for payloads. The review of prediction methodologies illustrates how different centers have approached the problems of developing shuttle dynamic environmental predictions and criteria. Ongoing research activities related to the shuttle dynamic environments are also described. Analytical software recently developed for the prediction of payload acoustic and vibration environments are also described.

  15. Verification of the Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Pointing Algorithm Using Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA spacecraft designed to study the Sun. It was launched on February 11, 2010 into a geosynchronous orbit, and uses a suite of attitude sensors and actuators to finely point the spacecraft at the Sun. SDO has three science instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). SDO uses two High Gain Antennas (HGAs) to send science data to a dedicated ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. In order to meet the science data capture budget, the HGAs must be able to transmit data to the ground for a very large percentage of the time. Each HGA is a dual-axis antenna driven by stepper motors. Both antennas transmit data at all times, but only a single antenna is required in order to meet the transmission rate requirement. For portions of the year, one antenna or the other has an unobstructed view of the White Sands ground station. During other periods, however, the view from both antennas to the Earth is blocked for different portions of the day. During these times of blockage, the two HGAs take turns pointing to White Sands, with the other antenna pointing out to space. The HGAs handover White Sands transmission responsibilities to the unblocked antenna. There are two handover seasons per year, each lasting about 72 days, where the antennas hand off control every twelve hours. The non-tracking antenna slews back to the ground station by following a ground commanded trajectory and arrives approximately 5 minutes before the formerly tracking antenna slews away to point out into space. The SDO Attitude Control System (ACS) runs at 5 Hz, and the HGA Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) run at 200 Hz. There are 40 opportunities for the gimbals to step each ACS cycle, with a hardware limitation of no more than one step every three GCE cycles. The ACS calculates the desired gimbal motion for tracking the ground station or for slewing

  16. Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in The George Washington University at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav

    2002-01-01

    The program objectives were defined in the original proposal entitled 'Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in the JIAFS at NASA Langley Research Center' which was originated March 20, 1975, and yearly renewals of the research program dated December 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002. The program included three major topics: 1) Improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for flight and wind tunnel data analysis based on system identification methodology; 2) Application of these methods to flight and wind tunnel data obtained from advanced aircraft; 3) Modeling and control of aircraft. The principal investigator of the program was Dr. Vladislav Klein, Professor Emeritus at The George Washington University, DC. Seven Graduate Research Scholar Assistants (GRSA) participated in the program. The results of the research conducted during four years of the total co-operative period were published in 2 NASA Technical Reports, 3 thesis and 3 papers. The list of these publications is included.

  17. On the dynamic behaviour of the "click" mechanism in dipteran flight.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Brennan, M J

    2011-11-21

    In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of the "click" mechanism is analysed. A more accurate model is used than in the past, in which the limits of movement due to the geometry of the flight mechanism are imposed. Moreover, the effects of different damping models are investigated. In previous work, the damping model was assumed to be of the linear viscous type for simplicity, but it is likely that the damping due to drag forces is nonlinear. Accordingly, a model of damping in which the damping force is proportional to the square of the velocity is used, and the results are compared with the simpler model of linear viscous damping. Because of the complexity of the model an analytical approach is not possible so the problem has been cast in terms of non-dimensional variables and solved numerically. The peak kinetic energy of the wing root per energy input in one cycle is chosen to study the effectiveness of the "click" mechanism compared with a linear resonant mechanism. It is shown that, the "click" mechanism has distinct advantages when it is driven below its resonant frequency. When the damping is quadratic, there are some further advantages compared to when the damping is linear and viscous, provided that the amplitude of the excitation force is large enough to avoid the erratic behaviour of the mechanism that occurs for small forces. PMID:21907214

  18. Rosetta lander Philae: Flight Dynamics analyses for landing site selection and post-landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Eric; Martin, Thierry; Canalias, Elisabet; Blazquez, Alejandro; Garmier, Romain; Ceolin, Thierry; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cedric; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Remetean, Emile; Torres, Alex; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Dolives, Benoit; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Kofman, Wlodek; Jorda, Laurent; Zakharov, Vladimir; Crifo, Jean-François; Rodionov, Alexander; Heinish, P.; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-08-01

    On the 12th of November 2014, The Rosetta Lander Philae became the first spacecraft to softly land on a comet nucleus. Due to the double failure of the cold gas hold-down thruster and the anchoring harpoons that should have fixed Philae to the surface, it spent approximately two hours bouncing over the comet surface to finally come at rest one km away from its target site. Nevertheless it was operated during the 57 h of its First Science Sequence. The FSS, performed with the two batteries, should have been followed by the Long Term Science Sequence but Philae was in a place not well illuminated and fell into hibernation. Yet, thanks to reducing distance to the Sun and to seasonal effect, it woke up at end of April and on 13th of June it contacted Rosetta again. To achieve this successful landing, an intense preparation work had been carried out mainly between August and November 2014 to select the targeted landing site and define the final landing trajectory. After the landing, the data collected during on-comet operations have been used to assess the final position and orientation of Philae, and to prepare the wake-up. This paper addresses the Flight Dynamics studies done in the scope of this landing preparation from Lander side, in close cooperation with the team at ESA, responsible for Rosetta, as well as for the reconstruction of the bouncing trajectory and orientation of the Lander after touchdown.

  19. Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Murri, Daniel G.; Hill, Melissa A.; Jessick, Matthew V.; Penn, John M.; Hasan, David A.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Falck, Robert D.; McCarthy, Thomas G.; Vuong, Nghia; Zimmerman, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice.

  20. The Package-Based Development Process in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Amalia; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor; Kraft, Stephen; Condon, Steven; Burke, Steven; Yakimovich, Daniil

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been operating for more than two decades in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) and has adapted to the constant movement of the software development environment. The SEL's Improvement Paradigm shows that process improvement is an iterative process. Understanding, Assessing and Packaging are the three steps that are followed in this cyclical paradigm. As the improvement process cycles back to the first step, after having packaged some experience, the level of understanding will be greater. In the past, products resulting from the packaging step have been large process documents, guidebooks, and training programs. As the technical world moves toward more modularized software, we have made a move toward more modularized software development process documentation, as such the products of the packaging step are becoming smaller and more frequent. In this manner, the QIP takes on a more spiral approach rather than a waterfall. This paper describes the state of the FDD in the area of software development processes, as revealed through the understanding and assessing activities conducted by the COTS study team. The insights presented include: (1) a characterization of a typical FDD Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) intensive software development life-cycle process, (2) lessons learned through the COTS study interviews, and (3) a description of changes in the SEL due to the changing and accelerating nature of software development in the FDD.

  1. On the dynamic behaviour of the "click" mechanism in dipteran flight.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Brennan, M J

    2011-11-21

    In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of the "click" mechanism is analysed. A more accurate model is used than in the past, in which the limits of movement due to the geometry of the flight mechanism are imposed. Moreover, the effects of different damping models are investigated. In previous work, the damping model was assumed to be of the linear viscous type for simplicity, but it is likely that the damping due to drag forces is nonlinear. Accordingly, a model of damping in which the damping force is proportional to the square of the velocity is used, and the results are compared with the simpler model of linear viscous damping. Because of the complexity of the model an analytical approach is not possible so the problem has been cast in terms of non-dimensional variables and solved numerically. The peak kinetic energy of the wing root per energy input in one cycle is chosen to study the effectiveness of the "click" mechanism compared with a linear resonant mechanism. It is shown that, the "click" mechanism has distinct advantages when it is driven below its resonant frequency. When the damping is quadratic, there are some further advantages compared to when the damping is linear and viscous, provided that the amplitude of the excitation force is large enough to avoid the erratic behaviour of the mechanism that occurs for small forces.

  2. Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Ondrej

    A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various

  3. Strategies for the stabilization of longitudinal forward flapping flight revealed using a dynamically-scaled robotic fly.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Michael J; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished with quite subtle changes in hovering kinematics, and that these adjustments act primarily by altering the pitch moment. This finding is consistent with prior hypotheses regarding the relationship between body pitch and flight speed in fruit flies. Adjusting the mean stroke position of the wings is a likely mechanism for trimming the pitch moment at all speeds, whereas changes in the mean angle of attack may be required at higher speeds. To ensure stability, the flapping system requires additional pitch damping that increases in magnitude with flight speed. A compensatory reflex driven by fast feedback of pitch rate from the halteres could provide such damping, and would automatically exhibit gain scheduling with flight speed if pitch torque was regulated via changes in stroke deviation. Such a control scheme would provide an elegant solution for stabilization across a wide range of forward flight speeds. PMID:24855029

  4. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics for the HL-10 lifting body vehicle at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strutz, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The HL-10 lifting body stability and control derivatives were determined by using an analog-matching technique and compared with derivatives obtained from wind-tunnel results. The flight derivatives were determined as a function of angle of attack for a subsonic configuration at Mach 0.7 and for a transonic configuration at Mach 0.7, 0.9, and 1.2. At an angle of attack of 14 deg, data were obtained for a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4. The flight and wind-tunnel derivatives were in general agreement, with the possible exception of the longitudinal and lateral damping derivatives. Some differences were noted between the vehicle dynamic response characteristics calculated from flight-determined derivatives and those predicted by the wind-tunnel results. However, the only difference the pilots noted between the response of the vehicle in flight and the response of a simulator programed with wind-tunnel-predicted data was that the damping generally was higher in the flight vehicle.

  5. Strategies for the stabilization of longitudinal forward flapping flight revealed using a dynamically-scaled robotic fly.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Michael J; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished with quite subtle changes in hovering kinematics, and that these adjustments act primarily by altering the pitch moment. This finding is consistent with prior hypotheses regarding the relationship between body pitch and flight speed in fruit flies. Adjusting the mean stroke position of the wings is a likely mechanism for trimming the pitch moment at all speeds, whereas changes in the mean angle of attack may be required at higher speeds. To ensure stability, the flapping system requires additional pitch damping that increases in magnitude with flight speed. A compensatory reflex driven by fast feedback of pitch rate from the halteres could provide such damping, and would automatically exhibit gain scheduling with flight speed if pitch torque was regulated via changes in stroke deviation. Such a control scheme would provide an elegant solution for stabilization across a wide range of forward flight speeds.

  6. Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in the JIAFS, George Washington University at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav

    2002-01-01

    The program objectives are fully defined in the original proposal entitled 'Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in GW at NASA Langley Research Center,' which was originated March 20, 1975, and in the renewals of the research program from December 1, 2000 to November 30, 2001. The program in its present form includes three major topics: 1) the improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for wind tunnel and flight test data analysis, 2) the application of these methods to wind tunnel and flight test data obtained from advanced airplanes, 3) the correlation of flight results with wind tunnel measurements, and theoretical predictions. The Principal Investigator of the program is Dr. Vladislav Klein. Three Graduate Research Scholar Assistants (K. G. Mas, M. M. Eissa and N. M. Szyba) also participated in the program. Specific developments in the program during the period Dec. 1, 2001 through Nov. 30, 2002 included: 1) Data analysis of highly swept delta wing aircraft from wind and water tunnel data, and 2) Aerodynamic characteristics of the radio control aircraft from flight test.

  7. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  8. Verification of the Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Pointing Algorithm Using Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), launched in 2010, is a NASA-designed spacecraft built to study the Sun. SDO has tight pointing requirements and instruments that are sensitive to spacecraft jitter. Two High Gain Antennas (HGAs) are used to continuously send science data to a dedicated ground station. Preflight analysis showed that jitter resulting from motion of the HGAs was a cause for concern. Three jitter mitigation techniques were developed and implemented to overcome effects of jitter from different sources. These mitigation techniques include: the random step delay, stagger stepping, and the No Step Request (NSR). During the commissioning phase of the mission, a jitter test was performed onboard the spacecraft, in which various sources of jitter were examined to determine their level of effect on the instruments. During the HGA portion of the test, the jitter amplitudes from the single step of a gimbal were examined, as well as the amplitudes due to the execution of various gimbal rates. The jitter levels were compared with the gimbal jitter allocations for each instrument. The decision was made to consider implementing two of the jitter mitigating techniques on board the spacecraft: stagger stepping and the NSR. Flight data with and without jitter mitigation enabled was examined, and it is shown in this paper that HGA tracking is not negatively impacted with the addition of the jitter mitigation techniques. Additionally, the individual gimbal steps were examined, and it was confirmed that the stagger stepping and NSRs worked as designed. An Image Quality Test was performed to determine the amount of cumulative jitter from the reaction wheels, HGAs, and instruments during various combinations of typical operations. The HGA-induced jitter on the instruments is well within the jitter requirement when the stagger step and NSR mitigation options are enabled.

  9. Flight Dynamics Aspects of a Large Civil Tiltrotor Simulation Using Translational Rate Command

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Ben; Malpica, Carlos A.; Theodore, Colin R.; Decker, William A.; Lindsey, James E.

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of a Large Civil Tiltrotor simulation with a Translational Rate Command control law that uses automatic nacelle deflections for longitudinal velocity control and lateral cyclic for lateral velocity control is presented. Results from piloted real-time simulation experiments and offline time and frequency domain analyses are used to investigate the fundamental flight dynamic and control mechanisms of the control law. The baseline Translational Rate Command conferred handling qualities improvements over an attitude command attitude hold control law but in some scenarios there was a tendency to enter PIO. Nacelle actuator rate limiting strongly influenced the PIO tendency and reducing the rate limits degraded the handling qualities further. Counterintuitively, increasing rate limits also led to a worsening of the handling qualities ratings. This led to the identification of a nacelle rate to rotor longitudinal flapping coupling effect that induced undesired pitching motions proportional to the allowable amount of nacelle rate. A modification that applied a counteracting amount of longitudinal cyclic proportional to the nacelle rate significantly improved the handling qualities. The lateral axis of the Translational Rate Command conferred Level 1 handling qualities in a Lateral Reposition maneuver. Analysis of the influence of the modeling fidelity on the lateral flapping angles is presented. It is showed that the linear modeling approximation is likely to have under-predicted the side-force and therefore under-predicted the lateral flapping at velocities above 15 ft/s. However, at lower velocities, and therefore more weakly influenced by the side force modeling, the accelerations that the control law commands also significantly influenced the peak levels of lateral flapping achieved.

  10. The prediction of nonlinear dynamic loads on helicopters from flight variables using artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. B.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.; Cabell, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    A method of indirectly monitoring component loads through common flight variables is proposed which requires an accurate model of the underlying nonlinear relationships. An artificial neural network (ANN) model learns relationships through exposure to a database of flight variable records and corresponding load histories from an instrumented military helicopter undergoing standard maneuvers. The ANN model, utilizing eight standard flight variables as inputs, is trained to predict normalized time-varying mean and oscillatory loads on two critical components over a range of seven maneuvers. Both interpolative and extrapolative capabilities are demonstrated with agreement between predicted and measured loads on the order of 90 percent to 95 percent. This work justifies pursuing the ANN method of predicting loads from flight variables.

  11. The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genin, A. M. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

  12. Analysis of the dynamics of a delay system modeling a longitudinal flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safta, C. A.; Halanay, A.; Ionita, A.

    2012-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of PIO (pilot induced oscillations) in a longitudinal flight. The phenomenon of PIO is the interaction between aircraft's motion and the pilot. PIO are present more often in terminal flight conditions. Using the qualitative theory of delay differential equations, a conventional time-delay model is considered and the stability of the equilibrium is analyzed. A limit cycle is shown to appear by a Hopf bifurcation.

  13. Free-Flight-Tunnel Investigation of the Dynamic Stability and Control Characteristics of a Chance Vought F7U-3 Airplane in Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, David C.; Shanks, Robert E.

    1952-01-01

    As part of a program to determine the feasibility of using a fighter airplane as a parasite in combination with a Consolidated Vultee RB-36 for long-range reconnaissance missions (project FICON), an experimental investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/17.5-scale model of a Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane in several tow configurations. The investigation consisted of flight tests in which the model was towed from a strut in the tunnel by a towline and by a direct coupling which provided complete angular freedom. The tests with the direct coupling also included a study of the effect of spring restraint in roll in order to simulate approximately the proposed full-scale arrangement in which the only freedom is that permitted by the flexibility of the launching and retrieving trapeze carried by the-bomber. For the tow configurations in which a towline was used (15 and 38 feet full scale), the model had a very unstable lateral oscillation which could not be controlled. The stability was also unsatisfactory for the tow configuration in Which the model was coupled directly to the strut with complete angular freedom. When spring restraint in roll was added, however, the stability was satisfactory. The use of the yaw damper which increased the damping in yaw to about six times the normal value of the model appeared to have no appreciable effect on the lateral oscillations in the towline configurations, but produced a slight improvement in the case of the direct coupling configurations. The longitudinal stability was satisfactory for those cases in which the lateral stability was good enough to permit study of longitudinal motions.

  14. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination solutions obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Division and Precision Orbit Determination Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doll, C.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.; Oza, D.; Cox, C.; Nemesure, M.; Bolvin, D.; Samii, Mina V.

    1993-01-01

    Orbit determination results are obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and a real-time extended Kalman filter estimation system to process Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) measurements in support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft navigation and health and safety operations. GTDS is the operational orbit determination system used by the FDD, and the extended Kalman fliter was implemented in an analysis prototype system, the Real-Time Orbit Determination System/Enhanced (RTOD/E). The Precision Orbit Determination (POD) team within the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch generates an independent set of high-accuracy trajectories to support the TOPEX/Poseidon scientific data. These latter solutions use the Geodynamics (GEODYN) orbit determination system with laser ranging tracking data. The TOPEX/Poseidon trajectories were estimated for the October 22 - November 1, 1992, timeframe, for which the latest preliminary POD results were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The batch cases were assessed using overlap comparisons, while the sequential cases were assessed with covariances and the first measurement residuals. The batch least-squares and forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive POD orbit solutions. The solution differences were generally less than 10 meters (m) for the batch least squares and less than 18 m for the sequential estimation solutions. The differences among the POD, GTDS, and RTOD/E solutions can be traced to differences in modeling and tracking data types, which are being analyzed in detail.

  15. A study to define an in-flight dynamics measurement and data applications program for space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, W. P.; Barrett, S.; Payne, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    Data measurement and interpretation techniques were defined for application to the first few space shuttle flights, so that the dynamic environment could be sufficiently well established to be used to reduce the cost of future payloads through more efficient design and environmental test techniques. It was concluded that: (1) initial payloads must be given comprehensive instrumentation coverage to obtain detailed definition of acoustics, vibration, and interface loads, (2) analytical models of selected initial payloads must be developed and verified by modal surveys and flight measurements, (3) acoustic tests should be performed on initial payloads to establish realistic test criteria for components and experiments in order to minimize unrealistic failures and retest requirements, (4) permanent data banks should be set up to establish statistical confidence in the data to be used, (5) a more unified design/test specification philosophy is needed, (6) additional work is needed to establish a practical testing technique for simulation of vehicle transients.

  16. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The

  17. The dynamics of blood biochemical parameters in cosmonauts during long-term space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markin, Andrei; Strogonova, Lubov; Balashov, Oleg; Polyakov, Valery; Tigner, Timoty

    Most of the previously obtained data on cosmonauts' metabolic state concerned certain stages of the postflight period. In this connection, all conclusions, as to metabolism peculiarities during the space flight, were to a large extent probabilistic. The purpose of this work was study of metabolism characteristics in cosmonauts directly during long-term space flights. In the capillary blood samples taken from a finger, by "Reflotron IV" biochemical analyzer, "Boehringer Mannheim" GmbH, Germany, adapted to weightlessness environments, the activity of GOT, GPT, CK, gamma-GT, total and pancreatic amylase, as well as concentration of hemoglobin, glucose, total bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total, HDL- and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides had been determined. HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio also was computed. The crewmembers of 6 main missions to the "Mir" orbital station, a total of 17 cosmonauts, were examined. Biochemical tests were carryed out 30-60 days before lounch, and in the flights different stages between the 25-th and the 423-rd days of flights. In cosmonauts during space flight had been found tendency to increase, in compare with basal level, GOT, GPT, total amylase activity, glucose and total cholesterol concentration, and tendency to decrease of CK activity, hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol concentration, and HDL/LDL — cholesterol ratio. Some definite trends in variations of other determined biochemical parameters had not been found. The same trends of mentioned biochemical parameters alterations observed in majority of tested cosmonauts, allows to suppose existence of connection between noted metabolic alterations with influence of space flight conditions upon cosmonaut's body. Variations of other studied blood biochemical parameters depends on, probably, pure individual causes.

  18. The dynamic method for time-of-flight measurement of thermal neutron spectra from pulsed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepyolyshev, Yu. N.; Chukiyaev, S. V.; Tulaev, A. B.; Bobrakov, V. F.

    1995-02-01

    A time-of-flight method for measurement of thermal neutron spectra in pulsed neutron sources with an efficiency more than 10 5 times higher than the standard method is described. The main problems associated with the electric current technique for time-of-flight spectra measurement are examined. The methodical errors, problems of special neutron detector design and other questions are discussed. Some experimental results for spectra from the surfaces of water and solid methane moderators obtained at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor (Dubna, Russia) are presented.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow Field around Helicopter in Forward Flight Using a Parallel Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shuling; Wu, Yizhao; Xia, Jian

    A parallel Navier-Stokes solver based on dynamic overset unstructured grids method is presented to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow field around helicopter in forward flight. The grid method has the advantages of unstructured grid and Chimera grid and is suitable to deal with multiple bodies in relatively moving. Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset unstructured grids by an explicit dual time-stepping, finite volume method. Preconditioning method applied to inner iteration of the dual-time stepping is used to speed up the convergence of numerical simulation. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model is used to evaluate the turbulent viscosity. Parallel computation is based on the dynamic domain decomposition method in overset unstructured grids system at each physical time step. A generic helicopter Robin with a four-blade rotor in forward flight is considered to validate the method presented in this paper. Numerical simulation results show that the parallel dynamic overset unstructured grids method is very efficient for the simulation of helicopter flow field and the results are reliable.

  20. Laser Lightcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Wei, Hong

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the technical ground for modeling the physics of laser powered pulse detonation phenomenon. The principle of the laser power propulsion is that when high-powered laser is focused at a small area near the surface of a thruster, the intense energy causes the electrical breakdown of the working fluid (e.g. air) and forming high speed plasma (known as the inverse Bremsstrahlung, IB, effect). The intense heat and high pressure created in the plasma consequently causes the surrounding to heat up and expand until the thrust producing shock waves are formed. This complex process of gas ionization, increase in radiation absorption and the forming of plasma and shock waves will be investigated in the development of the present numerical model. In the first phase of this study, laser light focusing, radiation absorption and shock wave propagation over the entire pulsed cycle are modeled. The model geometry and test conditions of known benchmark experiments such as those in Myrabo's experiment will be employed in the numerical model validation simulations. The calculated performance data will be compared to the test data.

  1. Spatial orientation and dynamics in virtual reality systems - Lessons from flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Michael E.; Sharkey, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial representations of virtual worlds are becoming more common due to advances in the technology of image generation and display systems. Application areas include flight simulation, mission rehearsal, teleoperator systems, and virtual reality systems. System developers should be forewarned that some proportion of users will experience perceptual anomalies and symptoms of motion sickness as a result of travel through virtual space.

  2. Gas Dynamics, Characterization, and Calibration of Fast Flow Flight Cascade Impactor Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) for Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J.R.; Thorpe, A. N.; James, C.; Michael, A.; Ware, M.; Senftle, F.; Smith, S.

    1997-01-01

    During recent high altitude flights, we have tested the aerosol section of the fast flow flight cascade impactor quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) on loan to Howard University from NASA. The aerosol mass collected during these flights was disappointingly small. Increasing the flow through the QCM did not correct the problem. It was clear that the instrument was not being operated under proper conditions for aerosol collect ion primarily because the gas dynamics is not well understood. A laboratory study was therefore undertaken using two different fast flow QCM's in an attempt to establish the gas flow characteristics of the aerosol sections and its effect on particle collection, Some tests were made at low temperatures but most of the work reported here was carried out at room temperature. The QCM is a cascade type impactor originally designed by May (1945) and later modified by Anderson (1966) and Mercer et al (1970) for chemical gas analysis. The QCM has been used extensively for collecting and sizing stratospheric aerosol particles. In this paper all flow rates are given or corrected and referred to in terms of air at STP. All of the flow meters were kept at STP. Although there have been several calibration and evaluation studies of moderate flow cascade impactors of less than or equal to 1 L/rein., there is little experimental information on the gas flow characteristics for fast flow rates greater than 1 L/rein.

  3. NASA Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory. The capabilities and research interests of the lab are: Structural, thermal, & dynamic analysis; Structural, thermal, & dynamic ground-test techniques; Advanced structural instrumentation; and Flight test support.

  4. Preliminary Planar Formation: Flight Dynamics Near Sun-Earth L2 Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segerman, Alan M.; Zedd, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is planning a series of missions in the vicinity of the Sun-Earth L2 libration point. Some of these projects will involve a distributed space system of telescope spacecraft acting together as a single telescope for high-resolution. The individual telescopes will be configured in a plane, surrounding a hub, where the telescope plane can be aimed toward various astronomical targets of interest. In preparation for these missions, it is necessary to develop an improved understanding of the dynamical behavior of objects in a planar configuration near L2. The classical circular restricted three body problem is taken as the basis for the analysis. At first order, the motion of such a telescope relative to the hub is described by a system of linear second order differential equations. These equations are identical to the circular restricted problem's linear equations describing the hub motion about L2. Therefore, the fundamental frequencies, both parallel to and normal to the ecliptic plane, are the same for the relative telescope motion as for the hub motion. To maintain the telescope plane for the duration necessary for the planned observations, a halo-type orbit of the telescopes about the hub is investigated. By using a halo orbit, the individual telescopes remain in approximately the same plane over the observation duration. For such an orbit, the fundamental periods parallel to and normal to the ecliptic plane are forced to be the same by careful selection of the initial conditions in order to adjust the higher order forces. The relative amplitudes of the resulting oscillations are associated with the orientation of the telescope plane relative to the ecliptic. As in the circular restricted problem, initial conditions for the linearized equations must be selected so as not to excite the convergent or divergent linear modes. In a higher order analysis, the telescope relative motion equations include the effects of the position of the

  5. Flight motor set 360L001 (STS-26R). (Reconstructed dynamic loads analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    A transient analysis was performed to correlate the predicted versus measured behavior of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) during Flight 360L001 (STS-26R) liftoff. Approximately 9 accelerometers, 152 strain gages, and 104 girth gages were bonded to the motors during this event. Prior to Flight 360L001, a finite element model of the RSRB was analyzed to predict the accelerations, strains, and displacements measured by this developmental flight instrumentation (DFI) within an order of magnitude. Subsequently, an analysis has been performed which uses actual Flight 360L001 liftoff loading conditions, and makes more precise predictions for the RSRB structural behavior. Essential information describing the analytical model, analytical techniques used, correlation of the predicted versus measured RSRB behavior, and conclusions, are presented. A detailed model of the RSRB was developed and correlated for use in analyzing the motor behavior during liftoff loading conditions. This finite element model, referred to as the RSRB global model, uses super-element techniques to model all components of the RSRB. The objective of the RSRB global model is to accurately predict deflections and gap openings in the field joints to an accuracy of approximately 0.001 inch. The model of the field joint component was correlated to Referee and Joint Environment Simulation (JES) tests. The accuracy of the assembled RSRB global model was validated by correlation to static-fire tests such DM-8, DM-9, QM-7, and QM-8. This validated RSRB global model was used to predict RSRB structural behavior and joint gap opening during Flight 360L001 liftoff. The results of a transient analysis of the RSRB global model with imposed liftoff loading conditions are presented. Rockwell used many gage measurements to reconstruct the load parameters which were imposed on the RSRB during the Flight 360L001 liftoff. Each load parameter, and its application, is described. Also presented are conclusions and

  6. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  7. Microscopic observation of carrier-transport dynamics in quantum-structure solar cells using a time-of-flight technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Fujii, Hiromasa; Kada, Tomoyuki; Asahi, Shigeo; Wang, Yunpeng; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Kita, Takashi; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we propose a carrier time-of-flight technique to evaluate the carrier transport time across a quantum structure in an active region of solar cells. By observing the time-resolved photoluminescence signal with a quantum-well probe inserted under the quantum structure at forward bias, the carrier transport time can be efficiently determined at room temperature. The averaged drift velocity shows linear dependence on the internal field, allowing us to estimate the quantum structure as a quasi-bulk material with low effective mobility containing the information of carrier dynamics. We show that this direct and real-time observation is more sensitive to carrier transport than other conventional techniques, providing better insights into microscopic carrier transport dynamics to overcome a device design difficulty.

  8. Microscopic observation of carrier-transport dynamics in quantum-structure solar cells using a time-of-flight technique

    SciTech Connect

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Fujii, Hiromasa; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Kada, Tomoyuki; Asahi, Shigeo; Kita, Takashi; Wang, Yunpeng; Watanabe, Kentaroh

    2015-07-27

    In this study, we propose a carrier time-of-flight technique to evaluate the carrier transport time across a quantum structure in an active region of solar cells. By observing the time-resolved photoluminescence signal with a quantum-well probe inserted under the quantum structure at forward bias, the carrier transport time can be efficiently determined at room temperature. The averaged drift velocity shows linear dependence on the internal field, allowing us to estimate the quantum structure as a quasi-bulk material with low effective mobility containing the information of carrier dynamics. We show that this direct and real-time observation is more sensitive to carrier transport than other conventional techniques, providing better insights into microscopic carrier transport dynamics to overcome a device design difficulty.

  9. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  10. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design. PMID:26259222

  11. Dynamic registration of an optical see-through HMD into a wide field-of-view rotorcraft flight simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertler, Franz; Hajek, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the challenge of helicopter flight in degraded visual environments, current research considers headmounted displays with 3D-conformal (scene-linked) visual cues as most promising display technology. For pilot-in-theloop simulations with HMDs, a highly accurate registration of the augmented visual system is required. In rotorcraft flight simulators the outside visual cues are usually provided by a dome projection system, since a wide field-of-view (e.g. horizontally > 200° and vertically > 80°) is required, which can hardly be achieved with collimated viewing systems. But optical see-through HMDs do mostly not have an equivalent focus compared to the distance of the pilot's eye-point position to the curved screen, which is also dependant on head motion. Hence, a dynamic vergence correction has been implemented to avoid binocular disparity. In addition, the parallax error induced by even small translational head motions is corrected with a head-tracking system to be adjusted onto the projected screen. For this purpose, two options are presented. The correction can be achieved by rendering the view with yaw and pitch offset angles dependent on the deviating head position from the design eye-point of the spherical projection system. Furthermore, it can be solved by implementing a dynamic eye-point in the multi-channel projection system for the outside visual cues. Both options have been investigated for the integration of a binocular HMD into the Rotorcraft Simulation Environment (ROSIE) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Pros and cons of both possibilities with regard on integration issues and usability in flight simulations will be discussed.

  12. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  13. Method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system such as a flight vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert H. (Inventor); Ribbens, William B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system having sensors for measuring state variables and providing corresponding output signals in response to one or more system input signals are provided. The method includes calculating estimated gains of a filter and selecting an appropriate linear model for processing the output signals based on the input signals. The step of calculating utilizes one or more models of the dynamic system to obtain estimated signals. The method further includes calculating output error residuals based on the output signals and the estimated signals. The method also includes detecting one or more hypothesized failures or performance degradations of a component or subsystem of the dynamic system based on the error residuals. The step of calculating the estimated values is performed optimally with respect to one or more of: noise, uncertainty of parameters of the models and un-modeled dynamics of the dynamic system which may be a flight vehicle or financial market or modeled financial system.

  14. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Flight Dynamics Simulations Using MATLAB (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headrick, R. D.; Rowe, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study to verify onboard attitude control laws in the coarse Sun-pointing (CSP) mode by simulation and to develop procedures for operational support for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. SOHO was launched on December 2, 1995, and the predictions of the simulation were verified with the flight data. This study used a commercial off the shelf product MATLAB(tm) to do the following: Develop procedures for computing the parasitic torques for orbital maneuvers; Simulate onboard attitude control of roll, pitch, and yaw during orbital maneuvers; Develop procedures for predicting firing time for both on- and off-modulated thrusters during orbital maneuvers; Investigate the use of feed forward or pre-bias torques to reduce the attitude handoff during orbit maneuvers - in particular, determine how to use the flight data to improve the feed forward torque estimates for use on future maneuvers. The study verified the stability of the attitude control during orbital maneuvers and the proposed use of feed forward torques to compensate for the attitude handoff. Comparison of the simulations with flight data showed: Parasitic torques provided a good estimate of the on- and off-modulation for attitude control; The feed forward torque compensation scheme worked well to reduce attitude handoff during the orbital maneuvers. The work has been extended to prototype calibration of thrusters from observed firing time and observed reaction wheel speed changes.

  15. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

    ... the perfect solution for your needs. Book A Flight Request a flight now Click on the link ... Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights ...

  16. Quasi-dynamic mode of nanomembranes for time-of-flight mass spectrometry of proteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghoo; Kim, Hyunseok; Blick, Robert H

    2012-04-21

    Mechanical resonators realized on the nano-scale by now offer applications in mass-sensing of biomolecules with extraordinary sensitivity. The general idea is that perfect mechanical biosensors should be of extremely small size to achieve zeptogram sensitivity in weighing single molecules similar to a balance. However, the small scale and long response time of weighing biomolecules with a cantilever restrict their usefulness as a high-throughput method. Commercial mass spectrometry (MS) such as electro-spray ionization (ESI)-MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)-MS are the gold standards to which nanomechanical resonators have to live up to. These two methods rely on the ionization and acceleration of biomolecules and the following ion detection after a mass selection step, such as time-of-flight (TOF). Hence, the spectrum is typically represented in m/z, i.e. the mass to ionization charge ratio. Here, we describe the feasibility and mass range of detection of a new mechanical approach for ion detection in time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the principle of which is that the impinging ion packets excite mechanical oscillations in a silicon nitride nanomembrane. These mechanical oscillations are henceforth detected via field emission of electrons from the nanomembrane. Ion detection is demonstrated in MALDI-TOF analysis over a broad range with angiotensin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and an equimolar protein mixture of insulin, BSA, and immunoglobulin G (IgG). We find an unprecedented mass range of operation of the nanomembrane detector. PMID:22378023

  17. On the Fate of Debris Associated with the Disappearance of Flight MH370: a Dynamical System Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancho, A. M.; Garcia-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-12-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of the 8th of March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. One relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft was found during the intensive surface search carried out in the months following the crash. Difficulties in the search efforts were due to the uncertainty in the plane's final impact point and the time passed since the accident and rise the question on how the debris was scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there exist multiple datasets that do not uniquely determine its state. Our approach to this problem is based on dynamical systems tools that identify dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining publicly available information supplied by different ocean data sources with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the search services and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located and that were not subjected to any exploration. This research has been supported by MINECO under grants MTM2014-56392-R and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. Computational support from CESGA is acknowledged. References [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, and C. Mendoza. A dynamical systems perspective on the absence of debris associated with the disappearance of flight MH370. Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., 2,1197-1225, doi:10.5194/npgd-2-1197-2015, 2015

  18. Time-of-flight compressed-sensing ultrafast photography for encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-02-01

    We applied compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, to acquire three-dimensional (3D) images. The approach unites image encryption, compression, and acquisition in a single measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data transmission. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light reflected by the object, we can reconstruct a volumetric image (150 mm×150 mm×1050 mm, x × y × z) from a single camera snapshot. Furthermore, we demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of a moving object at 75 frames per second using the ToF-CUP camera.

  19. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in transonic wind-tunnel/flight-test correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The capability for calculating transonic flows for realistic configurations and conditions is discussed. Various phenomena which were modeled are shown to have the same order of magnitude on the influence of predicted results. It is concluded that CFD can make the following contributions to the task of correlating wind tunnel and flight test data: some effects of geometry differences and aeroelastic distortion can be predicted; tunnel wall effects can be assessed and corrected for; and the effects of model support systems and free stream nonuniformities can be modeled.

  20. Preliminary Planar Formation-Flight Dynamics Near Sun-Earth L2 Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segerman, Alan M.; Zedd, Michael F.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A few space agencies are planning missions to the vicinity of the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) point, some involving a distributed space system of telescope spacecraft, configured in a plane about a hub. An improved understanding is developed of the relative motion of such objects in formation flight. The telescope equations of motion are written relative to the hub, in terms of the hub s distance from L(sub 2), and an analytical solution is developed, useful for performing orbit control analysis. A halo telescope orbit is investigated, with initial conditions selected to avoid resonance excitation. An example case of the resulting solution is presented.

  1. Analysis of ion dynamics and peak shapes for delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, V. M.; Ponciano, C. R.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2004-06-01

    The dependence of time-of-flight (TOF) peak shapes on time-dependent extraction electric fields is studied theoretically. Conditions for time focusing are analyzed both analytically and numerically for double-acceleration-region TOF spectrometers. Expressions for the spectrometer mass resolution and for the critical delay time are deduced. Effects due to a leakage field in the first acceleration region are shown to be relevant under certain conditions. TOF peak shape simulations for the delayed extraction method are performed for emitted ions presenting a Maxwellian initial energy distribution. Calculations are compared to experimental results of Cs+ emission due to CsI laser ablation.

  2. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle, Derek J.

    The development and application of a first-principles-derived reduced-order model called MASIV (Michigan/AFRL Scramjet In Vehicle) for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is discussed. Several significant and previously unreported aspects of hypersonic flight are investigated. A fortunate coupling between increasing Mach number and decreasing angle of attack is shown to extend the range of operating conditions for a class of supersonic inlets. Detailed maps of isolator unstart and ram-to-scram transition are shown on the flight corridor map for the first time. In scram mode the airflow remains supersonic throughout the engine, while in ram mode there is a region of subsonic flow. Accurately predicting the transition between these two modes requires models for complex shock interactions, finite-rate chemistry, fuel-air mixing, pre-combustion shock trains, and thermal choking, which are incorporated into a unified framework here. Isolator unstart occurs when the pre-combustion shock train is longer than the isolator, which blocks airflow from entering the engine. Finally, cooptimization of the vehicle design and trajectory is discussed. An optimal control technique is introduced that greatly reduces the number of computations required to optimize the simulated trajectory.

  3. Computational Model of Human and System Dynamics in Free Flight: Studies in Distributed Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a set of studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance in control of complex airspace operations. NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of safe, flexible, predictable and efficient operations. In support of these developments, we present a computational model to aid design that includes representation of multiple cognitive agents (both human operators and intelligent aiding systems). The demands of air traffic management require representation of many intelligent agents sharing world-models, coordinating action/intention, and scheduling goals and actions in a potentially unpredictable world of operations. The operator-model structure includes attention functions, action priority, and situation assessment. The cognitive model has been expanded to include working memory operations including retrieval from long-term store, and interference. The operator's activity structures have been developed to provide for anticipation (knowledge of the intention and action of remote operators), and to respond to failures of the system and other operators in the system in situation-specific paradigms. System stability and operator actions can be predicted by using the model. The model's predictive accuracy was verified using the full-mission simulation data of commercial flight deck operations with advanced air traffic management techniques.

  4. Cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with dynamic varying search areas and Lévy flight disturbance.

    PubMed

    Li, Desheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel variant of cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) algorithm with two mechanisms to reduce the search space and avoid the stagnation, called CQPSO-DVSA-LFD. One mechanism is called Dynamic Varying Search Area (DVSA), which takes charge of limiting the ranges of particles' activity into a reduced area. On the other hand, in order to escape the local optima, Lévy flights are used to generate the stochastic disturbance in the movement of particles. To test the performance of CQPSO-DVSA-LFD, numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with different variants of PSO. According to the experimental results, the proposed method performs better than other variants of PSO on both benchmark test functions and the combinatorial optimization issue, that is, the job-shop scheduling problem. PMID:24851085

  5. Demonstration of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, M.; Guarro, S.; Apostolakis, G.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a new approach developed to integrate the modeling and analysis of the hardware and software components of an embedded system. The objective is to complement the traditional approaches which generally follow the philosophy of separating out the hardware and software portions of the assurance analysis. In this paper, the DFM approach is demonstrated using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System. The hardware and software portions of this embedded system are modeled in an integrated framework. In addition, the time dependent behavior and the switching logic can be captured by this DFM model. In the modeling process, it is found that constructing decision tables for software subroutines is very time consuming. A possible solution is suggested. This approach makes use of a well-known numerical method, the Newton-Raphson method, to solve the equations implemented in the subroutines in reverse. Convergence can be achieved in a few steps.

  6. Dynamic modal analysis of transonic Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory conformal window flight-test aero-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorskey, David J.; Drye, Richard; Whiteley, Matthew R.

    2013-07-01

    We discuss spatial-temporal characterizations of recent in-flight Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory wavefront measurements at transonic speeds (Mach 0.65) with a conformal window turret as a function of turret pointing angle. Using both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition modal analysis methods, the flow dynamics are characterized. The conformal window wavefronts show shock formation between 85 deg and 90 deg and shear layer formation at a considerably lower turret aft pointing angle than would be expected at subsonic speeds without shock. At larger aft pointing angles, shear layer vortex roll-up dynamics dominate the aero-optical disturbances. In particular, the spatially and temporally periodic vortices grow in width and magnitude while the corresponding oscillation frequency drops with increasing look-back angle, thus maintaining a near constant vortex convection speed equal to about 0.6 times the free-stream velocity. From these results, a modified form of the aero-optics frequency scaling relation is proposed that yields a Strouhal number independent of turret look-back angle in the portion of the flow dominated by such Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer vortices.

  7. Analyses of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics Pre and Post Short and Long-Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, Noam; Barr, Yael; Lee, Sang H.; Mason,Sara; Bagci, Ahmet M.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are based on analyses of data from 17 crewmembers. The initial analysis compares pre to post-flight changes in total cerebral blood flow (CBF) and craniospinal CSF flow volume. Total CBF is obtained by summation of the mean flow rates through the 4 blood vessels supplying the brain (right and left internal carotid and vertebral arteries). Volumetric flow rates were obtained using an automated lumen segmentation technique shown to have 3-4-fold improved reproducibility and accuracy over manual lumen segmentation (6). Two cohorts, 5 short-duration and 8 long-duration crewmembers, who were scanned within 3 to 8 days post landing were included (4 short-duration crewmembers with MRI scans occurring beyond 10 days post flight were excluded). The VIIP Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) classification is being used initially as a measure for VIIP syndrome severity. Median CPG scores of the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 2. Mean preflight total CBF for the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 863+/-144 and 747+/-119 mL/min, respectively. Percentage CBF changes for all short duration crewmembers were 11% or lower, within the range of normal physiological fluctuations in healthy individuals. In contrast, in 4 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers, the change in CBF exceeded the range of normal physiological fluctuation. In 3 of the 4 subjects an increase in CBF was measured. Large pre to post-flight changes in the craniospinal CSF flow volume were found in 6 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers. Box-Whisker plots of the CPG and the percent CBF and CSF flow changes for the two cohorts are shown in Figure 4. Examples of CSF flow waveforms for a short and two long-duration (CPG 0 and 3) are shown in Figure 5. Changes in CBF and CSF flow dynamics larger than normal physiological fluctuations were observed in the long-duration crewmembers. Changes in CSF flow were more pronounced than changes in CBF. Decreased CSF flow dynamics were observed

  8. Dynamic Tunnel Usability Study: Format Recommendations for Synthetic Vision System Primary Flight Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2006-01-01

    A usability study evaluating dynamic tunnel concepts has been completed under the Aviation Safety and Security Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project. The usability study was conducted in the Visual Imaging Simulator for Transport Aircraft Systems (VISTAS) III simulator in the form of questionnaires and pilot-in-the-loop simulation sessions. Twelve commercial pilots participated in the study to determine their preferences via paired comparisons and subjective rankings regarding the color, line thickness and sensitivity of the dynamic tunnel. The results of the study showed that color was not significant in pilot preference paired comparisons or in pilot rankings. Line thickness was significant for both pilot preference paired comparisons and in pilot rankings. The preferred line/halo thickness combination was a line width of 3 pixels and a halo of 4 pixels. Finally, pilots were asked their preference for the current dynamic tunnel compared to a less sensitive dynamic tunnel. The current dynamic tunnel constantly gives feedback to the pilot with regard to path error while the less sensitive tunnel only changes as the path error approaches the edges of the tunnel. The tunnel sensitivity comparison results were not statistically significant.

  9. The Direction of Fluid Dynamics for Liquid Propulsion at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    2012-01-01

    The Fluid Dynamics Branch's (ER42) at MSFC mission is to support NASA and other customers with discipline expertise to enable successful accomplishment of program/project goals. The branch is responsible for all aspects of the discipline of fluid dynamics, analysis and testing, applied to propulsion or propulsion-induced loads and environments, which includes the propellant delivery system, combustion devices, coupled systems, and launch and separation events. ER42 supports projects from design through development, and into anomaly and failure investigations. ER42 is committed to continually improving the state-of-its-practice to provide accurate, effective, and timely fluid dynamics assessments and in extending the state-of-the-art of the discipline.

  10. Dynamic imaging with high resolution time-of-flight pet camera - TOFPET I

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.; Bristow, D.; Gaeta, J.; Gould, K.L.; Hartz, R.K.; Philipe, E.A.; Wong, W.H.; Yerian, K.

    1984-02-01

    One of the major design goals of the TOFPET I positron camera was to produce a high resolution whole body positron camera capable of dynamically imaging an organ such as the heart. TOFPET I is now nearing completion and preliminary images have been obtained to assess its dynamic and three dimensional imaging capabilities. Multiple gated images of the uptake of Rubidium in the dog heart and three dimensional surface displays of the distribution of the Rubidium-82 in the myocardium have been generated to demonstrate the three dimensional imaging properties. Fast dynamic images of the first pass of a bolus of radio-tracer through the heart have been collected with 4 second integration time and 50% gating (2 second equivalent integration time) with 18 mCi of Rb-82.

  11. Dynamics of hypersonic flight vehicles exhibiting significant aeroelastic and aeropropulsive interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1993-01-01

    With analytic expressions previously developed for the forces and moments acting on a generic hypersonic vehicle, it is of interest to investigate the relative importance of the aerodynamic and propulsive effects on the vehicle dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle's aerodynamics and propulsive forces are both very significant in the evaluation of key stability derivatives which dictate the vehicle's dynamic characteristics. It is also shown that the vehicle model selected is unstable in pitch and exhibits strong airframe/engine/elastic coupling. With the use of literal expressions for both the systems poles and zeros, as well as the stability derivatives, key vehicle dynamic characteristics are investigated. For small errors, or uncertainties, in either the aerodynamic or propulsive forces, significant errors in the frequency and damping of the dominant modes and zero locations will arise.

  12. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach.

  13. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach. PMID:27132149

  14. Using Dynamic Interface Modeling and Simulation to Develop a Launch and Recovery Flight Simulation for a UH-60A Blackhawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Christopher; Bunnell, John; Chung, William; Giovannetti, Dean; Mikula, Julie; Nicholson, Bob; Roscoe, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Joint Shipboard Helicopter Integration Process (JSHIP) is a Joint Test and Evaluation (JT&E) program sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). Under the JSHDP program is a simulation effort referred to as the Dynamic Interface Modeling and Simulation System (DIMSS). The purpose of DIMSS is to develop and test the processes and mechanisms that facilitate ship-helicopter interface testing via man-in-the-loop ground-based flight simulators. Specifically, the DIMSS charter is to develop an accredited process for using a flight simulator to determine the wind-over-the-deck (WOD) launch and recovery flight envelope for the UH-60A ship/helicopter combination. DIMSS is a collaborative effort between the NASA Ames Research Center and OSD. OSD determines the T&E and warfighter training requirements, provides the programmatics and dynamic interface T&E experience, and conducts ship/aircraft interface tests for validating the simulation. NASA provides the research and development element, simulation facility, and simulation technical experience. This paper will highlight the benefits of the NASA/JSHIP collaboration and detail achievements of the project in terms of modeling and simulation. The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center offers the capability to simulate a wide range of simulation cueing configurations, which include visual, aural, and body-force cueing devices. The system flexibility enables switching configurations io allow back-to-back evaluation and comparison of different levels of cueing fidelity in determining minimum training requirements. The investigation required development and integration of several major simulation system at the VMS. A new UH-60A BlackHawk interchangeable cab that provides an out-the-window (OTW) field-of-view (FOV) of 220 degrees in azimuth and 70 degrees in elevation was built. Modeling efforts involved integrating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) generated data of an LHA ship airwake and

  15. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 2: short-term dynamic stability and trim.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    Thrust generation by flapping is accompanied by alternating pitching moment. On the down-stroke, it pitches the bird down when the wings are above its centre of gravity and up when they are below; on the up-stroke, the directions reverse. Because the thrust depends not only on the flapping characteristics but also on the angle of attack of the bird's body, interaction between the flapping and body motions may incite a resonance that is similar to the one that causes the swinging of a swing. In fact, it is shown that the equation governing the motion of the bird's body in flapping flight resembles the equation governing the motion of a pendulum with periodically changing length. Large flapping amplitude, low flapping frequency, and excessive tilt of the flapping plane may incite the resonance; coordinated fore-aft motion, that uses the lift to cancel out the moment generated by the thrust, suppresses it. It is probably incited by the tumbler pigeon in its remarkable display of aerobatics. The fore-aft motion that cancels the pitching moment makes the wing tip draw a figure of eight relative to the bird's body when the wings are un-swept, and a ring when the wings are swept back and fold during the upstroke.

  16. Sallimus and the dynamics of sarcomere assembly in Drosophila flight muscles.

    PubMed

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Leonard, Kevin; Elliott, Chris; Katzemich, Anja; Bullard, Belinda; Sparrow, John

    2015-06-19

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) can be used as a model for the study of sarcomere assembly. Here we use a transgenic line with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) exon inserted into the Z-disc-proximal portion of sallimus (Sls), also known as Drosophila titin, to observe sarcomere assembly during IFM development. Firstly, we confirm that Sls-GFP can be used in the heterozygote state without an obvious phenotype in IFM and other muscles. We then use Sls-GFP in the IFM to show that sarcomeres grow individually and uniformly throughout the fibre, growing linearly in length and in diameter. Finally, we show that limiting the amounts of Sls in the IFM using RNAi leads to sarcomeres with smaller Z-discs in their core, whilst the thick/thin filament lattice can form peripherally without a Z-disc. Thick filament preparations from those muscles show that although the Z-disc-containing core has thick filaments of a regular length, filaments from the peripheral lattice are longer and asymmetrical around the bare zone. Therefore, the Z-disc and Sls are required for thick filament length specification but not for the assembly of the thin/thick filament lattice.

  17. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 2: short-term dynamic stability and trim

    PubMed Central

    Iosilevskii, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust generation by flapping is accompanied by alternating pitching moment. On the down-stroke, it pitches the bird down when the wings are above its centre of gravity and up when they are below; on the up-stroke, the directions reverse. Because the thrust depends not only on the flapping characteristics but also on the angle of attack of the bird's body, interaction between the flapping and body motions may incite a resonance that is similar to the one that causes the swinging of a swing. In fact, it is shown that the equation governing the motion of the bird's body in flapping flight resembles the equation governing the motion of a pendulum with periodically changing length. Large flapping amplitude, low flapping frequency, and excessive tilt of the flapping plane may incite the resonance; coordinated fore–aft motion, that uses the lift to cancel out the moment generated by the thrust, suppresses it. It is probably incited by the tumbler pigeon in its remarkable display of aerobatics. The fore–aft motion that cancels the pitching moment makes the wing tip draw a figure of eight relative to the bird's body when the wings are un-swept, and a ring when the wings are swept back and fold during the upstroke. PMID:26064549

  18. Fluid dynamics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse: three-dimensional unsteady computations with fin deformation.

    PubMed

    Ramamurti, Ravi; Sandberg, William C; Löhner, Rainald; Walker, Jeffrey A; Westneat, Mark W

    2002-10-01

    Many fishes that swim with the paired pectoral fins use fin-stroke parameters that produce thrust force from lift in a mechanism of underwater flight. These locomotor mechanisms are of interest to behavioral biologists, biomechanics researchers and engineers. In the present study, we performed the first three-dimensional unsteady computations of fish swimming with oscillating and deforming fins. The objective of these computations was to investigate the fluid dynamics of force production associated with the flapping aquatic flight of the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius. For this computational work, we used the geometry of the wrasse and its pectoral fin, and previously measured fin kinematics, as the starting points for computational investigation of three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady fluid dynamics. We performed a 3-D steady computation and a complete set of 3-D quasisteady computations for a range of pectoral fin positions and surface velocities. An unstructured, grid-based, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing was then used to compute the unsteady flow about the wrasse through several complete cycles of pectoral fin oscillation. The shape deformation of the pectoral fin throughout the oscillation was taken from the experimental kinematics. The pressure distribution on the body of the bird wrasse and its pectoral fins was computed and integrated to give body and fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity field variation on the surface of the wrasse body, on the pectoral fins and in the near-wake was computed throughout the swimming cycle. We compared our computational results for the steady, quasi-steady and unsteady cases with the experimental data on axial and vertical acceleration obtained from the pectoral fin kinematics experiments. These comparisons show that steady state computations are incapable of describing the fluid dynamics of flapping fins. Quasi-steady state computations, with correct incorporation of

  19. Fluid dynamics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse: three-dimensional unsteady computations with fin deformation.

    PubMed

    Ramamurti, Ravi; Sandberg, William C; Löhner, Rainald; Walker, Jeffrey A; Westneat, Mark W

    2002-10-01

    Many fishes that swim with the paired pectoral fins use fin-stroke parameters that produce thrust force from lift in a mechanism of underwater flight. These locomotor mechanisms are of interest to behavioral biologists, biomechanics researchers and engineers. In the present study, we performed the first three-dimensional unsteady computations of fish swimming with oscillating and deforming fins. The objective of these computations was to investigate the fluid dynamics of force production associated with the flapping aquatic flight of the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius. For this computational work, we used the geometry of the wrasse and its pectoral fin, and previously measured fin kinematics, as the starting points for computational investigation of three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady fluid dynamics. We performed a 3-D steady computation and a complete set of 3-D quasisteady computations for a range of pectoral fin positions and surface velocities. An unstructured, grid-based, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing was then used to compute the unsteady flow about the wrasse through several complete cycles of pectoral fin oscillation. The shape deformation of the pectoral fin throughout the oscillation was taken from the experimental kinematics. The pressure distribution on the body of the bird wrasse and its pectoral fins was computed and integrated to give body and fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity field variation on the surface of the wrasse body, on the pectoral fins and in the near-wake was computed throughout the swimming cycle. We compared our computational results for the steady, quasi-steady and unsteady cases with the experimental data on axial and vertical acceleration obtained from the pectoral fin kinematics experiments. These comparisons show that steady state computations are incapable of describing the fluid dynamics of flapping fins. Quasi-steady state computations, with correct incorporation of

  20. A dynamical systems perspective on the absence of debris associated with the disappearance of flight MH370

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Garrido, V. J.; Mancho, A. M.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-07-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of the 8 March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. Perhaps the most relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft has been found. Difficulties in the search efforts, due to the uncertainty in the plane's final impact point and the time that has passed since the accident, bring the question on how the debris has scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there are multiple data sets that do not uniquely determine its state. Our approach to this problem is based on the use of Lagrangian Descriptors (LD), a novel mathematical tool coming from dynamical systems theory that identifies dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining publicly available information supplied by different ocean data sources with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located and that have not been subjected to any exploration.

  1. A dynamical systems approach to the surface search for debris associated with the disappearance of flight MH370

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Garrido, V. J.; Mancho, A. M.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-11-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of 8 March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. Perhaps the most relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft was found during the intensive surface search carried out for roughly 2 months following the crash. Difficulties in the search efforts, due to the uncertainty of the plane's final impact point and the time that had passed since the accident, bring the question on how the debris scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there are multiple data sets that do not uniquely determine its state. Our approach to this problem is based on the use of Lagrangian descriptors (LD), a novel mathematical tool coming from dynamical systems theory that identifies dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining publicly available information supplied by different ocean data sources with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located, which were not subjected to any exploration.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  3. Dynamic Routing for Delay-Tolerant Networking in Space Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Computational self-sufficiency - the making of communication decisions on the basis of locally available information that is already in place, rather than on the basis of information residing at other entities - is a fundamental principle of Delay-Tolerant Networking. Contact Graph Routing is an attempt to apply this principle to the problem of dynamic routing in an interplanetary DTN. Testing continues, but preliminary results are promising.

  4. Orbital Injection of the SEDSAT Satellite: Tethered Systems Dynamics and Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gullahorn, Gordon E.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pelaez, Jesus

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the following topics which are all related to the orbital injection of the SEDSAT satellite: Dynamics and Stability of Tether Oscillations after the First Cut. The dynamics of the tether after the first cut (i.e., without the Shuttle attached to it) is investigated. The tether oscillations with the free end are analyzed in order to assess the stability of the rectilinear configuration in between the two tether cuts; analysis of Unstable Modes. The unstable modes that appear for high libration angles are further investigated in order to determine their occurrences and the possible transition from bound librations to rotations; Orbital Release Strategies for SEDSAT. A parametric analysis of the orbital decay rate of the SEDSAT satellite after the two tether cuts has been carried out as a function of the following free parameters: libration amplitude at the end of deployment, deviation angle from LV at the first cut, and orbital anomaly at the second cut. The values of these parameters that provide a minimum orbital decay rate of the satellite (after the two cuts) have been computed; and Dynamics and Control of SEDSAT. The deployment control law has been modified to cope with the new ejection velocity of the satellite from the Shuttle cargo bay. New reference profiles have been derived as well as new control parameters. Timing errors at the satellite release as a function of the variations of the initial conditions and the tension model parameters have been estimated for the modified control law.

  5. Weak and Dynamic GNSS Signal Tracking Strategies for Flight Missions in the Space Service Volume.

    PubMed

    Jing, Shuai; Zhan, Xingqun; Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Maolin

    2016-09-02

    Weak-signal and high-dynamics are of two primary concerns of space navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) in the space service volume (SSV). The paper firstly defines a reference assumption third-order phase-locked loop (PLL) as the baseline of an onboard GNSS receiver, and proves the incompetence of this conventional architecture. Then an adaptive four-state Kalman filter (KF)-based algorithm is introduced to realize the optimization of loop noise bandwidth, which can adaptively regulate its filter gain according to the received signal power and line-of-sight (LOS) dynamics. To overcome the matter of losing lock in weak-signal and high-dynamic environments, an open loop tracking strategy aided by an inertial navigation system (INS) is recommended, and the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is modified in a non-coherent way by reconstructing the likelihood cost function. Furthermore, a typical mission with combined orbital maneuvering and non-maneuvering arcs is taken as a destination object to test the two proposed strategies. Finally, the experiment based on computer simulation identifies the effectiveness of an adaptive four-state KF-based strategy under non-maneuvering conditions and the virtue of INS-assisted methods under maneuvering conditions.

  6. Weak and Dynamic GNSS Signal Tracking Strategies for Flight Missions in the Space Service Volume.

    PubMed

    Jing, Shuai; Zhan, Xingqun; Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Weak-signal and high-dynamics are of two primary concerns of space navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) in the space service volume (SSV). The paper firstly defines a reference assumption third-order phase-locked loop (PLL) as the baseline of an onboard GNSS receiver, and proves the incompetence of this conventional architecture. Then an adaptive four-state Kalman filter (KF)-based algorithm is introduced to realize the optimization of loop noise bandwidth, which can adaptively regulate its filter gain according to the received signal power and line-of-sight (LOS) dynamics. To overcome the matter of losing lock in weak-signal and high-dynamic environments, an open loop tracking strategy aided by an inertial navigation system (INS) is recommended, and the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is modified in a non-coherent way by reconstructing the likelihood cost function. Furthermore, a typical mission with combined orbital maneuvering and non-maneuvering arcs is taken as a destination object to test the two proposed strategies. Finally, the experiment based on computer simulation identifies the effectiveness of an adaptive four-state KF-based strategy under non-maneuvering conditions and the virtue of INS-assisted methods under maneuvering conditions. PMID:27598164

  7. Weak and Dynamic GNSS Signal Tracking Strategies for Flight Missions in the Space Service Volume

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Shuai; Zhan, Xingqun; Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Weak-signal and high-dynamics are of two primary concerns of space navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) in the space service volume (SSV). The paper firstly defines a reference assumption third-order phase-locked loop (PLL) as the baseline of an onboard GNSS receiver, and proves the incompetence of this conventional architecture. Then an adaptive four-state Kalman filter (KF)-based algorithm is introduced to realize the optimization of loop noise bandwidth, which can adaptively regulate its filter gain according to the received signal power and line-of-sight (LOS) dynamics. To overcome the matter of losing lock in weak-signal and high-dynamic environments, an open loop tracking strategy aided by an inertial navigation system (INS) is recommended, and the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is modified in a non-coherent way by reconstructing the likelihood cost function. Furthermore, a typical mission with combined orbital maneuvering and non-maneuvering arcs is taken as a destination object to test the two proposed strategies. Finally, the experiment based on computer simulation identifies the effectiveness of an adaptive four-state KF-based strategy under non-maneuvering conditions and the virtue of INS-assisted methods under maneuvering conditions. PMID:27598164

  8. A simulation study of the flight dynamics of elastic aircraft. Volume 1: Experiment, results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation experiment described addresses the effects of structural flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of a generic family of aircraft. The simulation was performed using the NASA Langley VMS simulation facility. The vehicle models were obtained as part of this research. The simulation results include complete response data and subjective pilot ratings and comments and so allow a variety of analyses. The subjective ratings and analysis of the time histories indicate that increased flexibility can lead to increased tracking errors, degraded handling qualities, and changes in the frequency content of the pilot inputs. These results, furthermore, are significantly affected by the visual cues available to the pilot.

  9. Reconfigurable Flight Control Using Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion with a Special Accelerometer Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to on-line control design for aircraft that have suffered either actuator failure, missing effector surfaces, surface damage, or any combination. The approach is based on a modified version of nonlinear dynamic inversion. The approach does not require a model of the baseline vehicle (effectors at zero deflection), but does require feedback of accelerations and effector positions. Implementation issues are addressed and the method is demonstrated on an advanced tailless aircraft. An experimental simulation analysis tool is used to directly evaluate the nonlinear system's stability robustness.

  10. A simulation study of the flight dynamics of elastic aircraft. Volume 2: Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation experiment described addresses the effects of structural flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of a generic family of aircraft. The simulation was performed using the NASA Langley VMS simulation facility. The vehicle models were obtained as part of this research project. The simulation results include complete response data and subjective pilot ratings and comments and so allow a variety of analyses. The subjective ratings and analysis of the time histories indicate that increased flexibility can lead to increased tracking errors, degraded handling qualities, and changes in the frequency content of the pilot inputs. These results, furthermore, are significantly affected by the visual cues available to the pilot.

  11. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  12. Gliding flight in snakes: non-equilibrium trajectory dynamics and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socha, Jake; Miklasz, Kevin; Jafari, Farid; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    For animal gliders that live in trees, a glide trajectory begins in free fall and, given sufficient space, transitions to equilibrium gliding with no net forces on the body. However, the dynamics of non-equilibrium gliding are not well understood. Of any terrestrial animal glider, snakes may exhibit the most complicated glide patterns resulting from their highly active undulatory behavior. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of snake gliding during the transition to equilibrium. We launched "flying" snakes (Chrysopelea paradisi) from a 15 m tower and recorded the mid-to-end portion of trajectories with four videocameras to reconstruct the snake's 3D body position. Additionally, we developed a simple analytical model of gliding assuming only steady-state forces of lift, drag and weight acting on the body and used it to explore effects of wing loading, lift-to-drag ratio, and initial velocity on trajectory dynamics. Despite the vertical space provided to transition to steady-state gliding, snakes did not exhibit equilibrium gliding and in fact displayed a net positive acceleration in the vertical axis.

  13. Dynamic Routing for Delay-Tolerant Networking in Space Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology composed of scheduled, bounded communication contacts in a network built on the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture. It is designed to support operations in a space network based on DTN, but it also could be used in terrestrial applications where operation according to a predefined schedule is preferable to opportunistic communication, as in a low-power sensor network. This paper will describe the operation of the CGR system and explain how it can enable data delivery over scheduled transmission opportunities, fully utilizing the available transmission capacity, without knowing the current state of any bundle protocol node (other than the local node itself) and without exhausting processing resources at any bundle router.

  14. Methods of analyzing wind-tunnel data for dynamic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.; Recant, I. G.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of power on the stability and the control characteristics of an airplane are discussed and methods of analysis are given for evaluating certain dynamic characteristics of the airplane that are not directly discernible from wind tunnel tests alone. Data are presented to show how the characteristics of a model tested in a wind tunnel are affected by power. The response of an airplane to a rolling and a yawing disturbance is discussed, particularly in regard to changes in wing dihedral and fin area. Solutions of the lateral equations of motion are given in a form suitable for direct computations. An approximate formula is developed that permits the rapid estimation of the accelerations produced during pull-up maneuvers involving abrupt elevator deflections.

  15. Methods of analyzing wind-tunnel data for dynamic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C J; Recant, I G

    1941-01-01

    The effects of power on the stability and the control characteristics of an airplane are discussed and methods of analysis are given for evaluating certain dynamic characteristics of the airplane that are not directly discernible from wind-tunnel tests alone. Data are presented to show how the characteristics of a model tested in a wind tunnel are affected by power. The response of an airplane to a rolling and a yawing disturbance is discussed, particularly in regard to changes in wing dihedral and fin area. Solutions of the lateral equations of motion are given in a form suitable for direct computations. An approximate formula is developed that permits the rapid estimation of the accelerations produced during pull-up maneuvers involving abrupt elevator deflections.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of Space Shuttle main engine multiple plume flows at high-altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.

  17. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Mission: An Overview of Flight Dynamics Support of the Early Mission Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, R.; Behuncik, J.

    1996-01-01

    The SOHO spacecraft was successfully launched by an Atlas 2AS from the Eastern Range on December 2, 1995. After a short time in a nearly circular parking orbit, the spacecraft was placed by the Centaur upper stage on a transfer trajectory to the L1 libration point where it was inserted into a class 1 Halo orbit. The nominal mission lifetime is two years which will be spent collecting data from the Sun using a complement of twelve instruments. An overview of the early phases of Flight Dynamics Facility support of the mission is given. Maneuvers required for the mission are discussed, and an evaluation of these maneuvers is given with the attendent effects on the resultant orbit. Thruster performance is presented as well as real time monitoring of thruster activity during maneuvers. Attitude areas presented are the star identification process and role angle determination, momentum management, operating constraints on the star tracker, and guide star switching. A brief description of the two Heads Up displays is given.

  18. Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

  19. Low-Speed Flight Dynamic Tests and Analysis of the Orion Crew Module Drogue Parachute System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Fremaux, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    A test of a dynamically scaled model of the NASA Orion Crew Module (CM) with drogue parachutes was conducted in the NASA-Langley 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. The primary test objective was to assess the ability of the Orion Crew Module drogue parachute system to adequately stabilize the CM and reduce angular rates at low subsonic Mach numbers. Two attachment locations were tested: the current design nominal and an alternate. Experimental results indicated that the alternate attachment location showed a somewhat greater tendency to attenuate initial roll rate and reduce roll rate oscillations than the nominal location. Comparison of the experimental data to a Program To Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST II) simulation of the experiment yielded results for the nominal attachment point that indicate differences between the low-speed pitch and yaw damping derivatives in the aerodynamic database and the physical model. Comparisons for the alternate attachment location indicate that riser twist plays a significant role in determining roll rate attenuation characteristics. Reevaluating the impact of the alternate attachment points using a simulation modified to account for these results showed significantly reduced roll rate attenuation tendencies when compared to the original simulation. Based on this modified simulation the alternate attachment point does not appear to offer a significant increase in allowable roll rate over the nominal configuration.

  20. A flight-dynamic helicopter mathematical model with a single flap-lag-torsion main rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Marc D.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of a helicopter system with a single main rotor that includes rigid, hinge-restrained rotor blades with flap, lag, and torsion degrees of freedom is described. The model allows several hinge sequences and two offsets in the hinges. Quasi-steady Greenberg theory is used to calculate the blade-section aerodynamic forces, and inflow effects are accounted for by using three-state nonlinear dynamic inflow model. The motion of the rigid fuselage is defined by six degrees of freedom, and an optional rotor rpm degree of freedom is available. Empennage surfaces and the tail rotor are modeled, and the effect of main-rotor downwash on these elements is included. Model trim linearization, and time-integration operations are described and can be applied to a subset of the model in the rotating or nonrotating coordinate frame. A preliminary validation of the model is made by comparing its results with those of other analytical and experimental studies. This publication presents the results of research compiled in November 1989.

  1. Experimental analysis of the vorticity and turbulent flow dynamics of a pitching airfoil at realistic flight (helicopter) conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Dipankar

    Improved basic understanding, predictability, and controllability of vortex-dominated and unsteady aerodynamic flows are important in enhancement of the performance of next generation helicopters. The primary objective of this research project was improved understanding of the fundamental vorticity and turbulent flow physics for a dynamically stalling airfoil at realistic helicopter flight conditions. An experimental program was performed on a large-scale (C = 0.45 m) dynamically pitching NACA 0012 wing operating in the Texas A&M University large-scale wind tunnel. High-resolution particle image velocimetry data were acquired on the first 10-15% of the wing. Six test cases were examined including the unsteady (k>0) and steady (k=0) conditions. The relevant mechanical, shear and turbulent time-scales were all of comparable magnitude, which indicated that the flow was in a state of mechanical non-equilibrium, and the expected flow separation and reattachment hystersis was observed. Analyses of the databases provided new insights into the leading-edge Reynolds stress structure and the turbulent transport processes. Both of which were previously uncharacterized. During the upstroke motion of the wing, a bubble structure formed in the leading-edge Reynolds shear stress. The size of the bubble increased with increasing angle-of-attack before being diffused into a shear layer at full separation. The turbulent transport analyses indicated that the axial stress production was positive, where the transverse production was negative. This implied that axial turbulent stresses were being produced from the axial component of the mean flow. A significant portion of the energy was transferred to the transverse stress through the pressure-strain redistribution, and then back to the transverse mean flow through the negative transverse production. An opposite trend was observed further downstream of this region.

  2. Flight, Wind-Tunnel, and Computational Fluid Dynamics Comparison for Cranked Arrow Wing (F-16XL-1) at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Obara, Clifford J.; Fisher, Bruce D.; Fisher, David F.

    2001-01-01

    Geometrical, flight, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and wind-tunnel studies for the F-16XL-1 airplane are summarized over a wide range of test conditions. Details are as follows: (1) For geometry, the upper surface of the airplane and the numerical surface description compare reasonably well. (2) For flight, CFD, and wind-tunnel surface pressures, the comparisons are generally good at low angles of attack at both subsonic and transonic speeds, however, local differences are present. In addition, the shock location at transonic speeds from wind-tunnel pressure contours is near the aileron hinge line and generally is in correlative agreement with flight results. (3) For boundary layers, flight profiles were predicted reasonably well for attached flow and underneath the primary vortex but not for the secondary vortex. Flight data indicate the presence of an interaction of the secondary vortex system and the boundary layer and the boundary-layer measurements show the secondary vortex located more outboard than predicted. (4) Predicted and measured skin friction distributions showed qualitative agreement for a two vortex system. (5) Web-based data-extraction and computational-graphical tools have proven useful in expediting the preceding comparisons. (6) Data fusion has produced insightful results for a variety of visualization-based data sets.

  3. Studying shock dynamics and in-flight ρR asymmetries in NIF implosions using proton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Ignition-scale, indirect-drive implosions of CH capsules filled with D3He gas have been studied with proton spectroscopy at the NIF. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time provide information about the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of these implosions. The observed energy downshift of the D3He-proton spectra are interpreted with a self-consistent 1-D model to infer ρR, shell Rcm, and yield at this time. The observed ρR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions where the laser drive is on until near the compression-bang time (``short-coast'') while longer-coasting implosions generate lower ρR at shock-bang time. This is most likely due to a larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast implosions (~400 ps). These differences are determined from the D3He proton spectra and in-flight x-ray radiography data, and it is found to contradict radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict a 700-800 ps temporal difference independent of coasting time. A large variation in the shock proton yield is also observed in the dataset, which is interpreted with a Guderley shock model and found to correspond to ~2× variation in incipient hot-spot adiabat caused by shock heating. This variation may affect the compressibility of NIF implosions. Finally, data from multiple proton spectrometers placed at the pole and equator reveal large ρR asymmetries, which are interpreted as mode-2 polar or azimuthal asymmetries. At the shock-bang time (CR ~ 3-5), asymmetry amplitudes >=10% are routinely observed. Compared to compression-bang time x-ray self-emission symmetry, no apparent asymmetry-amplitude growth is observed, which is in contradiction to several growth models. This is attributed to a lack of correspondence between shell and hot-spot symmetry at peak compression, as discussed in recent computational studies. This work was

  4. Thermal Design and Analysis of the Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Sunada, Eric; Gray, Sandria

    2013-01-01

    The thermal design and analysis of the experimental Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle is presented. The SFDT vehicle is currently being designed as a platform to help demonstrate key technologies for NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project. The LDSD project is charged by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) with the task of advancing the state of the art in Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by developing and testing three new technologies required for landing heavier payloads on Mars. The enabling technologies under development consist of a large 33.5 meter diameter Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute and two different types of Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class, SIAD-R, that inflates to a 6 meter diameter torus, and an exploration class, SIAD-E, that inflates to an 8 meter diameter isotensoid. As part of the technology development effort, the various elements of the new supersonic decelerator system must be tested in a Mars-like environment. This is currently planned to be accomplished by sending a series of SFDT vehicles into Earth's stratosphere. Each SFDT vehicle will be lifted to a stable float altitude by a large helium carrier balloon. Once at altitude, the SFDT vehicles will be released from their carrier balloon and spun up via spin motors to provide trajectory stability. An onboard third stage solid rocket motor will propel each test vehicle to supersonic flight in the upper atmosphere. After main engine burnout, each vehicle will be despun and testing of the deceleration system will begin: first an inflatable decelerator will be deployed around the aeroshell to increase the drag surface area, and then the large parachute will be deployed to continue the deceleration and return the vehicle back to the Earth's surface. The SFDT vehicle thermal system must passively protect the vehicle structure and its components from cold temperatures experienced during the

  5. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles: An Analysis of the Importance of the Mass of the Wings to Flight Dynamics, Stability, and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Christopher T.

    The flight dynamics, stability, and control of a model flapping wing micro air vehicle are analyzed with a focus on the inertial and mass effects of the wings on the position and Orientation of the body. A multi-body, flight dynamics model is derived from first principles. The multi-body model predicts significant differences in the position and orientation of the flapping wing micro air vehicle, when compared to a flight dynamics model based on the standard aircraft, or six degree of freedom, equations of motion. The strongly coupled, multi-body equations of motion are transformed into first order form using an approximate inverse and appropriate assumptions. Local (naive) averaging of the first order system does not produce an accurate result and a new approximation technique named 'quarter-cycle' averaging is proposed. The technique is effective in reducing the error by at least an order of magnitude for three reference flight conditions. A stability analysis of the local averaged equations of motions, in the vicinity of a hover condition, produces a modal structure consist with the most common vertical takeoff or landing structure and independent stability analyses of the linearized flight dynamics of insect models. The inclusion of the wing effects produces a non-negligible change in the linear stability of a hawkmoth-sized model. The hovering solution is shown, under proper control, to produce a limit cycle. The control input to achieve a limit cycle is different if the flight dynamics model includes the wing effects or does not include the wing effects. Improper control input application will not produce the desired limit cycle effects. A scaling analysis is used to analyze the relative importance of the mass of the wings, based on the quarter-cycle approximation. The conclusion of the scaling analysis is that the linear momentum effects of the wings are always important in terms of the inertial position of the flapping wing micro air vehicle. Above a

  6. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  7. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  8. New Insights into the Molecular Dynamics of P3HT:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction: A Time-of-Flight Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Anne A Y; Zbiri, Mohamed; Jenart, Maud V C; Nielsen, Christian B; Nelson, Jenny

    2016-06-16

    The molecular dynamics of organic semiconductor blend layers are likely to affect the optoelectronic properties and the performance of devices such as solar cells. We study the dynamics (5-50 ps) of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend by time-of-flight quasi-elastic neutron scattering, at temperatures in the range 250-360 K, thus spanning the glass transition temperature region of the polymer and the operation temperature of an OPV device. The behavior of the QENS signal provides evidence for the vitrification of P3HT upon blending, especially above the glass transition temperature, and the plasticization of PCBM by P3HT, both dynamics occurring on the picosecond time scale. PMID:27192930

  9. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  10. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  11. Beam-Riding Analysis of a Parabolic Laser-thermal Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2011-11-10

    Flight experiments with laser-propelled vehicles (lightcrafts) are often performed by wire-guidance or with spin-stabilization. Nevertheless, the specific geometry of the lightcraft's optics and nozzle may provide for inherent beam-riding properties. These features are experimentally investigated in a hovering experiment at a small free flight test range with an electron-beam sustained pulsed CO{sub 2} high energy laser. Laser bursts are adapted with a real-time control to lightcraft mass and impulse coupling for ascent and hovering in a quasi equilibrium of forces. The flight dynamics is analyzed with respect to the impulse coupling field vs. attitude, given by the lightcraft's offset and its inclination angle against the beam propagation axis, which are derived from the 3D-reconstruction of the flight trajectory from highspeed recordings. The limitations of the experimental parameters' reproducibility and its impact on flight stability are explored in terms of Julia sets. Solution statements for dynamic stabilization loops are presented and discussed.

  12. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Xin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Xiong, Yijia; Ma, Xiang; Zhou, Yufan; Tucker, Abigail E.; Zhu, Zihua; Liu, Songqin; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface) was employed for in situ chemical imaging of live biofilms using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Depth profiling by sputtering materials in sequential layers resulted in live biofilm spatial chemical mapping. 2D images were reconstructed to report the first 3D images of hydrated biofilm elucidating spatial and chemical heterogeneity. 2D image principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted among biofilms at different locations in the microchannel. Our approach directly visualized spatial and chemical heterogeneity within the living biofilm by dynamic liquid ToF-SIMS.

  13. Experiment M115: Special hematologic effects: Dynamic changes in red cell shape in response to the space-flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Burns, L. C.; Fischer, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    The significance of the transformations in red cell shape observed during the Skylab study must be considered relative to the limitation of man's participation in extended space flight missions. The results of this one study are not conclusive with respect to this question. Based on these examinations of red cells in normal, healthy men and based on other Skylab experiment data relative to the functional capacity of the red cells in vitro and the performance capacity of man as an integrated system, the changes observed would not appear to be the limiting factor in determining man's stay in space. However, the results of this experiment and the documented red cell mass loss during space flight raise serious questions at this time relative to the selection criteria utilized for passengers and crews of future space flights. Until the specific cause and impact of the red cell shape change on cell survival in vivo can be resolved, individuals with diagnosed hematologic abnormalities should not be considered as prime candidates for missions, especially those of longer duration.

  14. A Flight Simulator for ATF2 - A Mechanism for International Collaboration in the Writing and Deployment of Online Beam Dynamics Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    White, Glen; Molloy, Stephen; Seryi, Andrei; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas, Rogelio; Kuroda, Shigeru; Bambade, Philip; Renier, Yves; /Orsay, LAL

    2008-07-25

    The goals of ATF2 are to test a novel compact final focus optics design with local chromaticity correction intended for use in future linear colliders. The newly designed extraction line and final focus system will be used to produce a 37nm vertical waist from an extracted beam from the ATF ring of {approx}30nm vertical normalized emittance, and to stabilize it at the IP-waist to the {approx}2nm level. Static and dynamic tolerances on all accelerator components are very tight; the achievement of the ATF2 goals is reliant on the application of multiple high-level beam dynamics control algorithms to align and tune the electron beam in the extraction line and final focus system. Much algorithmic development work has been done in Japan and by colleagues in collaborating nations in North America and Europe. We describe here development work towards realizing a 'flight simulator' environment for the shared development and implementation of beam dynamics code. This software exists as a 'middle-layer' between the lower-level control systems (EPICS and V-SYSTEM) and the multiple higher-level beam dynamics modeling tools in use by the three regions (SAD, Lucretia, PLACET, MAD...).

  15. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 4 - Tribological materials and NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L. (Editor); Achenbach, J. D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume on tribological materials and NDE discusses liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines, a liquid lubricant for space applications, solid lubricants for aeronautics, and thin solid-lubricant films in space. Attention is given to the science and technology of NDE, tools for an NDE engineering base, experimental techniques in ultrasonics for NDE and material characterization, and laser ultrasonics. Topics addressed include thermal methods of NDE and quality control, digital radiography in the aerospace industry, materials characterization by ultrasonic methods, and NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites. Also discussed are smart materials and structures, intelligent processing of materials, implementation of NDE technology on flight structures, and solid-state weld evaluation.

  16. Update on an investigation of flight buffeting of a variable-sweep aircraft. [F-111 A dynamic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Traylor, S., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed investigation of flight buffeting response of an F-111A aircraft was performed. AIAA Paper No. 74-358 presented results of an initial study of wing and fuselage responses measured at subsonic speeds and wing leading-edge sweep of 26 degrees. The present paper gives additional results for wing sweeps of 26, 50 and 72.5 degrees at Mach numbers up to 1.2 including horizontal tail responses. Power spectra, response time histories, variations of rms response with angle of attack, and effects of Mach number and wing sweep angle are discussed.

  17. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  18. Flap-lag-torsional dynamics of extensional and inextensional rotor blades in hover and in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasilva, C.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of the O(cu epsilon) integro differential equations to ordinary differential equations using a set of orthogonal functions is described. Attention was focused on the hover flight condition. The set of Galerkin integrals that appear in the reduced equations was evaluated by making use of nonrotating beam modes. Although a large amount of computer time was needed to accomplish this task, the Galerkin integrals so evaluated were stored on tape on a permanent basis. Several of the coefficients were also obtained in closed form in order to check the accuracy of the numerical computations. The equilibrium solution to the set of 3n equations obtained was determined as the solution to a minimization problem.

  19. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates.

  20. Time-of-flight study of photoinduced dynamics of copper and manganese phthalocyanine thin films on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramonova, A. G.; Butkhuzi, T. G.; Abaeva, V. V.; Tvauri, I. V.; Khubezhov, S. A.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2013-11-01

    Photoinduced fragmentation and desorption of species from copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and manganese phthalocyanine 80 nm thick films deposited on Si(111) have been studied by means of atomic force microscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The main fragments formed under the effect of low-fluence (1-3 mJ cm-2) nanosecond laser light with photon energies of 2.34 and 1.17 eV are the entire phthalocyanine molecule, molecular fragments, atomic Cu and Mn and a Si-substituted CuPc. The latter is presumably due to migration of the Si atom of the underlying support to the vacancy formed after photoejection of the metallic atom out of the phthalocyanine molecule. The mechanism of photofragmentation and desorption is essentially non-thermal involving the metal atom as a key factor.

  1. Flight Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  2. Making flight motion tables invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMore, Louis A.; Hollinger, Paul; Hirsh, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Flight tables can add unwanted dynamics with increased phase lag and gain attenuation to the Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) simulation. By making flight tables "invisible" we reduce the effects of these unwanted dynamics on the simulation giving the simulation engineer a much clearer picture of the test unit's capabilities. Past methods[1] relied on clever servo techniques to reduce these effects. In this paper we look at the mechanical aspects of the flight table; in particular, we study the effects of using composite materials in the fabrication of the flight table gimbals. The study shows that the use of composite gimbals significantly increases the invisibility of the flight table with the potential added benefit of reduced cost.

  3. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  4. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  5. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  6. Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigations into Laser Propulsion Engineering Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, David Adam

    The RPI pulsed Laser Propulsion (LP) research effort focuses on the future application of launching nano- and micro-satellites (1-10 kg payloads) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), using a remote Ground Based Laser (GBL) power station to supply the required energy for flight. This research program includes both experimental and numerical studies investigating the propulsive performance of several engine geometries (constituting a lightcraft family). Using the Lumonics twin K-922m TEA pulsed laser system, axial and lateral thrust, C m, Isp, and η measurements were made for these engine geometries, examining the effects of several critical factors including: engine orientation (e.g. lateral and angular offset), laser pulse energy, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration, propellant type, and engine size-scaling effects. Investigation into the origins of lateral "beam riding" forces was of particular interest. Lateral impulse measurements and high speed Schlieren photography were utilized to provide an understanding of laser beam-riding/propulsive physics. The acquired lightcraft database was used to further develop an existing 7-Degree Of Freedom (DOF) flight dynamics model extensively calibrated against 16 actual trajectories of small scale model lightcraft flown at White Sands Missile Range, NM on a 10 kW pulsed CO2 laser called PLVTS. The full system 7-DOF model is comprised of updated individual aerodynamics, engine, laser beam propagation, variable vehicle inertia, reaction controls system, and dynamics models, integrated to represent all major phenomena in a consistent framework. This flight dynamics model and associated 7-DOF code provide a physics-based predictive tool for basic research investigations into laser launched lightcraft for suborbital and orbital missions. Simulations were performed to demonstrate the flight capabilities of each engine geometry using the updated lightcraft propulsion database, the results of which further demonstrate that autonomous

  7. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data.

    PubMed

    Kotasidis, F A; Mehranian, A; Zaidi, H

    2016-05-01

    Kinetic parameter estimation in dynamic PET suffers from reduced accuracy and precision when parametric maps are estimated using kinetic modelling following image reconstruction of the dynamic data. Direct approaches to parameter estimation attempt to directly estimate the kinetic parameters from the measured dynamic data within a unified framework. Such image reconstruction methods have been shown to generate parametric maps of improved precision and accuracy in dynamic PET. However, due to the interleaving between the tomographic and kinetic modelling steps, any tomographic or kinetic modelling errors in certain regions or frames, tend to spatially or temporally propagate. This results in biased kinetic parameters and thus limits the benefits of such direct methods. Kinetic modelling errors originate from the inability to construct a common single kinetic model for the entire field-of-view, and such errors in erroneously modelled regions could spatially propagate. Adaptive models have been used within 4D image reconstruction to mitigate the problem, though they are complex and difficult to optimize. Tomographic errors in dynamic imaging on the other hand, can originate from involuntary patient motion between dynamic frames, as well as from emission/transmission mismatch. Motion correction schemes can be used, however, if residual errors exist or motion correction is not included in the study protocol, errors in the affected dynamic frames could potentially propagate either temporally, to other frames during the kinetic modelling step or spatially, during the tomographic step. In this work, we demonstrate a new strategy to minimize such error propagation in direct 4D image reconstruction, focusing on the tomographic step rather than the kinetic modelling step, by incorporating time-of-flight (TOF) within a direct 4D reconstruction framework. Using ever improving TOF resolutions (580 ps, 440 ps, 300 ps and 160 ps), we demonstrate that direct 4D TOF image

  8. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetic parameter estimation in dynamic PET suffers from reduced accuracy and precision when parametric maps are estimated using kinetic modelling following image reconstruction of the dynamic data. Direct approaches to parameter estimation attempt to directly estimate the kinetic parameters from the measured dynamic data within a unified framework. Such image reconstruction methods have been shown to generate parametric maps of improved precision and accuracy in dynamic PET. However, due to the interleaving between the tomographic and kinetic modelling steps, any tomographic or kinetic modelling errors in certain regions or frames, tend to spatially or temporally propagate. This results in biased kinetic parameters and thus limits the benefits of such direct methods. Kinetic modelling errors originate from the inability to construct a common single kinetic model for the entire field-of-view, and such errors in erroneously modelled regions could spatially propagate. Adaptive models have been used within 4D image reconstruction to mitigate the problem, though they are complex and difficult to optimize. Tomographic errors in dynamic imaging on the other hand, can originate from involuntary patient motion between dynamic frames, as well as from emission/transmission mismatch. Motion correction schemes can be used, however, if residual errors exist or motion correction is not included in the study protocol, errors in the affected dynamic frames could potentially propagate either temporally, to other frames during the kinetic modelling step or spatially, during the tomographic step. In this work, we demonstrate a new strategy to minimize such error propagation in direct 4D image reconstruction, focusing on the tomographic step rather than the kinetic modelling step, by incorporating time-of-flight (TOF) within a direct 4D reconstruction framework. Using ever improving TOF resolutions (580 ps, 440 ps, 300 ps and 160 ps), we demonstrate that direct 4D TOF image

  9. Final report: flight dynamics and impact characteristics of thin flyer plates driven by laser-and electrically-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R S; Colvin, J; Frank, A; Fried, L; Reaugh, J

    2001-02-14

    The scope of the project was to conduct experimental and computer modeling studies of the launching, flight characteristics and impacts of thin flyer plates driven by laser ablation under drive conditions where the plate remains a solid and retains its strength. Motivation for the work was to provide the scientific underpinnings for advanced development work on new detonators that will be needed within the next ten years for use in the Laboratory's national security mission. Areas of study were to be coupling of laser energy into the flyer plate during the launch phase, melting and instability growth in the flyer during launch, and an explosive-grain-scale understanding of the shock-to-detonation transition when the flyer plate impacts an explosive target. Knowledge and modeling capability, developed from this study, were to enable us to tailor the launching and acceleration conditions of thin flyer plates to produce an optimum impact for initiating high explosives. Experimental and computational studies of the shock-to-detonation transition were to aid us in developing more efficient initiating explosives for use in future detonators.

  10. Electrochemical-acoustic time of flight: in operando correlation of physical dynamics with battery charge and health

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, AG; Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Gjeltema, PJ; Goy, A; Fleischer, JW; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a simple acoustic time-of-flight experiment can measure the state of charge and state of health of almost any closed battery. An acoustic conservation law model describing the state of charge of a standard battery is proposed, and experimental acoustic results verify the simulated trends; furthermore, a framework relating changes in sound speed, via density and modulus changes, to state of charge and state of health within a battery is discussed. Regardless of the chemistry, the distribution of density within a battery must change as a function of state of charge and, along with density, the bulk moduli of the anode and cathode changes as well. The shifts in density and modulus also change the acoustic attenuation in a battery. Experimental results indicating both state-of-charge determination and irreversible physical changes are presented for two of the most ubiquitous batteries in the world, the lithium-ion 18650 and the alkaline LR6 (AA). Overall, a one-or two-point acoustic measurement can be related to the interaction of a pressure wave at multiple discrete interfaces within a battery, which in turn provides insights into state of charge, state of health, and mechanical evolution/degradation.

  11. Dynamic subnanosecond time-of-flight detection for ultra-precise diffusion monitoring and optimization of biomarker preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniel R.; Stevens, Benjamin; Taft, Jefferson; Chafin, David; Petre, Vinnie; Theiss, Abbey P.; Otter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the preservation of cancer biomarkers, such as phosphorylated protein epitopes, in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is highly dependent on the localized concentration of the crosslinking agent. This study details a real-time diffusion monitoring system based on the acoustic time-of-flight (TOF) between pairs of 4 MHz focused transducers. Diffusion affects TOF because of the distinct acoustic velocities of formalin and interstitial fluid. Tissue is placed between the transducers and vertically translated to obtain TOF values at multiple locations with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm. Imaging is repeated for several hours until osmotic equilibrium is reached. A post-processing technique, analogous to digital acoustic interferometry, enables detection of subnanosecond TOF differences. Reference subtraction is used to compensate for environmental effects. Diffusion measurements with TOF monitoring ex vivo human tonsil tissue are well-correlated with a single exponential curve (R2>0.98) with a magnitude of up to 50 ns, depending on the tissue size (2-6 mm). The average exponential decay constant of 2 and 6 mm diameter samples are 20 and 315 minutes, respectively, although times varied significantly throughout the tissue (σmax=174 min). This technique can precisely monitor diffusion progression and could be used to mitigate effects from tissue heterogeneity and intersample variability, enabling improved preservation of cancer biomarkers distinctly sensitive to degradation during preanalytical tissue processing.

  12. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  13. Small Body GN and C Research Report: G-SAMPLE - An In-Flight Dynamical Method for Identifying Sample Mass [External Release Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Bayard, David S.

    2006-01-01

    G-SAMPLE is an in-flight dynamical method for use by sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of collected sample material. The G-SAMPLE method implements a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample mass, based on onboard force sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. With G-SAMPLE, sample mass identification becomes a computation rather than an extra hardware requirement; the added cost of cameras or other sensors for sample mass detection is avoided. Realistic simulation examples are provided for a spacecraft configuration with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In one representative example, a 1000 gram sample mass is estimated to within 110 grams (95% confidence) under realistic assumptions of thruster profile error, spacecraft parameter uncertainty, and sensor noise. For convenience to future mission design, an overall sample-mass estimation error budget is developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  14. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes 34 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 14-16, 1996. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  15. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 16-18, 1995. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  16. Design of the Heat Receiver for the U.S./Russia Solar Dynamic Power Joint Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Krystkowiak, Christopher; Klucher, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russia program is being conducted to develop, fabricate, launch, and operate a solar dynamic demonstration system on Space Station Mir. The goal of the program is to demonstrate and confirm that solar dynamic power systems are viable for future space applications such as the International Space Station Alpha The major components of the system include a heat receiver, a closed Brayton cycle power conversion unit, a power conditioning and control unit, a concentrator, a radiator, a thermal control system, and a Space Shuttle Carrier. This paper discusses the design of the heat receiver component. The receiver comprises a cylindrical cavity, the walls of which are lined with a series of tubes running the length of the cavity. The engine working fluid, a mixture of xenon and helium, is heated by the concentrated sunlight incident on these tubes. The receiver incorporates integral thermal storage, using a eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride as the thermal storage solid-to-liquid phase change materiaL This thermal storage is required to enable power production during eclipse. The phase change material is contained in a series of individual containment canisters.

  17. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  18. DE-1 phase 3 extended mission data analysis of Dynamics Explorer retarding ion mass spectrometer flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Field-aligned motion of ionospheric ions at a low altitudes and different pitch angle distributions of ionospheric ions at high altitudes were studied. The objective is twofold: (1) to discover the degree to which observations made by Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE-1) and DE-2 agree when taken in the same ionospheric volume; (2) to understand the processes operating along a magnetic field tube connecting DE-1 and DE-2 that allow a reconciliation of the two data sets. A second investigation has two facets; to reconcile the observed occurrence of ionospheric ions at high altitudes with a point source injection in the ionosphere and subsequent E x B drift, and to reconcile the observed fluxes of ionospheric ions at high altitudes with the measured upward flux at low altitudes. An understanding of the effects of E x B drift molten on the dispersion of ionospheric ions is attained.

  19. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  20. Flight and Stability of a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Target in the Drift Region between Injection and the Reaction Chamber with Computational Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitori, T.

    2013-12-01

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) target’s flight through a low Reynolds number and high Mach number regime was analyzed with computational fluid dynamics software. This regime consisted of xenon gas at 1,050 K and approximately 6,670 Pa. Simulations with similar flow conditions were performed with a sphere and compared with experimental data and published correlations for validation purposes. Transient considerations of the developing flow around the target were explored. Simulations of the target at different velocities were used to determine correlations for the drag coefficient and Nusselt number as functions of the Reynolds number. Simulations with different angles of attack were used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients of drag, lift, Magnus moment, and overturning moment as well as target stability. The drag force, lift force, and overturning moment changed minimally with spin. Above an angle of attack of 15°, the overturning moment would be destabilizing. At low angles of attack (less than 15°), the overturning moment would tend to decrease the target’s angle of attack, indicating the lack of a need for spin for stability at small angles. This stabilizing moment would cause the target to move in a mildly damped oscillation about the axis parallel to the free-stream velocity vector through the target’s center of gravity.

  1. Microdomain dynamics in single-crystal BaTi O3 during paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition measured with time-of-flight neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, A.; Wang, X. P.; Hoffmann, C.; Diallo, S. O.; Jørgensen, M. R. V.; Wang, X.-L.

    2015-11-01

    Microscopic polar clusters can play an important role in the phase transition of ferroelectric perovskite oxides such as BaTi O3 , which have shown coexistence of both displacive and order-disorder dynamics, although their topological and dynamical characteristics are yet to be clarified. Here, we report sharp increases in the widths and intensities of Bragg peaks from a BaTi O3 single crystal, which are measured in situ during heating and cooling within a few degrees of its phase transition temperature TC, using the neutron time-of-flight Laue technique. Most significantly sharper and stronger increases in peak widths and peak intensities were found to occur during cooling compared to that during heating through TC. A closer examination of the Bragg peaks revealed their elongated shapes in both the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases, the analysis of which indicated the presence of microdomains that have correlated <111 > -type polarization vectors within the {110}-type crystallographic planes. No significant increase in the average size of the microdomains (˜10 nm ) near TC could be observed from diffraction measurements, which is also consistent with small changes in the relaxation times for motion of Ti ions measured with quasielastic neutron scattering. The current observations do not indicate that the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in BaTi O3 is primarily caused by an increase in the size of the microscopic polar clusters or critical slowing down of Ti ionic motion. The sharp and strong increases in peak widths and peak intensities during cooling through TC are explained as a result of microstrains that are developed at microdomain interfaces during paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition.

  2. The insertion of human dynamics models in the flight control loops of V/STOL research aircraft. Appendix 2: The optimal control model of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.

  3. The flight planning - flight management connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne flight management systems are currently being implemented to minimize direct operating costs when flying over a fixed route between a given city pair. Inherent in the design of these systems is that the horizontal flight path and wind and temperature models be defined and input into the airborne computer before flight. The wind/temperature model and horizontal path are products of the flight planning process. Flight planning consists of generating 3-D reference trajectories through a forecast wind field subject to certain ATC and transport operator constraints. The interrelationships between flight management and flight planning are reviewed, and the steps taken during the flight planning process are summarized.

  4. X-48B Flight Research Progress Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Tim; Cosentino, Gary; Regan, Chris; Kisska, Michael; Princen, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Program Objectives; I. Assess stability & control characteristics of a BWB class vehicle in free-flight conditions: a) Assess dynamic interaction of control surfaces; b) Assess control requirements to accommodate asymmetric thrust; c) Assess stability and controllability about each axis at a range of flight conditions II. Assess flight control algorithms designed to provide desired flight characteristics: a) Assess control surface allocation and blending; b) Assess edge of envelope protection schemes; c) Assess takeoff and landing characteristics; d) Test experimental control laws and control design methods. III. Evaluate prediction and test methods for BWB class vehicles: a) Correlate flight measurements with ground-based predictions and measurements.

  5. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  6. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2000-03-01

    The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.

  7. IRVE-II Post-Flight Trajectory Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Bose, David M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) II successfully demonstrated an inflatable aerodynamic decelerator after being launched aboard a sounding rocket from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF). Preliminary day of flight data compared well with pre-flight Monte Carlo analysis, and a more complete trajectory reconstruction performed with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) approach followed. The reconstructed trajectory and comparisons to an attitude solution provided by NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract (NSROC) personnel at WFF are presented. Additional comparisons are made between the reconstructed trajectory and pre and post-flight Monte Carlo trajectory predictions. Alternative observations of the trajectory are summarized which leverage flight accelerometer measurements, the pre-flight aerodynamic database, and on-board flight video. Finally, analysis of the payload separation and aeroshell deployment events are presented. The flight trajectory is reconstructed to fidelity sufficient to assess overall project objectives related to flight dynamics and overall, IRVE-II flight dynamics are in line with expectations

  8. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2004-01-01

    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  9. Applying data mining techniques to detect abnormal flight characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslaner, H. E.; Unal, Cagri; Iyigun, Cem

    2016-05-01

    This paper targets to highlight flight safety issues by applying data mining techniques to recorded flight data and proactively detecting abnormalities in certain flight phases. For this purpose, a result oriented method is offered which facilitates the process of post flight data analysis. In the first part of the study, a common time period of flight is defined and critical flight parameters are selected to be analyzed. Then the similarities of the flight parameters in time series basis are calculated for each flight by using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) method. In the second part, hierarchical clustering technique is applied to the aggregate data matrix which is comprised of all the flights to be studied in terms of similarities among chosen parameters. Consequently, proximity levels among flight phases are determined. In the final part, an algorithm is constructed to distinguish outliers from clusters and classify them as suspicious flights.

  10. Metabolic and Regulatory Systems in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Dynamics of Blood Biochemical Parameters in Cosmonauts During Long-Term Space Flights; Efficiency of Functional Loading Test for Investigations of Metabolic Responses to Weightlessness; Human Cellular Immunity and Space Flight; Cytokine Production and Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest; Plasma and Urine Amino Acids During Human Space Flight; and DNA Fingerprinting, Applications to Space Microbiology.

  11. Wind-Tunnel/Flight Correlation, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, L. W. (Editor); Baals, D. D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Wind-tunnel/flight correlation activities are reviewed to assure maximum effectiveness of the early experimental programs of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Topics included a status report of the NTF, the role of tunnel-to-tunnel correlation, a review of past flight correlation research and the resulting data base, the correlation potential of future flight vehicles, and an assessment of the role of computational fluid dynamics.

  12. F-111 TACT in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The General Dynamics TACT/F-111A Aardvark is seen In a banking-turn over the California Mojave desert. This photograph affords a good view of the supercritical wing airfoil shape. Starting in 1971 the NASA Flight Research Center and the Air Force undertook a major research and flight testing program, using F-111A (#63-9778), which would span almost 20 years before completion. Intense interest over the results coming from the NASA F-8 supercritical wing program spurred NASA and the Air Force to modify the General Dynamics F-111A to explore the application of supercritical wing technology to maneuverable military aircraft. This flight program was called Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT).

  13. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  14. Flight variability in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae): an analysis of flight data using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Octavio A; Villacide, José M; Bernstein, Carlos; Corley, Juan C

    2009-03-01

    We describe flight variability in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) by studying tethered females in a flight mill device and analyzing output data by a time series methodology. Twenty-eight wasps were flown during 24 h-long periods, under controlled temperature and lighting conditions. The maximum distance recorded was 49 km, and mean velocity was 0.37 m s(-1). All wasps lost weight during flight (mean weight loss of 10.0% of initial body mass). By using a wavelets analysis on the flight mill time series output, we identified three distinct flight patterns: regular (long acceleration-deceleration spells), periodic (alternation of acceleration-deceleration spells without resting) and pulsating (resting spells interrupted by bursts of flight activity). The first two flight patterns are indistinguishable using traditional flight mill data analysis. Flight patterns for each individual were significantly dependent on wasp body mass, suggesting a relationship with the resources used in flight and their availability. Large females flew sequentially through a regular-periodic-pulsating sequence but medium sized wasps flew mostly with periodic and pulsating patterns. The smallest wasps flew only in a pulsating pattern, being incapable of long, sustained flight. Variability in size and behavior can have significant consequences on population dynamics by determining local and regional dispersal. An important outcome of our work is the introduction of wavelet analysis to study tethered flight data series for the first time. This methodology allowed us to uncover and statistically test individual variability in insect flight characteristics.

  15. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  16. Flight control design considerations for STOVL powered-lift flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.; Anex, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft rely on the propulsion system for the lift and control functions during slow speed flight. The propulsion system provides the entire lifting force and all of the control power for hovering flight at zero airspeed. STOVL designs such as the General Dynamics E-7D ejector configuration incorporate an integrated flight/propulsion control system to manage the aerodynamic and propulsive-lift control effectors and to reduce the pilot's workload for powered-lift flight. Desired flying qualities characteristics are implemented through the utilization of an explicit model following flight control system. With the model following control system, the pilot commands the desired response (e.g., throttle commands vertical velocity in hover, instead of power lever angle). Design considerations for developing a multivariable model-following flight control system are presented in this paper. When the regulator gains are defined in terms of generalized controls, the design problem becomes how to best transform the generalized controls to aerodynamic control surface, thrust and thrust vectoring commands.

  17. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  19. Space shuttle horizontal flight test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosley, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A horizontal takeoff flight test concept for testing space shuttle vehicles is presented. The guidelines used in planning and support requirements for the flight tests are developed. Details of the test program are provided. The instrumentation requirements are defined. The limitations imposed by the short flight endurance and restricted maneuvering capability of the shuttle booster/orbiter in the horizontal mode are described. The test program covers the following investigations. (1) stall and lift boundary tests, (2)takeoff and landing tests, (3) level flight speed power tests, (4) longitudinal and laterial directional dynamic stability, and (5) static directional stability.

  20. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  1. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  2. Optimization of the vertical flight profile on the flight management system for green aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Patron, Roberto Salvador

    To reduce aircraft's fuel consumption, a new method to calculate flight trajectories to be implemented in commercial Flight Management Systems has been developed. The aircraft's model was obtained from a flight performance database, which included experimental flight data. The optimized trajectories for three different commercial aircraft have been analyzed and developed in this thesis. To obtain the optimal flight trajectory that reduces the global flight cost, the vertical and the LNAV profiles have been studied and analyzed to find the aircraft's available speeds, possible flight altitudes and alternative horizontal trajectories that could reduce the global fuel consumption. A dynamic weather model has been implemented to improve the precision of the algorithm. This weather model calculates the speed and direction of wind, and the outside air temperature from a public weather database. To reduce the calculation time, different time-optimization algorithms have been implemented, such as the Golden Section search method, and different types of genetic algorithms. The optimization algorithm calculates the aircraft trajectory considering the departure and arrival airport coordinates, the aircraft parameters, the in-flight restrictions such as speeds, altitudes and WPs. The final output is given in terms of the flight time, fuel consumption and global flight cost of the complete flight. To validate the optimization algorithm results, the software FlightSIM RTM has been used. This software considers a complete aircraft aerodynamic model for its simulations, giving results that are accurate and very close to reality.

  3. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  4. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication includes 40 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 5-7, 1992. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  5. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 17-19, 1994. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  6. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This conference publication includes 32 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 22-25, 1990. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  7. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This conference publication includes 28 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 10 to 11, 1988. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issue related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  8. Flight, Wind-Tunnel, and Computational Fluid Dynamics Comparison for Cranked Arrow Wing (F-16XL-1) at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Obara, Clifford J.; Fisher, David F.; Fisher, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained on this CD are a supplement to NASA/TP-2001-210629 published in February 2001. This CD replaces a web-site database search and retrieval system - noted as reference 36 in the NASA/TP - that was to supply the aeronautical community with access to the flight data. Unfortunately, this web-site was only available for a short time after the publication of NASA/TP-2001-21068 due to software and support issues. The contents of this CD are organized into five folders containing data from the flight test and reference 1. In particular, the following are provided: (1) tabular data of the Flight Conditions from Table 5; (2) boundary layer data from Table 12 for three flights in multiple formats; (3) skin-friction data - xmgr format (ref. 3) - used to generate Figure 26; (4) surface pressure data with a listing of the parameters; and (5) tuft-images from three cameras in two formats.

  9. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  10. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  11. Flight projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the activities of the Flight Projects Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Information is given on space research and technology strategy, current space flight experiments, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the Orbiter Experiment Program, the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System, the Arcjet Flight Experiment, the Telerobotic Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment, the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment, the Industry/University In-Space Flight Experiments, and the Aeroassist Flight Experiment.

  12. The Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Deluis, Javier

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment (MODE) are presented. Topics covered include: MODE flight hardware elements; MODE science objectives; MODE team; flight operations; and summary.

  13. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2003-12-01

    The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well

  14. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  15. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture

  16. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  17. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  18. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-09-26

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528779

  19. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-09-26

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  20. X-33 Flight Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

  1. AFTI F-111 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility photograph shows a modified General Dynamics AFTI/F-111A Aardvark with supercritical mission adaptive wings (MAW) installed. In this photograph the AFTI/F111A is seen banking towards Rodgers Dry Lake and Edwards Air Force Base. With the phasing out of the TACT program came a renewed effort by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory to extend supercritical wing technology to a higher level of performance. In the early 1980s the supercritical wing on the F-111A aircraft was replaced with a wing built by Boeing Aircraft Company System called a 'mission adaptive wing' (MAW), and a joint NASA and Air Force program called Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) was born.

  2. AFTI F-111 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility photograph shows a modified General Dynamics AFTI/F-111A Aardvark with supercritical mission adaptive wings (MAW) installed. The Aircraft is in a banking turn towards Rogers Dry Lake and Edwards Air Force Base, California. With the phasing out of the TACT program came a renewed effort by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory to extend supercritical wing technology to a higher level of performance. In the early 1980s the supercritical wing on the F-111A aircraft was replaced with a wing built by Boeing Aircraft Company System called a 'mission adaptive wing' (MAW), and a joint NASA and Air Force program called Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) was born.

  3. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  4. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team is to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions as well as stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to the baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This set of open-loop flight tests was performed in preparation for a future phase of flights in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed a pitch frequency sweep and an automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. An examination of flight data shows that addition of the flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved the pitch handling qualities of the aircraft.

  5. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  6. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  7. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  8. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  9. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  10. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  11. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  12. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  13. Dynamics of a vertical flight in the stationary gravitational field of a celestial body: Post-newtonian corrections and gravitational redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Imshennik, V. S.

    2010-04-15

    The standard problem of a radial motion of test particles in the stationary gravitational field of a spherically symmetric celestial body is solved and is used to determine the time features of this motion. The problem is solved for the equations of motion of general relativity (GR), and the time features are obtained in the post-Newtonian approximation, with linear GR corrections proportional to r{sub g}/r and {beta}{sup 2} (in the solution being considered, they are of the same order of smallness) being taken rigorously into account. Total times obtained by integrating the time differentials along the trajectories of motion are considered as the time features in question. It is shown that, for any parameters of the motion, the proper time (which corresponds to watches comoving with a test particle) exceeds the time of watches at rest (watches at the surface of the celestial body being considered). The mass and the radius of the celestial body, as well as the initial velocity of the test particle, serve as arbitrary parameters of the motion. The time difference indicated above implies a leading role of the gravitational redshift, which decreases somewhat because of the opposite effect of the Doppler shift. The results are estimated quantitatively for the important (from the experimental point of view) case of vertical flights of rockets starting from the Earth's surface. In this case, the GR corrections, albeit being extremely small (a few microseconds for several hours of the flight), aremeasurable with atomic (quantum) watches.

  14. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  15. Nonlinear Robustness Analysis Tools for Flight Control Law Validation & Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit

    Loss of control in flight is among the highest aviation accident categories for both the number of accidents and the number of fatalities. The flight controls community is seeking an improved validation tools for safety critical flight control systems. Current validation tools rely heavily on linear analysis, which ignore the inherent nonlinear nature of the aircraft dynamics and flight control system. Specifically, current practices in validating the flight control system involve gridding the flight envelope and checking various criteria based on linear analysis to ensure safety of the flight control system. The analysis and certification methods currently applied assume the aircrafts' dynamics is linear. In reality, the behavior of the aircraft is always nonlinear due to its aerodynamic characteristics and physical limitations imposed by the actuators. This thesis develops nonlinear analysis tools capable of certifying flight control laws for nonlinear aircraft dynamics. The proposed analysis tools can handle both the aerodynamic nonlinearities and the physical limitations imposed by the actuators in the aircrafts' dynamics. This proposed validation technique will extend and enrich the predictive capability of existing flight control law validation methods to analyze nonlinearities. The objective of this thesis is to provide the flight control community with an advanced set of analysis tools to reduce aviation fatalities and accidents rate.

  16. STS-109 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the cargo bay of the Columbia Orbiter, including the rigid array carrier, the solar arrays to be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope, and the robotic arm. Close-up shots show several components of the flight support system. STS-109 Commander Scott Altman, Payload Commander John Grunsfeld, and Mission Specialist Nancy Currie are seen on the flight deck, and they answer questions about the stabilization of the freon flow, details of the upcoming rendezvous and capture of the Hubble Space Telescope, the scheduled spacewalks, and the social dynamics of the flight crew.

  17. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  18. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  19. Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal-Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 1.91 and a Dynamic Pressure of 11.6 Pounds per Square Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Preisser, John S.

    1968-01-01

    A 40-foot (12.2 meter) nominal-diameter disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator Program (SPED-I). The test parachute was ejected by a deployment mortar from an instrumented payload at an altitude of 140,000 feet (42.5 kilometers). The payload was at a Mach number of 1.91 and the dynamic pressure was 11.6 pounds per square foot (555 newtons per square meter) at the time the parachute deployment mortar was fired. The parachute reached suspension line stretch in 0.43 second with a resultant snatch force loading of 1990 pounds (8850 newtons). The maximum parachute opening load of 6500 pounds (28,910 newtons) came 0.61 second later at a total elapsed time from mortar firing of 1.04 seconds. The first full inflation occurred at 1.12 seconds and stable inflation was achieved at approximately 1.60 seconds. The parachute had an average axial-force coefficient of 0.53 during the deceleration period. During the steady-state descent portion of the flight test, the average effective drag coefficient was also 0.53 and pitch-yaw oscillations of the canopy averaged less than 10 degrees in the altitude region above 100,000 feet (30.5 meters).

  20. Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 3.31 and a Dynamic Pressure of 10.6 Pounds per Square Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1969-01-01

    A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2 meter) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA supersonic high altitude parachute experiment (SHAPE) program. The test parachute (which included an experimental energy absorber in the attachment riser) was deployed from an instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at a Mach number of 3.31 and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 10.6 pounds per square foot (508 newtons per square meter). The parachute deployed properly, the canopy inflating to a full-open condition at 1.03 seconds after mortar firing. The first full inflation of the canopy was immediately followed by a partial collapse with subsequent oscillations of the frontal area from about 30 to 75 percent of the full-open frontal area. After 1.07 seconds of operation, a large tear appeared in the cloth near the canopy apex. This tear was followed by two additional tears shortly thereafter. It was later determined that a section of the canopy cloth was severely weakened by the effects of aerodynamic heating. As a result of the damage to the disk area of the canopy, the parachute performance was significantly reduced; however, the parachute remained operationally intact throughout the flight test and the instrumented payload was recovered undamaged.

  1. F-111E IPCS in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This NASA Dryden Flight Research Center photograph taken in 1975 shows the General Dynamic IPCS/F-111E Aardvark with a camouflage paint pattern. This prototype F-111E was used during the flight testing of the Integrated Propulsion Control System (IPCS). The wings of the IPCS/F-111E are swept back to near 60 degrees for supersonic flight. During the same period as F-111 TACT program, an F-111E Aardvark (#67-0115) was flown at the NASA Flight Research Center to investigate an electronic versus a conventional hydro-mechanical controlled engine. The program called integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) was a joint effort by NASA's Lewis Research Center and Flight Research Center, the Air Force's Flight Propulsion Laboratory and the Boeing, Honeywell and Pratt & Whitney companies. The left engine of the F-111E was selected for modification to an all electronic system. A Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-9 engine was modified and extensively laboratory, and ground-tested before installation into the F-111E. There were 14 IPCS flights made from 1975 through 1976. The flight demonstration program proved an engine could be controlled electronically, leading to a more efficient Digital Electronic Engine Control System flown in the F-15.

  2. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-01-01

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528779

  3. June 1997 ER-2 Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Irby W.

    2003-01-01

    Within our current understanding of the atmospheric ionizing radiation, the ER-2 flight package was designed to provide a complete characterization of the physical fields and evaluate various dosimetric techniques for routine monitoring. A flight plan was developed to sample the full dynamic range of the atmospheric environment especially at altitudes relevant to the development of the High Speed Civil Transport. The flight of the instruments occurred in June of 1997 where predictive models indicated a maximum in the high altitude radiation environment occurring approximately nine months after the minimum in the solar sunspot cycle. The flights originated at Moffett field at the Ames Research Center on ER-2 aircraft designated as 706. The equipment was shipped mid- May 1997 for unpacking and checkout, size fitting, systems functional test, and preflight testing on aircraft power with flight readiness achieved on May 30, 1997. The equipment was qualified on its first engineering flight on June 2, 1997 and the subsequent science gathering flights followed during the period of June 5-15, 1997. Herein we give an account of the flight operations.

  4. Flight variability in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae): an analysis of flight data using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Octavio A; Villacide, José M; Bernstein, Carlos; Corley, Juan C

    2009-03-01

    We describe flight variability in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) by studying tethered females in a flight mill device and analyzing output data by a time series methodology. Twenty-eight wasps were flown during 24 h-long periods, under controlled temperature and lighting conditions. The maximum distance recorded was 49 km, and mean velocity was 0.37 m s(-1). All wasps lost weight during flight (mean weight loss of 10.0% of initial body mass). By using a wavelets analysis on the flight mill time series output, we identified three distinct flight patterns: regular (long acceleration-deceleration spells), periodic (alternation of acceleration-deceleration spells without resting) and pulsating (resting spells interrupted by bursts of flight activity). The first two flight patterns are indistinguishable using traditional flight mill data analysis. Flight patterns for each individual were significantly dependent on wasp body mass, suggesting a relationship with the resources used in flight and their availability. Large females flew sequentially through a regular-periodic-pulsating sequence but medium sized wasps flew mostly with periodic and pulsating patterns. The smallest wasps flew only in a pulsating pattern, being incapable of long, sustained flight. Variability in size and behavior can have significant consequences on population dynamics by determining local and regional dispersal. An important outcome of our work is the introduction of wavelet analysis to study tethered flight data series for the first time. This methodology allowed us to uncover and statistically test individual variability in insect flight characteristics. PMID:19218525

  5. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  6. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  7. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  8. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  9. Advance ratio effects on the flow structure and unsteadiness of the dynamic-stall vortex of a rotating blade in steady forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan

    2015-02-01

    The effect of advance ratio on the flow structures above a rotor blade in dynamic-stall is studied using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The dynamic-stall vortex shows a significant velocity component in its core, implying a helical structure progressing radially outboard. In addition, a dual-vortical structure was observed at inboard locations only at high advance ratios. The radial velocity attenuates at outboard locations, in contrast to the expected increase with centripetal acceleration. This attenuation is accompanied by an increase in unsteadiness of the vortex. The unsteadiness shows a low-frequency cycle-to-cycle variation despite steady freestream conditions and phase-locked blade tracking. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of the dominant flow mode confirms the unsteady behavior of the leading-edge vortex. The dependence on advance ratio is used to relate the unsteadiness of the dynamic-stall vortex to Coriolis effects.

  10. Rotor noise in maneuvering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsuan-Nien

    The objective of this research is to understand the physics of rotor noise in the maneuvering flight. To achieve this objective, an integrated noise prediction system is constructed, namely GenHel-MFW-PSU-WOPWOP. This noise prediction system includes a flight simulation code, a high fidelity free vortex-wake code, and a rotor acoustic prediction code. By using this noise prediction system, rotor maneuver noise characteristics are identified. Unlike periodic rotor noise, a longer duration is required to describe rotor maneuver noise. The variation of helicopter motion, blade motion and blade airloads are all influencing the noise prediction results in both noise level and directivity in the maneuvering flight. In this research, two types of rotor maneuver noise are identified, steady maneuver noise and transient maneuver noise. In the steady maneuver, rotor noise corresponds to a steady maneuver condition, which has nearly steady properties in flight dynamics and aerodynamics. Transient maneuver noise is the result of the transition between two steady maneuvers. In a transient maneuver, the helicopter experiences fluctuations in airload and helicopter angular rates, which lead to excess rotor noise. Even though the transient maneuver only exists for a fairly short period of time, the corresponding transient maneuver noise could be significant when compared to steady maneuver noise. The blade tip vortices also present complex behaviors in the transient maneuver condition. With stronger vortex circulation strength and the potential for vortex bundling, blade vortex-interaction (BVI) noise may increase significantly during a transient maneuver. In this research, it is shown that even with small pilot controls, significant BVI noise can be generated during a transient flight condition. Finally, through this research, the importance of transient maneuver noise is demonstrated and recognized.

  11. Wavelet Applications for Flight Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1999-01-01

    Wavelets present a method for signal processing that may be useful for analyzing responses of dynamical systems. This paper describes several wavelet-based tools that have been developed to improve the efficiency of flight flutter testing. One of the tools uses correlation filtering to identify properties of several modes throughout a flight test for envelope expansion. Another tool uses features in time-frequency representations of responses to characterize nonlinearities in the system dynamics. A third tool uses modulus and phase information from a wavelet transform to estimate modal parameters that can be used to update a linear model and reduce conservatism in robust stability margins.

  12. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  13. Writing executable assertions to test flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.

  14. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  15. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  16. Fast and solvent-free quantitation of boar taint odorants in pig fat by stable isotope dilution analysis-dynamic headspace-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jochen; Haas, Torsten; Leppert, Jan; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Horner, Gerhard; Wüst, Matthias; Boeker, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Boar taint is a specific off-odour of boar meat products, known to be caused by at least three unpleasant odorants, with very low odour thresholds. Androstenone is a boar pheromone produced in the testes, whereas skatole and indole originate from the microbial breakdown of tryptophan in the intestinal tract. A new procedure, applying stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) and dynamic headspace-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (dynHS-TD-GC/TOFMS) for the simultaneous quantitation of these boar taint compounds in pig fat was elaborated and validated in this paper. The new method is characterised by a simple and solvent-free dynamic headspace sampling. The deuterated compounds d3-androstenone, d3-skatole and d6-indole were used as internal standards to eliminate matrix effects. The method validation performed revealed low limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) with high accuracy and precision, thus confirming the feasibility of the new dynHS-TD-GC/TOFMS approach for routine analysis. PMID:24731353

  17. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  18. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher engines of the prototype Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo of the aircraft during a 1996 research flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  19. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  20. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus research aircraft in flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Edwards, California, during a 1996 research flight. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

  1. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its unique design as it flies low over Rogers Dry Lake during a 1996 test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global

  2. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  3. Digital flight control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  4. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  5. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  6. Data Mining of NASA Boeing 737 Flight Data: Frequency Analysis of In-Flight Recorded Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, Ansel J.

    2001-01-01

    Data recorded during flights of the NASA Trailblazer Boeing 737 have been analyzed to ascertain the presence of aircraft structural responses from various excitations such as the engine, aerodynamic effects, wind gusts, and control system operations. The NASA Trailblazer Boeing 737 was chosen as a focus of the study because of a large quantity of its flight data records. The goal of this study was to determine if any aircraft structural characteristics could be identified from flight data collected for measuring non-structural phenomena. A number of such data were examined for spatial and frequency correlation as a means of discovering hidden knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the aircraft. Data recorded from on-board dynamic sensors over a range of flight conditions showed consistently appearing frequencies. Those frequencies were attributed to aircraft structural vibrations.

  7. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  8. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  9. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  10. Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 2.72 and a Dynamic Pressure of 9.7 Pounds per Square Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Preisser, John S.

    1968-01-01

    A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2 meter) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator (SPED-I) Program. The test parachute was deployed from an instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at an altitude of 158,500 feet (48.2 kilometers), a Mach number of 2.72, and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 9.7 pounds per foot(exp 2) (465 newtons per meter(exp 2)). Suspension line stretch occurred 0.46 second after mortar firing and the resulting snatch force loading was -8.lg. The maximum acceleration experienced by the payload due to parachute opening was -27.2g at 0.50 second after the snatch force peak for a total elapsed time from mortar firing of 0.96 second. Canopy-shape variations occurred during the higher Mach number portion of the flight test (M greater than 1.4) and the payload was subjected to large amplitude oscillatory loads. A calculated average nominal axial-force coefficient ranged from about 0.25 immediately after the first canopy opening to about 0.50 as the canopy attained a steady inflated shape. One gore of the test parachute was damaged when the deployment bag with mortar lid passed through it from behind approximately 2 seconds after deployment was initiated. Although the canopy damage caused by the deployment bag penetration had no apparent effect on the functional capability of the test parachute, it may have affected parachute performance since the average effective drag coefficient of 0.48 was 9 percent less than that of a previously tested parachute of the same configuration.

  11. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  12. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  14. Flight Test of L1 Adaptive Control Law: Offset Landings and Large Flight Envelope Modeling Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented include control law evaluation for piloted offset landing tasks as well as results in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and real-time dynamic modeling of the departure-prone edges of the flight envelope.

  15. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. PMID:26936640

  16. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air.

  17. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C.; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flight on the 2D air–water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary–gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air–water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. PMID:26936640

  18. Slow Lévy flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Denis; Pineda, Inti

    2016-02-01

    Among Markovian processes, the hallmark of Lévy flights is superdiffusion, or faster-than-Brownian dynamics. Here we show that Lévy laws, as well as Gaussian distributions, can also be the limit distributions of processes with long-range memory that exhibit very slow diffusion, logarithmic in time. These processes are path dependent and anomalous motion emerges from frequent relocations to already visited sites. We show how the central limit theorem is modified in this context, keeping the usual distinction between analytic and nonanalytic characteristic functions. A fluctuation-dissipation relation is also derived. Our results may have important applications in the study of animal and human displacements.

  19. X-43A Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  20. Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  1. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  2. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  3. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  4. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  5. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  6. Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

  7. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  8. Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-08-01

    Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat.

  9. Analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic flight trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    The flight trajectory of aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints is considered. The constrained dynamics is shown to be a natural two-time-scale system. Asymptotic analytical solutions are obtained. Problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified with these solutions. Applications in trajectory design for an aerospace plane strongly support the theoretical development.

  10. Analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic flight trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The flight trajectory of aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints is considered. The constrained dynamics is shown to be a natural two-time-scale system. Asymptotic analytical solutions are obtained. Problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified with these solutions. Applications in trajectory design for an aerospace plane strongly support the theoretical development.

  11. Flights of Imagination. An Introduction to Aerodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Wayne

    The study and use of kites have contributed to science through the development of aeronautics. This document traces some of the history of kites and provides teachers and students with basic information about kite components and flight dynamics. The major portion of the book provides students with 18 projects which deal with: (1) shapes that will…

  12. Insect flight on fluid interfaces: a chaotic interfacial oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Flight is critical to the dominance of insect species on our planet, with about 98 percent of insect species having wings. How complex flight control systems developed in insects is unknown, and arboreal or aquatic origins have been hypothesized. We examine the biomechanics of aquatic origins of flight. We recently reported discovery of a novel mode of ``2D flight'' in Galerucella beetles, which skim along an air-water interface using flapping wing flight. This unique flight mode is characterized by a balance between capillary forces from the interface and biomechanical forces exerted by the flapping wings. Complex interactions on the fluid interface form capillary wave trains behind the insect, and produce vertical oscillations at the surface due to non-linear forces arising from deformation of the fluid meniscus. We present both experimental observations of 2D flight kinematics and a dynamic model explaining the observed phenomena. Careful examination of this interaction predicts the chaotic nature of interfacial flight and takeoff from the interface into airborne flight. The role of wingbeat frequency, stroke plane angle and body angle in determining transition between interfacial and fully airborne flight is highlighted, shedding light on the aquatic theory of flight evolution.

  13. Vortex attenuation flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

  14. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  15. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestnutt, D.

    1982-09-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  16. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  17. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  18. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  19. Ares I Flight Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

  20. Vibration Characteristics of Squeeze Film Damper during Maneuver Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siji; Liao, Mingfu; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The rotor systems of an aero engine will endure additional centrifugal force and gyroscopic moment during maneuver flight. A maneuver fly mechanical simulator is designed and experimental investigations on dynamics of squeeze film damper (SFD) under the different additional centrifugal force and gyroscopic moment are carried out. The results show that the maneuver flight weaken effectiveness of the SFD, the additional centrifugal force and gyroscopic moment caused by maneuver flight will change film damping, film stiffness. And the influence of maneuver flight can be effective relieved by increasing the film clearance.