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Sample records for lightly doped drain

  1. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  2. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  3. Novel source follower transistor structure without lightly doped drain for high performance CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeong-Sub; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jeon, So-Ra; Oh, Dong-Jun; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-08-01

    To realize high-resolution pixels in the CMOS image sensor, it is necessary to reduce low-frequency noise, particularly random telegraph signal (RTS) noise of the source-follower transistor (SFT). To achieve less relative variation of drain noise current, ΔI D/I D, a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor structure without the lightly doped drain (LDD) for the SFT transistor is proposed. Then, a comparison of RTS noise characteristics between the proposed SFT structure without LDD and the conventional SFT structure with LDD was conducted. Although the RTS noise occurrence probability of the proposed SFT structure without LDD is somewhat greater than that of the conventional SFT structure with LDD, the amplitude of relative variation of drain noise current of the proposed SFT structure is significantly less than that of the conventional SFT. Despite changes in several factors in the proposed SFT, such as effective channel length, trap depth profile in gate oxide, and random dopant fluctuation (RDF), it is believed that the change of trap depth profile is a primary factor for the improved RTS characteristic. Therefore, the proposed SFT is highly desirable for the high-resolution CMOS image sensor.

  4. Novel source follower transistor structure without lightly doped drain for high performance CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeong-Sub; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jeon, So-Ra; Oh, Dong-Jun; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-08-01

    To realize high-resolution pixels in the CMOS image sensor, it is necessary to reduce low-frequency noise, particularly random telegraph signal (RTS) noise of the source-follower transistor (SFT). To achieve less relative variation of drain noise current, ΔI D/I D, a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor structure without the lightly doped drain (LDD) for the SFT transistor is proposed. Then, a comparison of RTS noise characteristics between the proposed SFT structure without LDD and the conventional SFT structure with LDD was conducted. Although the RTS noise occurrence probability of the proposed SFT structure without LDD is somewhat greater than that of the conventional SFT structure with LDD, the amplitude of relative variation of drain noise current of the proposed SFT structure is significantly less than that of the conventional SFT. Despite changes in several factors in the proposed SFT, such as effective channel length, trap depth profile in gate oxide, and random dopant fluctuation (RDF), it is believed that the change of trap depth profile is a primary factor for the improved RTS characteristic. Therefore, the proposed SFT is highly desirable for the high-resolution CMOS image sensor.

  5. Hetero-junction carbon nanotube FET with lightly doped drain and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Reza; Doorzad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new structure was introduced for carbon nanotube (CNT) MOSFET transistors. The proposed structure was composed of two different nanotubes for the source/drain and channel regions. Electrical characteristics of this structure were investigated using nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. Results of the simulations demonstrated that the proposed hetero-structure had almost the same ON-current and much less OFF-current and as a result higher ION/IOFF ratio than the conventional homo-structure. Results of the comparison between switching behavior in equal ION/IOFF ratio showed that, although the proposed structure had longer delay, its power dissipation for every switching event was less than that of the conventional structure. A further comparison of the switching characteristic in equal ON-current values showed that the proposed structure enjoys from shorter delay and also consumes less power-delay product (PDP) when compared to the LDDS structure.

  6. A two-dimensional analytical model for channel potential and threshold voltage of short channel dual material gate lightly doped drain MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweta, Tripathi

    2014-11-01

    An analytical model for the channel potential and the threshold voltage of the short channel dual-material-gate lightly doped drain (DMG-LDD) metal—oxide—semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is presented using the parabolic approximation method. The proposed model takes into account the effects of the LDD region length, the LDD region doping, the lengths of the gate materials and their respective work functions, along with all the major geometrical parameters of the MOSFET. The impact of the LDD region length, the LDD region doping, and the channel length on the channel potential is studied in detail. Furthermore, the threshold voltage of the device is calculated using the minimum middle channel potential, and the result obtained is compared with the DMG MOSFET threshold voltage to show the improvement in the threshold voltage roll-off. It is shown that the DMG-LDD MOSFET structure alleviates the problem of short channel effects (SCEs) and the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) more efficiently. The proposed model is verified by comparing the theoretical results with the simulated data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™ 2D device simulator.

  7. Effects of drain doping concentration on switching characteristics of tunnel field-effect transistor inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the modulation of drain doping concentration (N drain) on alternating current (AC) switching characteristics of a tunnel filed-effect transistor (TFET) inverter, the characteristics of TFETs with various N drains are analyzed rigorously through mixed-mode device and circuit TCAD simulations. As the N drain gets decreased, the drain current (I D) becomes reduced and the gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) reflects the entire gate capacitance (C GG) at a lower gate voltage (V G), which leads to the degradation of falling/rising delay in TFET inverters. These phenomena are explained successfully by the change of quasi-Fermi energy in the drain (E F_drain) as a function of V G. The E F_drain rises dramatically from when tunneling current starts to flow from the source in the n-type TFET with low N drain. As a result, drain-side channel inversion occurs at a lower V G due to the reduction of the energy barrier between the E F_drain and the conduction band edge of the channel.

  8. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  9. A new analytical drain current model of cylindrical gate silicon tunnel FET with source δ-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sidhartha; Jena, Biswajit; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2016-09-01

    A new δ-doped cylindrical gate silicon tunnel FET (DCG-TFET) analytical model is developed and investigated extensively, with the aim of addressing the challenges of the conventional CG-TFET. The improvement in tunneling probability of charge carriers has been achieved by inserting a δ-doping sheet in the source region which leads to high drain current as compared to CG-TFET. The effect of distance between the δ-doping sheet and source/channel interface on the current performance, sub-threshold swing (SS) and threshold voltage (Vth) has been examined. The instantaneous position of δ-doping region from the tunneling junction is optimized based on the trade-off between current ratio and SS. The present model exhibit maximum switching current ratio (ION/IOFF ≅1012) for an optimum distance of 2 nm without degrading SS (SS˜55 mV/decade) and Vth performance. The electrostatic behavior of the present model is obtained using the solution of Poisson's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. However the impact of scaling of the gate oxide thickness and cylindrical pillar diameter on drain current performance has been discussed. In future, DCG-TFET can be one of the potential successors for ultra-low-power applications because of its improved drain current and switching ratio.

  10. A new analytical drain current model of cylindrical gate silicon tunnel FET with source δ-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sidhartha; Jena, Biswajit; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2016-09-01

    A new δ-doped cylindrical gate silicon tunnel FET (DCG-TFET) analytical model is developed and investigated extensively, with the aim of addressing the challenges of the conventional CG-TFET. The improvement in tunneling probability of charge carriers has been achieved by inserting a δ-doping sheet in the source region which leads to high drain current as compared to CG-TFET. The effect of distance between the δ-doping sheet and source/channel interface on the current performance, sub-threshold swing (SS) and threshold voltage (Vth) has been examined. The instantaneous position of δ-doping region from the tunneling junction is optimized based on the trade-off between current ratio and SS. The present model exhibit maximum switching current ratio (ION/IOFF ≅1012) for an optimum distance of 2 nm without degrading SS (SS∼55 mV/decade) and Vth performance. The electrostatic behavior of the present model is obtained using the solution of Poisson's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. However the impact of scaling of the gate oxide thickness and cylindrical pillar diameter on drain current performance has been discussed. In future, DCG-TFET can be one of the potential successors for ultra-low-power applications because of its improved drain current and switching ratio.

  11. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  12. Investigating the impact of source/drain doping dependent effective masses on the transport characteristics of ballistic Si-nanowire field-effect-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Nag Chowdhury, Basudev; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2014-03-28

    This article studies the impact of doping dependent carrier effective masses of the source/drain regions on transport properties of Si-nanowire field effect transistors within ballistic limit. The difference of carrier effective mass in channel and that in the source/drain regions leads to a misalignment of respective sub-bands and forms non-ideal contacts. Such non-idealities are incorporated by modifying the relevant self-energies which control the effective electronic transport from source to drain through the channel. Non-ideality also arises in the nature of local density of states in the channel due to sub-band misalignment, resulting to a reduction of drain current by almost 50%. The highest values of drain current, leakage current, and their ratio are obtained for the S/D doping concentrations of 3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, 8 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, respectively, for the nanowire of length 10 nm and diameter of 3 nm. Interestingly, the maximum of sub-threshold swing, minimum of threshold voltage, and the maximum of leakage current are observed to be apparent at the same doping concentration.

  13. Co doped ZnO nanowires as visible light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šutka, Andris; Käämbre, Tanel; Pärna, Rainer; Juhnevica, Inna; Maiorov, Mihael; Joost, Urmas; Kisand, Vambola

    2016-06-01

    High aspect ratio cobalt doped ZnO nanowires showing strong photocatalytic activity and moderate ferromagnetic behaviour were successfully synthesized using a solvothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities evaluated for visible light driven degradation of an aqueous methylene orange (MO) solution were higher than for Co doped ZnO nanoparticles at the same doping level and synthesized by the same synthesis route. The rate constant for MO visible light photocatalytic degradation was 1.9·10-3 min-1 in case of nanoparticles and 4.2·10-3 min-1 in case of nanowires. We observe strongly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for moderate Co doping levels, with an optimum at a composition of Zn0.95Co0.05O. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Co doped ZnO nanowires were attributed to the combined effects of enhanced visible light absorption at the Co sites in ZnO nanowires, and improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers at optimal Co doping.

  14. Impactful study of dual work function, underlap and hetero gate dielectric on TFET with different drain doping profile for high frequency performance estimation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Sharma, Dheeraj; Raad, Bhagwan Ram; Bajaj, Varun

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript presents a comparative study of different combination for the dual workfunction gate material, underlap and hetero gate dielectric tunnel field-effect transistors (TFET's). Their performances have been analyzed in terms of ON-state current, ambipolar behaviour and RF response along with different drain doping profile. For this, the Dual work function of gate provides enhancement in ON-state current by reducing the tunnel barrier width at source/channel interface. Whereas, the underlap of gate is done near to the drain region, helps in reduction of ambipolar conduction by creating deficiency of hole for the conduction, which is major hurdle for TFET. Further, the combinations of the dual workfunction and underlap give combine advantages of both such as improve ON-state current and suppressed ambipolar current. Apart from this, the combination of hetero gate dielectric dual workfunction under lapping leads to superior device performance in terms of ON-state current and ambipolar behaviour. The use of hetero gate dielectric and Gaussian doping profile with gate underlap reduces the gate to drain capacitance that also improves the RF parameters of the device.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Performance optimization of MOS-like carbon nanotube-FETs with realistic source/drain contacts based on electrostatic doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailiang, Zhou; Yue, Hao; Minxuan, Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Due to carrier band-to-band-tunneling (BTBT) through channel-source/drain contacts, conventional MOS-like Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (C-CNFETs) suffer from ambipolar conductance, which deteriorates the device performance greatly. In order to reduce such ambipolar behavior, a novel device structure based on electrostatic doping is proposed and all kinds of source/drain contacting conditions are considered in this paper. The non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism based simulation results show that, with proper choice of tuning voltage, such electrostatic doping strategy can not only reduce the ambipolar conductance but also improve the sub-threshold performance, even with source/drain contacts being of Schottky type. And these are both quite desirable in circuit design to reduce the system power and improve the frequency as well. Further study reveals that the performance of the proposed design depends strongly on the choice of tuning voltage value, which should be paid much attention to obtain a proper trade-off between power and speed in application.

  16. Single-poly EEPROM cell with lightly doped MOS capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Riekels, James E.; Lucking, Thomas B.; Larsen, Bradley J.; Gardner, Gary R.

    2008-05-27

    An Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) memory cell and a method of operation are disclosed for creating an EEPROM memory cell in a standard CMOS process. A single polysilicon layer is used in combination with lightly doped MOS capacitors. The lightly doped capacitors employed in the EEPROM memory cell can be asymmetrical in design. Asymmetrical capacitors reduce area. Further capacitance variation caused by inversion can also be reduced by using multiple control capacitors. In addition, the use of multiple tunneling capacitors provides the benefit of customized tunneling paths.

  17. Emission Characteristics and Effect of Battery Drain in "Budget" Curing Lights.

    PubMed

    AlShaafi, M M; Harlow, J E; Price, H L; Rueggeberg, F A; Labrie, D; AlQahtani, M Q; Price, R B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, "budget" dental light-emitting diode (LED)-based light-curing units (LCUs) have become available over the Internet. These LCUs claim equal features and performance compared to LCUs from major manufacturers, but at a lower cost. This study examined radiant power, spectral emission, beam irradiance profiles, effective emission ratios, and the ability of LCUs to provide sustained output values during the lifetime of a single, fully charged battery. Three examples of each budget LCU were purchased over the Internet (KY-L029A and KY-L036A, Foshan Keyuan Medical Equipment Co, and the Woodpecker LED.B, Guilin Woodpecker Medical Instrument Co). Major dental manufacturers provided three models: Elipar S10 and Paradigm (3M ESPE) and the Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent). Radiant power emissions were measured using a laboratory-grade thermopile system, and the spectral emission was captured using a spectroradiometer system. Irradiance profiles at the tip end were measured using a modified laser beam profiler, and the proportion of optical tip area that delivered in excess of 400 mW/cm(2) (termed the effective emission ratio) was displayed using calibrated beam profile images. Emitted power was monitored over sequential exposures from each LCU starting at a fully charged battery state. The results indicated that there was less than a 100-mW/cm(2) difference between manufacturer-stated average tip end irradiance and the measured output. All the budget lights had smaller optical tip areas, and two demonstrated lower effective emission ratios than did the units from the major manufacturers. The budget lights showed discontinuous values of irradiance over their tip ends. One unit delivered extremely high output levels near the center of the light tip. Two of the budget lights were unable to maintain sustained and stable light output as the battery charge decreased with use, whereas those lights from the major manufacturers all provided a sustained light output for at least

  18. Two-dimensional semi-analytical model of subthreshold surface potential and drain current for double-doping polysilicon gate MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui-Fang; Dai, Yue-Hua; Xu, Jian-Bin; Li, Ning; Yang, Jin; Zheng, Chang-Yong

    2015-05-01

    A semi-analytical subthreshold surface potential model for double-doping polysilicon gate (DDPG) MOSFETs is presented. By introducing two rectangular sources located in the gate insulator and the channel-depleted region, the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equations are solved using a semi-analytical method combined with an eigenfunction expansion method. Expressions for the potentials are obtained as special functions of infinite series expressions. A subthreshold drain current is proposed on the basis of the potential profile, and it accounts for the carriers’ drift diffusion and thermionic emission theory. The advantage of this work is that the two-dimensional treatment of the gate insulator region has resulted in physical consistency across a dielectric boundary. The proposed model not only offers physical insight into device physics but also provides the basic designing guideline for DDPG MOSFETs, enabling the designer to optimize the device in accordance with the application. Very good agreement for both the subthreshold surface potential and drain current is observed between the model calculations and the simulated results.

  19. White light generation from Dy3+ doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damak, Kamel; Yousef, El Sayed; Rüssel, Christian; Maâlej, Ramzi

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports on the spectral results of Dy3+ (1.0 mol%) ions-doped TeO2-ZnO-PbO-PbF2-Na2O (TZPPN) glass. Raman spectrum measurements, differential thermal analysis (DTA) profiles of this rare-earth ion-doped glass were carried out. From the DTA thermogram, glass transition (Tg), crystallization (Tc) and melting (Tm) temperatures were evaluated. Direct and indirect optical band gaps were calculated based on the glasses UV absorption spectra. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters, Ωk, were calculated. Using J-O intensity parameters, several radiative properties such as spontaneous transition probabilities (AR), radiative branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) were determined for the excitation level 4F9/2. From the emission spectra, a strong yellow emission at 574 nm (4F9/2→6H13/2) was observed and it also showed a combination of blue and red emission bands for this glass. The stimulated emission cross-section σ(λp) was also evaluated for the 4F9/2→6HJ (J=11/2, 13/2, and 15/2) transitions. This study indicates that 1 mol% Dy2O3-doped tellurite glass can be considered for white light generation with the excitation of blue light (454 nm).

  20. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4 eV at a small forward bias larger than ∼2 V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a “universal” property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  1. Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moheghi, Alireza; Nemati, Hossein; Li, Yannian; Li, Quan; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2016-02-01

    Liquid crystals have been used to make electrically switchable light shutters (windows), but most of them are monostable: opaque in the absence of applied voltage and transparent when a voltage is applied. Here we report a bistable switchable light shutter based on cholesteric liquid crystal doped with tetrabutylammonium bromide. The salt makes it possible for the liquid crystal to have different electro-optical responses to applied voltages with different frequencies. The shutter can be either transparent or opaque in the absence of applied voltage. It can be switched from the transparent state to the opaque state by applying a low frequency (60 Hz) voltage pulse and switched back to the transparent state by applying a high frequency (2 kHz) voltage pulse. Because of the bistability, it can be used for energy-saving switchable privacy control and architectural windows.

  2. Hydrogen generation under visible light using nitrogen doped titania anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.; Rumaiz, A.; Schulz, M.; Huang, C.P.; Sha, S. I.

    2010-06-16

    Hydrogen is among several energy sources that will be needed to replace the quickly diminishing fossil fuels. Free hydrogen is not available naturally on earth and the current processes require a fossil fuel, methane, to generate hydrogen. Electrochemical splitting of water on titania proposed by Fujishima suffers from low efficiency. The efficiency could be enhanced if full sun spectrum can be utilized. Using pulsed laser deposition technique we synthesized nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}) thin films with improved visible light sensitivity. The photoactivity was found to be N concentration dependent. Hydrogen evolution was observed under visible light irradiation (wavelength > 390 nm) without the presence of any organic electron donor.

  3. Visible-light emission at room temperature in Mn-doped Si light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pham Nam; Maruo, Daiki; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate Si-based light-emitting diodes that continuously emit reddish-yellow visible light at room temperature by utilizing optical transitions between the p-d hybrid orbitals of Mn atoms doped in Si. Our light-emitting diodes show clear visible-light electroluminescence with two peaks at E1=1.75 and E2=2.30 eV , corresponding to optical transitions between p-d hybrid orbitals of Mn atoms. The electrons at the p-d hybrid orbitals of Mn in Si are excited by hot holes that are accelerated by an intensive electric field in the depletion layer of reverse biased Si p -n junctions containing a Mn-doped Si (Si:Mn) layer. The observed two peaks at E1=1.75 and E2=2.30 eV are redshifted and blueshifted by 0.14 eV, respectively, from those of GaAs:Mn or ZnS:Mn. Our observations are consistent with the p -d hybridized electronic structure of Mn atoms doped in Si as predicted by first-principles calculations.

  4. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam Hai, Pham; Maruo, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    We observed visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d-d transitions in light-emitting diodes with Mn-doped GaAs layers (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show two peaks at 1.89 eV and 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as 4A2(4F) → 4T1(4G) and 4T1(4G) → 6A1(6S) transitions of Mn atoms doped in ZnS. The temperature dependence and the current-density dependence are consistent with the characteristics of d-d transitions. We explain the observed EL spectra by the p-d hybridized orbitals of the Mn d electrons in GaAs.

  5. Patterning of silver nanoparticles on visible light-sensitive Mn-doped lithium niobate photogalvanic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaoyan; Ohuchi, Fumio; Hatano, Hideki; Takekawa, Shunji; Kitamura, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    Visible light-induced polarization-dependent photochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been demonstrated using Mn-doped congruent LiNbO{sub 3} (CLN) single crystals. Mn-doped CLN has a strong absorption over a wide region of the visible spectrum that allowed effective visible light irradiation for photochemical deposition. The AgNPs deposition on Mn-doped CLN was compared with that on non-doped congruent LiNbO{sub 3}, and together these further confirmed that the photochemical deposition on LiNbO{sub 3} is caused by the strong photogalvanic effect.

  6. Light-induced enhancement of the minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon passivated by doped silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhe; Chen, Chao; Pan, Miao; Sun, Yiling; Yang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a doubling of the effective minority carrier lifetime under light soaking conditions, observed in a boron-doped p-type Czochralski grown silicon wafer passivated by a phosphorus-doped silicon nitride thin film. The analysis of capacitance-voltage curves revealed that the fixed charge in this phosphorus-doped silicon nitride film was negative, which was unlike the well-known positive fixed charges observed in traditional undoped silicon nitride. The analysis results revealed that the enhancement phenomenon of minority carrier lifetime was caused by the abrupt increase in the density of negative fixed charge (from 7.2 × 1011 to 1.2 × 1012 cm-2) after light soaking.

  7. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-doped p-type layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenxiao; Qin, Ping; Song, Weidong; Zhang, Chongzhen; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Xia, Chao; Yuan, Songyang; Yin, Yian; Li, Shuti

    2016-09-01

    We report ultraviolet light emitting diode (LEDs) with polarization doped p-type layer. Fabricated LEDs with polarization doped p-type layer exhibited reduced forward voltage and enhanced light output power, compared to those with traditional p-type AlGaN layer. The improvement is attributed to improved hole concentration and the smooth valence band by the polarization enhanced p-type doping. Our simulated results reveal that this p-type layer can further enhance the performance of ultraviolet LEDs by removing the electron blocking layer (EBL).

  8. Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byeong-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Ki-Han; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    We propose a light shutter device using dichroic-dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs) whose Bragg reflection wavelength is set to be infrared by controlling the pitch of cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs). A dye-doped long-pitch ChLC cell is switchable between the dark planar state and the transparent homeotropic state. It has the advantages of high transmittance, low operation voltage, and an easy fabrication process relative to previous LC light shutter devices. The proposed light shutter device is expected to achieve high visibility for transparent organic light-emitting diode displays and emerging smart windows, which can be used in airplanes, cars, and other similar applications.

  9. The Electric and Optical Properties of Doped Small Molecular Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Ohk Cheon

    2003-08-05

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) constitute a new and exciting emissive display technology. In general, the basic OLED structure consists of a stack of fluorescent organic layers sandwiched between a transparent conducting-anode and metallic cathode. When an appropriate bias is applied to the device, holes are injected from the anode and electrons from the cathode; some of the recombination events between the holes and electrons result in electroluminescence (EL). Until now, most of the efforts in developing OLEDs have focused on display applications, hence on devices within the visible range. However some organic devices have been developed for ultraviolet or infrared emission. Various aspects of the device physics of doped small molecular OLEDs were described and discussed. The doping layer thickness and concentration were varied systematically to study their effects on device performances, energy transfer, and turn-off dynamics. Low-energy-gap DCM2 guest molecules, in either {alpha}-NPD or DPVBi host layers, are optically efficient fluorophores but also generate deep carrier trap-sites. Since their traps reduce the carrier mobility, the current density decreases with increased doping concentration. At the same time, due to efficient energy transfer, the quantum efficiency of the devices is improved by light doping or thin doping thickness, in comparison with the undoped neat devices. However, heavy doping induces concentration quenching effects. Thus, the doping concentration and doping thickness may be optimized for best performance.

  10. Lag and light-transfer characteristics of amorphous selenium photoconductive film with tellurium-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wug-Dong; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) films have been used for highly sensitive imaging devices. To study a-Se HARP films for a solid-state image sensor, current–voltage, lag, spectral response, and light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films are investigated. Also, to clarify a suitable Te-doped a-Se layer thickness in the a-Se photoconductor, we considered the effects of Te-doped layer thickness on the lag, spectral response, and light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films. The threshold field, at which avalanche multiplication occurs in the a-Se HARP targets, decreases when the Te-doped layer thickness increases. The lag of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets with Te-doped layers is higher than that of the target without Te doping. The lag of the targets with Te-doped layers is caused by the electrons trapped in the Te-doped layers within the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films. From the results of the spectral response measurement of about 15 min, the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets with Te-doped layers of 90 and 120 nm are observed to be unstable owing to the electrons trapped in the Te-doped a-Se layer. From the light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets, as the slope at the operating point of signal current–voltage characteristics in the avalanche mode increases, the γ of the a-Se HARP targets decreases. Considering the effects of dark current on the lag and spectral response characteristics, a Te-doped layer of 60 nm is suitable for 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films.

  11. Superhydrophilicity-assisted preparation of transparent and visible light activated N-doped titania film.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing Chi; Wellia, Diana V; Amal, Rose; Liao, Dai Wei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2010-07-01

    A novel and environmental friendly method was developed to prepare transparent, uniform, crack-free and visible light activated nitrogen doped (N-doped) titania thin films without the use of organic Ti precursors and organic solvents. The N-doped titania films were prepared from heating aqueous peroxotitanate thin films deposited uniformly on superhydrophilic uncoated glass substrates. The pure glass substrates were superhydrophilic after being heated at 500 degrees C for 1 h. Nitrogen concentrations in the titania films were adjusted by changing the amount of ammonia solution. The optimal photocatalytic activity of the N-doped titania films was about 14 times higher than that of a commercial self-cleaning glass under the same visible light illumination. The current reported preparative technique is generally applicable for the preparation of other thin films.

  12. A non-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with above 31% external quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Oswald, Iain W H; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Jia, Huiping; Qiao, Qiquan; Chen, Yonghua; Hoshikawa-Halbert, Jason; Gnade, Bruce E

    2014-12-23

    The demonstrated square-planar Pt(II)-complex has reduced triplet-triplet quenching and therefore a near unity quantum yield in the neat thin film. A non-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) based on this emitter achieves (31.1 ± 0.1)% external quantum efficiency without any out-coupling, which shows that a non-doped PhOLED can be comparable in efficiency to the best doped devices with very complicated device structures. PMID:25219957

  13. Rotation sensing with Er3+-doped active ring resonator slow light structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2016-10-01

    An optical gyroscope, which is constituted by Er3+-doped active ring resonator (EDARR) slow light structure, is presented for the first time. The principle of improving the sensitivity of the detection of angular velocity is analysed in detail. The expression of the rotation phase difference of EDARR between the counter-propagating waves is derived and discussed. At the resonant frequency, the phase shift difference has the maximum value when the light power in the cavity is far greater than the input light power. We designed an experimental scheme of Er3+-doped active ring resonator slow light system. Two additional bias phases ϕb = ±π/2 were introduced in the optical path, by recording the light intensity difference ? and I0 at the resonant frequency ?, the input angular velocity can be obtained. The slow light structure based on EDARR can enhance the sensitivity of the detection of the angular velocity by three orders of magnitude.

  14. Combining Microbial Enzyme Kinetics Models with Light Use Efficiency Models to Predict CO2 and CH4 Ecosystem Exchange from Flooded and Drained Peatland Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Jenerette, D.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Under California's Cap-and-Trade program, companies are looking to invest in land-use practices that will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a drained cultivated peatland system and a large source of CO2. To slow soil subsidence and reduce CO2 emissions, there is growing interest in converting drained peatlands to wetlands. However, wetlands are large sources of CH4 that could offset CO2-based GHG reductions. The goal of our research is to provide accurate measurements and model predictions of the changes in GHG budgets that occur when drained peatlands are restored to wetland conditions. We have installed a network of eddy covariance towers across multiple land use types in the Delta and have been measuring CO2 and CH4 ecosystem exchange for multiple years. In order to upscale these measurements through space and time we are using these data to parameterize and validate a process-based biogeochemical model. To predict gross primary productivity (GPP), we are using a simple light use efficiency (LUE) model which requires estimates of light, leaf area index and air temperature and can explain 90% of the observed variation in GPP in a mature wetland. To predict ecosystem respiration we have adapted the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model. The LUE-DAMM model allows accurate simulation of half-hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a mature wetland (r2=0.85). We are working to expand the model to pasture, rice and alfalfa systems in the Delta. To predict methanogenesis, we again apply a modified DAMM model, using simple enzyme kinetics. However CH4 exchange is complex and we have thus expanded the model to predict not only microbial CH4 production, but also CH4 oxidation, CH4 storage and the physical processes regulating the release of CH4 to the atmosphere. The CH4-DAMM model allows accurate simulation of daily CH4 ecosystem exchange in a mature wetland (r2=0.55) and robust estimates of annual CH4 budgets. The LUE

  15. Visible light photocatalytic antibacterial activity of Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Boonto, Yuphada; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-03-01

    The Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Their morphological features and characteristics such as particle size, surface area, and visible light absorbing capacity were compared and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible spectrophotometry were used to characterize both materials. The inactivation of E. coli (as an example of Gram-negative bacteria) and S. aureus (as an example of Gram-positive bacteria) with Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 was investigated in the absence and presence of visible light. Antibacterial activity tests were conducted using undoped, Ni-doped, and N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles show higher antibacterial activity than Ni-doped TiO2. The band gap narrowing of N-doped TiO2 can induce more visible light absorption and leads to the superb antibacterial properties of this material. The complete inactivation time for E. coli at an initial cell concentration of 2.7 × 10(4) CFU/mL was 420 min which is longer than the 360 min required for S. aureus inactivation. The rate of inactivation of S. aureus using the doped TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of visible light is greater than that of E. coli. The median lethal dose (LD50) values of S. aureus and E. coli by antibacterial activity under an 18-W visible light intensity were 80 and 350 mg/ml for N-doped TiO2, respectively.

  16. Light source with carbon nanotubes field emission cathode and rare-earth doped nanocrystalline phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psuja, P.; Strek, W.

    2007-09-01

    In this work we report a new carbon nanotubes field emission (CNT-FED) light source with nanocrystalline phosphors. The nanocrystalline powders of cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet were obtained by modified Pechini method. The phosphor has been electrophoretically deposited on ITO-glass substrates. The cathode composed of carbon nanotubes was fabricated in the same manner. A light source was assembled and tested. Low-voltage cathodoluminescent spectra and I-V characteristics of fabricated cathodes were measured. A possibility of application of Ce doped nanocrystalline YAG phosphor in the field emission displays (FEDs) was discussed.

  17. Fermi energy tuning with light to control doping profiles during epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C. E.; Beaton, D. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Alberi, K.

    2015-05-04

    The influence of light stimulation and photogenerated carriers on the process of dopant surface segregation during growth is studied in molecular beam epitaxially grown Si-doped GaAs structures. The magnitude of surface segregation decreases under illumination by above-bandgap photons, wherein splitting of the quasi Fermi levels reduces the band bending at the growth surface and raises the formation energy of compensating defects that can enhance atomic diffusion. We further show that light-stimulated epitaxy can be used as a practical approach to diminish dopant carry-forward in device structures and improve the performance of inverted modulation-doped quantum wells.

  18. Doped quantum dot@silica nanocomposites for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bingxia; Yao, Yulian; Gao, Mengyu; Sun, Kang; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Wanwan

    2015-10-01

    This work reports the use of a near-UV-LED chip in combination with blue, green-yellow and red emitting doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites to construct a novel WLED with reduced scattering and no reabsorption. Blue, green-yellow and red emitting Cu or Mn doped ZnSe QDs with enlarged Stokes shifts and similar absorption peaks (360-410 nm) were synthesized in liquid paraffin in order to solve the reabsorption problem and also obtain balanced white emission spectra. Silica shells were then coated onto the doped QDs, allowing for the refractive index of the nanocomposites to be tailored while simultaneously improving their compatibility with the epoxy resin. The transparent doped ZnSe QD@SiO2/epoxy composite was then used as a light conversion and encapsulant material in combination with the near-UV-LED chip to fabricate the WLED. This fabricated WLED demonstrated high luminous efficiency and good color chromatics stability, suggesting that WLEDs based on highly fluorescent doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites in combination with near-UV-LED chips may prove to be promising candidates for alternative light sources.This work reports the use of a near-UV-LED chip in combination with blue, green-yellow and red emitting doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites to construct a novel WLED with reduced scattering and no reabsorption. Blue, green-yellow and red emitting Cu or Mn doped ZnSe QDs with enlarged Stokes shifts and similar absorption peaks (360-410 nm) were synthesized in liquid paraffin in order to solve the reabsorption problem and also obtain balanced white emission spectra. Silica shells were then coated onto the doped QDs, allowing for the refractive index of the nanocomposites to be tailored while simultaneously improving their compatibility with the epoxy resin. The transparent doped ZnSe QD@SiO2/epoxy composite was then used as a light conversion and encapsulant material in combination with the near-UV-LED chip to fabricate the WLED. This fabricated WLED

  19. Facile synthesis of phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride polymers with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Chen, Xiufang; Guan, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach. • The incorporation of P resulted in favorable textural and electronic properties. • Doping with P enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • A postannealing treatment further enhanced the activity of P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Photogenerated holes were the main species responsible for the activity. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped carbon nitride materials were prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach using dicyandiamide monomer and a phosphorus containing ionic liquid as precursors. The as-prepared materials were subjected to several characterizations and investigated as metal-free photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants (dyes like Rhodamine B, Methyl orange) in aqueous solution under visible light. Results revealed that phosphorus-doped carbon nitride have a higher photocatalytic activity for decomposing Rhodamine B and Methyl orange in aqueous solution than undoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was attributed to the favorable textural, optical and electronic properties caused by doping with phosphorus heteroatoms into carbon nitride host. A facile postannealing treatment further improved the activity of the photocatalytic system, due to the higher surface area and smaller structural size in the postcalcined catalysts. The phosphorus-doped carbon nitride showed high visible-light photocatalytic activity, making them promising materials for a wide range of potential applications in photochemistry.

  20. High-performance single-crystalline arsenic-doped indium oxide nanowires for transparent thin-film transistors and active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Haitian; Ha, Young-geun; Wu, Chao; Sukcharoenchoke, Saowalak; Fu, Yue; Liu, Jun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-11-24

    We report high-performance arsenic (As)-doped indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) nanowires for transparent electronics, including their implementation in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) and transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The As-doped In(2)O(3) nanowires were synthesized using a laser ablation process and then fabricated into TTFTs with indium-tin oxide (ITO) as the source, drain, and gate electrodes. The nanowire TTFTs on glass substrates exhibit very high device mobilities (approximately 1490 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), current on/off ratios (5.7 x 10(6)), steep subthreshold slopes (88 mV/dec), and a saturation current of 60 microA for a single nanowire. By using a self-assembled nanodielectric (SAND) as the gate dielectric, the device mobilities and saturation current can be further improved up to 2560 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 160 microA, respectively. All devices exhibit good optical transparency (approximately 81% on average) in the visible spectral range. In addition, the nanowire TTFTs were utilized to control green OLEDs with varied intensities. Furthermore, a fully integrated seven-segment AMOLED display was fabricated with a good transparency of 40% and with each pixel controlled by two nanowire transistors. This work demonstrates that the performance enhancement possible by combining nanowire doping and self-assembled nanodielectrics enables silicon-free electronic circuitry for low power consumption, optically transparent, high-frequency devices assembled near room temperature.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of carbon-doped titania as an artificial solar light sensitive photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanzhi; Hwang, Doo-Sun; Lee, Nam Hee; Kim, Sun-Jae

    2005-03-01

    The carbon-doped titania with high surface area was prepared by temperature-programmed carbonization of K-contained anatase titania under a flow of cyclohexane. This carbon-doped titania has much better photocatalytic activity for gas-phase photo-oxidation of benzene under irradiation of artificial solar light than pure titania. The visible light photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the presence of oxygen vacancy states because of the formation of Ti 3+ species between the valence and the conduction bands in the TiO 2 band structure. The co-existence of K and carbonaceous species together stabilize Ti 3+ species and the oxygen vacancy state in the as-synthesized carbon-doped titania.

  2. Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byeong-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Ki-Han; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    We propose a light shutter device using dichroic-dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs) whose Bragg reflection wavelength is set to be infrared by controlling the pitch of cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs). A dye-doped long-pitch ChLC cell is switchable between the dark planar state and the transparent homeotropic state. It has the advantages of high transmittance, low operation voltage, and an easy fabrication process relative to previous LC light shutter devices. The proposed light shutter device is expected to achieve high visibility for transparent organic light-emitting diode displays and emerging smart windows, which can be used in airplanes, cars, and other similar applications. PMID:24514486

  3. Red-light emission induced by Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiabei; Li, Hao-Bo; Yuan, Linlin; Wang, Changhong; Cheng, Yahui; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Li, Lan; Wang, Weichao; Liu, Hui

    2015-12-01

    As a potential red-light source in the white light emitting diodes (LEDs), Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate (Mg28Ge7.5O38F10) are investigated by the first principles calculation with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. The results demonstrate that the neutral Mn substitutions at the Mg (Mn{{}\\text{Mg}} ), octahedral Ge (Mn{{}\\text{Ge≤ft(\\text{oct}\\right)}} ) and tetrahedral Ge (Mn{{}\\text{Ge≤ft(\\text{tet}\\right)}} ) sites are all energetically favorable. However, only Mn{{}\\text{Mg}} could create proper transition levels leading to the experimentally observed red-light emission under near ultra-violet (UV) excitation. Our results provide fundamental understanding of the Mn defects behavior and the corresponding red-light emission in Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate.

  4. Formation of temperature fields in doped anisotropic crystals under spatially inhomogeneous light beams passing through them

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, E. V.; Markelov, A. S.; Trushin, V. N. Chuprunov, E. V.

    2013-12-15

    The features of formation of thermal fields in potassium dihydrophosphate crystal doped with potassium permanganate under a 532-nm laser beam passing through it have been investigated. Data on the influence of birefringence on the temperature distribution in an anisotropic crystal whose surface is illuminated by a spatially modulated light beam are presented.

  5. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  6. Photoelectrolysis of water under visible light with doped SrTiO3 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, M.; Hiramoto, M.; Tsubomura, H.

    1983-02-01

    The photochemical behavior of strontium titanate (SrTiOe) sintered electrodes doped with various metal oxides is reported, with reference to the development of semiconductor electrodes applicable in solar energy conversion. The doped semiconductor electrodes were synthesized from 99.9% pure SrTiO3 powder mixed with reagent grade metal oxide which was then pressed into disks of 1 cm in diameter and sintered at 400 C for 2 hr. From the I-V and other characteristic curves which were plotted for various wavelengths, the energy level of the surface state of SrTiO3 electrode is estimated to lie at 1.9 eV below the conduction band. The SrTiO3 electrodes doped with RuO2, V2O5, Cr2O3, Ce2O3, CoO, and Rh2O3 showed photoresponse in visible light, while undoped SrTiO3 and those electrodes doped with other metal oxides such as ZnO and Al2O3 were photosensitive only in UV light. The electroluminescence spectra of the doped electrodes are classified into three groups: those that have electroluminescence characteristics similar to those of the undoped electrodes, those with very intense and narrow luminescence bands in the visible region, and those that exhibit a broad band at wavelengths shorter than those of the undoped electrodes

  7. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Rahul, T K; Sandhyarani, N

    2015-11-21

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting. PMID:26487369

  8. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, T. K.; Sandhyarani, N.

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting.

  9. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Rahul, T K; Sandhyarani, N

    2015-11-21

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting.

  10. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2014-12-01

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E12g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E12g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable

  11. Radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs with lightly and heavily doped emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1997-06-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause failures in ICs due to gain degradation of individual devices. The base current of irradiated bipolar devices increases with total dose, while the collector current remains relatively constant. This results in a decrease in the current gain. Lateral PNP (LPNP) transistors typically exhibit more degradation than vertical PNP devices at the same total dose, and have been blamed as the cause of early IC failures at low dose rates. It is important to understand the differences in total-dose response between devices with heavily- and lightly-doped emitters in order to compare different technologies and evaluate the applicability of proposed low-dose-rate hardness-assurance methods. This paper addresses these differences by comparing two different LPNP devices from the same process: one with a heavily-doped emitter and one with a lightly-doped emitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the lightly-doped devices are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and simulations illustrate that increased recombination on the emitter side of the junction is responsible for the higher sensitivity.

  12. Visible and Infra-red Light Emission in Boron-Doped Wurtzite Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature. PMID:24398782

  13. Visible and infra-red light emission in boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-08

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature.

  14. White light emission from GaN stack layers doped by different rare-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chang

    2015-02-01

    Experimental progress of electroluminescence devices (ELDs) employing GaN doped with rare-earth metals had been significantly made targeting RGB displays. However, reports on the theoretical models to design the devices and the applications were limited. Our previous paper proposed a device model using the quantum collision theory and Judd-Ofelt approximation to design the ELDs for white light illumination. In the present study, the model is modified by considering the light extraction efficiency and optical loss during propagating in the films. To improve the luminous efficiency, an ELD with three stack layers of GaN:Tm/GaN:Er/GaN:Eu is proposed and designed. The model predicts that the color of the integrated light can be controlled by applied voltage, thickness of each doping layer and doping concentrations of the rare earth metals. The luminous efficacy of white light emission at a bias of -100 V is calculated to be 274 lm/W, which is much higher than that of fluorescent lumps. The proposed ELD will open a door to efficient solid-state lighting.

  15. Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-05-28

    We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

  16. Light controlled drug delivery containers based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres

    PubMed Central

    Petriashvili, Gia; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Chubinidze, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel, light activated drug delivery containers, based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres. Upon exposure to UV/violet light, the spiropyran molecules entrapped inside the nematic liquid crystal micro spheres, interconvert from the hydrophobic, oil soluble form, to the hydrophilic, water soluble merocyanine one, which stimulates the translocation of the merocyanine molecules across the nematic liquid crystal-water barrier and results their homogeneous distribution throughout in an aqueous environment. Light controllable switching property and extremely high solubility of spiropyran in the nematic liquid crystal, promise to elaborate a novel and reliable vehicles for the drug delivery systems. PMID:26977353

  17. Effect of ion concentration on slow light propagation in highly doped erbium fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melle, Sonia; Calderón, Oscar G.; Carreño, F.; Cabrera, Eduardo; Antón, M. A.; Jarabo, S.

    2007-11-01

    The effect of ion density on slow light propagation enabled by coherent population oscillations has been experimentally investigated for highly doped erbium fibers at room temperature. We found that fractional delay increases with ion density. A saturation effect in the fractional delay has been observed for doping levels above ˜3150 ppm. Ultra-high ion concentration can simultaneously increase the fractional delay and the bandwidth of the signals. We have studied the propagation of Gaussian pulses along the fibers obtaining fractional delays up to 0.7 for the highest doping levels used. It is shown that pulse power can be used as a control parameter to reduce distortion at different pulse bandwidths.

  18. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components. PMID:25924372

  19. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components.

  20. GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl₃-doped graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Jae; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Hong-Yeol; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Mastro, Michael A; Hite, Jennifer K; Eddy, Charles R; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J; Kim, Jihyun

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate AuCl3-doped graphene transparent conductive electrodes integrated in GaN-based ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak of 363 nm. AuCl3 doping was accomplished by dipping the graphene electrodes in 5, 10 and 20 mM concentrations of AuCl3 solutions. The effects of AuCl3 doping on graphene electrodes were investigated by current-voltage characteristics, sheet resistance, scanning electron microscope, optical transmittance, micro-Raman scattering and electroluminescence images. The optical transmittance was decreased with increasing the AuCl3 concentrations. However, the forward currents of UV LEDs with p-doped (5, 10 and 20 mM of AuCl3 solutions) graphene transparent conductive electrodes at a forward bias of 8 V were increased by ~48, 63 and 73%, respectively, which can be attributed to the reduction of sheet resistance and the increase of work function of the graphene. The performance of UV LEDs was drastically improved by AuCl3 doping of graphene transparent conductive electrodes. PMID:24514418

  1. Atomic-Layer-Confined Doping for Atomic-Level Insights into Visible-Light Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fengcai; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yongfu; Liang, Liang; Liu, Katong; Xu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qun; Pan, Bicai; Luo, Yi; Xie, Yi

    2015-08-01

    A model of doping confined in atomic layers is proposed for atomic-level insights into the effect of doping on photocatalysis. Co doping confined in three atomic layers of In2S3 was implemented with a lamellar hybrid intermediate strategy. Density functional calculations reveal that the introduction of Co ions brings about several new energy levels and increased density of states at the conduction band minimum, leading to sharply increased visible-light absorption and three times higher carrier concentration. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the electron transfer time of about 1.6 ps from the valence band to newly formed localized states is due to Co doping. The 25-fold increase in average recovery lifetime is believed to be responsible for the increased of electron-hole separation. The synthesized Co-doped In2S3 (three atomic layers) yield a photocurrent of 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.5 V vs. RHE, nearly 10 and 17 times higher than that of the perfect In2S3 (three atomic layers) and the bulk counterpart, respectively.

  2. Effective photodarkening suppression in Yb-doped fiber lasers by visible light injection.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Riccardo; Robin, Thierry; Brand, Thomas; Klotzbach, Udo; Taccheo, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Al-silicate fibers have excellent manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, high-Yb doping concentration may be limited by severe losses induced by photodarkening phenomenon. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that Al-silicate Yb-doped fibers with high-inversion and doping concentration above 1 wt% can be successfully used by implementing a simple optical bleaching scheme. A co-injection into the active fiber of a few mW of light at around 550 nm wavelength successfully eliminates almost all photodarkening induced losses. We demonstrate operation at above 90% of the pristine output power level in several lasers with up to 30% Yb ions in the excited state. These results may allow using Yb-doped Al-silicate fibers with doping level increased by one order of magnitude. Finally, we provide a comprehensive picture of main parameters affecting photobleaching performance and, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first quantitative measurement of the Ytterbium excited state absorption cross-section in the visible range.

  3. N-type control of single-crystal diamond films by ultra-lightly phosphorus doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Makino, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    A wide impurity doping range of p- and n-type diamond semiconductors will facilitate the development of various electronics. This study focused on producing n-type diamond with ultra-lightly impurity doping concentrations. N-type single-crystal diamond films were grown on (111)-oriented diamond substrates by phosphorus doping using the optimized doping conditions based on microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with a high magnetron output power of 3600 W. The surface morphology was investigated by an optical microscopy using the Nomarski prism and confocal laser microscopy, and the phosphorus concentration was estimated by a secondary ion mass spectrometry. The phosphorus concentration was reproducibly controlled to between 2 × 1015 and 3 × 1017 cm-3 using a standard mass flow controller, and the average incorporation efficiency was around 0.1%. The electrical properties of the films were characterized by the Hall effect measurements as a function of temperature over a wide range from 220 to 900 K. N-type conductivity with thermal activation from a phosphorus donor level at around 0.57 eV was clearly observed for all the phosphorus-doped diamond films. The electron mobility of the film with a phosphorus concentration of 2 × 1015 cm-3 was recorded at 1060 cm2/V s at 300 K and 1500 cm2/V s at 225 K.

  4. Doping PbWO 4 with different ions to increase the light yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Usuki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Nikl, M.

    2002-06-01

    To search for a possibility to utilize PbWO 4-based scintillators in inexpensive positron emission computed tomography, we have studied the effects of doping PbWO 4 with different ions on the light yield (LY). The LY in PbWO 4, which is undoped except a small concentration of rare-earth 3+ ions to improve the radiation hardness, decay time, mechanical quality, etc., is 25-35 photoelectrons/MeV (pe/MeV) (about 3-4% of LY in BGO) with bialkali photomultiplier for a fixed condition of the crsytal size of 10×10×(20-30) mm 3 and the gate width of 1 μs. For doping with single dopant, the maximum LY obtained was about 49 pe/MeV for Mo 6+. For co-doping with two dopants, the maximum LY of 58 pe/MeV was obtained for Mo 6++Nb 5+. For co-doping with three dopants, we have recently obtained 77 pe/MeV for Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+,3+. The dependence of LY on the gate width indicates creation of medium-speed component in μs range in the samples doped with Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+,3+ or Mo 6++Nb 5+. Their radioluminescence spectra are similar in shape to PWO:Mo 6+.

  5. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.

  6. Low-level boron doping and light-induced effects in amorphous silicon pin solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, M.; Rauscher, B.; Kruehler, W.; Plaettner, R.; Pfleiderer, H.

    Amorphous silicon solar cells with the structure pin/ITO produced in the laboratory show an AM1 efficiency of up to 7.4 percent on 6 sq mm. The impact of doping the i-layer slightly with boron on the cell performance was studied together with its possible influence on the cell stability. Cells exposed to continuous AM1 illumination (up to 2000 hours) show a degradation of the efficiency. Differences in the bias-voltage during the deposition lead to significant differences in the stability whereas the influence of boron doping was not so prominent. The nu-tau-products for electrons and holes were shown to degrade differently through light-soaking for different doping-level. A further investigation was made by evaluating the frequency dependence of the capacitance via a new p i n junction model to obtain the density of states and the drift field in the i-layer for doping and light-soaking.

  7. From Light Impurity Doping to Complete Cation Exchange in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: The Role of Coulomb Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Steven; Ott, Florian; Norris, David

    2014-03-01

    Cation exchange is a reversible chemical reaction used to create new materials by replacing one type of cation with another, usually from solution. We have developed an atomistic model describing cation exchange in semiconductor nanocrystals. The model uses a small set of results obtained from DFT calculations for Ag-doped CdSe. From these we constructed a kinetic Monte Carlo model to address finite temperatures and time scales beyond the reach of DFT. Our simulations span a wide range of Ag concentrations, from light doping to full cation exchange. Thus our model provides a single conceptual framework in which these two phenomena can be understood as limiting endpoints. The results of the simulations are consistent with several experimentally observed aspects of both phenomena. An unexpected finding of our simulations is that the Coulomb interaction plays a central, but changing, role as the Ag concentration varies from light doping to fully cation exchanged. For example, if the Coulomb interaction is strongly screened then cation exchange is suppressed or stopped. When only moderately screened, Coulomb effects play an unanticipated but important role for both doping and cation exchange.

  8. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET. PMID:25429443

  9. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1−x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed. PMID:27198166

  10. Room temperature synthesis of Mn2+ doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Tiwary, C. S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2013-03-01

    Mn2+ doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn2+ doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be ˜1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn2+ doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn2+ doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn2+ doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn2+ doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  11. Strongly enhanced thermal transport in a lightly doped Mott insulator at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zlatić, V; Freericks, J K

    2012-12-28

    We show how a lightly doped Mott insulator has hugely enhanced electronic thermal transport at low temperature. It displays universal behavior independent of the interaction strength when the carriers can be treated as nondegenerate fermions and a nonuniversal "crossover" region where the Lorenz number grows to large values, while still maintaining a large thermoelectric figure of merit. The electron dynamics are described by the Falicov-Kimball model which is solved for arbitrary large on-site correlation with a dynamical mean-field theory algorithm on a Bethe lattice. We show how these results are generic for lightly doped Mott insulators as long as the renormalized Fermi liquid scale is pushed to very low temperature and the system is not magnetically ordered.

  12. Cu-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles for photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria under visible light.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, C; Abiramasundari, G; Gomathisankar, P; Manikandan, G; Anandi, V

    2010-12-01

    Two percent Cu-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles were prepared by a modified ammonia-evaporation-induced synthetic method, calcined at 450°C, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, ESR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Doping shifts the optical absorption edge to the visible region but increases the charge-transfer resistance and decreases the capacitance. Under visible light, the composite nanoparticles very efficiently catalyze the disinfection of Escherichia coli. The prepared oxide is selective in photocatalysis; under UV light, its photocatalytic activity to degrade sunset yellow, rhodamine B, and methylene blue dyes is less than that of the undoped one. PMID:20832079

  13. Factors affecting light-induced excess conductivity in doping-modulated amorphous silicon superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Su, F.; Levine, S.; Vanier, P.E.; Kampas, F.J.

    1986-03-15

    Doping-modulated amorphous silicon semiconducting films which exhibit the phenomenon of light-induced excess conductivity (LEC) have been made by silane glow discharge in a single-chamber system. This phenomenon shows a strong dependence on substrate temperature and process gas composition. The LEC effect decreases for very small and very large layer thickness. There also seems to be an optimum defect density for producing large effects.

  14. Highly Active TiO2-Based Visible-Light Photocatalyst with Nonmetal Doping and Plasmonic Metal Decoration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiao; Lima, Diana Q.; Chi, Miaofang; Yin, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    A sandwich-structured photocatalyst shows an excellent performance in degradation reactions of a number of organic compounds under UV, visible light, and direct sunlight (see picture). The catalyst was synthesized by a combination of nonmetal doping and plasmonic metal decoration of TiO2 nanocrystals, which improves visible-light activity and enhances light harvesting and charge separation, respectively.

  15. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification.

    PubMed

    Krysova, Hana; Vlckova-Zivcova, Zuzana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; Nesladek, Milos; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-14

    A novel simple and versatile synthetic strategy is developed for the surface modification of boron-doped diamond. In a two-step procedure, polyethyleneimine is adsorbed on the hydrogenated diamond surface and subsequently modified with a model light-harvesting donor-π-bridge-acceptor molecule (coded P1). The sensitized diamond exhibits stable cathodic photocurrents under visible-light illumination in aqueous electrolyte solution with dimethylviologen serving as an electron mediator. In spite of the simplicity of the surface sensitization protocol, the photoelectrochemical performance is similar to or better than that of other sensitized diamond electrodes which were reported in previous studies (2008-2014). PMID:25418375

  16. Effects of Mg doping in the quantum barriers on the efficiency droop of GaN based light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Yongchun, Yang

    2016-05-01

    The effects of Mg doping in the quantum barriers (QBs) on the efficiency droop of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated through a duel wavelength method. Barrier Mg doping would lead to the enhanced hole transportation and reduced polarization field in the quantum wells (QWs), both may reduce the efficiency droop. However, heavy Mg doping in the QBs would strongly deteriorate the crystal quality of the QWs grown after the doped QB. When increasing the injection current, the carriers would escape from the QWs between n-GaN and the doped QB and recombine non-radiatively in the QWs grown after the doped QB, leading to a serious efficiency droop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41171143).

  17. Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Savio, R.; Galli, M.; Liscidini, M.; Andreani, L. C.; Franzò, G.; Iacona, F.; Miritello, M.; Irrera, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Piana, A.; Priolo, F.

    2014-03-24

    We report on the design, fabrication, and electro-optical characterization of a light emitting device operating at 1.54 μm, whose active layer consists of silicon oxide containing Er-doped Si nanoclusters. A photonic crystal (PhC) is fabricated on the top-electrode to enhance the light extraction in the vertical direction, and thus the external efficiency of the device. This occurs if a photonic mode of the PhC slab is resonant with the Er emission energy, as confirmed by theoretical calculations and experimental analyses. We measure an increase of the extraction efficiency by a factor of 3 with a high directionality of light emission in a narrow vertical cone. External quantum efficiency and power efficiency are among the highest reported for this kind of material. These results are important for the realization of CMOS-compatible efficient light emitters at telecom wavelengths.

  18. Preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped titania.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Liu, Hongfang; Chen, Weiran; Chen, Debin; Yin, Jiwei; Guo, Xingpeng

    2010-03-01

    N-doped titania powders were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the titanium source and urea as the nitrogen source by the sol-gel method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and TEM results indicated that urea played an important role in controlling the size and aggregation process of titania nanoparticles. As an appropriate amount of urea was added into the titania sol, the size of the particles decreased. However, the excess urea reduced the dispersion of the particles and resulted in the aggregation. At the same time, the size of particle increased, and the size distribution broadened. The XPS and DRS results showed that the nitrogen was incorporated into titania lattice successfully, which brought about the redshift of the absorption edge and induced the photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. The photocatalytic experiments showed that the N-doped titania nanoparticles could effectively photodegrade methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity increased with the increase of the nitrogen doping level in the titania lattice, but decreased with the increase of the particle size and the organic surface residues caused by excess urea. PMID:20355662

  19. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan B. Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  20. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  1. Integrated oxygen-doping and dye sensitization of graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, H M; Tade, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-08-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) is a promising metal-free photocatalyst while suffering from low charge mobility induced inefficient photocatalysis. In this work, oxygen doping was employed to enhance the photodegradation of organic pollutants in water on graphitic carbon nitride (GCNO) under visible light. For further absorption extension, four organic dyes (Eosin-Y, Perylene, Nile-red and Coumarin) were adopted to dye-sensitize the GCNO photocatalyst. It was found that O-doping can promote dye sensitization, which was dependent on the type of dyes and influenced the photodegradation efficiencies of methylene blue (MB) and phenol. Nile-red sensitized GCNO presented the best activity in MB degradation under λ>480nm irradiations while Eosin-Y showed the best sensitization performance for phenol degradation under λ>420nm light source. However, dye sensitization was not effective for enhanced pollutant degradation on GCN without O-doping. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and photocurrent analyses were applied to investigate the mechanism of carriers' transfer, which indicated that dye molecules could inject extra electrons into GCNO energy band and the energy dislocation could suppress electron/hole recombination, enhancing photocatalytic performances.

  2. Coherent quasiparticles with a small fermi surface in lightly doped Sr(3)Ir(2)O(7).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; Hunter, E C; Subedi, A; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Perry, R S; Georges, A; Baumberger, F

    2014-12-19

    We characterize the electron doping evolution of (Sr_{1-x}La_{x})_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7} by means of angle-resolved photoemission. Concomitant with the metal insulator transition around x≈0.05 we find the emergence of coherent quasiparticle states forming a closed small Fermi surface of volume 3x/2, where x is the independently measured La concentration. The quasiparticle weight Z remains large along the entire Fermi surface, consistent with the moderate renormalization of the low-energy dispersion, and no pseudogap is observed. This indicates a conventional, weakly correlated Fermi liquid state with a momentum independent residue Z≈0.5 in lightly doped Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7}. PMID:25554897

  3. Enhanced visible light emission from Co 2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, R.; Tiwary, C. S.; Kumbhakar, P.; Mitra, A. K.

    2009-11-01

    ZnS nanoparticles with Co 2+ doping have been prepared at room temperature through a soft chemical route, namely the chemical co-precipitation method. The nanostructures of the prepared nanoparticles have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The sizes of as prepared nanoparticles are found to be in 1-4 nm range. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the undoped sample exhibits emission in the blue region with multiple peaks under UV excitation. On the other hand, in the Co 2+ doped ZnS samples enhanced visible light emissions with emission intensities of ~35 times larger than that of the undoped sample are observed under the same UV excitation wavelength of 280 nm.

  4. Coherent quasiparticles with a small fermi surface in lightly doped Sr(3)Ir(2)O(7).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; Hunter, E C; Subedi, A; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Perry, R S; Georges, A; Baumberger, F

    2014-12-19

    We characterize the electron doping evolution of (Sr_{1-x}La_{x})_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7} by means of angle-resolved photoemission. Concomitant with the metal insulator transition around x≈0.05 we find the emergence of coherent quasiparticle states forming a closed small Fermi surface of volume 3x/2, where x is the independently measured La concentration. The quasiparticle weight Z remains large along the entire Fermi surface, consistent with the moderate renormalization of the low-energy dispersion, and no pseudogap is observed. This indicates a conventional, weakly correlated Fermi liquid state with a momentum independent residue Z≈0.5 in lightly doped Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7}.

  5. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability.

  6. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. PMID:25497036

  7. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Zhang, Ran; Reinhard, Björn M.; Fujii, Minoru; Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Dal Negro, Luca

    2015-07-01

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Zhang, Ran; Reinhard, Björn M.; Fujii, Minoru; Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Dal Negro, Luca

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  9. Controlling Proton Conductivity with Light: A Scheme Based on Photoacid Doping of Materials.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, Shima; Ostresh, Sarah; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2016-02-11

    Transducing light energy to changes in material properties is central to a large range of functional materials, including those used in light harvesting. In conventional semiconductors, photoconductivity arises due to generation of mobile electrons or holes with light. Here we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, an analogue of this effect for protons in an organic polymer solution and in water. We show that when a material is doped with photoacids, light excitation generates extra mobile protons that change the low-frequency conductivity of the material. We measure such change both in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and in water sandwiched between two transparent electrodes and doped with a well-known photoacid 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS). The complex impedance of the material is measured over a range of 0.1 Hz-1 MHz in both the presence and absence of light, and it is found that shining light changes the low frequency impedance significantly. We model the impedance spectra of the material with a minimal circuit composed of a diffusive impedance (Warburg element), a parallel capacitance, and a resistance. Fitting the light and dark impedance spectra to the model reveals that light reduces the low-frequency diffusive impedance of the material, which is consistent with generation of extra free carriers by light. We further suggest that the light-induced conductivity change arises mainly due to those photoreleased protons that manage to escape the zone of influence of the parent ion and avoid recapture. Such escape is more likely in materials with larger diffusion coefficient for protons and shorter electrostatic screening lengths for the parent ion. This explanation is consistent with our observed differences in the photoconductivity of solution of HPTS in water and in PEG. We anticipate that this scheme can be employed in protonic circuits where direct transduction of energy from light to protonic gradients or protonic currents is

  10. The study of visible light active bismuth modified nitrogen doped titanium dioxide photocatlysts: Role of bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwasi, Segomotso; Niu, Yuxiao; Nasir, Muhammad; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth modified nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by two steps synthesis route which includes hydrothermal and impregnation hydrolysis method. Samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physical adsorption, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS) technologies. The preparatory method afforded the production of well crystallized spherical Bi modified N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with varied amounts of Bi content. XRD analysis results reveal that Bi exists as rare metastable Bi20TiO32 which started to surface at Bi loading content of 7 mol% in relation to Ti ions. All Bi modified N-TiO2 samples exhibited higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of 2,4-DCP over N-TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The sample with 10% composition of the Bi20TiO32 exhibited the highest activity. The superior photocatalytic performance of 10%Bi/N-TiO2 is attributed to high visible light absorption as well as effective charge carrier separation. Therefore, the role of Bi species in the N-TiO2 is improvement of visible light harvesting and facilitation of charge carrier separation hence alleviating electron-hole recombination.

  11. Visible light emission and energy transfer processes in Sm-doped nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Zanatta, A. R.

    2012-06-15

    Even though the great interest in studying the near-infrared light emission due to Er{sup 3+} ions for telecommunication purposes, efficient visible radiation can be achieved from many different rare-earth (RE) ions. In fact, visible and/or near-infrared light emission takes place in RE-doped wide bandgap semiconductors following either photon or electron excitation, suggesting their technological potential in devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED's) and flat-panel displays, for example. Taking into consideration these aspects, the present contribution reports on the investigation of AlN, BeN, GeN, and SiN thin films doped with samarium. The samples were prepared by sputtering and as a result of the deposition method and conditions they present an amorphous structure and Sm concentrations in the low 0.5 at. %. After deposition, the samples were submitted to thermal annealing treatments and investigated by different spectroscopic techniques. A detailed examination of the experimental data allowed to identify optical transitions due to Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 2+} ions as well as differences in their mechanisms of photon excitation and recombination. Moreover, it is shown that the Sm-related spectral features and emission intensity are susceptible, respectively, to the atomic environment the Sm{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 2+} ions experience and to the presence of non-radiative recombination centers.

  12. Large magnetic field effects in electrochemically doped organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Reenen, S.; Kersten, S. P.; Wouters, S. H. W.; Cox, M.; Janssen, P.; Koopmans, B.; Bobbert, P. A.; Kemerink, M.

    2013-09-01

    Large negative magnetoconductance (MC) of ˜12% is observed in electrochemically doped polymer light-emitting diodes at sub-band-gap bias voltages (Vbias). Simultaneously, a positive magnetoefficiency (Mη) of 9% is observed at Vbias = 2 V. At higher bias voltages, both the MC and Mη diminish while a negative magnetoelectroluminescence (MEL) appears. The negative MEL effect is rationalized by triplet-triplet annihilation that leads to delayed fluorescence, whereas the positive Mη effect is related to competition between spin mixing and exciton formation leading to an enhanced singlet:triplet ratio at nonzero magnetic field. The resultant reduction in triplet exciton density is argued to reduce detrapping of polarons in the recombination zone at low-bias voltages, explaining the observed negative MC. Regarding organic magnetoresistance, this study provides experimental data to verify existing models describing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors, which contribute to better understanding hereof. Furthermore, we present indications of strong magnetic field effects related to interactions between trapped carriers and excitons, which specifically can be studied in electrochemically doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Regarding light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), this work shows that delayed fluorescence from triplet-triplet annihilation substantially contributes to the electroluminescence and the device efficiency.

  13. Enhanced dopant solubility and visible-light absorption in Cr-N co-doped TiO2 nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiodi, Dr Mirco; Cheney, Christine; Vilmercati, Paolo; Cavaliere, Emanuele; Mannella, Norman; Gavioli, Luca; Weitering, Harm H

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle toward employing TiO2 as an efficient photoactive material is related to its large optical band gap, strongly limiting visible light absorption. Substitutional doping with both donors and acceptors (co-doping) potentially leads to a significant band gap reduction, but the effectiveness of the co-doping approach remains limited by the low solubility of dopants inside TiO2. Here we show that nanostructured Cr and N co-doped TiO2 thin films can be obtained by Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) with a high concentration of dopants and a strongly reduced band gap. Complementary spectroscopic investigations show that doping effectively occurs into substitutional lattice sites, inducing dopant levels in the gap that are remarkably delocalized. The high surface-to-volume ratio, typical of SCBD nanostructured films, likely facilitates the dopant incorporation. The present results indicate that SCBD films are highly promising photoactive nanophase materials.

  14. Metal doped nanosized titania used for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible-light.

    PubMed

    Mahlambi, Mphilisi M; Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Shivani B; Krause, Rui W; Mamba, Bhekie B; Raichur, Ashok M

    2013-07-01

    Metal-doped anatase nanosized titania photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using a sol-gel process. Different amounts of the dopants (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0%) of the metals (Ag, Ni, Co and Pd) were utilized. The UV-Vis spectra (solid state diffuse reflectance spectra) of the doped nanoparticles exhibited a red shift in the absorption edge as a result of metal doping. The metal-doped nanoparticles were investigated for their photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation using Rhodamine B (Rh B) as a control pollutant. The results obtained indicate that the metal-doped titania had the highest activity at 0.4% metal loading. The kinetic models revealed that the photodegradation of Rh B followed a pseudo first order reaction. From ion chromatography (IC) analysis the degradation by-products Rhodamine B fragments were found to be acetate, chloride, nitrite, carbonate and nitrate ions.

  15. Enhancement of Quantum Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Devices by Doping Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chengjun; Wu, Yue; Xu, Zhihua; Hu, Bin; Bai, Jianmin; Wang, Jian-Ping; Shen, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of CoFe are used as dopants to enhance the quantum efficiency of electroluminance in a single layer organic light emitting device (OLED). The enhancement of quantum efficiency increases with both increasing density of CoFe nanoparticles and external magnetic field. For a given OLED with 0.1 wt % doping, the enhancement of the quantum efficiency reaches {approx}27% and {approx}32% without and with a magnetic field, respectively. The origin of these improvements could be attributed to the simultaneous increases of the portion of excitons among total charge carriers and the fraction of singlets among the total excitons

  16. Light emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals at oblique angles: Simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Penninck, L; Beeckman, J; De Visschere, P; Neyts, K

    2012-04-01

    Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch of the order of a wavelength have a strong effect on the fluorescence properties of dye molecules. This is a promising system for realizing tunable lasers at low cost. We apply a plane wave model to simulate the spontaneous emission from a layer of cholesteric liquid crystal. We simulate the spectral and angle dependence and the polarization of the emitted light as a function of the order parameter of the dye in the liquid crystal. Measurements of the angle dependent emission spectra and polarization are in good agreement with the simulations.

  17. Photocatalysis using a Wide Range of the Visible Light Spectrum: Hydrogen Evolution from Doped AgGaS2.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Kohei; Iwase, Akihide; Kudo, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Doping of nickel into AgGaS2 yields a new absorption band, at a wavelength longer than the intrinsic absorption band of the AgGaS2 host. The doped nickel forms an electron donor level in a forbidden band of AgGaS2 . The nickel-doped AgGaS2 with rhodium co-catalyst shows photocatalytic activity for sacrificial H2 evolution under the light of up to 760 nm due to the transition from the electron donor level consisting of Ni(2+) to the conduction band of AgGaS2 . Apparent quantum yields for the sacrificial H2 evolution at 540-620 nm are about 1 %. Moreover, the nickel-doped AgGa0.75 In0.25 S2 also responds to near-IR light, up to 900 nm.

  18. Photoluminescence from a Tb-doped photonic crystal microcavity for white light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yigang; Almeida, Rui M.

    2010-11-01

    Terbium-doped one-dimensional triple microcavities have been prepared by sol-gel processing. The photoluminescence (PL) of Tb3+ ions outside a microcavity structure, when excited by blue laser light at 488 nm, consisted of three distinct peaks at 542, 587 and 619 nm. When embedded in the microcavities, the three Tb3+ PL peaks were enhanced, balanced and broadened by the photonic crystal structure and combined into a continuous broad band. An analysis in the CIE colour space showed that white light can be obtained by mixing the modified Tb3+ PL with the blue exciting light, while this is impossible with the original PL profile. This novel technique may improve white light generation by enhancing and modifying the spontaneous emission of current phosphors. It may also lead to the development of new rare-earth phosphor materials based on 4f-4f transitions, able to generate white light more efficiently, via simpler and cheaper alternatives to the current phosphor compositions. A novel configuration to combine this kind of structure with a white light-emitting-diode (LED) is also proposed.

  19. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  20. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  1. Mg 2+-doped GaN nanoparticles as blue-light emitters: a method to avoid sintering at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Venkataramanan; Sudarsan, Vasanthakumaran; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; van Veggel, Frank C J M; Wang, Rui; Steckl, Andrew J; Raudsepp, Mati

    2008-01-01

    Bright blue-light emission at 410 nm is observed from Mg(2+)-doped GaN nanoparticles prepared by the nitridation of Ga(2)MgO(4) nanoparticles at 950 degrees C. The sintering of these nanoparticles during high-temperature nitridation was prevented by mixing the Ga(2)MgO(4) precursor nanoparticles with La(2)O(3) as an inert matrix before the nitridation process. The Mg(2+)-doped GaN nanoparticles were isolated from the matrix by etching with 10 % nitric acid. The Mg(2+)-doped GaN nanoparticles were characterized by photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and IR analyses.

  2. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ligong; Li, Di; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-11-01

    A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively.A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More XPS and UV-Vis spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04402e

  3. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Gambino, S.; Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D.; Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S.; Gigli, G.

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  4. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Gambino, S.; Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S.; Sanvitto, D.; Gigli, G.

    2014-06-01

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  5. Hydrothermal derived nitrogen doped SrTiO3 for efficient visible light driven photocatalytic reduction of chromium(VI).

    PubMed

    Xing, Guanjie; Zhao, Lanxiao; Sun, Tao; Su, Yiguo; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report on the synthesis of nitrogen doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles with efficient visible light driven photocatalytic activity toward Cr(VI) by the solvothermal method. The samples are carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photocatalytic test. It is found that nitrogen doping in SrTiO3 lattice led to an apparent lattice expansion, particle size reduction as well as subsequent increase of Brunner-Emmet-Teller surface area. The visible light absorption edge and intensity can be modulated by nitrogen doping content, which absorption edge extends to about 600 nm. Moreover, nitrogen doping can not only modulate the visible light absorption feature, but also have consequence on the enhancement of charge separation efficiency, which can promote the photocatalytic activity. With well controlled particle size, Brunner-Emmet-Teller surface area, and electronic structure via nitrogen doping, the photocatalytic performance toward Cr(VI) reduction of nitrogen doped SrTiO3 was optimized at initial hexamethylenetetramine content of 2. PMID:27478749

  6. Static and dynamic photoinduced magnetic effects in yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V. Khalilov, R. Z.

    2012-04-15

    In yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium, direct measurements of the photoinduced changes in magnetostrictive strains disagree with those in magnetostriction constants at 78-100 K. This is attributed to a considerable photoinduced modification of the initial state in this sample due to a redistribution of the charge (during illumination) between cations of the ferromagnetic octahedral sublattice. In the same sample, the temperature dependence of the photoinduced disaccomodation of magnetic permeability characterizing the initial demagnetized state is measured and calculated. A change in the electron mechanism of the phenomenon during the transition to room temperature is shown. The conclusion about the promising prospects for using such samples for remagnetization by light is advanced.

  7. Thermo-optical and polarized light studies of MWCNT doped PDLCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Jyoti; Gupta, Sureshchandra J.; Saxena, S.; Swati, K.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of liquid crystals (LCs) are very essential in an understanding of the technological applications of the LCs. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLCs) are prepared by dispersing the liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix. Experiments to study thermo-optical properties and polarized light studies are considered in the present work. PDLCs used in the present work are composed of poly (methyl methacrylate) and cholestric liquid crystal namely cholesteryl propionate. These are further doped with Multi-walled carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs). Thermo-optical study reveals that there is decrease in the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature (Clearing point temperature i.e. CPT) with increase in the concentration of MWCNTs. The effect of polarized light is studied by means of change in polarization which is characteristic of the material properties. The optical constants graphs obtained from ellipsometry provides the possibility of the use of composite material for optical switching systems.

  8. UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Chen, R.; Li, D. H.; Jiang, L.; Ye, J. C.; Ma, X. C.; Chen, X. D.; Xiong, Q. H.; Sun, H. D.; Wu, T.

    2011-05-01

    Multifunctional single crystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires with tuned Sn doping levels are synthesized via a vapor transport method. The Sn concentration in the nanowires can reach 6.4 at.% at a synthesis temperature of 840 °C, significantly exceeding the Sn solubility in ITO bulks grown at comparable temperatures, which we attribute to the unique feature of the vapor-liquid-solid growth. As a promising transparent conducting oxide nanomaterial, layers of these ITO nanowires exhibit a sheet resistance as low as 6.4~\\Omega /\\square and measurements on individual nanowires give a resistivity of 2.4 × 10 - 4 Ω cm with an electron density up to 2.6 × 1020 cm - 3, while the optical transmittance in the visible regime can reach ~ 80%. Under the ultraviolet excitation the ITO nanowire samples emit blue light, which can be ascribed to transitions related to defect levels. Furthermore, a room temperature ultraviolet light emission is observed in these ITO nanowires for the first time, and the exciton-related radiative process is identified by using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements.

  9. Strengthening TiN diffusion barriers for Cu metallization by lightly doping Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. C.; Hsu, C. S.; Chen, G. S.; Fu, C. C.; Zuo, J. M.; Lee, B. Q.

    2005-09-01

    Thin films of Ti1-xAlxN were deposited on (100) Si by ultrahigh-vacuum dual-target reactive sputtering, and the impact of lightly doping Al of x as small as 0.09 on altering the films's microstructure upon thermal annealing, and hence the performance of the films (40nm thick) as diffusion barriers for Cu metallization was evaluated. The results of transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction show that the TiN barrier layer gives the commonly observed voided, columnar grains composed of 5nm sized subgrains. Upon annealing, the subgrains tend to coalesce into 20nm sized equiaxed grains full of crystalline defects, initiating an inward penetration of Cu and a partial dissociation of TiN, transforming themselves, respectively, into pyramidal (or columnar) Cu3Si precipitates and a dendritic Ti5Si3 layer just after 550°C, 10min annealing. However, the lightly doped Al not only overrides the tendency to form intercolumnar voids inherent in sputter deposition by self-shadowing and statistical roughening, but also substantially enhances the microstructural and thermochemical stability, hence significantly improving barrier property, as evidenced from an annealing test at an elevated temperature (600°C) for a prolonged period of 30min.

  10. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  11. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films. PMID:26156001

  12. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-09

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of p,p'-DDT under UV and visible light using interstitial N-doped TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (or p,p'-DDT) is one of the most persistent pesticides. It is resistant to breakdown in nature and cause the water contamination problem. In this work, a major objective was to demonstrate the application of N-doped TiO2 in degradation and mineralization of the p,p'-DDT under UV and visible light in aqueous solution. The N-doped TiO2 nanopowders were prepared by a simple modified sol-gel procedure using diethanolamine (DEA) as a nitrogen source. The catalyst characteristics were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, and XPS. The adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of p,p'-DDT using the synthesized N-doped TiO2 under UV and visible light were conducted in a batch photocatalytic experiment. The kinetics and p,p'-DDT degradation performance of the N-doped TiO2 were evaluated. Results show that the N-doped TiO2 can degrade p,p'-DDT effectively under both UV and visible lights. The rate constant of the p,p'-DDT degradation under UV light was only 0.0121 min(-1), whereas the rate constant of the p,p'-DDT degradation under visible light was 0.1282 min(-1). Under visible light, the 100% degradation of p,p'-DDT were obtained from N-doped TiO2 catalyst. The reaction rate of p,p'-DDT degradation using N-doped TiO2 under visible light was sixfold higher than that under UV light. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the adsorption equilibrium constant (K) for the N-doped TiO2 under visible light was 0.03078 L mg(-1), and the apparent reaction rate constant (k) was 1.3941 mg L(-1)-min. Major intermediates detected during the p,p'-DDT degradation were p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD. Results from this work can be applied further for the breakdown of p,p'-DDT molecule in the real contaminated water using this technology.

  14. Study of new states in visible light active W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel. ► Oxygen vacancies are detected in the form of new linkages as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. ► W, N co-doped titania has new energy states which narrows the band gap effectively. ► Oxygen vacancies are proved to be the cause for high photo catalytic activity. ► W and N co-doping plays the major role to make the composite thermally stable. -- Abstract: The visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel method. New linkages of N, W and O are formed as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. Electron paramagnetic resonance illustrates the presence of oxygen vacancies in W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} acting as trapping agencies for electrons to produce active species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of new energy states. New linkages and oxygen vacancies are proved to be the main cause for the improved photo catalytic performances. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} has new energy states which narrow the band gap effectively. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} is thermally stable and retains its anatase phase up to 900 °C. 4.5% W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed superior activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol as compared to pure titania, Degussa P-25, traditional N-doped TiO{sub 2} and pure WO{sub 3}.

  15. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous cerium doped TiO{sub 2} as visible light sensitive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, Noor; Satapathy, P.K.; Mishra, T.; Mahato, M.; Das, N.N.

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium doped titania having optimum 5 wt% of cerium can decompose methylene blue and reduce selenium (IV) efficiently under visible light. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cerium doping on the surface properties and visible light mediated photocatalytic reaction is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium doping increases the anatase phase stability, surface area (up to 137 m{sup 2}/g) and visible light absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}, oxygen vacancy, surface area and crystallinity is correlated with improved catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material with 5 wt% Ce is found to be most active photocatalyst for methylene blue decomposition and Se (IV) reduction. -- Abstract: Cerium doped titania materials were synthesized varying the cerium concentration from 0 to 10 wt%. Materials are characterised by XRD, TEM, XPS and N{sub 2} adsorption desorption method. Surface area and visible light absorption substantially increases and crystallite size decreases with the increasing cerium content. Cerium doping stabilizes the anatase phase and surface area even at 600 Degree-Sign C calcination. Photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue decomposition and selenium (IV) reduction is found to increase with the cerium content up to 5 wt% and then decreases. Materials calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C shows better activity than that calcined at 400 Degree-Sign C, even though surface area decreases. Anatase crystallinity mostly decides the photocatalytic activity rather than only surface area. It can be concluded that the optimum visible light absorption and oxygen vacancy with 5% cerium doping enhances the photocatalytic activity. In addition photocatalytic performance is found to depend on the presence of Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+} rather than only visible light absorption.

  16. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruo, Daiki; Hai, Pham Nam; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d- d transitions in GaAs:Mn based LEDs. We design p+-n junctions with a p+ GaAs:Mn layer, in which at a reverse bias voltage (-3 to -6 V), an intense electric field builds up in the depletion layers of the p+-n junctions. Holes are injected to the depletion layer by Zener tunneling from the conduction band or by diffusion of minority holes from the valence band of the n-type layer. These holes are accelerated by the intense electric field in the depletion layer, and excite the d electrons of Mn in the p+ GaAs:Mn layer by impact excitations. We observe visible-light emission at E1 = 1.89 eV and E2 = 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as the 4T1-->6A1 and 4A2-->4T1 transition energy of Mn. The threshold voltage for observation of visible-light EL is -4 V, corresponding to -(E1 +E2) / e. This indicates that the impact excitation is most effective for the one step excitation from the ground state 6A1 to the highest excited state 4A2 .

  17. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  18. Bismuth-doped ordered mesoporous TiO2: visible-light catalyst for simultaneous degradation of phenol and chromium.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Shamaila; Leghari, Sajjad A K; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-12-10

    A controllable and reproducible synthesis of highly ordered two-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous, crystalline bismuth-doped TiO(2) nanocomposites with variable Bi ratios is reported here. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that the well-ordered mesostructure is doped with Bi, which exists as Bi(3+) and Bi((3+x+)). The Bi-doped mesoporous TiO(2) (ms-TiO(2)) samples exhibit improved photocatalytic activities for simultaneous phenol oxidation and chromium reduction in aqueous suspension under visible and UV light over the pure ms-TiO(2), P-25, and conventional Bi-doped titania. The high catalytic activity is due to both the unique structural characteristics and the Bi doping. This new material extends the spectral response from UV to the visible region, and reduces electron-hole recombination, which renders the 2.0% Bi-doped ms-TiO(2) photocatalyst highly responsive to visible light. PMID:20957621

  19. Improvement of light scattering capacity in dye-sensitized solar cells by doping with SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Jun; Park, Jun-Yong; Kim, Chan-Soo; Okuyama, Kikuo; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Oh

    2016-09-01

    N-doped TiO2 was further doped with SiO2 to prepare SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes with high activity in the visible region. A sol-gel process was employed to produce nanoparticles of SiO2/N-doped TiO2. The addition of SiO2 to the metal oxide enhanced charge transfer and reduced charge recombination. With the addition of sufficient amounts of SiO2 and N, the photoelectrodes exhibited a high surface area and strong absorption of light because of their altered absorptivity in the visible wavelength region. These characteristics enabled the production of photoelectrodes with increased charge transfer and reduced charge recombination, resulting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced Jsc values. The SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were characterized using a range of analysis techniques. After the J-V curve measurements, the DSSCs fabricated with the 0.1 mM SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 8.68%, which was approximately 3% higher than that of the N-doped TiO2 control groups. This high energy efficiency with the addition of SiO2 might be due to the enhanced surface area of the photoelectrodes, allowing more dye absorption, and a decrease in electron recombination.

  20. Phosphorus Doping in Si Nanocrystals/SiO2 msultilayers and Light Emission with Wavelength compatible for Optical Telecommunication.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Mu, Weiwei; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-03-09

    Doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue for developing high performance devices. However, the doping behavior in Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has not been fully understood so far. In the present work, P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers are fabricated. As revealed by XPS and ESR measurements, P dopants will preferentially passivate the surface states of Si NCs. Meanwhile, low temperature ESR spectra indicate that some P dopants are incorporated into Si NCs substitutionally and the incorporated P impurities increase with the P doping concentration or annealing temperature increasing. Furthermore, a kind of defect states will be generated with high doping concentration or annealing temperature due to the damage of Si crystalline lattice. More interestingly, the incorporated P dopants can generate deep levels in the ultra-small sized (~2 nm) Si NCs, which will cause a new subband light emission with the wavelength compatible with the requirement of the optical telecommunication. The studies of P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers suggest that P doping plays an important role in the electronic structures and optoelectronic characteristics of Si NCs.

  1. Phosphorus Doping in Si Nanocrystals/SiO2 msultilayers and Light Emission with Wavelength compatible for Optical Telecommunication

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Mu, Weiwei; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-01-01

    Doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue for developing high performance devices. However, the doping behavior in Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has not been fully understood so far. In the present work, P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers are fabricated. As revealed by XPS and ESR measurements, P dopants will preferentially passivate the surface states of Si NCs. Meanwhile, low temperature ESR spectra indicate that some P dopants are incorporated into Si NCs substitutionally and the incorporated P impurities increase with the P doping concentration or annealing temperature increasing. Furthermore, a kind of defect states will be generated with high doping concentration or annealing temperature due to the damage of Si crystalline lattice. More interestingly, the incorporated P dopants can generate deep levels in the ultra-small sized (~2 nm) Si NCs, which will cause a new subband light emission with the wavelength compatible with the requirement of the optical telecommunication. The studies of P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers suggest that P doping plays an important role in the electronic structures and optoelectronic characteristics of Si NCs. PMID:26956425

  2. White light emitting Ho{sup 3+}-doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained glass nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb; Goswami, Madhumita

    2015-02-23

    We report the generation of white light from Ho{sup 3+} ion doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained borosilicate glass nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-quench method. Near visible 405 nm diode laser excited white light emission is produced by tuning the blue emission from the Ho{sup 3+} ions, green band edge, and orange-red surface-state emissions of the nanocrystalline CdS, which are further controlled by the size of the nanocrystals. The absorption and emission spectra evidenced the excitation of Ho{sup 3+} ions by absorption of photons emitted by the CdS nanocrystals. The high color rendering index (CRI = 84–89) and befitting chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.308–0.309, y = 0.326–0.338) of white light emission, near visible harmless excitation wavelength (405 nm), and high absorbance values at excitation wavelength point out that these glass nanocomposites may serve as a prominent candidate for resin free high power white light emitting diodes.

  3. Photodegradation of aniline by goethite doped with boron under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; Zhu, Duanwei; Liu, Linghua; Cheng, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huaidong

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Goethite modified by boron was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid at the low temperature. {yields} B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. {yields} The results showed that semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism should exist in the process of aniline degradation with goethite and B-goethite as photocatalyst. -- Abstract: In the present study, goethite and goethite doped with boron (B-goethite) were employed to detect the presence or absence of semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism in the reaction systems. B-goethite was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid in order to improve its photocatalystic efficiency under the ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The optical properties of goethite and B-goethite were characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra and the result indicated that B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. Degradation of aniline was investigated in presence of goethite and B-goethite in aqueous solution. It was found that the B-goethite photocatalyst exhibited enhanced ultraviolet and visible light photocatalytic activity in degradation of aniline compared with the pristine goethite. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of B-goethite was discussed.

  4. Visible-Light-Induced Bactericidal Activity of Titanium Dioxide Co-doped with Nitrogen and Silver

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, Kari; Shang, Jian-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles co-doped with nitrogen and silver (Ag2O/TiON) were synthesized by the sol-gel process and found to be an effective visible light driven photocatalyst. The catalyst showed strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) under visible light irradiation (λ> 400 nm). In x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization of the samples, the as-added Ag species mainly exist as Ag2O. Spin trapping EPR study showed Ag addition greatly enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag2O species trapped eCB− in the process of Ag2O/TiON photocatalytic reaction, thus inhibiting the recombination of eCB− and hVB+ in agreement with the stronger photocatalytic bactericidal activity of Ag2O/TiON. The killing mechanism of Ag2O/TiON under visible light irradiation is shown to be related to oxidative damages in the forms of cell wall thinning and cell disconfiguration. PMID:20726520

  5. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity) represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis–NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2−xSe) NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO) NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2−x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device. PMID:25671163

  6. High visible light photocatalytic property of Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with mixed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cong; Shu, Xin; Zhu, Da-chuan; Wei, Shang-hai; Wang, Yu-xin; Tu, Ming-jing; Gao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Mixed phases Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by a novel method combined with sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The section of sol-gel method, sol, provides an unstable colloidal reaction system for the next reaction process. The hydrothermal method is to treat the above reaction system to prepare undoped and doped samples. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared samples contain three titania polymorphs: brookite, rutile and anatase phases. These titania polymorphs probably form polymorph-junctions that can extend the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B in air under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples is higher than that of Degussa P25, especially the doped sample. This is ascribed to the fact that the phases with smaller band gap can enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity, the polymorph-junctions effectively extend the photoelectron lifetime and the nano size effect and Co-doping induce the shift of the absorption edge into the visible-light region. Furthermore, the XRD, SEM, and TEM data indicate that Co2+-doping results in the decrease of particle size.

  7. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed.

  8. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed. PMID:27427614

  9. Drain-extended MOS transistors capable for operation at 10 V and at radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Andreas; Rücker, Holger

    2011-11-01

    This work reports on the integration of n-type lateral-drain-extended MOS transistors (LDMOS) in a 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The transistors are realized with no additional process steps using the core dual-gate-oxide CMOS flow only. LDMOS drift regions are formed by compensating lightly-doped drain (LDD) implantations of NMOS and PMOS transistors of the baseline process. Stable operation with less than 10% parameter variations in 10 years is achieved up to operating voltages VDD,max of 10 V for devices with breakdown voltages BVDSS = 30 V and on-resistances RON = 7.3 Ω mm. Devices for different operating voltages VDD,max are realized by layout variations. Devices with VDD,max = 6 V demonstrate breakdown voltages BVDSS = 25 V, on-resistances RON = 4.9 Ω mm, and peak transit frequencies fT = 32 GHz.

  10. Photodegradation of ibuprofen by TiO2 co-doping with urea and functionalized CNT irradiated with visible light - Effect of doping content and pH.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ching; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Li, Huei-Wen; Chang, Wei-Hsian

    2016-07-01

    Ibuprofen (IBP) is one kind of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are classified as Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). IBP possesses bioactive property and the substantial use of IBP results in a harmful impact on bioreceptors even in small concentrations. Accordingly, the treatment of these wastewaters is important before discharging them into the ecosystem. The photodegradation of IBP with TiO2 co-doped with functionalized CNTs (CNT-COOH and CNT-COCl) and urea, named as N-doping CNT/TiO2, irradiated with visible light of 410 nm was investigated in this study. The titanium tetrachloride was used as the precursor of Ti. The N-doping CNT-COCl/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a better crystalline structure and smaller crystal size than the N-doping CNT-COOH/TiO2 photocatalyst. It might largely ascribe to strong binding between acyl chloride functional group and TiO2. About 85.0%-86.0% of IBP was degraded with N-doping CNT/TiO2 within 120 min at natural condition, which obeyed the pseudo first order reaction and the rate constant was 4.45 × 10(-3)-1.22 × 10(-2) min(-1) and 5.03 × 10(-3)-1.47 × 10(-2) min(-1) for N-doping CNT-COOH/TiO2 and N-doping CNT-COCl/TiO2, respectively. The best IBP degradation of 87.9%-89.0% was found at pH 5, which indicated superoxide radicals (O2(-)) played a key role. The optimal pH was majorly dominated by the nature of IBP and N-doping CNT/TiO2. A successful synergy effect of TiO2 and dopants was exhibited and this mainly attributed to the strong binding strength by functional group of acyl chloride (COCl) and carboxylic acid (COOH). In summary, IBP could be effectively photodegraded by the fabricated N-doping CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts.

  11. Further study on different dopings into PbWO 4 single crystals to increase the scintillation light yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Usuki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Itoh, M.; Nikl, M.

    2005-03-01

    Since we presented our preliminary result (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 486 (2002) 170) at SCINT2001, we have continued our efforts to increase the light yield (LY) of PbWO 4 scintillators by extending different dopings with an aim to find a possibility of using PbWO 4 successfully in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Overall result obtained for single doping as well as double and tripple co-dopings are summarized, including decay characteristics and radiation hardness. The LY in non-doped PbWO 4 crystals with a size of 10×10×(20-30) mm 3 is 25-35 photolectrons/MeV (phe/MeV) corresponding to 3-4% of the LY in BGO, when measured with a bialkali photomultiplier during a gate of ˜1 μs. The maximum LY increased to 49 phe/MeV for single doping with Mo 6+, 80 phe/MeV for double co-doping of Mo 6++Sb 5+, and ˜85 phe/MeV for tripple co-doping of Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+. The radiation hardness is larger than 10 5 Gy for each of the samples co-doped with Mo 6++Sb 5+ and Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+, while it is much poorer in PWO:Mo 6+. In each of these co-doped samples, a medium-speed green emission in the microsecond range is created besides the fundamental fast (˜a few nanoseconds range) blue one, giving a peak at ˜500 nm in the radioluminescence spectrum similarly as in PWO:Mo 6+.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of Orange G on nitrogen-doped TiO2 catalysts under visible light and sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhui; Qiao, Liping; Sun, Shengpeng; Wang, Guoliang

    2008-06-30

    In this paper, the degradation of an azo dye Orange G (OG) on nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts has been investigated under visible light and sunlight irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, the doped TiO2 nanocatalysts demonstrated higher activity than the commercial Dugussa P25 TiO2, allowing more efficient utilization of solar light, while under sunlight, P25 showed higher photocatalytic activity. According to the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectra analyses, it was found that both the nanosized anatase structure and the appearance of new absorption band in the visible region caused by nitrogen doping were responsible for the significant enhancement of OG degradation under visible light. In addition, the photosensitized oxidation mechanism originated from OG itself was also considered contributing to the higher visible-light-induced degradation efficiency. The effect of the initial pH of the solution and the dosage of hydrogen peroxide under different light sources was also investigated. Under visible light and sunlight, the optimal solution pH was both 2.0, while the optimal dosage of H2O2 was 5.0 and 15.0 mmol/l, respectively.

  13. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of Ti-doped BiOI microspheres under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jialiang; Deng, Jun; Li, Mian; Xu, Tongyan; Tong, Meiping

    2016-11-01

    Ti doped BiOI microspheres were successfully synthesized through a solvothermal method. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) spectroscopy, respectively. The as-synthesized microspheres had 3D hierarchical structures, and the morphologies and visible-light-driven (VLD) disinfection performances were found to be determined by the amount of loaded Ti. The incorporation of Ti in the lattice of BiOI broadened the band gap of BiOI and enhanced the VLD disinfection activity. Ti doped BiOI microspheres with the optimal Ti content exhibited excellent antibacterial performances against both representative Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, which completely inactivated 3.0×10(7)CFUmL(-1)E. coli in 24min and 3.0×10(6)CFU mL(-1)S. aureus in 45min, respectively. Active species including h(+), e(-), O2(-) and H2O2 were found to play important roles in disinfection system. Moreover, the damage of cell membrane and emission of cytoplasm directly led to the inactivation.

  14. Manipulation and control of the interfacial polarization in organic light-emitting diodes by dipolar doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Lars; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Most of the commonly used electron transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes exhibit interfacial polarization resulting from partially aligned permanent dipole moments of the molecules. This property modifies the internal electric field distribution of the device and therefore enables an earlier flat band condition for the hole transporting side, leading to improved charge carrier injection. Recently, this phenomenon was studied with regard to different materials and degradation effects, however, so far the influence of dilution has not been investigated. In this paper we focus on dipolar doping of the hole transporting material 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) with the polar electron transporting material tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) aluminum (Alq3). Impedance spectroscopy reveals that changes of the hole injection voltage do not scale in a simple linear fashion with the effective thickness of the doped layer. In fact, the measured interfacial polarization reaches a maximum value for a 1:1 blend. Taking the permanent dipole moment of Alq3 into account, an increasing degree of dipole alignment is found for decreasing Alq3 concentration. This observation can be explained by the competition between dipole-dipole interactions leading to dimerization and the driving force for vertical orientation of Alq3 dipoles at the surface of the NPB layer.

  15. In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light.A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic setup for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is shown in Fig. S1. The BET specific surface and pore-size distribution of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 is shown in Fig. S2. XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 and Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 are shown in Fig. S3. HRTEM image of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with mixture phase is shown in Fig. S4. The photographs of different colors of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with different flow rates of hydrogen are shown in Fig. S5. TEM images of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 samples with different

  16. Light induced dielectric constant of Alumina doped lead silicate glass based on silica sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Natalia, Desi Ayu; Mufti, Nandang; Hidayat, Arif

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies on glass ceramic compounds have been conducted intensively. Two major problems to be solved are to simplify the fabrication process by reducing melting temperature as well as improving various properties for various fields of technological application. To control the dielectric constant, the researchers generally use a specific dopant. So far there is no comprehensive study to control the dielectric constant driven by both of dopant and light intensity. In this study it is used Al2O3 dopant to increase the light induced dielectric constant of the glass. The source of silica was taken from local silica sands of Bancar Tuban. The sands were firstly leached using hydrochloric acid to improve the purity of silica which was investigated by means of XRF. Fabricating the glass samples were performed by using melting-glass method. Silica powder was mixed with various ratio of SiO2:Na2CO3:PbO:Al2O3. Subsequently, a mixture of various Al2O3 doped lead silicate glasses were melted at 970°C and directy continued by annealed at 300°C. The samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX and measuring dielectric constant was done using dc-capacitance meter with various light intensities. The investigation result of XRD patterns showed that the crystal structures of the samples are amorphous state. The introduction of Al2O3 does not alter the crystal structure, but significantly change the structure of the functional glass bonding PbO-SiO2 which was shown by the FTIR spectra. It was noted that some new peak peaks were exist in the doped samples. Measuring result of dielectricity shows that the dielectric constant of glass increases with the addition of Al2O3. Increasing the light intensity gives rise to increase their dielectric constant in general. A detail observation of the dielectric seen that there are discontinuous step-like of dielectric. Most likely a specific quantization mechanism occurs when glass exposed under light.

  17. Processing of Transparent Rare Earth Doped Zirconia for High Temperature Light Emission Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    The high fracture toughness of stabilized zirconia makes it one of the most widely applicable high temperature structural materials. However, it is not typicality considered for optical applications since the microstructure achieved by traditional processing makes it opaque. The aim of this dissertation is to develop processing methods for the introducing new functionalities of light transparency and light emission (photoluminescence) and to understand the nanostructure-property relationships that make these functionalities possible. A processing study of rare-earth (RE) doped Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2, zirconia) via Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) is presented. The role of processing temperature and dopant concentration on the crystal structure, microstructure and properties of the RE: ZrO2 is studied. Microstructural shows sub-100 nm grain size and homogeneous dopant distribution. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis show that with increased dopant concentration the material changes from monoclinic to tetragonal. Structural analysis shows the material shows high hardness and toughness values 30% greater than similarly processed yttria-stabilized zirconia. Despite birefringence in the tetragonal phase, optical characterization is presented showing the samples are both highly transparent and photo-luminescent. Special attention is paid to analyzing structural and photoluminescence development during densification, as well as the role of oxygen vacancies on the optical properties of the densified material. This material is shown to be a promising candidate for a number of applications including luminescence thermometry and high temperature light emission.

  18. Synthesis of N-doped TiO2 Using Guanidine Nitrate: An Excellent Visible Light Photocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light active nitrogen-rich TiO2 photocatalyst have been synthesized by using guanidine nitrate as the doping material. The catalytic efficiency of the catalyst has been demonstrated by the decomposition of the dye, methyl orange (MO), and the pollutant, 2,4 d...

  19. Electro-optic phase modulation in light induced self-written waveguides propagated in a 5CB doped photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Jemal, Abdelmonem; Ben Belgacem, Mohamed; Kamoun, Saber; Gargouri, Mohamed; Honorat Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Barsella, Alberto; Mager, Loïc

    2013-01-28

    We present the inscription of a Light Induced Self-Written (LISW) waveguide in a 4-cyano-4'-pentylbipheny (5CB) doped photopolymer. The dynamic reorientation of the 5CB molecules in the material under applied electric field leads to birefringence in LISW waveguide and thus allows the control of the phase of the guided mode. PMID:23389136

  20. Kinetics stabilized doping: computational optimization of carbon-doped anatase TiO2 for visible-light driven water splitting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-28

    Using density functional theory calculation we investigate the carbon doping of anatase TiO2, a technique widely studied for visible-light driven water splitting. By a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of C defects in TiO2, we show that any significant concentration of C dopants in the TiO2 lattice must be a result of non-equilibrium doping, which emphasizes the importance of kinetics stabilized C defects. Based on the band gaps calculated using hybrid density functionals, we exclude the possibility of C occupying Ti lattice sites or interstitial sites to enhance visible-light absorption of TiO2, as extensively discussed in the literature. Also, the recently proposed defect with a CO species occupying two O sites yields a too small band gap for water splitting. Two defects that can effectively reduce the band gap for the water splitting application are identified to be: (1) the CO-VO complex, i.e., a C substituting for O (CO) paired with an O vacancy (VO) and (2) the (C2)2O complex with a C dimer (C2) occupying two neighboring O vacancies. Compared with the CO-VO complex, (C2)2O exhibits strong binding (greater than 2.5 eV) between the two C atoms, which could significantly enhance its kinetic stability to survive from high temperature annealing. With a reduced band gap of about 1.4 eV, carbon dimers could be ideal for kinetic doping of anatase TiO2 to enhance its visible-light activity in photocatalytic reactions. Molecular doping using C2H2 or C2H4 as C precursors has been proposed to introduce the carbon dimers into TiO2.

  1. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  2. Effect of carrier doping on the formation and collapse of magnetic polarons in lightly hole-doped La1-xSrxCoO3

    SciTech Connect

    Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Ehlers, Georg; Frontzek, Matthias D; Sefat, A. S.; Furrer, Albert; Straessle, Thierry; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina; Conder, Kazimierz; Demmel, F.; Khomskii, D. I.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the doping dependence of the nanoscale electronic and magnetic inhomogeneities in the hole-doping range 0.002 < x < 0.1 of cobalt based perovskites, La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3}. Using single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization measurements we show that the lightly doped system exhibits magnetoelectronic phase separation in the form of spin-state polarons. Higher hole doping leads to a decay of spin-state polarons in favor of larger scale magnetic clusters, due to competing ferromagnetic correlations of Co{sup 3+} ions which are formed by neighboring polarons. The present data give evidence for two regimes of magnetoelectronic phase separation in this system: (i) x {approx}< 0.05, dominated by ferromagnetic intrapolaron interactions, and (ii) x {approx}> 0.05, dominated by Co{sup 3+}-Co{sup 3+} intracluster interactions. Our conclusions are in good agreement with a recently proposed model of the phase separation in cobalt perovskites.

  3. Preparation, testing and characterization of doped TiO2 active in the peroxidation of biomolecules under visible light.

    PubMed

    Bacsa, Revathi; Kiwi, John; Ohno, Teruhisa; Albers, Peter; Nadtochenko, Victor

    2005-03-31

    Doped TiO2 samples using different preparative procedures were synthesized using either urea or thiourea leading to N- or S-doped TiO2. Photocatalytic peroxidation and oxidation (mineralization) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid with doped TiO2 were carried out under light irradiation lambda > 410 nm. The formation of conjugated double bonds in PE molecules was followed to detect the formation of peroxy radicals (peroxidation index) under light excitation (lambda > 410 nm) when doped TiO2 was used. The kinetics of CO2 production was monitored during the mineralization of PE. Colored TiO2 powders were studied in detail by different and complementary physicochemical techniques. The band gap energies of colored TiO2 were determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The visible absorption shoulder of TiO2 was observed to follow Urbach's law. The variation of the transient decay after 354 nm laser pulse excitation does not correlate with the different N- and S-TiO2 doping levels introduced by the addition of urea or thiourea. This suggests that the states (recombination centers or traps) introduced by the doping are not effective in varying the decay kinetics within the nanosecond and microsecond time scale. Elemental analysis shows comparable amounts of S- and N-doping of TiO2 when thiourea is used as dopant. X-ray diffraction reveals no rutile in S-TiO2 samples heated to 600 degrees C, suggesting that the addition of sulfur precludes rutilization during sample crystallization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the S-TiO2 samples confirms the preferential localization of S on the 20 topmost layers of S-TiO2 upon calcination at 500 degrees C for 2 h.

  4. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  5. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  6. 17O NMR study of the doped electrons in lightly oxygen-deficient cubic SrMnO3 -x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokiner, A.; Verkhovskii, S.; Volkova, Z.; Gerashenko, A.; Mikhalev, K.; Germov, A.; Yakubovskii, A.; Korolev, A.; Dabrowski, B.; Tyutyunnik, A.

    2016-05-01

    The spin susceptibility of the localized Mn (t2 g) electrons, χs, and the spatially distributed spin density of the doped electrons were investigated by 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the paramagnetic (PM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) phases of electron-doped SrMnO3 -x ceramics with the cubic structure. Three lightly doped samples (2 x <0.015 ) were studied with TN=220 K-240 K. In the PM state χs increases gradually from TN and reaches a broad maximum above ˜1.5 TN . The gapped behavior of χs indicates a low-dimensional short-range spin order persisting above TN. These short-range one-dimensional correlations are consistent with 17O NMR results obtained at room temperature, which show that Mn magnetic moments are aligned along the edges of the cubic unit cell. Above 350 K all doped electrons are fast-moving eg electrons. They provide the uniform polarization of the localized spins which increases χs and the increasing doping shifts the oxygen-deficient SrMnO3 -x oxide towards a ferromagnetic (FM) metallic state. At lower T the doped electrons are heterogeneously distributed in the oxide: The fraction of the fast-moving electrons diminishes and vanishes below 100 K, while the remaining doped electrons slow down their hopping and each of them creates a FM domain. These FM domains which are detected below 10 K by 55Mn NMR can be considered as small-size magnetic polarons. Their T -activated hopping in the G-type AF lattice was probed by 17O spin-echo experiments. The energy barrier of hopping shows a trend to grow with increasing doping, indicating that the de Gennes metallic ground state cannot be achieved in oxygen-deficient SrMnO3 -x oxides, probably due to detrimental oxygen vacancy defects.

  7. Carbon coating stabilized Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Gao; Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Meiming; Zhu, Weidong; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-07-28

    Self-doping by Ti(3+) is a useful method to expand the light response of TiO2 into the visible light region. However, to obtain a stable Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 seems to be a challenge due to the easy oxidation of Ti(3+) during the heterogeneous reaction. Here, we propose a simple carbon coating route to stabilize the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2, in which both the Ti(3+) and precursor of the carbon coating layer were in situ formed from the hydrothermal hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide. The carbon coated Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 exhibited excellent stability for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, the proposed stabilizing mechanism is that the conductive carbon coating layer as a barrier layer prevents the H2O and O2 from diffusing into the surface of the photocatalyst, which can oxidize the surface O vacancies and Ti(3+) in TiO2. Our findings offer a simple route to prepare a highly stable TiO2-based photocatalyst with visible light response.

  8. Analysis and calculation of electronic properties and light absorption of defective sulfur-doped silicon and theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He; Chen, Changshui

    2015-04-23

    Most material properties can be traced to electronic structures. Black silicon produced from SF6 or sulfur powder via irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses displays decreased infrared absorption after annealing, with almost no corresponding change in visible light absorption. The high-intensity laser pulses destroy the original crystal structure, and the doping element changes the material performance. In this work, the structural and electronic properties of several sulfur-doped silicon systems are investigated using first principle calculations. Depending on the sulfur concentration (level of doping) and the behavior of the sulfur atoms in the silicon lattice, different states or an absence of states are exhibited, compared with the undoped system. Moreover, the visible-infrared light absorption intensities are structure specific. The results of our theoretical calculations show that the conversion efficiency of sulfur-doped silicon solar cells depends on the sulfur concentrations. Additionally, two types of defect configurations exhibit light absorption characteristics that differ from the other configurations. These two structures produce a rapid increase in the theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency in the range of the specific chemical potential studied. By controlling the positions of the atomic sulfur and the sulfur concentration in the preparation process, an efficient photovoltaic (PV) material may be obtainable.

  9. Analysis and calculation of electronic properties and light absorption of defective sulfur-doped silicon and theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He; Chen, Changshui

    2015-04-23

    Most material properties can be traced to electronic structures. Black silicon produced from SF6 or sulfur powder via irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses displays decreased infrared absorption after annealing, with almost no corresponding change in visible light absorption. The high-intensity laser pulses destroy the original crystal structure, and the doping element changes the material performance. In this work, the structural and electronic properties of several sulfur-doped silicon systems are investigated using first principle calculations. Depending on the sulfur concentration (level of doping) and the behavior of the sulfur atoms in the silicon lattice, different states or an absence of states are exhibited, compared with the undoped system. Moreover, the visible-infrared light absorption intensities are structure specific. The results of our theoretical calculations show that the conversion efficiency of sulfur-doped silicon solar cells depends on the sulfur concentrations. Additionally, two types of defect configurations exhibit light absorption characteristics that differ from the other configurations. These two structures produce a rapid increase in the theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency in the range of the specific chemical potential studied. By controlling the positions of the atomic sulfur and the sulfur concentration in the preparation process, an efficient photovoltaic (PV) material may be obtainable. PMID:25798659

  10. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2015-10-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and -2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar+ ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  11. N-polar III-nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai; Simon, John; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kosel, Thomas; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2011-10-24

    Nitrogen-polar III-nitride heterostructures present unexplored advantages over Ga(metal)-polar crystals for optoelectronic devices. This work reports N-polar III-nitride quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy that integrate polarization-induced p-type doping by compositional grading from GaN to AlGaN along N-face. The graded AlGaN layer simultaneously acts as an electron blocking layer while facilitating smooth injection of holes into the active region, while the built-in electric field in the barriers improves carrier injection into quantum wells. The enhanced doping, carrier injection, and light extraction indicate that N-polar structures have the potential to exceed the performance of metal-polar ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

  12. Chromium-doped forsterite: dispersion measurement with white-light interferometry.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Isabell; Hollberg, Leo; Diddams, Scott A; Equall, Randy

    2003-03-20

    Using a Michelson white-light interferometer, we measure the group-delay dispersion and third-order dispersion coefficients, d2(phi)/d(omega)2 and d3(phi)/d(omega)3, of chromium-doped forsterite (Cr:Mg2SiO4) over wavelengths of 1050-1600 nm for light polarized along both the c and b crystal axes. In this interval, the second-order dispersion for the c axis ranges from 35 fs2/mm to -14 fs2/mm, and the third-order dispersion ranges from 36 fs3/mm to 142 fs3/mm. For the b axis the second-order dispersion ranges from 35 fs2/mm to -15 fs2/mm and the third-order from 73 fs3/mm to 185 fs3/mm. Our data are relevant for the development of optimized dispersion compensation tools for Cr:Mg2SiO4 femtosecond lasers. These measurements help to clarify previously published results and show some significant discrepancies that existed, especially in the third-order dispersion. Our results should furthermore be useful to build up an analytic expression for the index of refraction of chromium forsterite.

  13. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent (4)I(9/2)-(4)F(3/2) optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2∼100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces. PMID:26364586

  14. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-09-14

    Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent (4)I(9/2)-(4)F(3/2) optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2∼100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces.

  15. Mott Physics in lightly doped (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affeldt, Gregory; Hogan, Tom; Smallwood, Christopher; Das, Tanmoy; Denlinger, Jonathan; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Wilson, Stephen; Lanzara, Alessandra

    The layered perovskite iridates Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 exhibit a spin-orbit Mott insulating state that becomes metallic upon sufficient carrier doping. While Sr2IrO4 presents striking similarities to cuprates upon electron doping, Sr3Ir2O7 appears to be a correlated metal. We show a detailed doping and temperature-dependent ARPES study which reveals important similarities between (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 and doped Sr2IrO4, as well as other doped Mott insulators.

  16. Structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped Aluminofluoroborophosphate glasses for white light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Mahesvaran, K.; Patel, Dinesh K.; Arunkumar, S.; Marimuthu, K.

    2014-11-01

    Dy3+ doped Aluminofluoroborophosphate glasses (BPAxD) have been prepared following conventional melt quenching technique and their structural and optical properties were explored through XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay measurements. The coexistence of BO3 groups in borate rich domain and BO4 groups in phosphate rich domain have been confirmed through vibrational energy analysis. Negative bonding parameter (δ) values indicate that, the metal-ligand environment in the prepared glasses is of ionic in nature. The oscillator strength and the luminescent intensity Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6) parameters are calculated using Judd-Ofelt theory. The radiative properties such as transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σpE) and branching ratios (β) have been calculated using JO intensity parameters and compared with the reported Dy3+ doped glasses. Concentration effect on Y/B intensity ratios and the CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated for the generation of white light from the luminescence spectra. The color purity and the correlated color temperature were also calculated and the results are discussed in the present work. The decay of the 4F9/2 excited level is found to be single exponential for lower concentration and become non-exponential for higher concentration. The non-exponential behavior arises due to the efficient energy transfer between the Dy3+ ions through various non-radiative relaxation channels and the decay of the 4F9/2 excited level have been analyzed with IH model. Among the prepared glasses, BPA0.5D glass exhibits higher σpE, βR, σpE×σpE, σpE×Δλeff and η values for the 6H13/2 emission band which in turn specifies its suitability for white LEDs, laser applications and optical amplifiers.

  17. White light simulation and luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Venkataiah, G.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses with the chemical composition (79-x)B2O3+xP2O5+10Li2O+10ZnO+1Dy2O3 (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 50 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glass samples were characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap and Urbach's energy values were calculated from the optical absorption spectra to explore the bonding nature of the Dy-O metal ligand and electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra by using the JO theory and it gives information about symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy3+ ion site. The Y/B intensity ratio and radiative properties were obtained from the emission spectra and the results were compared with the reported literature. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates of the studied glasses were analyzed using a CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram and found that the x, y coordinates lie in the white light region. The decay curve measurements of the prepared glasses exhibit non-exponential behavior and are well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism between Dy3+ ions. The Q, R0 and CDA values of the prepared Dy3+ doped glasses were obtained from the IH model and the results were discussed and compared with the reported literature.

  18. Fundamental emission characteristics of light-emitting liquid crystal cells with rubrene-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Horiuchi, Takao; Tanimoto, Masashi; Nose, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the light emission properties in rubrene-doped nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells from the following three standpoints: (i) effect of the heating temperature during the sample preparation, (ii) role of the emissive LC layer thickness, and (iii) role of different LC types used as the emissive layer. As a result, the light-emitting LC cells simultaneously exhibit the features of electrochemiluminescent cells (the carrier transport is governed by an ionic conduction) as well as of organic light-emitting diodes (the luminance strongly depends on the emissive layer thickness). Furthermore, we report that devices with cyano group containing LCs exhibit higher luminance compared to a fluorinated LC.

  19. Influence of the matrix properties on the performances of Er-doped Si nanoclusters light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrera, Alessia; Iacona, Fabio; Franzò, Giorgia; Miritello, Maria; Lo Savio, Roberto; Castagna, Maria Eloisa; Coffa, Salvatore; Priolo, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the properties of light emitting devices whose active layer consists of Er-doped Si nanoclusters (nc) generated by thermal annealing of Er-doped SiOx layers prepared by magnetron cosputtering. Differently from a widely used technique such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, sputtering allows to synthesize Er-doped Si nc embedded in an almost stoichiometric oxide matrix, so as to deeply influence the electroluminescence properties of the devices. Relevant results include the need for an unexpected low Si excess for optimizing the device efficiency and, above all, the strong reduction of the influence of Auger de-excitation, which represents the main nonradiative path which limits the performances of such devices and their application in silicon nanophotonics.

  20. Preparation and Solar Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A novel method to prepare N-doped TiO2-loaded halloysite nanotubes (N-TiO2/HNTs) nanocomposites was achieved by using the chemical vapor deposition in autoclave. The N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites obtained by the different form of the doping N source were studied through a series of characterizations. The XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations verified the anatase structure of TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca.20nm loaded on the outer surface of HNTs. The UV-vis characterization of the N-TiO2/HNTs presented a further red-shift compared to the pure N-TiO2 nanoparticles.. The XPS characterizations confirmed the N element doped into the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites prepared were evaluated by degradation of phenol at room temperature under simulated solar light irradiation.

  1. Integrating planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles into a flat-plate photobioreactor to improve light distribution and microalgae growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun; Zheng, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Industrially manufactured planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles, which can dilute and redistribute the intense incident light within microalgae suspension more uniformly, were introduced into a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) with a width of 25cm to alleviate the adverse effect of poor light penetrability on microalgae growth. Compared with the flat-plate PBR without waveguides, the illumination surface area per unit volume in the proposed PBR was increased by 10.3 times. During the whole cultivation period, the illuminated volume fractions in the proposed PBR were 21.4-410% higher than those in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Consequently, attributed to the optimized light distribution in the proposed PBR, a 220% improvement in biomass production was obtained relative to that in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Furthermore, higher light output intensities emitted from the planar waveguide surfaces and increased microalgae growth rates were achieved by decreasing the length of planar waveguides.

  2. Integrating planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles into a flat-plate photobioreactor to improve light distribution and microalgae growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun; Zheng, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Industrially manufactured planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles, which can dilute and redistribute the intense incident light within microalgae suspension more uniformly, were introduced into a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) with a width of 25cm to alleviate the adverse effect of poor light penetrability on microalgae growth. Compared with the flat-plate PBR without waveguides, the illumination surface area per unit volume in the proposed PBR was increased by 10.3 times. During the whole cultivation period, the illuminated volume fractions in the proposed PBR were 21.4-410% higher than those in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Consequently, attributed to the optimized light distribution in the proposed PBR, a 220% improvement in biomass production was obtained relative to that in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Furthermore, higher light output intensities emitted from the planar waveguide surfaces and increased microalgae growth rates were achieved by decreasing the length of planar waveguides. PMID:27573475

  3. N, S co-doped-TiO2/fly ash beads composite material and visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jun; Sheng, Tong; Su, Lili; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-11-01

    Using TiCl4 as the titanium source, urea as the precipitating agent, nano-TiO2/fly ash beads composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis-precipitation method. Using (NH2)2CO and (NH2)2SC as the N and S source respectively, N and S co-doped TiO2/fly ash beads composite materials were prepared by grinding them together according to a certain proportion and calcined at 500 °C for 2 h. The composite materials were characterized by SEM, EDS, XPS, and UV-vis spectrophotometer methods. The UV-vis absorption spectra results show that the absorption edge of un-doped composites is 390 nm while that of doped composites red-shifts to 500 nm. The photocatalytic activity of composite materials was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (halogen lamp, 250 W). The results showed that after irradiation for 1 h, degradation rate of N, S co-doped-TiO2/fly ash beads composite material can reach 65%, while the degradation rate of un-doped sample and P25 were just 10% and 6%, respectively. The composite material also showed excellent recycling properties.

  4. Ultrasonic synthesis and photocatalytic performance of metal-ions doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts under solar light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Huajun; Yu, Liya E.; Zhang, Min-Hong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We synthesized eight metal-ions doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts by a unique ultrasonic method. ► Mg-doped TiO{sub 2} showed the highest photocatalytic performance under solar light. ► Surface area of catalyst dominates the photocatalytic efficiency under solar light. ► Crystal property and visible light activity are less important than surface area. -- Abstract: Eight metal-ions doped TiO{sub 2} (M-TiO{sub 2}) were successfully synthesized by an ultrasonic method, including Fe, Co, Ce, Cr, Mn, Mg, Ni and Ag ions. Among them, the 1% Mg–TiO{sub 2} shows the highest photocatalytic efficiency under solar light, which was determined by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) molecules in an aqueous solution. The synthesized M-TiO{sub 2} samples were characterized by XRD, BET Surface area, TEM, XPS and diffuse reflectance spectrum. Effects of synthesis conditions and characterized properties on photocatalytic efficiency of the M-TiO{sub 2} were investigated comprehensively. A positive correlation between specific surface area and photocatalytic efficiency of the M-TiO{sub 2} was found across different synthesis conditions. However, no clear correlation with photocatalytic efficiency was observed for crystal structure and radii of doping ions of the M-TiO{sub 2}. XPS study indicates the change of oxidation states of Mn ions in Mn–TiO{sub 2} during synthesis procedure from the initial Mn{sup 2+} to a mixture of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions. Dye sensitization mechanism was observed during the photocatalytic procedure of the Mg–TiO{sub 2}, which enhanced the degradation efficiency of the Mg–TiO{sub 2} under solar light. Finally, no obvious loss of photocatalytic activity was observed for the Mg–TiO{sub 2} after five cycles of RhB degradation.

  5. Enhanced visible light activity of nano-titanium dioxide doped with multiple ions: Effect of crystal defects

    SciTech Connect

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Gopakumar Warrier, Krishna

    2012-12-15

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysts co-doped with iron(III) and lanthanum(III) have been prepared through a modified sol-gel method. Doping with Fe{sup 3+} resulted in a relatively lower anatase to rutile phase transformation temperature, while La{sup 3+} addition reduced the crystal growth and thus retarded the phase transformation of titania nanoparticles. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} ions shifted the absorption profile of titania to the longer wavelength side of the spectrum and enhanced the visible light activity. On the other hand, La{sup 3+} addition improved the optical absorption of titania nanoparticles. Both the dopants improved the life time of excitons by proper transferring and trapping of photoexcited charges. In the present work, considerable enhancement in photocatalytic activity under visible light was achieved through synergistic effect of optimum concentrations of the two dopants and associated crystal defects. - Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic activity studies indicate a synergistic effect of dopants and crystal defects leading to an enhanced photochemical activity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An aqueous sol-gel synthesis of Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} co-doped TiO{sub 2} is being reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical and microstructural properties of titania were modified by co-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced activity of titania by the crystal defects is being reported.

  6. Solar actuated drain system

    SciTech Connect

    Sarver, G. E.; Worstell, B. W.

    1985-04-30

    A temperature actuated drain system is provided that comprises a siphon that has an inlet end for immersing in a pool of water to be drained from a roof surface and a discharge end communicating with a pressure-responsive one-way valve. A solar actuated enclosed chamber that contains a solar heat energy collector is located on the roof surface and is in open communication with the siphon by means of a tubular member that has its inlet end positioned closely adjacent the bottom of the interior of the chamber. The arrangement causes any appreciable amounts of water that accumulate within the chamber to be discharged from the chamber during the pumping action created by the heating and cooling of air within the chamber.

  7. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, Joshua R. Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped titanate nanotubes for visible-light-responsive photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yen-Ping; Lo, Shang-Lien; Ou, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Shiau-Wu

    2010-11-15

    This study employs a rapid, energy frugal and environmental friendly method to synthesize nitrogen doped titanate nanotubes (NTNTs), and uses TEM, XRD, Raman, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms analysis, and UV-vis spectroscopy to characterize the obtained NTNTs. TEM results demonstrate that the current research successfully synthesized one-dimensional NTNTs via the microwave hydrothermal (M-H) method, and show that NTNTs retain a tubular structure after sintering at a temperature of 350°C. XRD results agree well with Raman spectrum findings. Both show that the intensity of anatase crystallization increases with an increase in sintering temperature. After sintering at high temperature, above 250°C, the UV-vis absorbance edges of NTNTs significantly shift to the visible-light region, which illustrates N atom doping into nanotubes. Photocatalytic tests conclude that the NTNTs-350 shows good efficiency with visible-light response.

  9. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Leedy, Kevin; Guo, Junpeng; Cleary, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped titanate nanotubes for visible-light-responsive photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yen-Ping; Lo, Shang-Lien; Ou, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Shiau-Wu

    2010-11-15

    This study employs a rapid, energy frugal and environmental friendly method to synthesize nitrogen doped titanate nanotubes (NTNTs), and uses TEM, XRD, Raman, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms analysis, and UV-vis spectroscopy to characterize the obtained NTNTs. TEM results demonstrate that the current research successfully synthesized one-dimensional NTNTs via the microwave hydrothermal (M-H) method, and show that NTNTs retain a tubular structure after sintering at a temperature of 350°C. XRD results agree well with Raman spectrum findings. Both show that the intensity of anatase crystallization increases with an increase in sintering temperature. After sintering at high temperature, above 250°C, the UV-vis absorbance edges of NTNTs significantly shift to the visible-light region, which illustrates N atom doping into nanotubes. Photocatalytic tests conclude that the NTNTs-350 shows good efficiency with visible-light response. PMID:20732743

  11. Pavement base drain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of a highway drainage system design was revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill material. The specified backfill material is a coarser crushed aggregate (pea gravel). An evaluation of the effects of these changes on pavement performance is given and the new pavement base drain system is compared to the older pipe foundation underdrain system at the same site.

  12. Direct laser interference patterning of polystyrene films doped with azo dyes, using 355 nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglia, M. F.; Suarez, S.; Soldera, F.; Mücklich, F.; Barbero, C. A.; Bellingeri, R.; Alustiza, F.; Acevedo, D.

    2014-05-01

    The generation of line-like periodic patterns by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) of polystyrene films (PS) at a wavelength of 355 nm has been investigated. No structuration is achieved in plain PS due to the weak absorption of the polymer at 355 nm. On the other hand, patterning is achieved on films doped (PSd) with an azo dye (2-anisidine → 2-anisidine) which is incorporated in the polymer solution used for film preparation. Periodic micro-structures are generated. DLIP on PSd results in the swelling of the surface at low fluences, while at high laser intensities it causes the ablation of the regions at the interference maxima positions. The results contrast with the usual process of DLIP on PS (at shorter wavelengths, like 266 nm) where only ablation is detected. The results suggest that decomposition of the azo dye is the driving force of the patterning which therefore differ from the patterning obtained when plain PS is irradiated with laser light able to be absorbed by the aromatic ring in PS (e.g. 266 nm). The biocompatibility of these materials and adhesion of cells was tested, the data from in vitro assays shows that fibroblast cells are attached and proliferate extensively on the PSd films.

  13. The extreme quantum limit in lightly-doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anand; Skinner, Brian; Khalsa, Guru; Suslov, Alexey

    When a three dimensional electron gas is placed in a sufficiently strong magnetic field, it is said to be in the quantum limit when the cyclotron energy ℏωc >ɛF >>kT, and all of the electrons occupy the lowest Landau level. Achieving this limit in a material requires a small Fermi energy relative to the applied magnetic field, and a weak disorder potential such that magnetic freeze-out is avoided. We present an experimental study of lightly-doped single crystals of SrTiO3, which remain good bulk conductors in temperatures down to 25 mK and magnetic fields up to 45 T. Our measurements probe deep into the quantum limit, where ℏωc >>ɛF and theory has long predicted that electron-electron interactions can drive the system into a charge density wave or Wigner crystal like state. A number of interesting features arise in electrical transport in this regime, including a striking re-entrant nonlinearity in the current-voltage characteristics. We discuss these features in the context of possible correlated electron states, and present a picture based on magnetic field induced puddling of electrons in a disorder potential landscape. U.S. DOE, BES Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357; NIST CNST; US NSF Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-1157490; State of Florida.

  14. Parameters affecting light-induced excess conductivity in amorphous silicon doping-modulated multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Su, F.C.; Levine, S.; Vanier, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomenon of light-induced excess conductivity (LEC) which occurs in a-Si:H npnp doping-modulated multilayers is found experimentally to be dependent on several different factors. The concentrations of the dopants in n-type and p-type layers affect the Fermi level position, the height of the barriers, and also the density of defects. These parameters are altered by different choices of inert gas diluent (Ar or He) and substrate temperature T/sub s/. For a given set of deposition conditions, the LEC effect can be maximized by varying the layer thickness. With undiluted silane at T/sub s/ = 250/sup 0/C, the effect was relatively small, reaching a maximum in relatively thick layers (540 A). The largest effects were obtained for films deposited from silane diluted in helium, using thinner (330 A) layers. However, for films deposited from silane diluted in argon, the magnitude of the effect and optimum layer thickness was intermediate (440 A). When T/sub s/ was varied, a minimum in LEC was found near 200 to 250/sup 0/C. The influence of internal field was examined by using nini, pipi and npnp multilayers. The internal field is a necessary factor to observe a large LEC effect. A compensated film shows a small LEC effect.

  15. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2015-05-01

    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light.

  16. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2015-05-01

    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light. PMID:25045087

  17. Nitrogen-doped graphene oxide quantum dots as photocatalysts for overall water-splitting under visible light illumination.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Te-Fu; Teng, Chiao-Yi; Chen, Shean-Jen; Teng, Hsisheng

    2014-05-28

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxide quantum dots exhibit both p- and n-type conductivities and catalyze overall water-splitting under visible-light irradiation. The quantum dots contain p-n type photochemical diodes, in which the carbon sp(2) clusters serve as the interfacial junction. The active sites for H2 and O2 evolution are the p- and n-domains, respectively, and the reaction mimics biological photosynthesis.

  18. Interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 nanoplates with an optimized electronic structure for efficient visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanjuan; Xiong, Ting; Dong, Fan; Huang, Hongwei; Cen, Wanglai

    2016-07-01

    The success in the synthesis of Bi-based layered photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities has triggered intensive studies. Herein, we prepared interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 nanoplates by a facile method. Interestingly, it was found that I atoms were doped into the BiOIO3 interlayers instead of substituting for the lattice atoms based on theoretical and experimental results. The interbedded I atoms endowed BiOIO3 with an extended light response from the UV to the visible region by narrowing the bandgap and generating a middle level. The enhanced oxidation capability via positive-shifting the valence band position and improved carrier separation efficiency via forming charge delivery channels at the adjacent two layers can be achieved simultaneously. As expected, I-intercalated BiOIO3 with an optimized electronic structure demonstrated outstanding NO removal ability under visible light irradiation, much superior to pure BiOIO3. The present success in fabricating interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 would open a promising route to prepare other Bi-based layered semiconductors with efficient visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:27284595

  19. A comprehensive investigation of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sun-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yangyang; Tan, Guoqiang; Dong, Guohua; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2016-02-01

    Tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 having enhanced photocatalytic activity have been synthesized by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The structural analysis indicates that Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO4. The reaction results in precursor solutions imply that tetragonal GdVO4 seeds as crystal nucleus are the original and determined incentives to force the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO4. The influences of the surface defect, band structure, and BET surface area on the improved photocatalytic activities of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 are investigated systematically. The results demonstrate that the more surface oxygen deficiencies as active sites and the excellent mobility and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes are beneficial to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of tetragonal Gd-BiVO4. The RhB photodegradation experiments indicate that the contribution of high photocatalytic activities under simulated sun-light is mainly from UV-light region due to the tetragonal structure feature. The best photocatalytic performance is obtained for tetragonal 10 at% Gd-BiVO4, of which the RhB degradation rate can reach to 96% after 120 min simulated sun-light irradiation. The stable tetragonal Gd-BiVO4 with efficient mineralization will be a promising photocatalytic material applied in water purification.

  20. Preparation, characterization of the Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity under visible-light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Jizhou; Li Aidong; Zhai Haifa; Gong Youpin; Li Hui; Wu Di

    2009-08-15

    This paper describes a novel catalyst of the Ta-doped ZnO nanocrystals prepared by a modified polymerizable complex method using the water-soluble tantalum precursor as the sources of Ta. The catalysts were characterized by means of various analytical techniques as a function of Ta content (x=0-4 mol%) systematically. A remarkable advantage of the results was confirmed that dopant Ta enhanced the visible-light absorption of ZnO and the low-solubility tantalum doping could restrain the growth of crystal and minish the particle size. The relationship between the physicochemical property and the photocatalytic performance was discussed, and it was found that the photocatalytic activity in the photochemical degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation (lambda>=420 nm) was dependent on the contents of the dopant, which could affect the particle size, concentration of surface hydroxyl groups and active hydrogen-related defect sites, and the visible-light absorption. The highest photocatalytic activity was obtained for the 1.0 mol% Ta-doped ZnO sample. - Graphical abstract: The addition of the tantalum into ZnO prepared by a modified polymerizable complex method not only restrains the growth of crystal, minish the particle size, but also changes the nanocrystal morphology.

  1. Nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes with electronic doping, transparent carbon nanotube charge injectors, and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher D.

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and polymeric light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are rapidly-emerging technologies which are being studied extensively in industrial, academic, and government laboratories for applications in displays and solid-state lighting. Their thin film structure (with total thickness of active layers less than a micron) and the inherent flexibility of the constituent materials give them promise in the flat panel display industry as well as open new areas of possible applications for flexible transparent displays and even textile displays. The materials also show high electroluminescence efficiency, and with proper device engineering these devices demonstrate efficiencies and lifetimes which surpass current methods of lighting such at incandescent bulbs, which average approximately 1% efficiency. Lastly, the materials offer easy processing through well studied and developed methods such as thermal evaporation, solution spin-casting and ink jet printing. Ink jet printing of polymeric layers in PLEDs offers many advantages when considering mass production of display and lighting panels, as it allows uniform films to be produced on large area substrates using a simple roll-to-roll method. In this dissertation, we discuss several new methods and procedures which we have developed and used to produce OLEDs and PLEDs. More specifically these are electronic doping of transport layers, fluorescent doping of emissive layers by semiconductor nanocrystals (NC) (also known as quantum dots (QD)), and electrode engineering, namely by the use of transparent carbon nanotube sheets as charge injectors. We expand on the existing field of molecular doping and introduce a doped device with a very thick hole transport layer. Such a device is more resistant to failure due to excessive current density. We also investigate the effects of the presence of dopant molecules in the emissive layer of a multilayer OLED. This portion of the work introduces the negative

  2. Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 with tunable nanoparticle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Junyang; Chen, Jin; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yandong; Kong, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Fluorine and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 (F-N-TiO2) photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activities were facilely synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using Ti(SO4)2 as an economical precursor, and hydrofluoric acid and ammonia as F and N source, respectively. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of produced nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) methods. The synergistic effects of F and N doping were systematically examined by changing the molar ratio of F/N. Compared with the un-doped F or N mono-doped TiO2, the co-doped samples exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic performance due to their synergistic effects under visible light. It was shown that F dopant promoted the crystal growth and crystallinity of samples, while N dopant hindered it to some extent, which resulted in the tunable particle size of obtained F-N-TiO2 materials. The effects of F and N dopants on the enhanced photocatalytic activity of modified TiO2 materials were also discussed. The degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) was achieved at 97.31% after 5 h reaction under visible light over the optimized sample of FN3.5T. The materials also showed excellent stability according to the recycling tests of the photodegradation of MB.

  3. Efficiency droop enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by making whole barriers but the bottom Mg doped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2016-09-01

    Ultra violet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with different types of Mg-doped barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with only a p-doped top barrier get little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doping in all but the bottom barriers has a much better optical and electrical properties due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. The efficiency droop is significantly alleviated and the light output power is greatly enhanced. To avoid forming a PN junction by the bottom barrier and the n-AlGaN in the proposed structure, therefore, the bottom barrier isn't p-doped. Then structures with different hole densities in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  4. Polarization induced doped transistor

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  5. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide with superior photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shixiong; Yang, Xiangjun; Wang, Yapeng; Liu, Lixiang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates are fabricated through an environmental template-free route and the reduction reaction at low temperature subsequently. After the Ti{sup 3+} doping, the reduced TiO{sub 2} sample exhibits a wide visible-light absorption ranged from 400 nm to 800 nm. The intrinsic hollow core–shell microstructure can make multiple reflections of light within the chamber, and thus results in more efficient use of the light source compared with solid structure. Besides, the large surface area can render the sample with a high activity. Therefore, Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. This strategy is simple, cheap and mass-productive, which may shed light on a new avenue for large scale production of self-doped yolk–shell structural nano functional materials for catalyst, sensors, energy storage and other new applications. - Graphical abstract: A facile generic strategy is employed to prepare Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. - Highlights: • Yolk–shell TiO{sub 2} mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. • Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide is obtained at low temperature. • It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novruzov, V. D.; Keskenler, E. F.; Tomakin, M.; Kahraman, S.; Gorur, O.

    2013-09-01

    Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 Å to 6.661 Å with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu2S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

  7. Ce Core-Level Spectroscopy, and Magnetic and Electrical Transport Properties of Lightly Ce-Doped YCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Koike, Tsuyoshi; Okawa, Mario; Takayanagi, Ryohei; Takei, Shohei; Minohara, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masaki; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Yasui, Akira; Ikenaga, Eiji; Saitoh, Tomohiko; Asai, Kichizo

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the Ce and Co core level spectroscopy, and the magnetic and electrical transport properties of lightly Ce-doped YCoO3. We have successfully synthesized single-phase Y1-xCexCoO3 for 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1 by the sol-gel method. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments reveal that the introduced Ce ions are tetravalent, which is considered to be the first case of electron doping into bulk trivalent Co oxides with perovskite RECoO3 (RE: rare-earth element or Y) caused by RE site substitution. The magnitude of the effective magnetic moment peff obtained from the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility χ(T) at higher temperatures is close to that for high-spin Co2+ introduced by the Ce doping, implying that the electrons doped into the Co site induce Co2+ with a high-spin state. For x = 0.1, ferromagnetic ordering is observed below about 7 K. Electrical transport properties such as resistivity and thermoelectric power show that negative electron-like carriers are introduced by Ce substitution.

  8. A novel approach for enhanced visible light activity in doped nanosize titanium dioxide through the excitons trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Baiju, K. V.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Warrier, K. G. K.

    2012-02-01

    Titanium dioxide doped with iron oxide (0-10 mol%) has been synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel method. The extent of phase transformation is higher in presence of up to 1 mol% of Fe3+ ions in doped titania. A further increase in Fe3+ content was found to decrease the phase transformation. A composition which contains ∼90% rutile and the remaining anatase phase shows the highest photocatalytic activity. Even though surface area values are dramatically decreased by the modification of TiO2 by Fe3+ doping, crystallinity plays a major role in photocatalytic activity enhancement. UV-vis reflectance spectra indicate a red-shift in band gap energy and thus an enhanced photoactivity in visible light, suitable for application in photodegradation of toxic industrial effluents as well as other organic contaminants, is achieved. Low concentrations of Fe3+ ions act as excitons trapping centers, while higher concentrations act as recombination centers. The synergy between the rutile-anatase ratios and optimum amount of Fe3+ ions improve the interfacial charge transfer and trapping which enhanced the photochemical degradation of MB dye. The Fe3+ doped TiO2 composition has the highest photoactivity, having an apparent rate constant of 11.1×10-3 min-1, which is much higher than that of commercial P25 Degussa titania (6.03×10-3 min-1).

  9. Important role of surface fluoride in nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jonathan I; Szulczewski, Greg

    2014-12-11

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sol-gel methods and subsequently fluorinated at room temperature by aging in acidic solutions of NaF. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, and IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After aging at room temperature in NaF solutions, the Ti-OH groups on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles were replaced by Ti-F bonds, which resulted in a decrease of the point of zero charge from pH 5.4 to 2.8. Most importantly, the nitrogen dopants were retained after the fluorination process, and the amorphous nanoparticles were partially converted into the anatase phase. Annealing the photocatalysts resulted in a decrease of both the nitrogen and fluoride atomic concentration. Diffuse reflectance spectra show an increase in absorbance above 400 nm after annealing the F,N-doped TiO2, which suggests the formation of color centers. The photoactivity of the F,N-doped and N-doped TiO2 catalysts were evaluated by monitoring by the decolorization of methylene blue with visible light. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that methylene blue undergoes successive demethylation, and more importantly, the rate of decolorization depends on the fluoride concentration. These results show the importance of a two-step synthesis method to independently control the nitrogen and fluoride concentration.

  10. Transition-metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity under UV light.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Rosari; Djaja, Nadia Febiana

    2014-09-15

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with transition metals (Mn and Co) were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-rays, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the transition-metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles were evaluated in the degradation of methyl orange under UV irradiation. ZnO nanoparticles doped with 12 at.% of Mn and Co ions exhibited the maximum photodegradation efficiency. The experiment also demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles was higher than that of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles. These results indicate that charge trapping states due to the doping were the decisive factor rather than the average particle size and energy gap. Moreover the effect of pH values on the degradation efficiency was discussed in the photocatalytic experiments using 12 at.% Mn- and Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  11. White light emission from Dy3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystal grown by Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yan-ming; Xia, Hai-ping; Fu, Li; Li, Shan-shan; Gu, Xue-mei; Zhang, Jian-li; Wang, Dong-jie; Zhang, Yue-pin; Jiang, Hao-chuan; Chen, Bao-jiu

    2014-07-01

    Lithium lutetium fluoride (LiLuF4) single crystals doped with different Dy3+ ion concentrations were grown by Bridgman method. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) strength parameters ( Ω 2, Ω 4, Ω 6) of Dy3+ in LiLuF4 crystal are calculated according to the measured absorption spectra and the J-O theory, by which the asymmetry of the Dy3+:LiLuF4 single crystal and the possibility of attaining stimulated emission from 4F9/2 level are analyzed. The capability of the Dy3+:LiLuF4 crystal in generating white light by simultaneous blue and yellow emissions under excitation with ultraviolet light is produced. The effects of excitation wavelength and doping concentration on chromaticity coordinates and photoluminescence intensity are also investigated. Favorable CIE coordinates, x=0.319 3 and y=0.349 3, can be obtained for Dy3+ ion in 2.701% molar doping concentration under excitation of 350 nm.

  12. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of Zn-doped WO(3) photocatalysts for nitrite ions degradation under visible light.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X F; Leng, W H; Liu, D P; Zhang, J Q; Cao, C N

    2007-08-01

    WO(3) and Zn-doped WO(3) thin films were prepared on indium-tin oxide glass by a dip-coating. The composite films were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The effect of preparation conditions (concentration of Zn, annealing temperature, number of layers) on the photocurrent was studied. It was found that the photocurrent under visible light displayed the highest value for 2% Zn-WO(3) films annealed at 400 degrees C. The photocatalytic activity of the Zn-doped WO(3) was evaluated in terms of decay rate of nitrite ions under visible light. The influence of applied potential, initial pH and nitrite concentration on the reaction rate was studied. The experiments demonstrated that NO(2)(-) could be efficiently degraded on the doped photoanode that showed a higher activity than the undoped WO(3) especially under high anodic potential (>0.7 V). The rate of degradation was enhanced in aqueous NaCl solutions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the photodegradation mechanism of NO(2)(-) proceeded mainly indirectly via OH radicals. The possible reason of enhancement of reaction rate was also discussed. PMID:17482660

  13. White light generation in Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation of Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass focused on generation of white light is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time measurements. The white light emission obtained in the glass phosphor shows excitation wavelength dependent tunable tonality: neutral white (0.385, 0.441) of 4250 K and warm white (0.417, 0.412) of 3429 K, upon 445 and 322 nm excitations, respectively. A quantum yield of 26.1 ± 1.2% is attained upon Dy3+ excitation at 445 nm. The white luminescence is due mainly to terbium 5D4 → 7F5, dysprosium 4F9/2 → 6H15/2,13/2 and europium 5D0 → 7F2 transitions. It is demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfers Dy3+ to Tb3+ and Eu3+, and Tb3+ to Eu3+, take place in the glass phosphor excited at 445 or 322 nm. Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, excited by AlGaN (322 nm) or InGaN (445 nm) LEDs, could then be appropriated for solid state lighting technology as neutral or warm white light phosphors.

  14. Room temperature synthesis of Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P.; Tiwary, C. S.

    2013-03-21

    Mn{sup 2+} doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be {approx}1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn{sup 2+} doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn{sup 2+} doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  15. Efficient inverted organic light-emitting devices with self or intentionally Ag-doped interlayer modified cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Shihao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Xuemei; Yin, Yongming; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Ping; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-03-03

    Green phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with self or intentionally Ag-doped interlayer modified cathode were demonstrated. The IOLEDs show low driving voltage and high efficiency. For example, the efficiency of inverted bottom-emitting OLED with ITO cathode is comparable with the conventional bottom-emitting OLED with ITO anode. The top-emitting IOLED with Ag cathode shows high current efficiency of 76.4 cd/A which is 2.38 times of that of the conventional bottom-emitting OLED with ITO anode. The results indicate that the electron injection from cathode was observably improved by the Ag-doped interlayer and such interlayer is cathode independent relatively.

  16. Improved characteristics of organic light-emitting devices by surface modification of nickel-doped indium tin oxide anode

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.-M.; Wu, W.-T.

    2004-08-02

    This letter presents the optoelectrical performance of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) through the elevation of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode work function by Ni co-sputter surface doping and additional O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The turn-on voltage of OLED devices can be reduced by 2.3 V for Ni atomic concentration greater than 1.8% and by 2.7 V for the additional O{sub 2} plasma treatment. Devices with Ni(2.6%)-doped and O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO anodes perform the highest luminance efficiency (0.91 lm/W), three times larger than undoped ITO (0.31 lm/W) at 250 cd/m{sup 2}.

  17. A Newly Designed Polyfluorene as an Efficient Host Material for Phosphorescent-Dye-Doped Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Soo-Hyun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2013-10-01

    A newly designed polyfluorene derivative, poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(5-cyanopentyl fluorene)-co-alt)-2,5-dimethyl-phenylene] (CNPFX), was synthesized for use as a host material for a phosphorescent dye, fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) [Ir(ppy)3], in phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes. Efficient energy transfer to Ir(ppy)3 was achieved as a result of improved chemical compatibility via introduction of a polar unit, as well as increased spectrum overlap due to a blue-shift in the emission spectrum. Photo- and electro-luminescent spectra of Ir(ppy)3-doped CNPFX film showed clear green emission from Ir(ppy)3 due to efficient energy transfer, whereas those of Ir(ppy)3-doped poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF6) film showed blue emission from PF6. The CNPFX:Ir(ppy)3 (8 wt %) single layer device showed significantly improved performance.

  18. ac hopping magnetotransport across the spin-flop transition in lightly doped La2CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkov, Oleg P.; Kotov, Valeri N.

    2008-02-01

    The weak ferromagnetism present in insulating La2CuO4 at low doping leads to a spin flop transition, and to transverse (interplane) hopping of holes in a strong external magnetic field. This results in a dimensional crossover 2D→3D for the in-plane transport, which in turn leads to an increase of the hole’s localization length and increased conduction. We demonstrate theoretically that as a consequence of this mechanism, a frequency-dependent jump of the in-plane ac hopping conductivity occurs at the spin flop transition. We predict the value and the frequency dependence of the jump. Experimental studies of this effect would provide important confirmation of the emerging understanding of lightly doped insulating La2-xSrxCuO4 .

  19. A one-pot method to prepare N-doped titania hollow spheres with high photocatalytic activity under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Yanhui; Xu, Jingjing; Zhang, Songhe; Fu, Degang

    2010-02-01

    N-doped titania hollow spheres (NTHS) were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method using urea as precursor of nitrogen. The prepared hollow spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared titania hollow spheres was determined by degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red dye X-3B (C.I. reactive red 2) under visible light irradiation, and was compared to non-doped titania hollow spheres and commercial P25 titania. Results indicated that the as-prepared NTHS showed highest photocatalytic activity.

  20. Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes by using special designed n and p-type doped barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Zhiyou; Li, Fangzheng; Lin, Hong; Li, Chu; Xiang, Shuli; Zhou, Tengfei; Wan, Nianqing; Liu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of the nitride-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) by using special designed n and p-type doped barriers have been analyzed numerically in this paper. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE), carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), energy band diagrams, emission spectra and electrostatic fields are investigated. The simulation results indicate that the proposed LED by using the special designed n and p-type doped barriers has a strong enhancement in the optical output power. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the change of electrical field in the active region, resulting in superior electron confinement and improved hole injection efficiency. Further simulation results also indicate that the proposed LED without the p-AlGaN EBL possesses much better hole uniformity, which is due to the reversed electrostatic field in the last barrier.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic evaluation of visible light activated C-doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanglong; Han, Changseok; Pelaez, Miguel; Zhu, Duanwei; Liao, Shuijiao; Likodimos, Vlassis; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Kontos, Athanassios G; Falaras, Polycarpos; Dunlop, Patrick S M; Byrne, J Anthony; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2012-07-27

    We have demonstrated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by visible light activated carbon doped TiO(2) (C-TiO(2)) nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified sol-gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting oleic acid as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The C-TiO(2) nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase despite the low calcination temperature of 350 °C and exhibit a highly porous structure that can be optimized by tuning the concentration of the oleic acid surfactant. The carbon modified nanomaterials exhibited enhanced absorption in the broad visible light region together with an apparent red shift in the optical absorption edge by 0.5 eV (2.69 eV), compared to the 3.18 eV of reference anatase TiO(2). Carbon species were identified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through the formation of both Ti-C and C-O bonds, indicative of substitution of carbon for oxygen atoms and the formation of carbonates, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two carbon related paramagnetic centers in C-TiO(2), whose intensity was markedly enhanced under visible light illumination, pointing to the formation of localized states within the anatase band gap, following carbon doping. The photocatalytic activity of C-TiO(2) nanomaterials was evaluated for the degradation of MC-LR at pH 3.0 under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. The doped materials showed a higher MC-LR degradation rate than reference TiO(2), behavior that is attributed to the incorporation of carbon into the titania lattice.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic evaluation of visible light activated C-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanglong; Han, Changseok; Pelaez, Miguel; Zhu, Duanwei; Liao, Shuijiao; Likodimos, Vlassis; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Falaras, Polycarpos; Dunlop, Patrick S. M.; Byrne, J. Anthony; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2012-07-01

    We have demonstrated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by visible light activated carbon doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified sol-gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting oleic acid as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The C-TiO2 nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase despite the low calcination temperature of 350 °C and exhibit a highly porous structure that can be optimized by tuning the concentration of the oleic acid surfactant. The carbon modified nanomaterials exhibited enhanced absorption in the broad visible light region together with an apparent red shift in the optical absorption edge by 0.5 eV (2.69 eV), compared to the 3.18 eV of reference anatase TiO2. Carbon species were identified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through the formation of both Ti-C and C-O bonds, indicative of substitution of carbon for oxygen atoms and the formation of carbonates, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two carbon related paramagnetic centers in C-TiO2, whose intensity was markedly enhanced under visible light illumination, pointing to the formation of localized states within the anatase band gap, following carbon doping. The photocatalytic activity of C-TiO2 nanomaterials was evaluated for the degradation of MC-LR at pH 3.0 under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. The doped materials showed a higher MC-LR degradation rate than reference TiO2, behavior that is attributed to the incorporation of carbon into the titania lattice.

  3. Anisotropic softening of magnetic excitations in lightly electron-doped Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Meng, Z. Y.; Upton, M. H.; Qi, T.; Gog, T.; Cao, Y.; Lin, J. Q.; Meyers, D.; Ding, H.; et al

    2016-06-10

    The magnetic excitations in electron doped (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4 with x = 0:03 were measured using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at the Ir L3-edge. Although much broadened, well defined dispersive magnetic excitations were observed. Comparing with the magnetic dispersion from the undoped compound, the evolution of the magnetic excitations upon doping is highly anisotropic. Along the anti-nodal direction, the dispersion is almost intact. On the other hand, the magnetic excitations along the nodal direction show significant softening. These results establish the presence of strong magnetic correlations in electron doped (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4 with close analogies to the hole doped cuprates, further motivating the searchmore » for high temperature superconductivity in this system.« less

  4. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Mukherjee, Shaibal; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.

    2015-10-28

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and −2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar{sup +} ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  5. Application of visible-light photocatalysis with nitrogen-doped or unmodified titanium dioxide for control of indoor-level volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Kim, Jong-Tae

    2009-05-15

    The present study evaluated visible-light photocatalysis, applying an annular reactor coated with unmodified or nitrogen (N)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), to cleanse gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at indoor levels. The surface chemistry investigation of N-doped TiO(2) suggested that there was no significant residual of sulfate ions or urea species on the surface of the N-doped TiO(2). Under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic technique using N-doped TiO(2) was much superior to that for unmodified TiO(2) for the degradation of VOCs. Moreover, the degradation efficiency by a reactor coated with N-doped TiO(2) was well above 90% for four target compounds (ethyl benzene, o,m,p-xylenes), suggesting that this photocatalytic system can be effectively employed to cleanse these pollutants at indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. The degradation efficiency of all target compounds increased as the stream flow rate (SFR) decreased. For most target compounds, a reactor with a lower hydraulic diameter (HD) exhibited elevated degradation efficiency. The result on humidity effect suggested that the N-doped photocatalyst could be employed effectively to remove four target compounds (ethyl benzene, o,m,p-xylenes) under conditions of less humidified environments, including a typical indoor comfort range (50-60%). Consequently, it is suggested that with appropriate photocatalytic conditions, a visible-light-assisted N-doped photocatalytic system is clearly an important tool for improving IAQ.

  6. A comparison study of rhodamine B photodegradation over nitrogen-doped lamellar niobic acid and titanic acid under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiukai; Kikugawa, Naoki; Ye, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state reaction method with urea as a nitrogen precursor was used to prepare nitrogen-doped lamellar niobic and titanic solid acids (i.e., HNb(3)O(8) and H(2)Ti(4)O(9)) with different acidities for visible-light photocatalysis. The photocatalytic activities of the nitrogen-doped solid acids were evaluated for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation and the results were compared with those obtained over the corresponding nitrogen-doped potassium salts. Techniques such as XRD, BET, SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were adopted to explore the nature of the materials as well as the characteristics of the doped nitrogen species. It was found that the intercalation of the urea precursor helped to stabilize the layered structures of both lamellar solid acids and enabled easier nitrogen doping. The effects of urea intercalation were more significant for the more acidic HNb(3)O(8) sample than for the less acidic H(2)Ti(4)O(9). Compared with the nitrogen-doped KNb(3)O(8) and K(2)Ti(4)O(9) samples, the nitrogen-doped HNb(3)O(8) and H(2)Ti(4)O(9) solid acids absorb more visible light and exhibit a superior activity for RhB photodegradation under visible-light irradiation. The nitrogen-doped HNb(3)O(8) sample performed the best among all the samples. The results of the current study suggest that the protonic acidity of the lamellar solid-acid sample is a key factor that influences nitrogen doping and the resultant visible-light photocatalysis.

  7. TiS2 transformation into S-doped and N-doped TiO2 with visible-light catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chen; Chien, Tzu-En; Lai, Po-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Kun-Lin; Lin, Jong-Liang

    2015-12-01

    S-doped rutile has been prepared for the first time by hydrothermal reaction of TiS2 in hydrochloric acid at a low temperature (180 °C), with the S atoms in three states of Tisbnd Ssbnd Ti, Tisbnd Ssbnd O and SO4. TiS2 in nitric acid can also be transformed into TiO2, but with mixed phases of anatase and rutile, containing nitrogen atoms at interstitial sites in the form of Tisbnd Osbnd N or Tisbnd Nsbnd O. The Ssbnd TiO2 catalyst shows a better visible-light reactivity toward adsorbed methylene blue (MB) photodegradation and hydroxylation of terephthalic acid with respect to the Nsbnd TiO2. The possible reasons leading to the high photoactivity of the Ssbnd TiO2 are discussed in terms of the incorporated sulfur states.

  8. Tunable slow light via stimulated Brillouin scattering at 2 μm based on Tm-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-06-01

    We present a slow light system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) at 2 μm. A single-frequency fiber laser with Tm-doped fiber amplifiers was used to generate the SBS signal laser and the Brillouin pump light at 1.971 μm. The maximum delay time reaches 16 ns for pulses with 43-ns width, and the pulse width is broadened to 56.4 ns. The maximum delay time for 57-ns pulses reaches 33.4 ns, and the pulse width is broadened to 77.6 ns. The relative delays are 0.37 and 0.58 for 43 and 57 ns pulses, respectively. This is the first demonstration, as far as we know, on a slow light system at 2 μm, which may be substantial for future optical communications and LIDAR systems employing laser sources near 2-μm band.

  9. Biogenic C-doped titania templated by cyanobacteria for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Zi, Guoli; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Yongli; Xie, Jiao; Duan, Deliang; Chen, Yongjuan; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2014-05-01

    Cyanobacteria, which occurred in eutrophic water harvest solar light to carry out photosynthesis with high efficiency. In this work, cyanobacteria (Microcystis sp.) were used as biotemplate to synthesize titania structure. The synthesized titania sample had similar morphology to that of the original template in spite of the fragile unicellular structures and extremely high water content of cyanobacterial cells. Incorporation of biogenic C, as well as the morphology inherited from biotemplate improved visible-light absorbance of the titania structure. The sample exhibited higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than commercial titania photocatalyst Degussa P25 for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation. Compared with those C-doped titania photocatalysts prepared by other methods, cyanobacteria templated titania photocatalyst offer some potential for competitive advantages. The reported strategy opened up a new use for the cyanobacteria. It could also be used for titania in applications such as treatment of polluted water, dye-sensitized solar cells, or other regions.

  10. Identifying Temporal Patterns in Light use Efficiency for two Loblolly Pine Plantations in a Drained Lower Coastal Plain Region of North Carolina, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirino, V. F.; Wynne, R. H.; Noormets, A.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

    2007-12-01

    Light Use Efficiency (LUE) is a variable present in most ecosystem models driven by remote sensing. Among other factors, LUE varies with time. In this study we evaluate the temporal variation of LUE over a one year period for two loblolly pine plantations - one mid-rotation and one recently harvested. Specifically, we determine the most reasonable measurement time periods for LUE, and if these periods vary with stand age. The underlying hypothesis is that short term temporal changes in LUE cancel out over a certain amount of time, and therefore, to estimate forest productivity at landscape to regional scales using moderate resolution satellite data these intensive measurements are unnecessary. To test this hypothesis we use data collected in two micrometeorological tower sites that are a part of the Ameriflux network. They are located in the coastal plain region of North Carolina, U.S.A and are less than five kilometers apart. For this study eddy covariance measurements and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors are used to obtain gross primary production (GPP) and the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy (APAR). LUE is calculated as GPP divided by fAPAR. The analysis of the data consists of first calculating daily LUE averages for the entire study period. Changes in both the trend and variance of LUE are being assessed using autoregressive conditional techniques for time series analysis.

  11. Photocarrier Radiometry Investigation of Light-Induced Degradation of Boron-Doped Czochralski-Grown Silicon Without Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced degradation (LID) effects of boron-doped Cz silicon wafers without surface passivation are investigated in details by photocarrier radiometry (PCR). The resistivity of all samples is in the range of 0.006 Ω {\\cdot } {cm} to 38 Ω {\\cdot } {cm}. It is found that light-induced changes in surface state occupation have a great effect on LID under illumination. With the increasing contribution of light-induced changes in surface state occupation, the generation rate of the defect decreases. The light-induced changes in surface state occupation and light-induced degradation dominate the temporal behaviors of the excess carrier density of high- and low-resistivity Si wafers, respectively. Moreover, the temporal behaviors of PCR signals of these samples under laser illumination with different powers, energy of photons, and multiple illuminations were also analyzed to understand the light-induced change of material properties. Based on the nonlinear dependence of PCR signal on the excitation power, a theoretical model taking into account both light-induced changes in surface state occupation and LID processes was proposed to explain those temporal behaviors.

  12. A facile one-step electrochemical strategy of doping iron, nitrogen, and fluorine into titania nanotube arrays with enhanced visible light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zulin; Dai, Zhangyan; Bai, Xue; Ye, Zhengfang; Gu, Haixin; Huang, Xin

    2015-08-15

    Highly ordered iron, nitrogen, and fluorine tri-doped TiO2 (Fe, (N, F)-TiO2) nanotube arrays were successfully synthesized by a facile one-step electrochemical method in an NH4F electrolyte containing Fe ions. The morphology, structure, composition, and photoelectrochemical property of the as-prepared nanotube arrays were characterized by various methods. The photoactivities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of phenol in an aqueous solution under visible light. Tri-doped TiO2 showed higher photoactivities than undoped TiO2 under visible light. The optimum Fe(3+) doping amount at 0.005M exhibited the highest photoactivity and exceeded that of undoped TiO2 by a factor of 20 times under visible light. The formation of N 2p level near the valence band (VB) contributed to visible light absorption. Doping fluorine and appropriate Fe(3+) ions reduced the photogenerated electrons-holes recombination rate and enhanced visible light photoactivity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated the presence of synergistic effects in Fe, N, and F tri-doped TiO2, which enhanced visible light photoactivity. The Fe, (N, F)-TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited high stability.

  13. 266  nm ultraviolet light generation in Ga-doped BaAlBO3F2 crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Yue, Yinchao; Yang, Feng; Hu, Zhanggui; Xu, Zuyan

    2016-04-01

    BaAlBO3F2 (BABF) crystals are a recently developed and promising nonlinear optical material, notably for the third harmonic generation of ultraviolet (UV) light at 355 nm. However, the fourth harmonic generation of UV light at 266 nm has never been obtained by using a BABF crystal due to its relatively small birefringence. We demonstrate that the birefringence of BABF can be effectively increased by doping it with Ga3+. The fourth harmonic generation of UV light at 266 nm was achieved for the first time in a Ga-doped BABF crystal. PMID:27192296

  14. Effective nitrogen doping into TiO2 (N-TiO2) for visible light response photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Niimi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Muneaki; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    The thickness-controlled TiO2 thin films are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These samples function as photocatalysts under UV light irradiation and the reaction rate depends on the TiO2 thickness, i.e., with an increase of thickness, it increases to the maximum, followed by decreasing to be constant. Such variation of the reaction rate is fundamentally explained by the competitive production and annihilation processes of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 films, and the optimum TiO2 thickness is estimated to be ca. 10nm. We also tried to dope nitrogen into the effective depth region (ca. 10nm) of TiO2 by an ion implantation technique. The nitrogen doped TiO2 enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. XANES and XPS analyses indicated two types of chemical state of nitrogen, one photo-catalytically active N substituting the O sites and the other inactive NOx (1⩽x⩽2) species. In the valence band XPS spectrum of the high active sample, the additional electronic states were observed just above the valence band edge of a TiO2. The electronic state would be originated from the substituting nitrogen and be responsible for the band gap narrowing, i.e., visible light response of TiO2 photocatalysts.

  15. Cu-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles enhance survival of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under ultraviolet light (UV) exposure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim; Tang, Yinjie J

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that photocatalytic TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as an efficient anti-microbial agent under UV light due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal-reducing bacterium highly susceptible to UV radiation. Interestingly, we found that the presence of Cu-doped TiO(2) NPs in the cultural medium dramatically increased the survival rates (based on colony-forming unit) of strain MR-1 by over 10,000-fold (incubation without shaking) and ~200 fold (incubation with shaking) after a 2-h exposure to UV light. Gene expression results (via qPCR measurement) indicated that the DNA repair gene recA in MR-1 was significantly induced by UV exposure (indicating cellular damage under UV stress), but the influence of NPs on recA expression was not statistically evident. Plausible explanations to NP attenuation of UV stresses are: 1. TiO(2) based NPs are capable of scattering and absorbing UV light and thus create a shading effect to protect MR-1 from UV radiation; 2. more importantly, Cu-doped TiO(2) NPs can co-agglomerate with MR-1 to form large flocs that improves cells' survival against the environmental stresses. This study improves our understanding of NP ecological impacts under natural solar radiation and provides useful insights to application of photocatalytic-NPs for bacterial disinfection. PMID:21855961

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of carbon coated N-doped TiO2 nanostructures with enhanced visible light catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-Min; Kang, Jialing; Gao, Lin; Xiong, Lin; Mei, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Visible light-active carbon coated N-doped TiO2 nanostructures(CTS-TiO2) were prepared by a facile one-step solvothermal method with chitosan as carbon and nitrogen resource at 180 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The CTS-TiO2 nanocomposites possess anatase phase of nanocrystalline structure with average particle size of about 5-7 nm. A wormhole mesostructure can be observed in the CTS-TiO2 nanocomposites due to the constituent agglomerated of nanoparticles. It has been evidenced that the nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation at λ ≥ 400 nm. The results show that CTS-TiO2 nanostructures display a higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2, commercial P25 and C-coated TiO2 (C-TiO2) photocatalysts. The higher photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the band-gap narrowed by N-doping and the accelerated separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes by carbon modification.

  17. Ultraviolet-light-driven doping modulation in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Z; Iqbal, M W; Khan, M F; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-08-28

    The tuning of charge carrier density of graphene is an essential factor to achieve the integration of high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic devices. We demonstrate the reversible doping in graphene using deep ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and treatment with O2 and N2 gases. The Dirac point shift towards a positive gate voltage of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene field-effect transistors confirms the p-type doping, which is observed under UV irradiation and treatment with O2 gas, while it restores its pristine state after treatment with N2 gas under UV irradiation. The emergence of an additional peak in the X-ray photoelectron spectra during UV irradiation and treatment with O2 gas represents the oxidation of graphene, and the elimination of this peak during UV irradiation and treatment with N2 gas reveals the restoration of graphene in its pristine state. The shift in the G and 2D bands in Raman spectra towards higher and then lower wavenumber also suggests p-type doping and then reversible doping in graphene. The controlled doping and its reversibility in large area grown graphene offer a new vision for electronic applications.

  18. Ultraviolet-light-driven doping modulation in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Z; Iqbal, M W; Khan, M F; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-08-28

    The tuning of charge carrier density of graphene is an essential factor to achieve the integration of high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic devices. We demonstrate the reversible doping in graphene using deep ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and treatment with O2 and N2 gases. The Dirac point shift towards a positive gate voltage of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene field-effect transistors confirms the p-type doping, which is observed under UV irradiation and treatment with O2 gas, while it restores its pristine state after treatment with N2 gas under UV irradiation. The emergence of an additional peak in the X-ray photoelectron spectra during UV irradiation and treatment with O2 gas represents the oxidation of graphene, and the elimination of this peak during UV irradiation and treatment with N2 gas reveals the restoration of graphene in its pristine state. The shift in the G and 2D bands in Raman spectra towards higher and then lower wavenumber also suggests p-type doping and then reversible doping in graphene. The controlled doping and its reversibility in large area grown graphene offer a new vision for electronic applications. PMID:26198203

  19. Enhancement of electrical property by oxygen doping to copper phthalocyanine in inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2009-11-23

    We reported the evidence of oxygen doping to copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) by O{sub 2}-plasma treatment to inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (ITOLEDs). In situ synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that a new Cu-O bond appeared and the energy difference between the highest-occupied molecular orbital and E{sub F} is lowered by 0.15 eV after plasma treatment. The oxygen ions chemically interacted with Cu atoms and transferred charges to the CuPc. Thus the hole injection barrier was lowered, enhancing the electroluminescent property of ITOLEDs.

  20. Light-induced excess conductivity and the role of argon in the deposition of doping-modulated amorphous silicon superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Su, F.; Levine, S.; Vanier, P.E.; Kampas, F.J.

    1985-09-15

    Amorphous silicon pnpn ... structures that exhibit the phenomenon of light-induced excess conductivity (LEC) have been deposited in a single-chamber glow discharge deposition system by simple control of gas flows. This phenomenon is negligible when the doped silane is undiluted but clearly evident when the silane is diluted in argon. Experiments were performed in which argon dilution was only used for specific regions of the structure. The LEC effect was found to occur if argon dilution was used during the deposition of any fraction of the superlattice layers. These experiments rule out mechanisms requiring phosphorus-boron defect complexes or interface states.

  1. Characterization and photocatalytic performance evaluation of various metal ion-doped microstructured TiO2 under UV and visible light.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available microcrystalline TiO2 was doped with silver, ferrous and ferric ion (1.0 mol %) using silver nitrate, ferrous sulfate and ferric nitrate solutions following the liquid impregnation technology. The catalysts prepared were characterised by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, DRS, particle size and micropore analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested on the degradation of two model dyes, methylene blue (3,7-bis (Dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, a cationic thiazine dye) and methyl blue (disodium;4-[4-[[4-(4-sulfonatoanilino)phenyl]-[4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azaniumylidenecyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]anilino]benzene sulfonate, an anionic triphenyl methane dye) under irradiation by UV and visible light in a batch reactor. The efficiency of the photocatalysts under UV and visible light was compared to ascertain the light range for effective utilization. The catalysts were found to have the anatase crystalline structure and their particle size is in a range of 140-250 nm. In the case of Fe(2+) doped TiO2 and Fe(3+) doped TiO2, there was a greater shift in the optical absorption towards the visible range. Under UV light, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient catalyst and the corresponding decolorization was more than 99% for both the dyes. Under visible light, Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient photocatalyst with more than 96% and 90% decolorization for methylene blue and methyl blue, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction under both UV and visible light was investigated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Kinetic measurements confirmed that, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the UV range, while Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the visible range.

  2. Role of Li+ on white light emission from Sm3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. S.; Yadav, R. V.; Bahadur, A.; Yadav, T. P.; Rai, S. B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on white light emission from Sm3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor, synthesized through the solution combustion method. The XRD and TEM measurements of the nano-phosphors reveal a crystalline nature and spherical particle distribution. The Sm3+-doped nano-phosphor gives off an orange-red emission whereas the Tb3+-doped nano-phosphor gives off blue and green emissions individually on excitation with 380 nm radiation. When the Sm3+and Tb3+ ions are doped together, the co-doped nano-phosphor emits white light with the CIE coordinates 0.33 and 0.37, due to the combined emissions of these two ions on excitation with 380 nm radiation. The color of the emitted light is tunable with the concentration of Sm3+ ions, and it emits white light at the 2.0 mol% concentration of Sm3+ and 1.0 mol% concentration of Tb3+ ions. The nano-phosphor sample annealed at a higher temperature results in a greater emission intensity. The presence of Li+ ions in the co-doped sample enhances the emission intensity of white light up to three times. The enhancement in the emission intensity is discussed in terms of a reduction in the optical quenching centers and an increase in the crystallite size. The Sm3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor in the presence of Li+ is a suitable candidate for white light in a solid state display.

  3. Effect of Vanadium(IV)-Doping on the Visible Light-Induced Catalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide Catalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Yo-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanadium(IV)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller–specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. V-doping in the TiO2 increases the crystal grain size, which decreases the specific surface areas of powders. This V-doping changes the band gap of TiO2, leading to extend the absorption to visible light regions (400–800 nm). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was investigated as a function of the vanadium content in TiO2 and was found to follow pseudo first-order rate kinetics. Appropriate content of V-doping is an effective means to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for MB degradation under visible light irradiation. PMID:22693413

  4. Low-temperature preparation of F-doped TiO 2 film and its photocatalytic activity under solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Ao, Yanhui; Fu, Degang; Yuan, Chunwei

    2008-03-01

    A novel and simple method for preparing F-doped anatase TiO 2 (defined as FTO) film with high photocatalytic activity was developed using titanium- n-butoxide and NH 4F as TiO 2 and fluorine precursors under mild condition, i.e. low temperature (lower than 373 K) and ambient pressure. The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and TG-DSC analysis. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by decomposing X-3B under artificial solar light. The results showed that the crystallinity of TiO 2 was improved by F-doping. F - ions can prevent the grain growth, and the transformation of anatase to rutile phase was also inhibited. The doped fluorine atoms existed in two chemical forms, and the ones incorporated into TiO 2 lattice might take a positive role in photocatalysis. Compared with surface fluorination samples, FTO film exhibited better photocatalytic activity. The high photocatalytic activity of FTO may due to extrinsic absorption through the creation of oxygen vacancies rather than the excitation of the intrinsic absorption band of bulk TiO 2. Furthermore, the FTO can be recycled with little photocatalytic activity depression. Without any further treatment besides rinsing, after 6 recycle utilization, the photocatalytic activity of FTO film was still higher than 79%.

  5. Visible-Light-Induced Activity Control of Peroxidase Bound to Fe-Doped Titanate Nanosheets with Nanometric Lateral Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kai; Ito, Daiki; Soh, Nobuaki

    2015-10-21

    Catalytic performance of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) electrostatically adsorbed on nanometric and semiconducting Fe-doped titanate (FT) nanosheets was successfully manipulated by visible light illumination. A colloidal solution of FT with a narrow band gap corresponding to a visible light region was fabricated through a hydrolysis reaction of metals sources. HRP could be easily bound to the FT at pH = 4 through an electrostatic interaction between them, and the formed HRP-FT was utilized for the visible-light-driven enzymatic reaction. Under exposure to visible light with enough energy for band gap excitation of the FT, catalytic activity of HRP-FT was dramatically enhanced as compared with free (unbound) HRP and was simply adjusted by light intensity. In addition, wavelength dependence of an enzymatic reaction rate was analogous to an optical absorption spectrum of the FT. These results substantiated an expected reaction mechanism in which the photoenzymatic reaction was initiated by band gap excitation of FT followed by transferring holes generated in the valence band of irradiated FT to HRP. The excited HRP oxidized substrates (amplex ultrared: AUR) accompanied by two-electron reduction to regenerate the resting state. In addition, the catalytic activity was clearly switched by turning on and off the light source.

  6. Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of titanium-tungstate-tellurite glasses doped with dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Jyothi, L.; Upender, G.; Kuladeep, R.; Rao, D. Narayana

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: CIE coordinate diagram of different concentrations of the Dy{sup 3+}-doped TTWD glasses with coordinates in the white light region. - Highlights: • Radiative lifetime of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ions is longer in the tellurite glass. • Quantum efficiency is found to be high. • These glasses are suitable materials for generating white light. - Abstract: Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of Dy{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses of composition TTWD: (75 − x)TeO{sub 2} − 10TiO{sub 2} − 15WO{sub 3} − xDy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were investigated. Raman spectra revealed that the glass contains TeO{sub 4}, TeO{sub 3}, WO{sub 4} and WO{sub 6} units. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were carried out to measure the glass transition temperature of all the glasses. From the optical absorption spectra, luminescence spectra and using the Judd–Ofelt (JO) analysis, we estimated the radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes. The decay curves at lower concentrations are exponential while they show a non-exponential behavior at higher concentrations (≥0.5 mol%) due to energy transfer processes. The effective lifetime for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level decreases with increase in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration for the glasses under investigation. The non-exponential decay curves could fit well to the Inokuti–Hirayama (IH) model with S = 6, indicating that the nature of interaction responsible for energy transfer is of dipole–dipole type. Simulation of white light is examined with varying concentration and the results indicate that these glasses are suitable for white light emitting diode applications.

  7. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  8. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poongodi, G.; Anandan, P.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  9. Erbium and nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} with highly visible light photocatalytic activity and stability by solvothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Wei, Yuelin; Huang, Yunfang; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Xuanqing; Sun, Zhixian; Wu, Ying; Tao, Xinling; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er/N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} was prepared by a solvothermal process at low temperature. • The co-doping induces the band gap narrowing and prominent absorbance in visible light region. • The samples show excellent catalytic activity and stability under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} photocatalysts have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The resulting samples were analyzed by FE-SEM, XRD, BET-surface area and UV–vis. The UV–vis absorption spectra of these powders indicated that erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} possessed stronger absorption bands in the visible light region in comparison with that of pure SrTiO{sub 3}. The occurrence of the erbium–nitrogen co-doped cubic SrTiO{sub 3} induced the higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation by ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively, being superior to that of pure SrTiO{sub 3} and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25) powders. In addition, the Er–N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (initial molar ratios of Sr/Er/N = 1:0.015:0.1, designated as S5) sample showed the best photocatalytic activity with the degradation rate as high as 98% after 30 min under the visible light irradiation. After five cycles, the photocatalytic activity of the S5 catalyst showed no significant decrease, which indicated that the photocatalysts were stable under visible light irradiation.

  10. Optimal shapes for best draining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, J. D.

    2009-11-01

    The container shape that minimizes the volume of draining fluid remaining on the walls of the container after it has been emptied from its base is determined. The film of draining fluid is assumed to wet the walls of the container, and is sufficiently thin so that its curvature may be neglected. Surface tension is ignored. The initial value problem for the thickness of a film of Newtonian fluid is studied, and is shown to lead asymptotically to a similarity solution. From this, and from equivalent solutions for power-law fluids, the volume of the residual film is determined. The optimal container shape is not far from hemispherical, to minimize the surface area, but has a conical base to promote draining. The optimal shape for an axisymmetric mixing vessel, with a hole at the center of its base for draining, is also optimal when inverted in the manner of a washed wine glass inverted and left to drain.

  11. Room-temperature light emission from an airbridge double-heterostructure microcavity of Er-doped Si photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; An, Jun-ming; Wu, Yuan-da; Hu, Xiong-wei

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient enhancement of luminescence from two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal photonic crystal (PC) airbridge double-heterostructure microcavity with Er-doped silicon (Si) as light emitters on siliconon-insulator (SOI) wafer at room temperature. A single sharp resonant peak at 1 529.6 nm dominates the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum with the pumping power of 12.5 mW. The obvious red shift and the degraded quality factor (Q-factor) of resonant peak appear with the pumping power increasing, and the maximum measured Q-factor of 4 905 is achieved at the pumping power of 1.5 mW. The resonant peak is observed to shift depending on the structural parameters of PC, which indicates a possible method to control the wavelength of enhanced luminescence for Si-based light emitters based on PC microcavity.

  12. Characterization of the transport properties of channel delta-doped structures by light-modulated Shubnikov-de Haas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Young, P. G.; Bibyk, S. B.; Ringel, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    The transport properties of channel delta-doped quantum well structures were characterized by conventional Hall effect and light-modulated Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect measurements. The large number of carriers that become available due to the delta-doping of the channel, leads to an apparent degeneracy in the well. As a result of this degeneracy, the carrier mobility remains constant as a function of temperature from 300 K down to 1.4 K. The large amount of impurity scattering, associated with the overlap of the charge carriers and the dopants, resulted in low carrier mobilities and restricted the observation of the oscillatory magneto-resistance used to characterize the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by conventional SdH measurements. By light-modulating the carriers, we were able to observe the SdH oscillation at low magnetic fields, below 1.4 tesla, and derive a value for the quantum scattering time. Our results for the ratio of the transport and quantum scattering times are lower than those previously measured for similar structures using much higher magnetic fields.

  13. Effective visible light-active boron and europium co-doped BiVO4 synthesized by sol-gel method for photodegradion of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Che, Yinsheng; Niu, Chao; Dang, Mingyan; Dong, Duo

    2013-11-15

    Eu-B co-doped BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts have been synthesized using the sol-gel method. The resulting materials were characterized by a series of joint techniques, including XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis DRS analyses. Compared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4 photocatalysts, the Eu-B-BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal Eu doping content is 0.8 mol%. It was revealed that boron and europium were doped into the lattice of BiVO4 and this led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, a narrower band gap and intense light absorbance in the visible region. The doped Eu(III) cations can help in the separation of photogenerated electrons. The synergistic effects of boron and europium in doped BiVO4 were the main reason for improving visible light photocatalytic activity.

  14. Comparative Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes Under Simulated Visible Light Using Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-01-01

    This research work delved into the photocatalytic degradation of monoazo dye (methyl orange) and diazo dye (congo red) in aqueous solution using Fe3+/C/S-doped TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesised through sol-gel method and characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and UV-Vis. Photocatalytic degradation of the dyes was monitored under simulated visible light using pristine TiO2, C/S/doped-TiO2 and Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 with varying concentrations of Fe3+. The influence of catalyst doping, solution pH, and light intensity were also examined. Doping TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S caused reduction in its band gap value with the resultant improvement in its visible light activity. The photocatalytic efficiency of the catalysts is given as follows: TiO2 < C/S/TiO2 < Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 (0.3% Fe3+) as the best performing photocatalyst. The monoazo dye experienced higher degradation efficiency than the diazo dye. Degradation of the azo dyes was observed to decrease with increasing pH from 2 to 12. Increased visible light intensity enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of the dye. Dye decolourization was observed to be faster than its mineralization.

  15. Comparative Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes Under Simulated Visible Light Using Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-01-01

    This research work delved into the photocatalytic degradation of monoazo dye (methyl orange) and diazo dye (congo red) in aqueous solution using Fe3+/C/S-doped TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesised through sol-gel method and characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and UV-Vis. Photocatalytic degradation of the dyes was monitored under simulated visible light using pristine TiO2, C/S/doped-TiO2 and Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 with varying concentrations of Fe3+. The influence of catalyst doping, solution pH, and light intensity were also examined. Doping TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S caused reduction in its band gap value with the resultant improvement in its visible light activity. The photocatalytic efficiency of the catalysts is given as follows: TiO2 < C/S/TiO2 < Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 (0.3% Fe3+) as the best performing photocatalyst. The monoazo dye experienced higher degradation efficiency than the diazo dye. Degradation of the azo dyes was observed to decrease with increasing pH from 2 to 12. Increased visible light intensity enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of the dye. Dye decolourization was observed to be faster than its mineralization. PMID:27333563

  16. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  17. A novel approach for enhanced visible light activity in doped nanosize titanium dioxide through the excitons trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Baiju, K.V.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Warrier, K.G.K.

    2012-02-15

    Titanium dioxide doped with iron oxide (0-10 mol%) has been synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel method. The extent of phase transformation is higher in presence of up to 1 mol% of Fe{sup 3+} ions in doped titania. A further increase in Fe{sup 3+} content was found to decrease the phase transformation. A composition which contains {approx}90% rutile and the remaining anatase phase shows the highest photocatalytic activity. Even though surface area values are dramatically decreased by the modification of TiO{sub 2} by Fe{sup 3+} doping, crystallinity plays a major role in photocatalytic activity enhancement. UV-vis reflectance spectra indicate a red-shift in band gap energy and thus an enhanced photoactivity in visible light, suitable for application in photodegradation of toxic industrial effluents as well as other organic contaminants, is achieved. Low concentrations of Fe{sup 3+} ions act as excitons trapping centers, while higher concentrations act as recombination centers. The synergy between the rutile-anatase ratios and optimum amount of Fe{sup 3+} ions improve the interfacial charge transfer and trapping which enhanced the photochemical degradation of MB dye. The Fe{sup 3+} doped TiO{sub 2} composition has the highest photoactivity, having an apparent rate constant of 11.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}, which is much higher than that of commercial P25 Degussa titania (6.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}). - Graphical abstract: Model explaining the transfer and trapping of e{sup -}/h{sup +} pairs in mixed phase titania by Fe{sup 3+} ions suggests the reason for the increased lifetime of e{sup -}/h{sup +} pairs and enhanced photocatalytic activity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An aqueous sol-gel method for the preparation of doped TiO{sub 2} is being reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High photocatalytic activity and simplicity are the novelty of this work. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced activity is explained by the

  18. UV light sensing properties of Sm doped vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D. Ranjith; Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    Samarium doped ZnO nanorods were grown on silicon substrate by using vapor phase transport method (VPT) with the growth temperature of 950°C. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, and photocurrent measurements. The XRD result revealed that Sm was successfully doped into lattice plane of hexagonal ZnO nanorods. The FESEM result confirms the pure ZnO has nanorod like morphology with an average diameter and length of 130nm and 10µm respectively. The above observation is supported by the Micro-Raman spectroscopy result. The photocurrent in the visible region has been significantly enhanced due to deposition of Sm on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. Sm acts as a visible sensitizer because of its lower band gap compared to ZnO.

  19. Fabrication of the C-N co-doped rod-like TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with visible-light responsive photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-Hai; Lu, Juan; Wang, Zuo-Shan; Yang, Lu; Zhou, Xiu-Feng; Han, Lu

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Novel synthesis of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2}. ► Self-assembly of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods by nanoparticles. ► Excellent photocatalytic efficiency. -- Abstract: The C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods were synthesized by the vapor transport method of water molecules, and urea was used as the carbon and nitrogen source. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The scanning electron microscope images showed that as-prepared TiO{sub 2} powders were nanorods, which were formed by the stacking of nanoparticles with a uniform size around 40 nm. The degradation of methylene blue with the prepared nanorods demonstrated the photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2} under visible light are improved by doping with C and N elements. The main reasons were discussed: doping with C and N elements could enhance the corresponding visible-light absorption of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, doping C and N could create more oxygen vacancies in the TiO{sub 2} crystals, which could capture the photogenerated electrons more effectively. Thus, more photogenerated holes could be left to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}.

  20. A systematic study on visible-light N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst obtained from ethylenediamine by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Hao, Yubao; Lu, Haiqiang; Liang, Liping; Wang, Yuanyang; Qiu, Jianhao; Shi, Xianchao; Wang, Ying; Yao, Jianfeng

    2015-07-01

    N-doped titania is prepared using ethylenediamine as the nitrogen source by a sol-gel method. The preparation conditions, such as the volume ratio of ethylenediamine to sol, and the heat temperature on the nitrogen doping are systematically examined. UV results indicate the N-doped TiO2 catalysts have enhanced absorption in the visible light region, and exhibit high activities on the visible light photocatalytic reactions to the hydrogen production and methyl orange degradation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR results reveal that N species have been incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at a high N-doping level. N-doped titania prepared with an ethylenediamine to sol volume ratio of 1:1 and sintering temperature of 500 °C performed the highest hydrogen production rate (2.98 mmol g-1 h-1) and best methyl orange degradation performance. A conceivable structure change of N-doped TiO2 sintered at different temperature was proposed.

  1. One-step synthesis, characterization, and visible light photocatalytic activity of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhan, D.; Rajkumar, P.; Rajeshwaran, P.; Sivarajan, A.; Sangeetha, M.

    2015-08-01

    A one-step microwave irradiation route was used to synthesize undoped and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles for the first time. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectra analysis. The results clearly revealed that both the pure and doped samples had a tetragonal rutile-type structure and a space group of P42/mnm have formed directly during the microwave irradiation process. FESEM studies illustrate that both the pristine and Zn-doped SnO2 form in spherical-shaped morphology with an average diameter around 41-32 nm, which is in good agreement with the average crystallite sizes calculated by Scherrer's formula. Optical studies reveal that both pristine and Zn-doped SnO2 direct transitions occur with the bandgap energies in the range of 3.43-3.26 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the pure and Zn-doped SnO2 samples were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue rhodamine B in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity and reusability of Zn (10 wt%)-doped SnO2 was much higher than that of the pure SnO2. The improvement mechanism by zinc doping was also discussed.

  2. Comparing Cr, and N only doping with (Cr,N)-codoping for enhancing visible light reactivity of TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Meyer III, Harry M; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Eres, Gyula; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    The photoreactivity of titania (TiO2) nanoclusters with varying levels of N or Cr-doping, or (Cr,N)-codoping, was systematically investigated using photodegradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspensions. The shifting of the TiO2 absorption edge into the visible spectral region that is primarily attributable to band gap narrowing was found to be a reliable metric for estimating the photoreactivity of the doped nanoclusters. Compared to the weak response with undoped and N-doped TiO2, Cr-doping and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to significantly enhance photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light. The initial reaction rates increase from about 0 to above 1.6 10-2 min-1 when the doping concentration of Cr in TiO2 increases from 0 to 5%. In stark contrast, under UV irradiation, doping is not only ineffective but detrimental to the photoreactivity, and all doping including N or Cr only and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to reduce photoreactivity.

  3. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Hussain, T; Ahuja, R; Kang, T W; Luo, W

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  4. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2

    PubMed Central

    Shi, H.; Hussain, T.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.; Luo, W.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  5. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Hussain, T; Ahuja, R; Kang, T W; Luo, W

    2016-08-24

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties.

  6. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Hussain, T.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.; Luo, W.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties.

  7. Samarium and Nitrogen Co-Doped Bi2 WO6 Photocatalysts: Synergistic Effect of Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) Redox Centers and N-Doped Level for Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhi; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Shaonan; Li, Hongda; Wu, Xue; Liu, Xintong

    2016-08-26

    Samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The crystal structures, morphology, elemental compositions, and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The incorporation of samarium and nitrogen ions into Bi2 WO6 was proved by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 possessed strong visible-light absorption. Remarkably, the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than single-doped and pure Bi2 WO6 under visible-light irradiation. Radical trapping experiments indicated that holes (h(+) ) and superoxide radicals ((.) O2 (-) ) were the main active species. The results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements demonstrated that the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes pairs was greatly depressed. The enhanced activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the in-built Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) redox pair centers and the N-doped level. The mechanism of the excellent photocatalytic activity of Sm-N-Bi2 WO6 is also discussed.

  8. White-light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Jinyong; Liu Yingliang . E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.cn; Zhang Jianxian

    2006-01-15

    We report on a luminescent phenomenon in Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3} long-lasting phosphor. After irradiation by a 254-nm UV lamp for 5min, the Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3} phosphor emits white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence for more than 1h even after the irradiation source has been removed. Photoluminescence, long-lasting phosphorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra are used to explain this phenomenon. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that the white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence originated from the two mixtures of Dy{sup 3+} characteristic luminescence, the 480-nm blue emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}) and the 572-nm yellow emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 13/2}). TL spectra shows that the introduction of Dy{sup 3+} ions into the SrSiO{sub 3} host produces a highly dense trapping level at 377K (0.59eV), which is responsible for the long-lasting phosphorescence at room temperature. A possible mechanism of the long-lasting phosphorescence based on the experimental results is proposed. It is considered that the long-lasting phosphorescence is due to persistent energy transfer from the electron traps to the Dy{sup 3+} ions, which creates the persistent luminescence of Dy{sup 3+} to produce the white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence.

  9. Effect of Organic Salt Doping on The Performance of Poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) Organic Light Emitting Diode, OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Shahrul Akram Mohd; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    Single layer OLED devices made of poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PHF) as electroluminescent layer were fabricated. The effect of organic salt, tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) doping on these devices were studied. The original device with structure of ITO/PHF/Al has the brightness of 0.16 cd/m2 and turn-on voltage of 23 V. After doping process, the device with the structure of ITO/PHF:TBAPF6/Al has the brightness of 0.63 cd/m2 and the turn on voltage of 15 V. The doping process of the luminescent material with organic salt not only enhanced the performance of the OLED devices in terms of turn-on voltage and the brightness, but also changed the color of light emission where the doped device has emitted broader visible spectrum.

  10. Effects of emission layer doping on the spatial distribution of charge and host recombination rate density in organic light emitting devices: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanli; Zhou, Maoqing; Zheng, Tingcai; Yao, Bo; Peng, Yingquan

    2013-12-28

    Based on drift-diffusion theory, a numerical model of the doping of a single energy level trap in the emission layer of an organic light emitting device (OLED) was developed, and the effects of doping of this single energy level trap on the distribution of the charge density, the recombination rate density, and the electric field in single- and double-layer OLEDs were studied numerically. The results show that by doping the n-type (p-type) emission layer with single energy electron (hole) traps, the distribution of the recombination rate density can be tuned and shifted, which is useful for improvement of the device performance by reduced electrode quenching or for realization of desirable special functions, e.g., emission spectrum tuning in multiple dye-doped white OLEDs.

  11. N-doped TiO2 based visible light activated label-free photoelectrochemical biosensor for detection of Hg(2+) through quenching of photogenerated electrons.

    PubMed

    Han, Qianqian; Wang, Kewei; Xu, Lijun; Yan, Xiang; Zhang, Kunchi; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qinglin; Zhang, Lan; Pei, Renjun

    2015-06-21

    A novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was fabricated based on N-doped TiO2 for the detection of Hg(2+) through the quenching of photogenerated electrons. The N-doped TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method with urea and tetrabutyl titanate as the N and Ti sources. Compared with the undoped TiO2, the N-doped TiO2 showed an enhanced photocurrent response under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The sensing surface was functionalized with 5'-amino-modified T-rich oligonucleotides. The photoelectrochemical biosensor bound Hg(2+) on the surface by a highly specific T-Hg(2+)-T recognition. Hg(2+) on the surface of the N-doped TiO2 film withdrew the photogenerated electrons and decreased the recorded current signal. The dynamic linear range for Hg(2+) has been determined to be as low as 2-6 μM.

  12. Variation of the coordination environment and its effect on the white light emission properties in a Mn-doped ZnO-ZnS complex structure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Chen, Rui; Feng, Haifeng; Hao, Weichang; Xu, Huaizhe; Wang, Yu; Li, Jiong

    2014-03-14

    Mn-doped ZnO-ZnS complex nanocrystals were fabricated through coating of dodecanethiol on Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The relationship between the component of white light emission and the coordination environments of Mn-dopants were experimentally investigated. It was shown that Mn ions mainly formed Mn(3+)O6 octahedra in as prepared Mn-doped ZnO, while the Mn(3+) ions on the surface of ZnO transferred into Mn(2+) ions at the interface between ZnO and ZnS after dodecanethiol coating. The Mn(2+)S4 tetrahedron density and the orange emission intensity increased upon enhancing the dodecanethiol content. These results provide an alternative way to optimize the white emission spectrum from nanocrystals of Mn-doped ZnS-ZnO complex structures through modulation of the coordination environment of Mn ions.

  13. Enhancement in visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity by embedding Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, E.; Hong, Z. L.; Jiao, X. L.; Abbas, T.; Khalid, N. R.

    2013-11-01

    Copper doped ZnO nanoparticles embedded on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were successfully synthesized using a facile, nontoxic sol method. The resulting visible light-responsive Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs composites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. Optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites, studied using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), which exhibited extended light absorption in visible light region and possessed better charge separation capability, respectively as compared to Cu-doped ZnO, pure ZnO and ZnO/CNTs composite. The photocatalytic activity was tested by degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites effectively bleached out MO, showing an impressive photocatalytic enhancement over ZnO, commercial ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of textile wastewater was also measured before and after the photocatalysis experiment under sunlight to evaluate the mineralization of wastewater. The significant decrease in COD of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with color removal. This dramatically enhanced photoactivity of nanocomposite photocatalysts was attributed to greater adsorptivity of dyes, extended light absorption and increased charge separation efficiency due to excellent electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and the large surface area.

  14. Nano-cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide induces apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long; Mao, Jian; Zhang, Gao-Hua; Tu, Ming-Jing

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effect of photoexcited titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of visible light on human hepatoma cell line (Bel 7402) and to study the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by impregnation method. Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator with 50 mL/L CO2 at 37°C. A 15 W fluorescent lamp with continuous wavelength light was used as light source in the photocatalytic test. Fluorescence morphology and agarose gel eletrophoresis pattern were performed to analyze apoptotic cells. RESULTS: The Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed their superiority. The adsorption edge shifted to the 400-450 nm region. With visible light illuminated for 10 min, 10 μg/cm3 Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 induced micronuclei and significant apoptosis in 4 and 24 h, respectively. Hochest 33 258 staining of the fixed cells revealed typical apoptotic structures (apoptotic bodies), agarose gel electrophoresis showed typical DNA ladder pattern in treated cells but not in untreated ones. CONCLUSION: Ce (IV) doped TiO2 nanoparticles can induce apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light. PMID:17663520

  15. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of Bisphenol A using Pr, N co-doped TiO 2 with highly visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2011-08-01

    Praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped titania (Pr/N-TiO 2) photocatalysts, which could degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, were prepared by the modified sol-gel process. Tetrabutyl titanate, urea and praseodymium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen and praseodymium, respectively. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). It was found that Pr doping inhibited the growth of crystalline size and the transformation from anatase to rutile. The degradation of BPA under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photo-activity of the co-doped photocatalyst. In our experiments, the optimal dopant amount of Pr was 1.2 mol% and the calcination temperature was 500 °C for the best photocatalytic activity. Pr/N-TiO 2 samples exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared to N-TiO 2, undoped TiO 2 and commercial P25. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. Pr doping could slow the radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO 2. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen and Pr co-doping.

  16. Continuous visible-light emission at room temperature in Mn-doped GaAs and Si light-emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate visible-light electroluminescence due to d-d transitions in GaAs:Mn based light emitting diodes (LEDs) [1][2]. We prepared p+n junctions with a p+GaAs:Mn layer. At a reverse bias voltage (-3 to -6V), holes are injected from the n-type layer to the depletion layer and accelerated by the intense electric field, and excite the d electrons of Mn in the p+GaAs:Mn layer by impact excitations. We observe visible-light emission E1 = 1.89eV and E2 = 2.16eV, which are exactly the same as the 4T1 -> 6A1 and 4A2 -> 4 T1 transition energy of Mn. Furthermore, by utilizing optical transitions between the p-d hybridized orbitals of Mn atoms doped in Si, we demonstrate Si-based LEDs that continuously emit reddish-yellow visible light at room temperature. The Mn p-d hybrid states are excited by hot holes that are accelerated in the depletion layers of reverse biased Si pn junctions. Above a threshold reverse bias voltage of about -4V, our LEDs show strong visible light emission with two peaks at E1 = 1.75eV and E2 = 2.30eV, corresponding to optical transitions from the t-a (spin-down anti-bonding) states to the e- (spin-down non-bonding) states, and from the e- to the t+a (spin-up anti-bonding) states. The internal quantum efficiency of the E1 and E2 transitions is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that of the indirect band-gap transition [3]. [1] P. N. Hai, et al., APL 104, 122409 (2014). [2] P. N. Hai, et al., JAP 116, 113905 (2014). [3] P. N. Hai, et al., submitted.

  17. High-efficiency yellow double-doped organic light-emitting devices based on phosphor-sensitized fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrade, Brian W.; Baldo, Marc A.; Adachi, Chihaya; Brooks, Jason; Thompson, Mark E.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2001-08-13

    We demonstrate high-efficiency yellow organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing [2-methyl-6-[2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-benzo[ij]quinolizin-9-yl-ethenyl]-4H-pyran-4-ylidene] propane-dinitrile (Dcm{sup 2}) as a fluorescent lumophore, with a green electrophospho- rescent sensitizer, fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] co-doped into a 4,4{prime}-N,N{prime}dicarbazole-biphenyl host. The devices exhibit peak external fluorescent quantum and power efficiencies of 9%{+-}1% (25 cd/A) and 17{+-}2 lm/W at 0.01 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the efficiencies are 4.1%{+-}0.5% (11 cd/A) and 3.1{+-}0.3 lm/W. We show that this exceptionally high performance for a fluorescent dye is due to the {approx}100% efficient transfer of both singlet and triplet excited states in the doubly doped host to the fluorescent material using Ir(ppy){sub 3} as a sensitizing agent. These results suggest that 100% internal quantum efficiency fluorescent OLEDs employing this sensitization process are within reach. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Metal Oxide Induced Charge Transfer Doping and Band Alignment of Graphene Electrodes for Efficient Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jens; Kidambi, Piran R.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Weijtens, Christ; Kuhn, Anton; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The interface structure of graphene with thermally evaporated metal oxide layers, in particular molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), is studied combining photoemission spectroscopy, sheet resistance measurements and organic light emitting diode (OLED) characterization. Thin (<5 nm) MoO3 layers give rise to an 1.9 eV large interface dipole and a downwards bending of the MoO3 conduction band towards the Fermi level of graphene, leading to a near ideal alignment of the transport levels. The surface charge transfer manifests itself also as strong and stable p-type doping of the graphene layers, with the Fermi level downshifted by 0.25 eV and sheet resistance values consistently below 50 Ω/sq for few-layer graphene films. The combination of stable doping and highly efficient charge extraction/injection allows the demonstration of simplified graphene-based OLED device stacks with efficiencies exceeding those of standard ITO reference devices. PMID:24946853

  19. Iron-Doped Carbon Nitride-Type Polymers as Homogeneous Organocatalysts for Visible Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Feng; Wen, Ting; Xu, Jing-Yin; Zhai, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Min; Hu, Guo-Wen; Chen, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2016-01-13

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have appeared as a new type of photocatalyst for water splitting, but their broader and more practical applications are oftentimes hindered by the insolubility or difficult dispersion of the material in solvents. We herein prepared novel two-dimensional (2D) carbon nitride-type polymers doped by iron under a mild one-pot method through preorganizing formamide and citric acid precursors into supramolecular structures, which eventually polycondensed into a homogeneous organocatalyst for highly efficient visible light-driven hydrogen evolution with a rate of ∼16.2 mmol g(-1) h(-1) and a quantum efficiency of 0.8%. Laser photolysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements suggested that iron-doping enabled strong electron coupling between the metal and the carbon nitride and formed unique electronic structures favoring electron mobilization along the 2D nanomaterial plane, which might facilitate the electron transfer process in the photocatalytic system and lead to efficient H2 evolution. In combination with electrochemical measurements, the electron transfer dynamics during water reduction were depicted, and the earth-abundant Fe-based catalyst may open a sustainable strategy for conversion of sunlight into hydrogen energy and cope with current challenging energy issues worldwide.

  20. Delayed electroluminescence of doped fluorescent aingle layer organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfei; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Kong, Chao

    2014-05-01

    Doped single-layer polymer OLEDs consisting of PVK: (TPB, C545T, Rubrene or DCJTB) were prepared. By applying high-frequency electric pulse of 0.5 micros pulse width to each device, we observed various delayed electroluminescence after withdrawing the forward bias. The order of magnitude of fitting life time ranges from hundreds of nanoseconds to several milliseconds. Current density-voltage and brightness-voltage characteristics reveals charge trapped on guest sites initially before released. Subsequently, the recombination of these trapped charges is strongly involved in the origin of delayed electroluminescence. PMID:24734573

  1. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of sulfur-doped polymeric g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Lei; Han, Changcun; Xiao, Xinlai; Guo, Lele; Li, Yujing

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared using thiourea as sulfur source. • The sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows significantly enhanced H{sub 2} evolution activity. • The doped sulfur species plays key roles in the improvement of H{sub 2} production. • Photocatalytic mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. • The mechanism is confirmed by PL spectra and transient photocurrent curves. - Abstract: Visible light-activated sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using thiourea as sulfur source. The obtained photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microcopy, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and transient photocurrent response. The sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts show beneficial effects on visible light absorption, electron–hole pair generation and separation. The sulfur species doped in the samples was identified as S{sup 2−} to replace N atoms in the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} framework. The photocatalytic activities of the sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light were evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water splitting in aqueous solution containing methanol. The sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst showed the highest photocatalytic performance with H{sub 2} evolution rate of 12.16 μmol h{sup −1}, about 6 times higher than un-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. It can be concluded that the sulfur species play a vital role and act as active sites in the photocatalytic reaction. This novel sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} can be potentially used in energy and environmental applications.

  2. Observation of low voltage driven green emission from erbium doped Ga2O3 light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Fabi; Noda, Shinji; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Makoto; Guo, Qixin

    2016-07-01

    Erbium doped Ga2O3 thin films were deposited on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Bright green emission (˜548 nm) can be observed by naked eye from Ga2O3:Er/Si light-emitting devices (LEDs). The driven voltage of this LEDs is 6.2 V which is lower than that of ZnO:Er/Si or GaN:Er/Si devices. Since the wide bandgap of Ga2O3 contain more defect-related level which will enhance the effects of recombination between electrons in the defect-related level and the holes in the valence band, resulting in the improvement of the energy transfer to Er ions. We believe that this work paves the way for the development of Si-based green LEDs by using wide bandgap Ga2O3 as the host materials for Er3+ ions.

  3. Light-induced excess conductivity and the role of argon in the deposition of doping-modulated amorphous silicon superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Su, F.C.; Levine, S.; Vanier, P.E.; Kampas, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous semiconductor superlattice structures consisting of alternating n-type and p-type doped layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) have been made by silane glow discharge in a single chamber system. These multilayered films show the novel phenomenon of light-induced excess conductivity (LEC) associated with a metastable state having a lifetime of order of days. This report shows that the LEC effect is quite dependent on the specific details of the deposition parameters, namely dilution of the silane with inert gas, substrate temperature and layer thickness. In order to investigate the origin of the LEC effect, argon dilution was used for specific regions of the structure. This experiment shows that the slow states are distributed throughout the layers, and are not concentrated at the interfaces.

  4. Cesium doping at C60/rubrene heterointerfaces for improving the performance of organic light- and current-generating devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lu, Meng-Han; Chu, Yu-Ya; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of adding cesium (Cs) at C60/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. A C60/rubrene heterostructure is the basis of a novel organic dual device found to facilitate efficient integration of both electroluminescent and photovoltaic functions. With Cs doping, the interfacial dipole potential was considerably enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60 and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. However, the energy-level diagram indicated that a high Cs concentration prevents the formation of photoexcitons. By contrast, adding a small amount of Cs can effectively improve the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices. In particular, the deficiency of the dopants at the heterointerface may benefit the survival of photoexcitons.

  5. Novel rare earth ions-doped oxyfluoride nano-composite with efficient upconversion white-light emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Daqin; Wang Yuansheng Yu Yunlong; Huang Ping; Weng Fangyi

    2008-10-15

    Transparent SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NaF-YF{sub 3} bulk nano-composites triply doped with Ho{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} were fabricated by melt-quenching and subsequent heating. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the homogeneous precipitation of the {beta}-YF{sub 3} crystals with mean size of 20 nm among the glass matrix, and rare earth ions were found to partition into these nano-crystals. Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive energy transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white light, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth ions in the material. The overall energy efficiency of the white-light upconversion was estimated to be about 0.2%. - Graphical abstract: Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive energy transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white light with CIE-X=0.351 and CIE-Y=0.306, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth ions in the transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

  6. Highly Visible Light Activity of Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, Le Dien; Luong, Ngo Sy; Ngo, Vu Dinh; Tien, Nguyen Manh; Dung, Ta Ngoc; Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-09-01

    A simple approach was explored to prepare N-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (N-TiO2 NPs) from titanium chloride (TiCl4) and ammonia (NH3) via sol-gel method. The effects of important process parameters such as calcination temperatures, NH3/TiCl4 molar ratio (R N) on crystallite size, structure, phase transformation, and photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were thoroughly investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated upon the degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The results demonstrated that both calcination temperatures and NH3/TiCl4 molar ratios had significant impacts on the formation of crystallite nanostructures, physicochemical, as well as catalytic properties of the obtained TiO2. Under the studied conditions, calcination temperature of 600°C and NH3/TiCl4 molar ratio of 4.2 produced N-TiO2 with the best crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The high visible light activity of the N-TiO2 nanomaterials was ascribed to the interstitial nitrogen atoms within TiO2 lattice units. These findings could provide a practical pathway capable of large-scale production of a visible light-active N-TiO2 photocatalyst.

  7. Li and Ag Co-Doped ZnO Photocatalyst for Degradation of RO 4 Dye Under Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dhatshanamurthi, P; Shanthi, M

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of Li doped Ag-ZnO (Li-Ag-ZnO) has been successfully achieved by a sonochemically assisted precipitation-decomposition method. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and BET surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of Li-Ag-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Reactive orange 4 (RO 4) dye in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. Co-dopants shift the absorbance of ZnO to the visible region. Li-Ag-ZnO is found to be more efficient than Ag-ZnO, Li-ZnO, commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 7 for the mineralization of RO 4 dye under solar light irradiation. The influences of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo-mineralization of RO 4 have been analyzed. The mineralization of RO 4 dye has been confirmed by COD measurements. A degradation mechanism is proposed for the degradation of RO 4 under solar light. The catalyst was found to be more stable and reusable. PMID:27427652

  8. Visible light activity of Ag-loaded and guanidine nitrate-doped nano-TiO2: Degradation of dichlorophenol and antibacterial properties

    EPA Science Inventory

    To utilize visible light, co-doped nano-TiO2 was prepared via “one pot” synthesis using mild reaction conditions and benign precursors. Synthesis was optimized using an appropriate experimental design taking into account silver content and calcination temperature. The optimized ...

  9. N Doping to ZnO Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting under Visible Light: Engineered Impurity Distribution and Terraced Band Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Ren, Feng; Zhou, Jigang; Cai, Guangxu; Cai, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Dongniu; Liu, Yichao; Guo, Liejin; Shen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) were modified with controlled N doping by an advanced ion implantation method, and were subsequently utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light irradiation. A gradient distribution of N dopants along the vertical direction of ZnO nanorods was realized. N doped ZnO NRAs displayed a markedly enhanced visible-light-driven PEC photocurrent density of ~160 μA/cm2 at 1.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than pristine ZnO NRAs. The gradiently distributed N dopants not only extended the optical absorption edges to visible light region, but also introduced terraced band structure. As a consequence, N gradient-doped ZnO NRAs can not only utilize the visible light irradiation but also efficiently drive photo-induced electron and hole transfer via the terraced band structure. The superior potential of ion implantation technique for creating gradient dopants distribution in host semiconductors will provide novel insights into doped photoelectrode materials for solar water splitting. PMID:26262752

  10. N Doping to ZnO Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting under Visible Light: Engineered Impurity Distribution and Terraced Band Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ren, Feng; Zhou, Jigang; Cai, Guangxu; Cai, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Dongniu; Liu, Yichao; Guo, Liejin; Shen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) were modified with controlled N doping by an advanced ion implantation method, and were subsequently utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light irradiation. A gradient distribution of N dopants along the vertical direction of ZnO nanorods was realized. N doped ZnO NRAs displayed a markedly enhanced visible-light-driven PEC photocurrent density of ~160 μA/cm(2) at 1.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than pristine ZnO NRAs. The gradiently distributed N dopants not only extended the optical absorption edges to visible light region, but also introduced terraced band structure. As a consequence, N gradient-doped ZnO NRAs can not only utilize the visible light irradiation but also efficiently drive photo-induced electron and hole transfer via the terraced band structure. The superior potential of ion implantation technique for creating gradient dopants distribution in host semiconductors will provide novel insights into doped photoelectrode materials for solar water splitting. PMID:26262752

  11. Photocatalytic comparison of Cu- and Ag-doped TiO2/GF for bioaerosol disinfection under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Photocatalysts, TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF), Cu-doped TiO2/glass fiber (Cu-TiO2/GF) and Ag-doped TiO2/glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF), were synthesized by a sol-gel method. They were then used to disinfect Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in bioaerosols under visible light irradiation. TiO2/GF did not show any significant disinfection effect. Both Cu and Ag acted as intermediate agents to enhance separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs of TiO2, leading to improved photocatalytic activity of Cu-TiO2/GF and Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light. Cu in Cu-TiO2/GF acted as a defective agent, increasing the internal quantum efficiency of TiO2, while Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF acted as a sensitive agent, enhancing the transfer efficiency of the electrons generated. The highest disinfection efficiencies of E. coli and S. aureus by Cu-TiO2/GF were 84.85% and 65.21%, respectively. The highest disinfection efficiencies of E. coli and S. aureus by Ag-TiO2/GF were 94.46% and 73.12%, respectively. Among three humidity conditions - 40±5% (dry), 60±5% (moderate), and 80±5% (humid) - the moderate humidity condition showed the highest disinfection efficiency for both E. coli and S. aureus. This study also showed that a Gram-negative bacterium (E. coli) were more readily disinfected by the photocatalysts than a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus).

  12. Tuning near-gap electronic structure, interface charge transfer and visible light response of hybrid doped graphene and Ag3PO4 composite: Dopant effects

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao-Ni; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Yang, Yin-Cai; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Huang, Gui-Fang; Peng, P.; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The enhanced photocatalytic performance of doped graphene (GR)/semiconductor nanocomposites have recently been widely observed, but an understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind it is still out of reach. As a model system to study the dopant effects, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of doped GR/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites using the first-principles calculations, demonstrating that the band gap, near-gap electronic structure and interface charge transfer of the doped GR/Ag3PO4(100) composite can be tuned by the dopants. Interestingly, the doping atom and C atoms bonded to dopant become active sites for photocatalysis because they are positively or negatively charged due to the charge redistribution caused by interaction. The dopants can enhance the visible light absorption and photoinduced electron transfer. We propose that the N atom may be one of the most appropriate dopants for the GR/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. This work can rationalize the available experimental results about N-doped GR-semiconductor composites, and enriches our understanding on the dopant effects in the doped GR-based composites for developing high-performance photocatalysts. PMID:26923338

  13. Effect of bismuth doping on the ZnO nanocomposite material and study of its photocatalytic activity under UV-light

    SciTech Connect

    Chandraboss, V.L.; Natanapatham, L.; Karthikeyan, B.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Prabha, S.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The hetero-junctions that are formed between the ZnO and the Bi provide an internal electric field that facilitates separation of the electron-hole pairs and induces faster carrier migration. Thus they often enhanced photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was prepared by precipitation method. • Characterized by XRD, HR-SEM with EDX, UV–visible DRS and FT-RAMAN analysis. • Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was used to photodegradation of Congo red. • Mechanism and photocatalytic effect of nanocomposite material have been discussed. - Abstract: Bismuth (Bi)-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was prepared by precipitation method with doping precursors of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and oxalic acid, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, UV–visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV–visible DRS) and Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-RAMAN) analysis. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Bi-doped ZnO is demonstrated through photodegradation of Congo red under UV-light irradiation. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material has been discussed.

  14. Improvement of carrier injection symmetry and quantum efficiency in InGaN light-emitting diodes with Mg delta-doped barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Can, N.; Hafiz, S.; Monavarian, M.; Das, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü. Morkoç, H.

    2015-05-04

    The effect of δ-doping of In{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N barriers with Mg on the quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) with active regions composed of 6 (hex) 3-nm In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N is investigated. Compared to the reference sample, δ-doping of the first barrier on the n-side of the LED structure improves the peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) by 20%, owing to the increased hole concentration in the wells adjacent to the n-side, as confirmed by numerical simulations of carrier distributions across the active region. Doping the second barrier, in addition to the first one, did not further enhance the EQE, which likely indicates compensation of improved hole injection by degradation of the active region quality due to Mg doping. Both LEDs with Mg δ-doped barriers effectively suppress the drop of efficiency at high injection when compared to the reference sample, and the onset of EQE peak roll-off shifts from ∼80 A/cm{sup 2} in the reference LED to ∼120 A/cm{sup 2} in the LEDs with Mg δ-doped barriers.

  15. Improvement of carrier injection symmetry and quantum efficiency in InGaN light-emitting diodes with Mg delta-doped barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Can, N.; Hafiz, S.; Monavarian, M.; Das, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of δ-doping of In0.06Ga0.94N barriers with Mg on the quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) with active regions composed of 6 (hex) 3-nm In0.15Ga0.85N is investigated. Compared to the reference sample, δ-doping of the first barrier on the n-side of the LED structure improves the peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) by 20%, owing to the increased hole concentration in the wells adjacent to the n-side, as confirmed by numerical simulations of carrier distributions across the active region. Doping the second barrier, in addition to the first one, did not further enhance the EQE, which likely indicates compensation of improved hole injection by degradation of the active region quality due to Mg doping. Both LEDs with Mg δ-doped barriers effectively suppress the drop of efficiency at high injection when compared to the reference sample, and the onset of EQE peak roll-off shifts from ˜80 A/cm2 in the reference LED to ˜120 A/cm2 in the LEDs with Mg δ-doped barriers.

  16. Effect of nitrogen doping on the microstructure and visible light photocatalysis of titanate nanotubes by a facile cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Tzu-Chien; Lu, Shan-Yu

    2013-09-01

    A facile one-step cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment has been adopted to prepare a series of nitrogen-doped titanate nanotubes with highly efficient visible light photocatalysis of rhodamine B, in an effect to identify the effect of nitrogen doping on the photodegradation efficiency. The morphology and microstructure of the thus-prepared N-doped titanates were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. With increasing urea loadings, the N-doped titanates change from a porous multi-layer and nanotube-shaped to a dense and aggregated particle-shaped structure, accompanied with reduced specific surface area and pore volume and enhanced pore diameter. Interstitial linkage to titanate via Tisbnd Osbnd N and Tisbnd Nsbnd O is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Factors governing the photocatalytic degradation such as the specific surface area of the catalyst and the degradation pathway are analyzed, a mechanistic illustration on the photodegradation is provided, and a 3-stage degradation mechanism is identified. The synergistic contribution due to the enhanced deethylation and chromophore cleavage on rhodamine B molecules and the reduced band gap on the catalyst TiO2 by interstitial nitrogen-doping has been accounted for the high photodegradation efficiency of the N-doped titanate nanotubes.

  17. Facile one-step synthesis of N-doped ZnO micropolyhedrons for efficient photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changle

    2014-11-01

    N-doped ZnO micropolyhedrons were fabricated by calcining the mixture of commercial ZnO (analytical grade) and NH4NO3 at 600 °C for 1.5 h, in which NH4NO3 was utilized as the nitrogen source. The structure, composition, BET specific surface area and optical properties of N-doped ZnO sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic results demonstrated that the as-synthesized N-doped ZnO microcrystals possessed much higher photocatalytic activity than N-doped TiO2 (which was synthesized by calcining the mixture of P25 TiO2 and NH4NO3 at 600 °C for 1.5 h) and commercial pure ZnO in the decomposition of formaldehyde under visible-light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. The present work suggests that NH4NO3 is a promising nitrogen source for one-step calcination synthesis of microcrystalline N-doped ZnO, which can be applied as a visible-light-activated photocatalyst in efficient utilization of solar energy for treating formaldehyde wastewater.

  18. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides by carbon doped-TiO2 coated on zeolites under solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    An, Ye; de Ridder, David Johannes; Zhao, Chun; Schoutteten, Klaas; Bussche, Julie Vanden; Zheng, Huaili; Chen, Gang; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) composite catalysts toward target pollutants under solar light irradiation, the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of 18 pharmaceuticals and pesticides with distinguishing features (molecular size and volume, and photolysis) were investigated using mordenite zeolites with SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratios of 18 and 240. Different quantities of carbon-doped TiO(2) were coated on the zeolites, and then the finished composite catalysts were tested in demineralized, surface, and hospital wastewater samples, respectively. The composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and surface area and porosity analyses. Results showed that a dispersed layer of carbon-doped TiO(2) is formed on the zeolite surface; this layer blocks the micropores of zeolites and reduces their surface area. However, these reductions did not significantly affect adsorption onto the zeolites. Our results demonstrated that zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) systems can effectively degrade 18 pharmaceuticals and pesticides in demineralized water under natural and simulated solar light irradiation. In surface and hospital wastewaters, zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) systems present excellent anti-interference capability against radical scavengers and competitive organics for pollutants removal, and higher pollutants adsorption on zeolites evidently enhances the removal rate of target pollutants in surface and hospital wastewater samples with a complicated matrix.

  19. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides by carbon doped-TiO2 coated on zeolites under solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    An, Ye; de Ridder, David Johannes; Zhao, Chun; Schoutteten, Klaas; Bussche, Julie Vanden; Zheng, Huaili; Chen, Gang; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) composite catalysts toward target pollutants under solar light irradiation, the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of 18 pharmaceuticals and pesticides with distinguishing features (molecular size and volume, and photolysis) were investigated using mordenite zeolites with SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratios of 18 and 240. Different quantities of carbon-doped TiO(2) were coated on the zeolites, and then the finished composite catalysts were tested in demineralized, surface, and hospital wastewater samples, respectively. The composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and surface area and porosity analyses. Results showed that a dispersed layer of carbon-doped TiO(2) is formed on the zeolite surface; this layer blocks the micropores of zeolites and reduces their surface area. However, these reductions did not significantly affect adsorption onto the zeolites. Our results demonstrated that zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) systems can effectively degrade 18 pharmaceuticals and pesticides in demineralized water under natural and simulated solar light irradiation. In surface and hospital wastewaters, zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) systems present excellent anti-interference capability against radical scavengers and competitive organics for pollutants removal, and higher pollutants adsorption on zeolites evidently enhances the removal rate of target pollutants in surface and hospital wastewater samples with a complicated matrix. PMID:27332831

  20. Explicit drain current model of junctionless double-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesayan, Ashkhen; Prégaldiny, Fabien; Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an explicit drain current model for the junctionless double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Analytical relationships for the channel charge densities and for the drain current are derived as explicit functions of applied terminal voltages and structural parameters. The model is validated with 2D numerical simulations for a large range of channel thicknesses and is found to be very accurate for doping densities exceeding 1018 cm-3, which are actually used for such devices.

  1. Design of N-doped anatase TiO2 photocatalyst with visible-light-response based on Ti-O bond weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.-C.; Liu, G.; Cheng, H.-M.; Advanced Carbon Division Team

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen bulk doping is an effective strategy to change the electronic structures of anatase TiO2 photocatalyst for visible light response improvement. Unfortunately, it is hard to achieve nitrogen bulk doping in practice, due to both limited thermodynamic solubility of substitutional nitrogen and N-induced recombination centers. It remains challenging yet highly desirable to develop new doping approach to increase nitrogen solubility in bulk. This challenge is originally stemmed from both strong Ti-O bond and charge difference (O2- versus N3-) between lattice oxygen and nitrogen dopant. In this work, we propose a new doping approach to promote the bulk substitution of lattice oxygen with nitrogen in bulk anatase TiO2, based on the Ti-O bond weakening by pre-implanted interstitial boron.1 By using the first-principles calculations, we study the interstitial boron induced Ti-O bonding weakening and the thermodynamics/kinetics changes for nitrogen bulk doping.2 In experiment, we realize to synthesize a bulk gradient B-N co-doping red anatase TiO2 microsphere which has an extended absorption edge up to ca. 700 nm covering the full visible light spectrum and has a bandgap varying from 1.94 eV on its surface to 3.22 eV in its core by gradually elevating VBM. This approach could be extended to modify other electronic materials that demand bulk substitutional doping. 1. G. Liu, J. Pan, L. C. Yin et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, 22, 3233. 2. G. Liu, L. C. Yin, J. Q. Wang et al., Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 9603. Financial support from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (no. 2009CB220001), NSFC (no. 50921004, 51002160, 21090343, 51172243, 51202255), CAS China (KJCX2-YW-H21-01).

  2. New insight into the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 by first-principles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaguo; Zhou, Peng; Li, Qin

    2013-08-01

    The geometry structures, formation energies and electronic properties of the B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 were investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of first-principles. The results indicated that the visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activities of the B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 were not only influenced by the energy gaps (Eg) and the distributions of impurity states, but also affected by the locations of Fermi levels (EF) and the energies of the edges of band gaps (Ev for the top of valence bands and Ec for the bottom of conduction bands). However, the above four factors changed with the doped models of TiO2. The impurity states in the band gaps reduced the maximum energy gaps in the band gaps, which is responsible for the absorption of visible light. The Fermi levels at the bottom of conduction bands indicated the existence of Ti(3+) ions, which enhanced the separation rates of photogenerated electrons and holes. Further, the energies of the edges of band gaps, determining the dominant types of oxidants (O2(-), hole, ˙OH) in the photocatalytic degradation, were discussed. Moreover, the stability of the doped TiO2 depended on its growth conditions (O-rich or Ti-rich environment). The O-rich growth condition is beneficial to the substitutional B and C atoms to Ti atoms, while the Ti-rich growth condition is favorable to the other doped TiO2 including the most stable co-doped TiO2 with the interstitial B atom and the substitutional C atom to O atom. In addition, our results also showed that the B/C-doped TiO2 inherited the partial electronic properties of single-doped TiO2, but also exhibited many new electronic properties, implying that the electronic properties of co-doped systems are not a mechanical mixture of those of both single-doped systems.

  3. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  4. Emerging cool white light emission from Dy(3+) doped single phase alkaline earth niobate phosphors for indoor lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Amit K; Jha, Kaushal; Jayasimhadri, M; Sivaiah, B; Gahtori, Bhasker; Haranath, D

    2015-10-21

    Single-phase cool white-light emitting BaNb2O6:Dy(3+) phosphors have been synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and spectrofluorophotometric measurements. XRD and Rietveld structural refinement studies confirm that all the samples exhibit pure orthorhombic structure [space group -C2221(20)]. SEM observations reveal the dense particle packaging with irregular morphology in a micron range. The as-prepared phosphors exhibit blue (482 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emissions under 349, 364, 386 and 399 nm excitations corresponding to (4)F9/2→(6)HJ (J = 15/2, 13/2) transitions of Dy(3+) ions. The energy transfer mechanism between Dy(3+) ions has been studied in detail and the luminescence decay lifetime for the (4)F9/2 level was found to be around 146.07 μs for the optimized phosphor composition. The calculated Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for the optimized phosphor are (x = 0.322, y = 0.339), which are close to the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) (x = 0.310, y = 0.316) coordinates. The values of CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5907 K endorse cool white-light emission from the phosphor. The study reveals that BaNb2O6:Dy(3+) phosphor could be a potential candidate for near ultra-violet (NUV) excited white-LED applications. PMID:26374377

  5. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  6. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces. PMID:27098010

  7. Hydrothermal fabrication of N-doped (BiO)2CO3: Structural and morphological influence on the visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fan; Wang, Rui; Li, Xinwei; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2014-11-01

    Various 3D N-doped (BiO)2CO3 (N-BOC) hierarchical superstructures self-assembled with 2D nanosheets were fabricated by one-step hydrothermal treatment of bismuth citrate and urea. The as-obtained samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and UV-vis DRS. The hydrothermal temperature plays a crucial role in tuning the crystal and morphological structure of the samples. Adjusting the reaction temperature to 150, 180 and 210 °C, we obtained N-doped (BiO)2CO3 samples with corresponding attractive persimmon-like, flower-like and nanoflakes nano/microstructures. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by removal of NO under visible and solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical superstructures showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity compared to pure (BiO)2CO3 and TiO2-based visible light photocatalysts. The outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-BOC samples can be ascribed to the doped nitrogen and the special hierarchical structure. The present work could provide new perspectives in controlling the morphological structure and photocatalytic activity of photocatalyst for better environmental pollution control.

  8. Insight into visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of diesel oil by doped TiO2-PS floating composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuejiang; Zhao, Jianfu; Zhang, Jing; Song, Jingke

    2016-09-01

    TiO2-pearlstone (PS) floatable photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile sol-gel method and confirmed by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, EDX, TEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS measurements. It has been found that the photocatalysts composed of anatase TiO2 deposited on the surface of PS and formed mesoporous structure. By N or B/N doping, the band gap of the photocatalyst has been narrowed. The obtained floatable photocatalysts can be applied to solar light-driven remediation of oil-contaminated water. Diesel oil was chosen as the model pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic activity. The results showed B/N-TiO2-PS exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for diesel oil under visible light irradiation, which is 48 % removal rate for 9 h. The reaction rate constant k of B/N-TiO2-PS is 0.08423 h(-1), which is four times larger than that of pure TiO2-PS. Moreover, the characteristic of floatable makes the photocatalysts easier to separate and reuse, which showed great potential for practical applications in the field of environmental cleanup and solar energy conversion.

  9. Enhanced Performance of Quantum Dot-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Gold Nanoparticle-Doped Hole Injection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Lin, Qingli; Wang, Hongzhe; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fengjuan; Du, Zuliang; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the performance of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) comprising ZnCdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs as an emitting layer were enhanced by employing Au-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hole injection layer (HIL). By varying the concentration and dimension of Au nanoparticle (NP) dopants in PEDOT:PSS, the optimal devices were obtained with ~22-nm-sized Au NP dopant at the concentration with an optical density (OD) of 0.21. Highly bright green QLEDs with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.2 % and a current efficiency of 29.1 cd/A exhibit 80 % improvement compared with devices without Au NP dopants. The improved performance may be attributed to the significant increase in the hole injection rate as a result of the introduction of Au NPs and the good matching between the resonance frequency of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generated by the Au NPs and the emission band of QD layer, as well as the suppressed Auger recombination of QD layer due to the LSPR-induced near-field enhanced radiative recombination rate of excitons. These results are helpful for fabricating high-performance QD-based applications, such as full-color displays and solid-state lighting.

  10. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  11. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  12. Insight into visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of diesel oil by doped TiO2-PS floating composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuejiang; Zhao, Jianfu; Zhang, Jing; Song, Jingke

    2016-09-01

    TiO2-pearlstone (PS) floatable photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile sol-gel method and confirmed by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, EDX, TEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS measurements. It has been found that the photocatalysts composed of anatase TiO2 deposited on the surface of PS and formed mesoporous structure. By N or B/N doping, the band gap of the photocatalyst has been narrowed. The obtained floatable photocatalysts can be applied to solar light-driven remediation of oil-contaminated water. Diesel oil was chosen as the model pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic activity. The results showed B/N-TiO2-PS exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for diesel oil under visible light irradiation, which is 48 % removal rate for 9 h. The reaction rate constant k of B/N-TiO2-PS is 0.08423 h(-1), which is four times larger than that of pure TiO2-PS. Moreover, the characteristic of floatable makes the photocatalysts easier to separate and reuse, which showed great potential for practical applications in the field of environmental cleanup and solar energy conversion. PMID:27259962

  13. Driving voltage reduction in white organic light-emitting devices from selectively doping in ambipolar blue-emitting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chi-Feng; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2007-11-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) consisting of ambipolar 9,10-bis(2'-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue-emitting layer (EML) were investigated. A thin codoped layer of yellow 5,6,11,12-Tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) served as a probe for detecting the position of maximum recombination rate in the 4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl (DPAVBi) doped-ADN EML. Due to the energy barrier and bipolar carrier transport, the maximum recombination rate was found to be close to but not exactly at the interface of the hole-transporting layer and the EML. With appropriate tuning in the thickness, position, and dopant concentrations of the codoped layer (rubrene:DPAVBi:ADN) in the EML, the device driving voltage decreased by 21.7%, nearly 2 V in reduction, due to the increased recombination current from the faster exciton relaxation induced by the yellow dopants. Among the advantages of introducing the codoped layer over conventional single-doped layers are the elimination of the trapping effect to avoid increasing the device driving voltage, the alleviation of the dependence of the recombination zone on the applied voltage for improving color stability, and the utilization of excitons in a more efficient way to enhance device efficiency. Without using any electrically conductive layers such as the p-i-n structure, we were able to successfully generate 112 cd/m2 at 4 V from our white OLED simply by engineering the structure of the EML.

  14. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C. J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light - fluorescent and incandescent - and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 106 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 107 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne pathogens and

  15. Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.; Lugo, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Norton, D. P.; Wang, Yu-Lin; Ren, F.

    2008-03-01

    ZnO-based light emitting diodes were fabricated on c-plane sapphire using ZnO :P/Zn0.9Mg0.1O/ZnO/Zn0.9Mg0.1O/ZnO:Ga p-i-n heterostructures. The p-i-n heterojunction diodes are rectifying and show light emission under forward bias. The electroluminescence spectra shows deep level emission at low bias, but near band edge ultraviolet emission at high voltage bias. A decrease in leakage currents in as-fabricated structures was achieved via low temperature oxygen annealing.

  16. p-doping-free InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode driven by three-dimensional hole gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Tiam Tan, Swee; Kyaw, Zabu; Liu, Wei; Ji, Yun; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang; Wei Sun, Xiao; Volkan Demir, Hilmi

    2013-12-23

    Here, GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N heterostructures with a graded AlN composition, completely lacking external p-doping, are designed and grown using metal-organic-chemical-vapour deposition (MOCVD) system to realize three-dimensional hole gas (3DHG). The existence of the 3DHG is confirmed by capacitance-voltage measurements. Based on this design, a p-doping-free InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) driven by the 3DHG is proposed and grown using MOCVD. The electroluminescence, which is attributed to the radiative recombination of injected electrons and holes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells, is observed from the fabricated p-doping-free devices. These results suggest that the 3DHG can be an alternative hole source for InGaN/GaN LEDs besides common Mg dopants.

  17. Roles of lightly doped carbon in the drift layers of vertical n-GaN Schottky diode structures on freestanding GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Kaneda, Naoki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Kihara, Yuhei; Aoki, Toshichika; Shiojima, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    We studied the roles of lightly doped carbon in a series of n-GaN Schottky diode epitaxial structures on freestanding GaN substrates, and evaluated the effects of the doping on diode performances. A large variation of compensation ratio was observed for carbon doping at (1-2) × 1016 cm-3. A model was proposed to explain this phenomenon, in which a vulnerable balance between donor-type CGa and deep acceptor CN strongly affected the free-carrier generation. Application of Norde plots and reverse biased leakage current in current-voltage measurements suggested provisional optimization for a free-carrier concentration of 8 × 1015 cm-3 to achieve a tradeoff between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the n-GaN diodes.

  18. Formation of hydroxyl radicals and kinetic study of 2-chlorophenol photocatalytic oxidation using C-doped TiO2, N-doped TiO2, and C,N Co-doped TiO2 under visible light.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Seraphin, Supapan; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on synthesis, characterization, adsorption ability, formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)), photocatalytic oxidation kinetics, and mineralization ability of C-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2), N-doped TiO2, and C,N co-doped TiO2 prepared by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the titania. The rate of formation of OH(•) for each type of titania was determined, and the OH-index was calculated. The kinetics of as-synthesized TiO2 catalysts in photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation were evaluated. Results revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into the lattice of titania with the structure of O-Ti-N linkages in N-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. Carbon was joined to the Ti-O-C bond in the C-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. The 2-CP adsorption ability of C,N co-doped TiO2 and C-doped TiO2 originated from a layer composed of a complex carbonaceous mixture at the surface of TiO2. C,N co-doped TiO2 had highest formation rate of OH(•) and photocatalytic activity due to a synergistic effect of carbon and nitrogen co-doping. The order of photocatalytic activity per unit surface area was the same as that of the formation rate of OH(•) unit surface area in the following order: C,N co-doped TiO2 > C-doped TiO2 > N-doped TiO2 > undoped TiO2.

  19. Treatment of coliphage MS2 with palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide photocatalyst illuminated by visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Page, Martin A; Mariñas, Benito J; Shang, Jian Ku

    2008-08-15

    A palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON/-PdO) photocatalytic fiber was synthesized on a mesoporous activated carbon fiber template by a sol-gel process. Calcination of the coated fibers resulted in a macroporous interfiber structure and mesoporous photocatalyst coating. Atomic ratios of major photocatalyst constituents determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were N/Ti approximately equal to 0.1 and Pd/-Ti approximately equal to 0.03. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the photocatalyst had an anatase structure and palladium additive was present as PdO. Triplicate batch experiments performed with MS2 phage (average initial concentration of 3 x 10(8) plaque forming units/mL) and TiON/PdO photocatalyst at a dose of 0.1 g/L under dark conditions revealed the occurrence of virus adsorption on the photocatalyst fibers at a rate that resulted in equilibrium within 1 h of contact time with corresponding virion removals of 95.4-96.7%. Subsequent illumination of the dark-equilibrated samples with visible light (wavelengths greater than 400 nm and average intensity of 40 mW/cm2) resulted in additional virus removal of 94.5-98.2% within 1 h of additional contact time. By combining adsorption and visible-light photocatalysis, TiON/PdO fibers reached final virus removal rates of 99.75-99.94%. Spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements confirmed the production of *OH radicals by TiON/PdO under visible light illumination, which provided indirect evidence about MS2 phage being potentially inactivated.

  20. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  1. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material. PMID:25990263

  2. N-Doped TiO2 Nanobelts with Coexposed (001) and (101) Facets and Their Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuchao; Gao, Peng; Yang, Yurong; Yang, Piaoping; Chen, Yujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-07-20

    To narrow the band gap (3.2 eV) of TiO2 and extend its practical applicability under sunlight, the doping with nonmetal elements has been used to tune TiO2 electronic structure. However, the doping also brings new recombination centers among the photoinduced charge carriers, which results in a quantum efficiency loss accordingly. It has been proved that the {101} facets of anatase TiO2 are beneficial to generating and transmitting more reductive electrons to promote the H2-evolution in the photoreduction reaction, and the {001} facets exhibit a higher photoreactivity to accelerate the reaction involved of photogenerated hole. Thus, it was considered by us that using the surface heterojunction composed of both {001} and {101} facets may depress the disadvantage of N doping. Fortunately, we successfully synthesized anatase N-doped TiO2 nanobelts with a surface heterojunction of coexposed (101) and (001) facets. As expected, it realized the charge pairs' spatial separation and showed higher photocatalytic activity under a visible-light ray: a hydrogen generation rate of 670 μmol h(-1) g(-1) (much higher than others reported previously in literature of N-doped TiO2 nanobelts).

  3. Origin of Mechanoluminescence from Cu-Doped ZnS Particles Embedded in an Elastomer Film and Its Application in Flexible Electro-mechanoluminescent Lighting Devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Wook; Oh, Jeung Pyo; Hong, Chang Woo; Kim, Eun Mi; Woo, Jeong Ju; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-01-20

    Mechanically driven light emission from particles embedded in elastomer films has recently attracted interest as a strong candidate for next-generation light sources on display devices because it is nondestructive, reproducible, real-time, environmentally friendly, and reliable. The origin of mechanoluminescence (ML) obtained from particles embedded in elastomer films have been proposed as the trapping of drifting charge carriers in the presence of a piezoelectric field. However, in this study, we propose a new origin of ML through the study of the microstructure of a Cu-doped ZnS particles embedded in an elastomer composite film with high brightness using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to clearly demonstrate the origin of ML with respect to the microstructure of ML composite films. The TEM characterization of the ML composite film demonstrated that the Cu-doped ZnS particles were fully encapsulated by a 500 nm thick Al layer, which acts as an electron source for ML emission. Furthermore, we fabricated a flexible electro-mechanoluminescence (EML) device using a Cu-doped ZnS particles embedded in a flexible elastomer composite film. Our research results on a new emission mechanism for ML and its application in flexible light generating elastomer films represent an important step toward environmentally benign and ecofriendly flexible electro-mechanoluminescent lighting devices.

  4. One-pot synthesis of copper-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet by heating Cu–melamine supramolecular network and its enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Junkuo; Wang, Jiangpeng; Qian, Xuefeng; Dong, Yingying; Xu, Hui; Song, Ruijing; Yan, Chenfeng; Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhong, Qiwei; and others

    2015-08-15

    Here we report a novel synthetic pathway for preparation of Cu-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with nanosheet morphology by using a two dimensional Cu–melamine supramolecular network as both sacrificial template and precursor. The specific surface area of Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is 40.86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which is more than 7 times larger than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed strong optical absorption in the visible-light region and expanded the absorption to the near-infrared region. The uniform nanosheet morphology, higher surface area and strong visible-light absorption have enabled Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibiting enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results indicate that metal–melamine supramolecular network can be promising precursors for the one step preparation of efficient metal-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts. - Graphical abstract: Cu-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with nanosheet morphology was fabricated via a simple one step preparation by using a two dimensional Cu–melamine supra-molecular network as both sacrificial template and precursor. - Highlights: • Cu-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with nanosheet morphology was prepared. • Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed strong optical absorption in the visible-light region. • Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

  5. Tunable multicolor and white-light upconversion luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Xu, Dekang; Teng, Dongdong; Yang, Shenghong; Zhang, Yueli

    2015-09-01

    NaYF4 micro-crystals with various concentrations of Yb(3+) /Tm(3+) /Ho(3+) were prepared successfully via a simple and reproducible hydrothermal route using EDTA as the chelating agent. Their phase structure and surface morphology were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD patterns revealed that all the samples were pure hexagonal phase NaYF4. SEM images showed that Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 were hexagonal micro-prisms. Upconversion photoluminescence spectra of Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals with various dopant concentrations under 980 nm excitation with a 665 mW pump power were studied. Tunable multicolor (purple, purplish blue, yellowish green, green) and white light were achieved by simply adjusting the Ho(3+) concentration in 20%Yb(3+)/1%Tm(3+)/xHo(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals. Furthermore, white-light emissions could be obtained using different pump powers in 20%Yb(3+)/1%Tm(3+)/1%Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals at 980 nm excitation. The pump power-dependent intensity relationship was studied and relevant energy transfer processes were discussed in detail. The results suggest that Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals have potential applications in optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaic, plasma display panel and white-light-emitting diodes.

  6. Surface recombination in doped semiconductors: Effect of light excitation power and of surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Berkovits, V. L.; Ulin, V. P.; Arscott, S.; Peytavit, E.

    2013-09-01

    For n- and p-type semiconductors doped above the 1016 cm-3 range, simple analytical expressions for the surface recombination velocity S have been obtained as a function of excitation power P and surface state density NT. These predictions are in excellent agreement with measurements on p-type GaAs films, using a novel polarized microluminescence technique. The effect on S of surface passivation is a combination of the changes of three factors, each of which depends on NT: (i) a power-independent factor which is inversely proportional to NT and (ii) two factors which reveal the effect of photovoltage and the shift of the electron surface quasi Fermi level, respectively. In the whole range of accessible excitation powers, these two factors play a significant role so that S always depends on power. Three physical regimes are outlined. In the first regime, illustrated experimentally by the oxidized GaAs surface, S depends on P as a power law of exponent determined by NT. A decrease of S such as the one induced by sulfide passivation is caused by a marginal decrease of NT. In a second regime, as illustrated by GaInP-encapsulated GaAs, because of the reduced value of S, the photoelectron concentration in the subsurface depletion layer can no longer be neglected. Thus, S-1 depends logarithmically on P and very weakly on surface state density. In a third regime, expected at extremely small values of P, the photovoltage is comparable to the thermal energy, and S increases with P and decreases with increasing NT.

  7. Rich premixed laminar methane flames doped by light unsaturated hydrocarbons. II. 1,3-Butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Gueniche, H.A.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F.

    2007-10-15

    In line with the study presented in Part I of this paper, the structure of a rich premixed laminar methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen, and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a C{sub 4}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 16%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene, and toluene. To model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways of consumption of 1,3-butadiene and of formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species have been derived from flow rate analyses. In this case, the C{sub 4} route to benzene formation plays an important role in comparison to the C{sub 3} pathway. (author)

  8. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  9. Fabrication of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and investigation of photocatalytic decolorization of reactive red 198 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Halimeh; Eshaghi, Akbar; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Ghani, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In this research, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with various Fe concentrations (0. 0.1, 1, 5 and 10wt%) were prepared by a sol-gel method. Then, nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), BET surface area, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the nano-particles was evaluated through degradation of reactive red 198 (RR 198) under UV and visible light irradiations. XRD results revealed that all samples contained only anatase phase. DRS showed that the Fe doping in the titania induced a significant red shift of the absorption edge and then the band gap energy decreased from 3 to 2.1eV. Photocatalytic results indicated that TiO2 had a highest photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under UV irradiation whereas photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under visible irradiation increased in the presence of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Among the samples, Fe-1wt% doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photocatalytic decolorization of RR198 under visible light irradiation.

  10. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  11. Phosphorus-Doped Carbon Nitride Tubes with a Layered Micro-nanostructure for Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shien; Deng, Zhaopeng; Li, Mingxia; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Qingjiang; Fu, Honggang

    2016-01-26

    Phosphorus-doped hexagonal tubular carbon nitride (P-TCN) with the layered stacking structure was obtained from a hexagonal rod-like single crystal supramolecular precursor (monoclinic, C2/m). The production process of P-TCN involves two steps: 1) the precursor was prepared by self-assembly of melamine with cyanuric acid from in situ hydrolysis of melamine under phosphorous acid-assisted hydrothermal conditions; 2) the pyrolysis was initiated at the center of precursor under heating, thus giving the hexagonal P-TCN. The tubular structure favors the enhancement of light scattering and active sites. Meanwhile, the introduction of phosphorus leads to a narrow band gap and increased electric conductivity. Thus, the P-TCN exhibited a high hydrogen evolution rate of 67 μmol h(-1) (0.1 g catalyst, λ >420 nm) in the presence of sacrificial agents, and an apparent quantum efficiency of 5.68 % at 420 nm, which is better than most of bulk g-C3 N4 reported. PMID:26692105

  12. Near-infrared diode-pumped white-light emission from erbium-doped calcium fluoride crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, Mical; Edwards, Vernessa M.; Reddi, B. Rami

    2016-02-01

    CaF2 is a cubic material and Erbium enters the lattice in triply ionized state. Erbium occupies Ca sites in the material. Defects occur in the material because a trivalent dopant ion replaces a divalent host ion. Er3+ occupies several different sites. Absorption spectrum of Er3+-doped CaF2 revealed absorption peaks at 255, 365, 379, 407, 441, 449, 487, 522, 539, 652 and 798 nm. When the sample was excited with an 800 nm near-infrared laser it revealed emissions at 390, 415, 462, 555, 665 and 790 nm. The absorption and emission peaks are identified with Er3+ spectral transitions. The sample color appears to be either white or green under near-infrared laser excitation. Emission color was found to be dependent on the pump laser wavelength used and laser power. Excitation spectral recordings were made by tuning the pump laser wavelength. The sample emission appears to be white under near-infrared excitation as well as violet laser excitation. Excited state lifetimes are measured to analyze the data. Our studies indicate that this sample is useful in solid state lighting applications.

  13. Phosphorus-Doped Carbon Nitride Tubes with a Layered Micro-nanostructure for Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shien; Deng, Zhaopeng; Li, Mingxia; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Qingjiang; Fu, Honggang

    2016-01-26

    Phosphorus-doped hexagonal tubular carbon nitride (P-TCN) with the layered stacking structure was obtained from a hexagonal rod-like single crystal supramolecular precursor (monoclinic, C2/m). The production process of P-TCN involves two steps: 1) the precursor was prepared by self-assembly of melamine with cyanuric acid from in situ hydrolysis of melamine under phosphorous acid-assisted hydrothermal conditions; 2) the pyrolysis was initiated at the center of precursor under heating, thus giving the hexagonal P-TCN. The tubular structure favors the enhancement of light scattering and active sites. Meanwhile, the introduction of phosphorus leads to a narrow band gap and increased electric conductivity. Thus, the P-TCN exhibited a high hydrogen evolution rate of 67 μmol h(-1) (0.1 g catalyst, λ >420 nm) in the presence of sacrificial agents, and an apparent quantum efficiency of 5.68 % at 420 nm, which is better than most of bulk g-C3 N4 reported.

  14. Photodecolorization of Rhodamine B on tungsten-doped TiO2/activated carbon under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Youji; Zhou, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Li, Leiyong; Zen, Mengxiong; Qin, Shidong; Sun, Shuguo

    2012-08-15

    Tungsten-doped TiO(2)/activated carbon catalysts have been prepared by a supercritical-pretreatment-assisted sol-gel process. The structural features of the photocatalysts have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV/Vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The results revealed that a W-TiO(2) layer was coated on the AC surface, and had higher surface area and smaller crystallite size than TiO(2)/AC obtained by a similar route. The W dopant was responsible for narrowing the band gap of TiO(2) and shifting its optical response from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible-light region. The photocatalytic performances of the supported catalysts have been evaluated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible-light irradiation. Compared with bulk W-TiO(2), the photoactivity was obviously enhanced when it was coated onto AC. In addition, it was found that the reactivity showed a significant relationship with the amount of W dopant, and the photoactivity order of the catalysts from weak to strong showed good agreement with their PL intensities. The effects of TiO(2) content, tungsten ion content, catalyst amount, pH, and initial RhB concentration have been examined as operational parameters. The photocatalytic reactions followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and are discussed in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  15. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, Caroline Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  16. Ab initio studies of Nb-N-S tri-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Dahua; Cheng, Junxia; Cheng, Xinlu

    2016-06-01

    The electronic and optical properties of Nb-N-S tri-doped anatase TiO2 were investigated within the frame of the density functional theory (DFT) plus U method. Results show that a significant red-shift effect and improvement of visible-light absorption for Nb-N-S tri-doped TiO2 are observed with respect to pure TiO2 and S-N codoped TiO2. At the same time, the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of tri-doped TiO2 is derived from the narrowing band gap, the appearance of Nb 4d state at the bottom of conduction band and the mixture of N 2p, S 3p states forming new defect levels at the top of valance band, which is excellently consistent with the previous experiment. Moreover, S ion leads to the lattice distortion and promotes the visible-light photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the absorbance of 1.39NbNS-TiO2 accords well with the experimental result in the visible region. It is also found that the 2.78NbNS-TiO2 can be easily grown under O-rich condition and have the strongest absorbance from 2.0 to 4.2 eV among four models.

  17. Three-dimensional ruthenium-doped TiO2 sea urchins for enhanced visible-light-responsive H2 production.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Vovchok, Dimitriy; Llorca, Jordi; Sallis, Shawn; Kattel, Shyam; Xu, Wenqian; Piper, Louis F J; Polyansky, Dmitry E; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Stacchiola, Dario J; Rodriguez, José A

    2016-06-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) monodispersed sea urchin-like Ru-doped rutile TiO2 hierarchical architectures composed of radially aligned, densely-packed TiO2 nanorods have been successfully synthesized via an acid-hydrothermal method at low temperature without the assistance of any structure-directing agent and post annealing treatment. The addition of a minuscule concentration of ruthenium dopants remarkably catalyzes the formation of the 3D urchin structure and drives the enhanced photocatalytic H2 production under visible light irradiation, not possible on undoped and bulk rutile TiO2. Increasing ruthenium doping dosage not only increases the surface area up to 166 m(2) g(-1) but also induces enhanced photoresponse in the regime of visible and near infrared light. The doping introduces defect impurity levels, i.e. oxygen vacancy and under-coordinated Ti(3+), significantly below the conduction band of TiO2, and ruthenium species act as electron donors/acceptors that accelerate the photogenerated hole and electron transfer and efficiently suppress the rapid charge recombination, therefore improving the visible-light-driven activity. PMID:27240884

  18. High performance sulfur, nitrogen and carbon doped mesoporous anatase-brookite TiO₂ photocatalyst for the removal of microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Said M; Zhang, Geshan; El-Hosainy, Hamza M; Ismail, Adel A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kontos, Athanassios G; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-09-15

    Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (C, N and S) doped mesoporous anatase-brookite nano-heterojunction titania photocatalysts have been synthesized through a simple sol-gel method in the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. XRD and Raman spectra revealed the formation of anatase and brookite mixed phases. XPS spectra indicated the presence of C, N and S dopants. The TEM images demonstrated the formation of almost monodisperse titania nanoparticles with particle sizes of approximately 10nm. N2 isotherm measurements confirmed that both doped and undoped titania anatase-brookite materials have mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been investigated using these novel nanomaterials under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic efficiency of the mesoporous titania anatase-brookite photocatalyst dramatically increased with the addition of the C, N and S non-metal, achieving complete degradation (∼ 100 %) of MC-LR. The results demonstrate the advantages of the synthetic approach and the great potential of the visible light activated C, N, and S doped titania photocatalysts for the treatment of organic micropollutants in contaminated waters under visible light. PMID:25238189

  19. Shallow drain extension by angled ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.; Luning, S.; Griffin, P.

    1996-12-31

    In this work, we describe the construction and microstructural characterization of a simple spacerless metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor with a self-aligned shallow drain extension. Transistor structures were fabricated at Stanford University`s Center for Integrated Systems using a single masking step to pattern the gate mask for the self-aligned structures. A 200{angstrom} gate oxide was grown and a 3000{angstrom} polysilicon blanket film was subsequently deposited on the wafer. The polysilicon was patterned into an array of 2.0{mu}m lines and 3.0{mu}m spaces. Arsenic was implanted at 120keV with a nominal dose of 1e15 ions/cm{sup 2} at 20{degrees} from normal incidence and rapid thermal annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 30 seconds. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (TEM, XAFM) samples were prepared using standard metallographic procedures with the doped regions delineated by chemical etching. A one-dimensionally calibrated process simulation was performed using Athena v2.0.13, a commercial derivative of SUPREM IV.

  20. Ion beam nano-engineering of erbium doped silicon for enhanced light emission at 1.54 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naczas, Sebastian

    Erbium doped silicon is of great interest as a potential light source in Silicon Photonics research due to its light emission at 1.54 mum, which corresponds to the minimal loss of optical transmission in silica fibers for telecommunications. In this thesis a basic mechanism for excitation and de-excitation of Er in Si is reviewed. Based on such fundamental understanding, an innovative approach is proposed and implemented to improve Er luminescence properties through the formation of metal nanoparticles via impurity gettering in Si nanocavities. The first part of the work demonstrates the use of ion implantation combined with thermal treatments for forming Ag nanoparticles in the vicinity of Er luminescence centers in Si. The utilization of standard semiconductor fabrication equipment and moderate thermal budgets make this approach fully compatible with Si CMOS technologies. The presence of Ag nanoparticles leads to an enhancement in the Er photoluminescence intensity, its excitation cross section and the population of optically active Er, possibly due to the surface plasmon excitation effects related to Ag nanoparticles. The resulting structures were characterized by Hydrogen depth profiling (NRA), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to optimize the Er luminescence properties in such a system it is necessary to understand how the sample conditions affect the formation of Ag nanoparticles in Si. Therefore in the second part of this project we investigate the role of surface oxide in point defect generation and recombination, and the consequence on nanocavity formation and defect retention in Si. Investigation of the surface oxide effects on nanocavity formation in hydrogen implanted silicon and the influence of resultant nanocavities on diffusion and gettering of implanted silver atoms. Two sets of Si samples were prepared, depending on whether the oxide layer was etched off before

  1. Visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Zhengbo; Chen, Tao; Xiong, Jinyan; Wang, Teng; Lu, Gongxuan; Ye, Jinhua; Bi, Yingpu

    2013-01-01

    Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have become of increasing significance because of their unique highly ordered array structure, high specific surface area, unidirectional charge transfer and transportation features. However, their poor visible light utilization as well as the high recombination rate of photoexcited electron-hole pairs greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of visible-light-responsive heterostructured Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotube arrays by a simple hydrothermal method, which facilitate efficient charge separation and thus improve the photoelectrochemical as well as photocatalytic performances. PMID:24056587

  2. Influence of hole injection layer and work function of cathode on the performance of light-emitting liquid crystal cells with fluorescent dye-doped nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Horiuchi, Takao; Watanabe, Kyoko; Nose, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the properties of rubrene-doped nematic-liquid-crystal cells to help determine the appropriate structure and material of electrodes for inducing light emission. In particular, we addressed the influence of the insertion of a hole injection layer (HIL) and the work function of the cathode on device performance. As a result, the employment of a HIL and a lower-work-function material was revealed to be effective in obtaining higher luminance and external quantum efficiency. We concluded that this improvement is caused by the facilitated carrier injection on the HIL and cathode surface, as is true for common organic light-emitting diodes.

  3. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  4. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  5. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  6. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  7. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  8. White light emission from Mn2 + doped ZnS nanocrystals through the surface chelating of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xiaodan; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuqin; Liu, Qianqian; Qi, Bin; Lü, Changli; Su, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    White light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully synthesized from 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) decorated manganese doped ZnS NCs through fine tuning the surface-coordination emission and dopant emission of the NC host. The HQS functionalized manganese doped ZnS NCs (QS-ZnS:Mn), with a cubic crystal structure, have the same diameter of about 4.0 nm as ZnS:Mn NCs without HQS. The intensity of the surface-coordination emission peak increased with increasing HQS content or augmenting excited wavelength. The emission of white light was achieved by carefully controlling the dosage of HQS in NCs and appropriately tuning the excited wavelength. The color coordinates (0.35, 0.34) for the efficient white light emitting NCs were very close to the ideal Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for pure white light (0.33, 0.33). The photoluminescence (PL) decay study revealed that the white light emitting NCs exhibited maximum lifetime values at different emission peaks for different NC samples. The study results also indicated that the HQS molecules were attached to the surface of ZnS:Mn NCs in a single coordination fashion due to the steric hindrance effect of the special spherical surface of NCs, which made the QS-ZnS:Mn NCs possess stable and high fluorescent properties in different organic solvents as compared with the conventional small molecule complexes.

  9. White light emission from Mn2 + doped ZnS nanocrystals through the surface chelating of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiaodan; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuqin; Liu, Qianqian; Qi, Bin; Lü, Changli; Su, Zhongmin

    2010-03-19

    White light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully synthesized from 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) decorated manganese doped ZnS NCs through fine tuning the surface-coordination emission and dopant emission of the NC host. The HQS functionalized manganese doped ZnS NCs (QS-ZnS:Mn), with a cubic crystal structure, have the same diameter of about 4.0 nm as ZnS:Mn NCs without HQS. The intensity of the surface-coordination emission peak increased with increasing HQS content or augmenting excited wavelength. The emission of white light was achieved by carefully controlling the dosage of HQS in NCs and appropriately tuning the excited wavelength. The color coordinates (0.35, 0.34) for the efficient white light emitting NCs were very close to the ideal Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for pure white light (0.33, 0.33). The photoluminescence (PL) decay study revealed that the white light emitting NCs exhibited maximum lifetime values at different emission peaks for different NC samples. The study results also indicated that the HQS molecules were attached to the surface of ZnS:Mn NCs in a single coordination fashion due to the steric hindrance effect of the special spherical surface of NCs, which made the QS-ZnS:Mn NCs possess stable and high fluorescent properties in different organic solvents as compared with the conventional small molecule complexes.

  10. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically doped organic field effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yumusak, Cigdem; Abbas, Mamatimin; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Mixed ionic/electronic conduction in conducting polymers introduces new physics/chemistry and an additional functionality in organic optoelectronic devices. The incorporation of an ionic species in a conjugated polymer matrix results in the increase in electrical conductivity associated with the electrochemical doping of the material. In recent years polymer light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been demonstrated. In such electrochemical optoelectronic devices, mobile ions facilitate the efficient injection of electronic charge carriers creating “in situ” doping regions near the electrodes and lead to efficient electroluminescence light emission. Here, we introduce the same concept of an LEC in the organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The presence of both electronic and ionic charge carriers in the active layers of OFETs brings high charge carrier mobility and light emission even using symmetric source and drain metal electrodes. PMID:23482672

  11. Preparation of well-dispersed Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals with controllable particle size and high visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shangmei; Pang, Guangsheng; Huang, Yuliang; Li, Chunguang; Feng, Shouhua

    2010-08-01

    Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Excess MgO is used to inhibit the crystal growth and agglomeration during the calcination process. A series of Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals with average crystallite size varying from 13.4 to 31.6 nm can be obtained by changing the molar ratio of Mg:La from 4:1 to 1:10 in the reaction mixture. The largest BET surface area observed is 64.5 m2/g if the molar ratio of Mg:La is 4:1. The product can be well dispersed in water and a very stable colloid formed without any stabilizer. The photocatalytic performance of Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals is evaluated by the degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B solution. The well-dispersed Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals exhibit high visible-light photocatalytic activity.

  12. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  13. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of Photodegradation in Suspension of Manganese Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles under Visible-Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Amin Matori, Khamirul; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software's option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP), Incremental Back Propagation (IBP), Batch Back Propagation (BBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE) for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work. PMID:25538962

  14. Artificial neural network modelling of photodegradation in suspension of manganese doped zinc oxide nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zakaria, Azmi; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Jahangirian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software's option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP), Incremental Back Propagation (IBP), Batch Back Propagation (BBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE) for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work.

  15. Synthesis and visible light photocatalysis of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers deposited on hollow glass microbeads

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lifeng; Wang Yuansheng; Niu Mutong; Chen Guoxin; Cheng Yao

    2009-10-15

    Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition and calcining treatment. The adherence of TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers to the surfaces of hollow glass microbeads prevented the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and benefited to their catalytic activity. The doping of Fe ions makes the absorption edge of the TiO{sub 2} based nano-composite red-shifted into the visible region. An effective photodegradation of the methyl orange aqueous solution was achieved under visible light (lambda>420 nm) irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields, such as air and water purifications. - Graphical abstract: Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition. Photodegradation of the methyl orange was achieved under visible light irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields.

  16. [Study on the degradation of atrazine in photo-Fenton-like system under visible light irradiation promoted by N-doped Ta2O5].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Deng, Yi-Rong; Du, Ying-Xun; Fu, Xiang

    2012-04-01

    In this study, N-doped Ta2O5 samples which have strong absorption in visible domain, were prepared by the nitridation of Ta2O5 under NH4 flow and then added into photo-Fenton-like system to enhance Fe3+ reduction and atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation. The sample prepared at 700 degrees C under a NH3 flow rate of 0.3 L x min(-1) for 6 h showed the highest level of photocatalytic activity for Fe3+ reduction. The influence of various operational parameters such as the light intensity, input of N-doped Ta2O5, pH and initial concentrations of Fe3+, H2O2 and atrazine were investigated. And the changesof H2O2 during the degradation were measured to explain the effect of the operational parameters. The degradation ratio of atrazine reached 97% after 60 min irradiation by 500 W Xe lamp under the conditions of pH = 2.6, [atrazine]0 = 18 mg x L(-1), [H2O2]0 = 2.5 mmol x L(-1), [Fe3+]0 = 0.5 mmol x L(-1) and the input of N-doped Ta2O5 = 0.6 g x L(-1).

  17. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr(2)IrO(4).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; McKeown Walker, S; Bruno, F Y; Riccó, S; Wang, Z; Gutierrez Lezama, I; Scheerer, G; Giriat, G; Jaccard, D; Berthod, C; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Hunter, E C; Perry, R S; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2015-10-23

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr(1-x)La(x))(2)IrO(4). For a doping level of x=0.05, we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π,π) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr(2)IrO(4). PMID:26551128

  18. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr(2)IrO(4).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; McKeown Walker, S; Bruno, F Y; Riccó, S; Wang, Z; Gutierrez Lezama, I; Scheerer, G; Giriat, G; Jaccard, D; Berthod, C; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Hunter, E C; Perry, R S; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2015-10-23

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr(1-x)La(x))(2)IrO(4). For a doping level of x=0.05, we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π,π) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr(2)IrO(4).

  19. Characterization and mechanistic analysis of the visible light response of cerium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 nano-photocatalyst synthesized using a one-step technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Tan, Xin; Zhao, Lin

    2010-04-15

    Cerium and nitrogen co-doped anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-step technique via a modified sol-gel process and characterized by XRD, BET, DRS, Raman and XPS. The photocatalytic mechanism of the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under fluorescent light and visible light irradiation was studied. Co-doping cerium and nitrogen in the crystal lattice of TiO(2) narrowed the band gap from 2.40 eV (Ce-doped TiO(2)) to 2.21 eV (Ce/N co-doped TiO(2)). Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) pairs, oxynitride species and Ti-O-N and Ti-O-Ce bonds were determined by XPS. The recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs was inhibited due to the synergistic effect of doping with Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) ions and N atoms. The optimal doping ratio was 0.70% Ce and 0.70% N using MB photocatalytic degradation under fluorescent light and visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm). The enhanced photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation was attributed to the increasing number of photogenerated OH radicals. The recombination of photogenerated e(-)-h(+) was attributed to be the key factor for the decrease in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB.

  20. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Jia, Li; Wu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Li-Qiang; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-01-21

    N-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles modified with carbon (denoted N-TiO(2)/C) were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment in the presence of L-lysine, which acts as a ligand to control the nanocrystal growth and as a source of nitrogen and carbon. As-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation at λ≥ 400 nm. The results show that N-TiO(2)/C nanocomposites increase absorption in the visible light region and exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2), commercial P25 and previously reported N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts. We have demonstrated that the nitrogen was doped into the lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of the photocatalysts. N-doping narrows the band gap and C-modification enhances the visible light harvesting and accelerates the separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes. As a consequence, the photocatalytic activity is significantly improved. The molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) and the pH of the hydrothermal reaction solution are important factors affecting the photocatalytic activity of the N-TiO(2)/C; the optimum molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) is 8 and the optimum pH is ca. 4, at which the catalyst exhibits the highest reactivity. Our findings demonstrate that the as-obtained N-TiO(2)/C photocatalyst is a better and more promising candidate than well studied N-doped TiO(2) alternatives as visible light photocatalysts for

  1. Highly Stable and Tunable Chemical Doping of Multilayer WS2 Field Effect Transistor: Reduction in Contact Resistance.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hafiz M W; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Eom, Jonghwa; Noh, Hwayong

    2015-10-28

    The development of low resistance contacts to 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is still a big challenge for the future generation field effect transistors (FETs) and optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a chemical doping technique to achieve low contact resistance by keeping the intrinsic properties of few layers WS2. The transfer length method has been used to investigate the effect of chemical doping on contact resistance. After doping, the contact resistance (Rc) of multilayer (ML) WS2 has been reduced to 0.9 kΩ·μm. The significant reduction of the Rc is mainly due to the high electron doping density, thus a reduction in Schottky barrier height, which limits the device performance. The threshold voltage of ML-WS2 FETs confirms a negative shift upon the chemical doping, as further confirmed from the positions of E(1)2g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra. The n-doped samples possess a high drain current of 65 μA/μm, with an on/off ratio of 1.05 × 10(6) and a field effect mobility of 34.7 cm(2)/(V·s) at room temperature. Furthermore, the photoelectric properties of doped WS2 flakes were also measured under deep ultraviolet light. The potential of using LiF doping in contact engineering of TMDs opens new ways to improve the device performance.

  2. Highly Stable and Tunable Chemical Doping of Multilayer WS2 Field Effect Transistor: Reduction in Contact Resistance.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hafiz M W; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Eom, Jonghwa; Noh, Hwayong

    2015-10-28

    The development of low resistance contacts to 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is still a big challenge for the future generation field effect transistors (FETs) and optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a chemical doping technique to achieve low contact resistance by keeping the intrinsic properties of few layers WS2. The transfer length method has been used to investigate the effect of chemical doping on contact resistance. After doping, the contact resistance (Rc) of multilayer (ML) WS2 has been reduced to 0.9 kΩ·μm. The significant reduction of the Rc is mainly due to the high electron doping density, thus a reduction in Schottky barrier height, which limits the device performance. The threshold voltage of ML-WS2 FETs confirms a negative shift upon the chemical doping, as further confirmed from the positions of E(1)2g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra. The n-doped samples possess a high drain current of 65 μA/μm, with an on/off ratio of 1.05 × 10(6) and a field effect mobility of 34.7 cm(2)/(V·s) at room temperature. Furthermore, the photoelectric properties of doped WS2 flakes were also measured under deep ultraviolet light. The potential of using LiF doping in contact engineering of TMDs opens new ways to improve the device performance. PMID:26434774

  3. Electrical conduction behavior of organic light-emitting diodes using fluorinated self-assembled monolayer with molybdenum oxide-doped hole transporting layer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Geon; Mori, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    The electrical conductivity behavior of a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (FSAM) of a molybdenum oxide (MoOx)-doped α-naphthyl diamine derivative (α-NPD) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was investigated. The current density of the MoOx-doped α-NPD/FSAM device was proportional to its voltage owing to smooth carrier injection through the FSAM and the high carrier density of its bulk. The temperature-dependent characteristics of this device were investigated. The current density-voltage characteristics at different temperatures were almost the same owing to its very low activation energy. The activation energy of the device was estimated to be 1.056 × 10(-2) [eV] and was very low due to the inelastic electron tunneling of FSAM molecules.

  4. Ultraviolet-driven white light generation from oxyfluoride glass co-doped with Tm{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Nikitin, A.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Shestakov, M. V.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2013-04-22

    Tm{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Eu{sup 3+} co-doped oxyfluoride glasses, doped with about 3.0 mol. % TmF{sub 3}, 0.25 mol. % TbF{sub 3}, and 0.25 mol. % EuF{sub 3}, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Under excitation at commercial 365 nm, the rare-earth co-dopants are all directly excited and emit in the blue, green, and red, respectively, without appreciable energy transfer amongst the co-dopants. Tint of the white luminescence can be adjusted by changing the ratio of the co-dopants. Properties of the glass host promote excellent dissolution of the co-dopants and low non-radiative decay rate. The white emission at 365 nm excitation is suitable for light emitting diodes applications.

  5. Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured SiO2 on Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhao; Bingfeng, Fan; Yiting, Chen; Yi, Zhuo; Zhoujun, Pang; Zhen, Liu; Gang, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We report an effective enhancement in light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layer by incorporating a top regular textured SiO2 layer. The 2 inch transparent through-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane was fabricated and used as the etching mask. The periodic pore with a pitch of about 410 nm was successfully transferred to the surface of the SiO2 layer without any etching damages to the AZO layer and the electrodes. The light output power was enhanced by 19% at 20 mA and 56% at 100 mA compared to that of the planar LEDs without a patterned surface. This approach offers a technique to fabricate a low-cost and large-area regular pattern on the LED chip for achieving enhanced light extraction without an obvious increase of the forward voltage. ).

  6. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 photocatalysts co-doped with iron and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaozheng; Ma, Lin; You, Jiguang; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Lu, Guang; Liu, Dan; Gui, Jianzhou

    2014-08-01

    Preparation of Fe and P co-doped g-C3N4 was described, using dicyandiamide monomer, ferric nitrate, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photocurrent measurement were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicated that the addition of dopants inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, decreased the band gap energy, and restrained the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. Fe and P co-doped g-C3N4 exhibited much higher Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation rate and H2 production ability than that of single doped and neat g-C3N4 catalysts. The possible mechanism and doping sites of P and Fe were proposed.

  7. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-01

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  8. Biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition assisted synthesis of Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheet with increased visible light photocatalytic activity was successfully synthesized using a biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition process. The polymer, branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI) was used as an induction agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) as well as for a nitrogen resource, and the graphene oxide (GO) was used as a two-dimensional nano-template. The positively charged b-PEI will bind to the negatively charged GO and titania. In a typical layer-by-layer deposition process, GO nanosheets are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous b-PEI, CuCl2 and Ti-BALDH solutions, thus, making the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal b-PEI/Cu-Ti-O coating on the GO. Subsequent b-PEI and GO pyrolysis at 550 °C under air yielded Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets. The materials obtained were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance. The Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets showed obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity which was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. This research might provide some new insights for the "green synthesis" of the simultaneous doping of two kinds of foreign atoms into TiO2 with controlled morphology and photocatalytic properties.

  9. Light emission from conductive paths in nanocrystalline CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO{sub 2} high-k stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue

    2015-03-23

    Electrical and optical properties of the solid state incandescent light emitting devices made of zirconium doped hafnium oxide high-k films with and without an embedded nanocrystalline CdSe layer on the p-type Si wafer have been studied. The broad band white light was emitted from nano sized conductive paths through the thermal excitation mechanism. Conductive paths formed from the dielectric breakdown have been confirmed from scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images and the secondary ion mass spectrometric elemental profiles. Si was diffused from the wafer to the device surface through the conductive path during the high temperature light emission process. There are many potential applications of this type of device.

  10. Novel in situ N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres self-assembled by nanosheets as efficient and durable visible light driven photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fan; Sun, Yanjuan; Fu, Min; Ho, Wing-Kei; Lee, Shun Cheng; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2012-01-10

    Novel N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) hierarchical microspheres (N-BOC) were fabricated by a facile one-pot template free method on the basis of hydrothermal treatment of bismuth citrate and urea in water for the first time. The N-BOC sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The N-BOC was constructed by the self-assembly of single-crystalline nanosheets. The aggregation of nanosheets led to the formation of hierarchical framework with mesopores, which is favorable for efficient transport of reaction molecules and harvesting of photoenergy. Due to the in situ doped nitrogen substituting for oxygen in the lattice of (BiO)(2)CO(3), the band gap of N-BOC was reduced from 3.4 to 2.5 eV, making N-BOC visible light active. The N-BOC exhibited not only excellent visible light photocatalytic activity, but also high photochemical stability and durability during repeated and long-term photocatalytic removal of NO in air due to the special hierarchical structure. This work demonstrates that the facile fabrication method for N-BOC combined with the associated outstanding visible light photocatalytic performance could provide new insights into the morphology-controlled fabrication of nanostructured photocatalytic materials for environmental pollution control. PMID:22122119

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of N-, S-, and C-doped SnO2 nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Azita; Fakhri, Ali

    2015-03-01

    N-, S-, and C-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation method and were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectral (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. The photocatalytic activities of these SnO2 samples were investigated with methyl orange as the organic pollutant under UV light illumination. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that dopants N,S,C-species can shift the absorption edge to the near UV and visible light region. N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles achieved the best photocatalytic efficiency and the most optimal doping ratio was 3 (T/S). The degradation of methyl orange by N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles fitted well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics model. The results of subsequent experiments indicate that enhanced adsorption ability of light and high separation rate of photo induced charge carriers all play an major role in promotion of photocatalytic activity of N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles.

  12. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martín, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2014-11-07

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457 nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy{sup 3+} ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy{sup 3+} concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy{sup 3+} ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy{sup 3+} concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  13. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  14. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.

  15. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  16. Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhichao; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Chuanwei; Yi, Yasha; Chen, Hong; Gu, Mu

    2013-02-01

    In this Letter, monolayers of arrays of periodic polystyrene (PS) spheres are designed to couple onto the surface of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator to improve the light extraction efficiency. The enhancement of extraction efficiency up to 38% relative to the reference case without polystyrene spheres is achieved. Combining with the simulation for the transmission as well as its dispersion relation, detailed analysis of the effect of whispering gallery modes and diffraction on the extraction mechanism are given. As a result, the optimal diameter of 414 nm is obtained based on a trade-off between the transmission loss and the diffraction enhancement.

  17. Internal energy transfer phenomenon and light-emission properties of γ-LiAlO2 phosphor doped with Mn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bai-Bin; Chang, Chi-Fen; Yang, Wein-Duo

    2013-07-01

    γ-LiAlO2:Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized using the cellulose-citric acid sol-gel method, and its light emission and energy transfer properties were investigated. Excitation and emission spectrum analysis revealed a decrease in intensity of the spectrum as the amount of Mn2+ doping increased. Blasse's equation determined the maximum distance for energy transfer between Mn2+ ions as 4.3142 nm. Dexter's theory verifies that the mechanism of energy transfer between Mn2+ ions conforms to an electric dipole and electric quadrupole interaction.

  18. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  19. Tuning the surface structure of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibres--an effective method to enhance photocatalytic activities of visible-light-driven green synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Jian; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Hongwei; Yang, Dongjiang; Sarina, Sarina; Zhang, Hongjie; Waclawika, Eric R; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-04-26

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibres of anatase and TiO2(B) phases were synthesised by a reaction between titanate nanofibres of a layered structure and gaseous NH3 at 400-700 °C, following a different mechanism than that for the direct nitrogen doping from TiO2. The surface of the N-doped TiO2 nanofibres can be tuned by facial calcination in air to remove the surface-bonded N species, whereas the core remains N doped. N-Doped TiO2 nanofibres, only after calcination in air, became effective photocatalysts for the decomposition of sulforhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The surface-oxidised surface layer was proven to be very effective for organic molecule adsorption, and the activation of oxygen molecules, whereas the remaining N-doped interior of the fibres strongly absorbed visible light, resulting in the generation of electrons and holes. The N-doped nanofibres were also used as supports of gold nanoparticle (Au NP) photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydroamination of phenylacetylene with aniline. Phenylacetylene was activated on the N-doped surface of the nanofibres and aniline on the Au NPs. The Au NPs adsorbed on N-doped TiO2(B) nanofibres exhibited much better conversion (80 % of phenylacetylene) than when adsorbed on undoped fibres (46 %) at 40 °C and 95 % of the product is the desired imine. The surface N species can prevent the adsorption of O2 that is unfavourable for the hydroamination reaction, and thus, improve the photocatalytic activity. Removal of the surface N species resulted in a sharp decrease of the photocatalytic activity. These photocatalysts are feasible for practical applications, because they can be easily dispersed into solution and separated from a liquid by filtration, sedimentation or centrifugation due to their fibril morphology.

  20. Luminescent properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics a potential blue phosphor for ultra-violet light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weihuan; Zhang, Yuepin Ouyang, Shaoye; Zhang, Zhixiong; Wang, Qian; Xia, Haiping

    2015-01-14

    Eu{sup 2+} doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by melt-quenching technique under a reductive atmosphere. The structure of the glass and glass ceramics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent properties were investigated by transmission, excitation, and emission spectra. The decay time of the Gd{sup 3+} ions at 312 nm excited with 275 nm were also investigated. The results of XRD and TEM indicated the existence of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the transparent glass ceramics. The excitation spectra of Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramics showed an excellent overlap with the main emission region of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Compared with the as-made glass, the emission of glass ceramics is much stronger by a factor of increasing energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions, the energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions was discussed. In addition, the chromaticity coordinates of glass and glass ceramics specimens were also discussed, which indicated that the Eu{sup 2+} doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics may be used as a potential blue-emitting phosphor for UV-LED.

  1. Flower-like N-doped MoS2 for photocatalytic degradation of RhB by visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peitao; Liu, Yonggang; Ye, Weichun; Ma, Ji; Gao, Daqiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic performance and reusability of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers with the specific surface area of 114.2 m2 g‑1 was evaluated by discoloring of RhB under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that the 20 mg fabricated catalyst could completely degrade 50 ml of 30 mg l‑1 RhB in 70 min with excellent recycling and structural stability. The optimized N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers showed a reaction rate constant (k) as high as 0.06928 min‑1 which was 26.4 times that of bare MoS2 nanosheets (k = 0.00262). In addition, it was about seven times that of P25 (k = 0.01) (Hou et al 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 15228). The obtained outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers provides potential applications in water pollution treatment, as well as other related fields.

  2. Photodegradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange over boron-doped g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yan, S C; Li, Z S; Zou, Z G

    2010-03-16

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)) and boron-doped g-C(3)N(4) were prepared by heating melamine and the mixture of melamine and boron oxide, respectively. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectra were used to describe the properties of as-prepared samples. The electron paramagnetic resonance was used to detect the active species for the photodegradation reaction over g-C(3)N(4). The photodegradation mechanisms for two typical dyes, rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO), are proposed based on our comparison experiments. In the g-C(3)N(4) photocatalysis system, the photodegradation of Rh B and MO is attributed to the direct hole oxidation and overall reaction, respectively; however, for the MO photodegradation the reduction process initiated by photogenerated electrons is a major photocatalytic process compared with the oxidation process induced by photogenerated holes. Boron doping for g-C(3)N(4) can promote photodegradation of Rh B because the boron doping improves the dye adsorption and light absorption of catalyst. PMID:20175583

  3. Flower-like N-doped MoS2 for photocatalytic degradation of RhB by visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peitao; Liu, Yonggang; Ye, Weichun; Ma, Ji; Gao, Daqiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic performance and reusability of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers with the specific surface area of 114.2 m(2) g(-1) was evaluated by discoloring of RhB under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that the 20 mg fabricated catalyst could completely degrade 50 ml of 30 mg l(-1) RhB in 70 min with excellent recycling and structural stability. The optimized N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers showed a reaction rate constant (k) as high as 0.06928 min(-1) which was 26.4 times that of bare MoS2 nanosheets (k = 0.00262). In addition, it was about seven times that of P25 (k = 0.01) (Hou et al 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 15228). The obtained outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers provides potential applications in water pollution treatment, as well as other related fields. PMID:27108967

  4. Flower-like N-doped MoS2 for photocatalytic degradation of RhB by visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peitao; Liu, Yonggang; Ye, Weichun; Ma, Ji; Gao, Daqiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic performance and reusability of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers with the specific surface area of 114.2 m2 g-1 was evaluated by discoloring of RhB under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that the 20 mg fabricated catalyst could completely degrade 50 ml of 30 mg l-1 RhB in 70 min with excellent recycling and structural stability. The optimized N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers showed a reaction rate constant (k) as high as 0.06928 min-1 which was 26.4 times that of bare MoS2 nanosheets (k = 0.00262). In addition, it was about seven times that of P25 (k = 0.01) (Hou et al 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 15228). The obtained outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers provides potential applications in water pollution treatment, as well as other related fields.

  5. Carbon implanted waveguides in soda lime glass doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ for visible light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Valiente, R.; Gómez-Salces, S.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rickards, J.; Trejo-Luna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Channel waveguides were fabricated by carbon implantation in soda lime glass samples doped with Er3+ and Yb3+, exhibiting good confinement and both monomode and multimode behaviour at 633 nm. Excitation at near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges were used in order to obtain anti-Stokes (upconversion) and Stokes (downshift) emission in the visible range, respectively. The characteristic green and red bands of Er3+ transitions were observed, showing the potential of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doping for the generation of visible guided emission under NIR excitation.

  6. Study of synergistic effect of Sc and C co-doping on the enhancement of visible light photo-catalytic activity of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Lei, Juying; Iqbal, Waheed; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    Scandium and carbon co-doped TiO2 catalyst was prepared through a simple sol-gel synthesis method by using scandium nitrate as scandium dopant precursor, glucose as carbon precursor and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as titanium precursor and calcined them at 450 °C for 3 h. The characterizations of the prepared samples were accomplished through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The X-ray diffraction results of the samples showed the decrease in the crystal size of the sample with the subsequent increase in the specific surface area as shown by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy displayed the blue shift in the absorption together with the photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed the decrease in the recombination of electrons and holes by the addition of the scandium and then after the certain optimum value, the further increase of the scandium further increased the recombination of electrons and holes. The photo-catalytic activity of the samples was investigated with the help of photo-catalytic degradation of Acid orange 7 under visible light irradiation. The degradation of Acid orange 7 was highly increased for the Sc and C co-doped samples compared to the single C doped sample. And the sample 0.2 Sc/C-TiO2 had the maximum increase. The enhanced photo-catalytic performance was due the decrease of the crystal size, increase of the surface area, increase in the surface hydroxyl groups, and increase of the lifetime of the electrons and holes because of the synergistic effect of the Sc and C co-doping in TiO2.

  7. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-07-01

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu2+ ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu2+ introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu2+-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu2+ may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu2+. A further increase in the Cu2+ concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu2+. The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu2+ doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room

  8. Carbon-nanotube-assisted nanoepitaxy of Si-doped GaN for improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ah Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Gun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun; Hong, Chang-Hee; Jong Kim, Myung; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as nanomasks on an undoped GaN template, a significant biaxial stress relaxation was achieved in the subsequently-grown Si-doped n-GaN layer. Enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission intensity, similar free carrier concentrations, and the reduced peak width of the asymmetric (102) crystallographic plane all confirmed the suppression of threading dislocations due to the nanoepitaxial growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) revealed improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on this n-GaN layer. Furthermore, enhanced light output power and a remarkable reduction in efficiency droop were observed for the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially at higher injection currents. Our results emphasize the strong potential for SWCNTs as nanomasks in the heteroepitaxy of GaN-based devices without the exploitation of complicated lithography or etching processes.

  9. Effect of carbon doping on the mesoporous structure of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and its solar-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of NOx.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Wingkei; Lee, Shuncheng; Zhang, Lizhi; Li, Guisheng; Yu, Jimmy C

    2008-04-01

    Effective mesoporous nanocrystalline C-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts were synthesized through a direct solution-phase carbonization using titanium tetrachloride and diethanolamine as precursors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that oxygen sites in the TiO(2) lattice were substituted by carbon atoms and formed a C-Ti-O-C structure. The absorption region of the as-prepared TiO(2) was extended to the visible light region in view of the substitution for oxygen sites by carbon atoms. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were tested in a flow system on the degradation of NO at typical indoor air levels under simulated solar-light irradiation. The samples showed a more effective removal efficiency than commercial photocatalyst (P25) on the degradation of the common indoor pollutant NO. The parameters significantly affecting the mesoporous structure and removal efficiency on indoor air were also investigated. PMID:18290683

  10. Carbon-nanotube-assisted nanoepitaxy of Si-doped GaN for improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah Hyun; Chandramohan, S; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Gun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun; Hong, Chang-Hee; Kim, Myung Jong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as nanomasks on an undoped GaN template, a significant biaxial stress relaxation was achieved in the subsequently-grown Si-doped n-GaN layer. Enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission intensity, similar free carrier concentrations, and the reduced peak width of the asymmetric (102) crystallographic plane all confirmed the suppression of threading dislocations due to the nanoepitaxial growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) revealed improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on this n-GaN layer. Furthermore, enhanced light output power and a remarkable reduction in efficiency droop were observed for the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially at higher injection currents. Our results emphasize the strong potential for SWCNTs as nanomasks in the heteroepitaxy of GaN-based devices without the exploitation of complicated lithography or etching processes.

  11. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Zhou, Qixing

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O). Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit, the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution. Moreover, due to the photochemical properties, Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light. In addition, shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution, which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction, but also set the stage for Fe reduction. According to the experimental results, we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction. PMID:22893958

  12. Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhifeng; Wei, Wei; Mao, Danjun; Chen, Cheng; Shi, Yunfei; Lv, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jimin

    2015-01-14

    Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres (Ag-N-TiO2-YSM) were prepared by employing acetic acid as the hollowing controller and triethanolamine as the N source for the first time. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were uniformly deposited by a simple in situ photo-reduction method, which can prevent the aggregation of Ag NPs. The efficiency of the as-prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B and ciprofloxacin under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicate that N-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation because of N doping and the unique yolk-shell structure. In addition, Ag-N-TiO2-YSM shows enhanced activity compared with N-TiO2-YSM due to the SPR absorption of silver NPs and the fast generation, separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers. Moreover, the Ag contents can affect the photocatalytic activity of the Ag-N-TiO2-YSM composite. A suitable amount of Ag deposition gives the highest photocatalytic activity. A higher loading does not improve the photocatalytic activity of N-TiO2-YSM further. The active species generated in the photocatalytic system were also investigated. Based on our experimental results, a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. The strategy presented here gives a promising route towards the development of delicate metal@hollow semiconductor composites for many applications in photocatalysis.

  13. Visible light absorption in La, Cr co-doped SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 for ferroelectric photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comes, Ryan; McBriarty, Martin; Ong, Phuong-Vu; Heald, Steve; Carroll, Gerard; Gamelin, Daniel; Freedy, Keren; Smolin, Sergey; Baxter, Jason; Kaspar, Tiffany; Bowden, Mark; Sushko, Peter; Chambers, Scott

    Ferroelectric materials offer intriguing possibilities as photovoltaic materials, as their built-in electric field is ideal for separation of optically-excited electron-hole pairs without the need for a p-n junction. However, the majority of ferroelectrics suffer from a wide optical band gap outside the visible range. By co-doping La and Cr into epitaxial SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 (SLTCO/BLTCO) thin films, we show that absorption in the visible light regime can be achieved with a band gap of ~2.3 eV while preserving ideal stoichiometry. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoconductivity and ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance measurements, we show that visible light excitation of Cr 3d valence electrons into the Ti 3d conduction band produces optical carriers. Using piezoresponse force microscopy and polarized x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, we measure the ferroelectric polarization of the doped BLTCO films. These results are compared to density functional theory models to understand the optical and structural properties of the materials.

  14. Study on blue organic light-emitting diodes doped with 4,4'-bis (9-ethyl-3carbazovinylene)-1,1'-biphenyl in various host materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qianqian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Zhang, Dong; Li, Wenlian; Zheng, Wanquan

    2016-05-01

    We have fabricated efficient blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with 4,4‧-bis (9-ethyl-3carbazovinylene)-1,1‧-biphenyl(BCzVBi) as the fluorescent emitter doped into 4,4‧-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl(CBP) and 1,3,5-Tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi), respectively, and the results show that luminance and luminous efficiency are greatly enhanced in the doped devices. Particularly, the optimized blue CBP-host device with a well-designed structure has a significantly higher luminous efficiency of 4.45 cd/A. The energy level structure of the BCzVBi molecules is obtained, which yields useful information on the light emission processes. We carry out a spectroscopic analysis based on Gaussian multi-peak fit for the electroluminescence (EL) emission spectra and present a theoretical explanation of the energy transfer mechanism in the host-guest system. These are expected to provide an effective strategy in enhancing high-efficiency blue OLEDs.

  15. White light upconversion in Yb-sensitized (Tm, Ho)-doped KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystals: the effect of Eu incorporation.

    PubMed

    Barrera, E W; Pujol, M C; Carvajal, J J; Mateos, X; Solé, Rosa; Massons, J; Speghini, A; Bettinelli, M; Cascales, C; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2014-01-28

    Monoclinic Yb-sensitized (Tm, Ho)-doped KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystals of ~100 nm size have been synthesized by the modified Pechini sol-gel method. Their diode laser near-infrared (~980 nm) excited upconversion emission properties have been characterized at power densities in the range 30-355 W cm(-2). Bright white light composed of blue ~475 nm, green ~540 nm, and red ~650 nm emissions, corresponding to Tm(3+ 1)G4 → (3)H6, Ho(3+ 5)S2, (5)F4 → (5)I8, and Ho(3+ 5)F5 → (5)I8 electronic transitions, respectively, was generated by adjusting the Yb, Tm, and Ho contents in KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystalline samples. Chromaticity coordinates of the emitted white light can be tuned by modifying the excitation power density. The effect of Tm and Ho on the luminescence dynamics has been described by analyzing the upconverted emission intensity dependence on the excitation power, as well as from Stokes and decay time measurements. The effect on upconversion properties of further codoping with Eu in these (Tm, Ho, Yb)-doped KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystals has also been studied.

  16. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of porous olive-shaped sulfur-doped BiVO4-supported cobalt oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenxuan; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Liu, Yuxi; Au, Chak Tong

    2013-04-01

    Porous S-doped bismuth vanadate with an olive-like morphology and its supported cobalt oxide (y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08, y = 0.1, 0.8, and 1.6) photocatalysts were fabricated using the dodecylamine-assisted alcohol-hydrothermal and incipient wetness impregnation methods, respectively. It is shown that the y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 photocatalysts were single-phase with a monoclinic scheetlite structure, a porous olive-like morphology, a surface area of 8.8-9.2 m2/g, and a bandgap energy of 2.38-2.41 eV. There was the co-presence of surface Bi5+, Bi3+, V5+, V3+, Co3+, and Co2+ species in y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08. The 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 sample performed the best for methylene blue degradation under visible-light illumination. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. We believe that the sulfur and CoOx co-doping, higher oxygen adspecies concentration, and lower bandgap energy were responsible for the excellent visible-light-driven catalytic activity of 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08.

  17. Microbial inactivation kinetics and mechanisms of carbon-doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) under visible light.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Seo, Young-Seok; Oh, Byung-Taek; Cho, Min

    2016-04-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with carbon (C-TiO2) were synthesized by means of sol-gel methods, and the synthesis was verified by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanoparticles' photocatalytic disinfection activity of Listeria monocytogenes was tested under UV and visible light. The observed inactivation levels for 150min of visible light exposure with and without UV cutoff filters were 2.10 and 2.45 log, respectively. We also found that traditional reactive oxygen species had insignificant actions on C-TiO2 photocatalysts and that L. monocytogenes inactivation in the C-TiO2 system under visible light was induced in large part by the midgap states (hmid(+)) that was produced photochemically from the visible light response. C-TiO2 was found to accelerate bacterial inactivation (of L. monocytogenes) in the presence of visible light. Our data suggests that the C-TiO2 may be useful in the development of alternative disinfectants for environmental applications.

  18. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  19. Blue and white light emission in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses upon UV light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    A spectroscopic study based on photoluminescence spectra and decay time profiles in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glasses is reported. The Tm3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, upon 357 nm excitation, exhibits blue emission with CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, x = 0.157 and y = 0.030, and color purity of about 96%. Under excitations at 348, 352 and 363 nm, which match with the emissions of AlGaN and GaN based LEDs, the Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass displays natural white, bluish white and cool white overall emissions, with correlated color temperature values of 4523, 10700 and 7788 K, respectively, depending strongly on the excitation wavelength. The shortening of the Dy3+ emission decay time in presence of Tm3+ suggests that Dy3+→Tm3+ non-radiative energy transfer occurs. By using the Inokuti-Hirayama model, it is inferred that an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction might be the dominant mechanism involved in the energy transfer. The efficiency and probability of this energy transfer are 0.12 and 126.70 s-1, respectively.

  20. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  8. Photoluminescence of Sm doped porous silicon—evidence for light emission through luminescence centers in SiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Zhang, L. Z.; Huang, Y. M.; Zhang, B. R.; Qin, G. G.

    1994-06-01

    After oxidation promoted by gamma-ray irradiation, in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Sm doped porous silicon (PS), there are three sharp peaks, superimposed on a broad band, with wavelengths near to those of the Sm doped SiO2 [R. Morimo, T. Mizushima, and H. Okumura, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2340 (1990)]. The experimental results indicate that Sm-related luminescence centers can be created within the oxide of porous silicon, and only in porous silicon with high porosity can the Sm-related luminescence be found in the SiO2 layer. This experimental result can be explained by the fact that the excitation of electron-hole pairs occurs in nanoscale silicon, and the recombination occurs at the Sm-related luminescence centers in SiO2 layers covering nanoscale silicon.

  9. Effect of ball-milling and Fe-/Al-doping on the structural aspect and visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 towards Escherichia coli bacteria abatement.

    PubMed

    Schlur, Laurent; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Gilliot, Pierre; Gallart, Mathieu; Carré, Gaëlle; Zafeiratos, Spiros; Keller, Nicolas; Keller, Valérie; André, Philippe; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Hezard, Bernard; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Pourroy, Geneviève

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli abatement was studied in liquid phase under visible light in the presence of two commercial titania photocatalysts, and of Fe- and Al-doped titania samples prepared by high energy ball-milling. The two commercial titania photocatalysts, Aeroxide P25 (Evonik industries) exhibiting both rutile and anatase structures and MPT625 (Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha), a Fe-, Al-, P- and S-doped titania exhibiting only the rutile phase, are active suggesting that neither the structure nor the doping is the driving parameter. Although the MPT625 UV-visible spectrum is shifted towards the visible domain with respect to the P25 one, the effect on bacteria is not increased. On the other hand, the ball milled iron-doped P25 samples exhibit low activities in bacteria abatement under visible light due to charge recombinations unfavorable to catalysis as shown by photoluminescence measurements. While doping elements are in interstitial positions within the rutile structure in MPT625 sample, they are located at the surface in ball milled samples and in isolated octahedral units according to (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The location of doping elements at the surface is suggested to be responsible for the sample cytotoxicity observed in the dark.

  10. Facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 at ambient temperature and pressure under UV light with 4-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and its photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Shirasaka, Yutaro; Uchida, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Natsuko; Serpone, Nick

    2016-08-01

    To date syntheses of nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts (TiO2-xNx) have been carried out under high temperatures and high pressures with either NH3 or urea as the nitrogen sources. This article reports for the first time the facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 (P25 titania) in aqueous media at ambient temperature and pressure under inert conditions (Ar- and N2-purged dispersions) with 4-nitrophenol (or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde) as the nitrogen source. The resulting N-doped P25 TiO2 materials were characterized by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) that confirmed the presence of nitrogen within the photocatalyst; X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques confirmed the crystalline phases of the doped material. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was assessed through examining the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous media and iso-propanol as a volatile pollutant under UV/Vis and visible-light irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, undoped P25 was inactive contrary to N-doped P25 that successfully degraded 95% of the 4-chlorophenol (after 10 h) and 23% of iso-propanol (after 2.5 h).

  11. Facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 at ambient temperature and pressure under UV light with 4-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and its photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Shirasaka, Yutaro; Uchida, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Natsuko; Serpone, Nick

    2016-08-01

    To date syntheses of nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts (TiO2-xNx) have been carried out under high temperatures and high pressures with either NH3 or urea as the nitrogen sources. This article reports for the first time the facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 (P25 titania) in aqueous media at ambient temperature and pressure under inert conditions (Ar- and N2-purged dispersions) with 4-nitrophenol (or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde) as the nitrogen source. The resulting N-doped P25 TiO2 materials were characterized by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) that confirmed the presence of nitrogen within the photocatalyst; X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques confirmed the crystalline phases of the doped material. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was assessed through examining the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous media and iso-propanol as a volatile pollutant under UV/Vis and visible-light irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, undoped P25 was inactive contrary to N-doped P25 that successfully degraded 95% of the 4-chlorophenol (after 10 h) and 23% of iso-propanol (after 2.5 h). PMID:27444263

  12. Rare-earth doped gadolinia based phosphors for potential multicolor and white light emitting deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedekar, Vinila; Dutta, Dimple P.; Mohapatra, M.; Godbole, S. V.; Ghildiyal, R.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    Gadolinium oxide host and europium/dysprosium/terbium doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the sonochemical technique. Gadolinium oxide nanocrystals were also co-doped with total 2 mol% of Eu3+/Dy3+,Eu3+/Tb3+,Dy3+/Tb3+, and also Eu3+/Dy3+/Tb3+ ions, by the same method. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The size of the particles ranged from 15 to 30 nm. The triple doped samples showed multicolor emission on single wavelength excitation. The photoluminescence results were correlated with the lifetime data to get an insight into the luminescence and energy transfer processes taking place in the system. On excitation at 247 nm, the novel nanocrystalline Gd2O3:RE (RE = Dy, Tb) phosphor resulted in having very impressive CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.315 and y = 0.316, and a correlated color temperature of 6508 K, which is very close to standard daylight.

  13. White-light luminescence properties of Mg and Sn doped ZnO prepared by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jun; Fan, Huiqing; Xue, Jun; Wang, Yangli

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The PL spectrum of MgSnZnO was measured at room temperature through multi-peak Gaussian fitting, it is found that the broad emission is composed of six peaks. - Highlights: • Mg and Sn doped ZnO are synthesized by thermal oxidation of MgSnZn alloys. • The structure is characterized by XRD and micro-Raman scattering technology. • The optical properties are characterized by photoluminescence spectrum. • The resulting Mg and Sn doped ZnO shows white photoluminescence. - Abstract: This work reports that Mg and Sn doped ZnO (MgSnZnO) are synthesized by thermal oxidation of MgSnZn alloys. The structure and optical properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman scattering technology and photoluminescence spectrum. Interestingly, the resulting MgSnZnO shows white photoluminescence. Additionally, the photoluminescence spectrum of MgSnZnO shows two broad emission bands ranging from 360 to 420 nm and 420 to 630 nm, respectively. Through multi-peak Gaussian fitting, it is found that the broad emission is composed of six Gaussian peaks. The six Gaussian peaks are centrered at 383 nm, 397 nm, 455 nm, 516 nm, 560 nm and 614 nm.

  14. White light generation from Dy{sup 3+}-doped ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Chen, Baojiu; Yi, Soung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Hyun

    2009-07-01

    Dysprosium doped ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (ZBP) glasses were prepared by a conventional melt quenching technique in order to study the luminescent properties and their utility for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. The present glasses were characterized by infrared and Raman spectra to evaluate the vibrational features of the samples. The emission and excitation spectra were reported for the ZBP glasses. Strong blue (484 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission bands were observed upon various excitations. These two emissions correspond to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions of Dy{sup 3+} ions, respectively. Combination of these blue and yellow bands gives white light to the naked eye. First time, it was found that ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses efficiently emit white light under 400 and 454 nm excitations, which are nearly match with the emissions of commercial GaN blue LEDs and InGaN LED, respectively. CIE chromaticity coordinates also calculated for Dy{sup 3+}: ZBP glasses to evaluate the white light emission.

  15. Energy capability enhancement for isolated extended drain NMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidong, Nie; Jin, Wu; Xiaohui, Ma; Zongguang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Isolated extended drain NMOS (EDNMOS) transistors are widely used in power signal processing. The hole current induced by a high electric field can result in a serious reliability problem due to a parasitic NPN effect. By optimizing p-type epitaxial (p-epi) thickness, n-type buried layer (BLN) and nwell doping distribution, the peak electric field is decreased by 30% and the peak hole current is decreased by 60%, which obviously suppress the parasitic NPN effect. Measured I-V characteristics and transmission line pulsing (TLP) results show that the on-state breakdown voltage is increased from 28 to 37 V when 6 V Vgs is applied and the energy capability is improved by about 30%, while the on-state resistance remains unchanged.

  16. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  17. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population.

  18. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population. PMID:24722516

  19. Ce-doped ZnO (Ce(x)Zn(1-x)O) becomes an efficient visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst by co-catalyst (Cu2+) grafting.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Srinivasan; Miyauchi, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    We have fabricated an efficient visible-light-sensitive Cu(2+)-grafted Ce-doped ZnO photocatalyst (Cu(2+)-Ce(x)Zn(1-x)O) by adopting a metal ion doping and co-catalyst modification. Impurity states were formed below the conduction band (CB) edge in Ce(x)Zn(1-x)O, and these impurity states induce the visible-light absorption. Ce(x)Zn(1-x)O without a Cu(2+)-co-catalyst showed negligible visible-light activity due to the low reduction power of electrons in impurity levels. Surprisingly, Cu(2+)-modification over Ce(x)Zn(1-x)O drastically increased its visible-light activity. Excited electrons in impurity states can transfer to the Cu(2+)-ions on the surface and form Cu(2+)/Cu(+) redox couples, which cause the efficient oxygen reduction through a multi-electron reduction process. One of the striking features of the present study is that the metal doped semiconductors which were inactive due to their impurity states become efficient visible-light photocatalysts upon co-catalyst modification. The successful strategy used here for designing a highly active visible-light photocatalyst would provide numerous opportunities to develop an efficient metal-ion based visible-light photocatalyst.

  20. Anisotropies in the Optical ac and dc Conductivities in Lightly Doped La2−xSrxCuO4: The Role of Deep and Shallow Acceptor States

    SciTech Connect

    Gozar, A.; Silva Neto, M.B.; Blumberg, G.; Komiya, S.; Ando, Y.

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the origin of the optical ac and dc conductivity anisotropies observed in the low temperature orthorhombic phase of lightly doped, untwinned La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} single crystals. We show that these anisotropies can be naturally ascribed to the emergence of two odd parity, rotational-symmetry-broken, localized impurity acceptor states, one deeper and one shallower, resulting from the trapping of doped holes by the Coulomb potential provided by the Sr ions. These two lowest-energy, p-wave-like states are split by orthorhombicity and are partially filled with holes. This leaves a unique imprint in the optical ac conductivity, which shows two distinct far-infrared continuum absorption energies corresponding to the photoionization of the deep and shallow acceptor states. Furthermore, we argue that the existence of two independent and orthogonal channels for hopping conductivity, directly associated with the two orthorhombic directions, also quantitatively explains the observed low temperature anisotropies in the dc conductivity.

  1. Low-Temperature Facile Synthesis of Sb-Doped p-Type ZnO Nanodisks and Its Application in Homojunction Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Doo; Biswas, Pranab; Kim, Jong-Woo; Kim, Yun Cheol; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2016-05-25

    This study explores low-temperature solution-process-based seed-layer-free ZnO p-n homojunction light-emitting diode (LED). In order to obtain p-type ZnO nanodisks (NDs), antimony (Sb) was doped into ZnO by using a facile chemical route at 120 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the presence of (SbZn-2VZn) acceptor complex in the Sb-doped ZnO NDs. Using these NDs as freestanding templates, undoped n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs) were epitaxially grown at 95 °C to form ZnO p-n homojunction. The homojunction with a turn-on voltage of 2.5 V was found to be significantly stable up to 100 s under a constant voltage stress of 5 V. A strong orange-red emission was observed by the naked eye under a forward bias of 5 V. The electroluminescence spectra revealed three major peaks at 400, 612, and 742 nm which were attributed to the transitions from Zni to VBM, from Zni to Oi, and from VO to VBM, respectively. The presence of these deep-level defects was confirmed by the photoluminescence of ZnO NRs. This study paves the way for future applications of ZnO homojunction LEDs using low-temperature and low-cost solution processes with the controlled use of native defects. PMID:27160161

  2. Magnetic states of lightly hole-doped cuprates in the clean limit as seen via zero-field muon spin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coneri, F.; Sanna, S.; Zheng, K.; Lord, J.; de Renzi, R.

    2010-03-01

    We have performed extensive zero-field μSR experiments on pure YBa2Cu3O6+y and diluted Y-rare-earth substituted Y0.92Eu0.08Ba2Cu3O6+y and Y0.925Nd0.075Ba2Cu3O6+y at light hole doping. A common magnetic behavior is detected for all the three families, demonstrating negligible effects of the isovalent Y-substituent disorder. Two distinct regimes are identified, separated by a crossover, whose origin is attributed to the concurrent thermal activation of spin and charge degrees of freedom: a thermally activated and a re-entrant antiferromagnetic regime. The peculiar temperature and hole density dependence of the magnetic moment m(h,T) fit a model with a (spin) activation energy for the crossover between the two regimes throughout the entire investigated range. The magnetic moment is suppressed by a simple dilution mechanism both in the re-entrant regime (0≤h≤0.056) and in the so-called cluster spin glass state coexisting with superconductivity (0.056doping regions and dub it frozen antiferromagnet. Conversely either frustration or finite-size effects prevail in the thermally activated antiferromagnetic state, that vanishes at the same concentration where superconductivity emerges, suggesting the presence of a quantum critical point at hc=0.056(2) .

  3. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    SciTech Connect

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-08

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO{sub 2} particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO{sub 2} based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO{sub 2} in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO{sub 2} particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO{sub 2} thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics.

  4. Sol-gel synthesized far-red chromium-doped garnet phosphors for phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes that meet the photomorphogenetic needs of plants.

    PubMed

    Zabiliūtė, Akvilė; Butkutė, Skirmantė; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vitta, Pranciškus; Kareiva, Aivaras

    2014-02-10

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and characterization of far-red garnet phosphors Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (GGG:Cr), Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) (YGG:Cr), Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) (LGG:Cr), and Gd(3)Sc(2)Ga(3)O(12) (GSGG:Cr) doped with different chromium (III) concentration (3, 5, and 8 mol. %). The morphological and luminescence properties of the phosphors annealed at different temperatures (1000°C, 1300°C, 1400°C, and 1500°C) were examined using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and by the measurements of diffuse reflection, PL internal quantum efficiency (QE), and PL decay time. The PLE spectra of the samples were found to peak at around 450 nm depending on the host, and luminescence was observed in the region of 700-760 nm. The QE was found to strongly depend on doping concentration and calcination temperature, and the PL decay exhibited biexponential behavior. The investigated far-red garnet phosphors, in particular GGG:Cr and YGG:Cr, show a potential for use in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes that meet the photomorphogenetic needs of plants. PMID:24663271

  5. Sol-gel synthesized far-red chromium-doped garnet phosphors for phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes that meet the photomorphogenetic needs of plants.

    PubMed

    Zabiliūtė, Akvilė; Butkutė, Skirmantė; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vitta, Pranciškus; Kareiva, Aivaras

    2014-02-10

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and characterization of far-red garnet phosphors Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (GGG:Cr), Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) (YGG:Cr), Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) (LGG:Cr), and Gd(3)Sc(2)Ga(3)O(12) (GSGG:Cr) doped with different chromium (III) concentration (3, 5, and 8 mol. %). The morphological and luminescence properties of the phosphors annealed at different temperatures (1000°C, 1300°C, 1400°C, and 1500°C) were examined using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and by the measurements of diffuse reflection, PL internal quantum efficiency (QE), and PL decay time. The PLE spectra of the samples were found to peak at around 450 nm depending on the host, and luminescence was observed in the region of 700-760 nm. The QE was found to strongly depend on doping concentration and calcination temperature, and the PL decay exhibited biexponential behavior. The investigated far-red garnet phosphors, in particular GGG:Cr and YGG:Cr, show a potential for use in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes that meet the photomorphogenetic needs of plants.

  6. Enhanced visible-light absorption of mesoporous TiO2 by co-doping with transition-metal/nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, John; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Kidder, Michelle; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (IV) oxide, TiO2, has been the object of intense scrutiny for energy applications. TiO2 is inexpensive, non-toxic, and has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to electrolytes. A major drawback preventing the widespread use TiO2 for photolysis is its relatively large band gap of ~3eV. Only light with wavelengths shorter than 400 nm, which is in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, has sufficient energy to be absorbed. Less than 14 percent of the solar irradiation reaching the earth s surface has energy exceeding this band gap. Adding dopants such as transition metals has long been used to reduce the gap and increase photocatalytic activity by accessing the visible part of the solar spectrum. The degree to which the band gap is reduced using transition metals depends in part on the overlap of the d-orbitals of the transition metals with the oxygen p-orbitals. Therefore, doping with anions such as nitrogen to modify the cation-anion orbital overlap is another approach to reduce the gap. Recent studies suggest that using a combination of transition metals and nitrogen as dopants is more effective at introducing intermediate states within the band gap, effectively narrowing it. Here we report the synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres, co-doped with transition metals and nitrogen that exhibit a nearly flat absorbance response across the visible spectrum extending into the near infrared.

  7. Fabrication of cation-doped BaTaO{sub 2}N photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Masanobu; Yamanaka, Yuta; Tomita, Osamu; Abe, Ryu

    2015-10-01

    A series of cation-doped BaTaO{sub 2}N particle was synthesized to control the donor density in the bulk for improving the performance of photoelectrochemical water splitting on porous BaTaO{sub 2}N photoanodes under visible light. Among the dopants (Mo{sup 6+}, W{sup 6+}, Zr{sup 4+}, and Ti{sup 4+}) examined, Mo{sup 6+} cations can be introduced into the Ta{sup 5+} site up to 5 mol. % without producing any impurity phases; the donor density of BaTaO{sub 2}N was indeed increased significantly by introducing higher ratio of Mo{sup 6+} dopant. The porous photoanodes of Mo-doped BaTaO{sub 2}N showed much higher photocurrent than others including undoped one and also exhibited much improved performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} after loaded with cobalt oxide cocatalyst and coupled with Pt counter electrode.

  8. Using an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer to realize high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge; Zhao, Yongbiao; Zhang, Hongmei

    2014-06-28

    By adopting an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer sandwiched between two blue emission layers, high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with reduced efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The optimized devices show a balanced white emission with Internationale de L'Eclairage of (0.41, 0.44) at the luminance of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, and the maximum power efficiency, current efficiency (CE), and external quantum efficiency reach 63.2 lm/W, 59.3 cd/A, and 23.1%, which slightly shift to 53.4 lm/W, 57.1 cd/A, and 22.2% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, showing low efficiency roll-off. Detailed investigations on the recombination zone and the transient electroluminescence (EL) clearly reveal the EL processes of the ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer in WOLEDs.

  9. Synthesis of transition-metal-doped KTiOPO{sub 4} and lanthanide-doped RbTiOAsO{sub 4} isomorphs that absorb visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson M.T.; Phillips, M.L.F.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have substituted aliovalent transition-metal (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co) and lanthanide (Ln = Er) ions that absorb visible light onto the titanium sites of the nonlinear optical materials KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) and RbTiOAsO{sub 4} (RTA). The substitution formally creates a charge deficiency on the Ti site. To compensate for this, the authors have substituted aliovalent counterions on the titanium (Nb), phosphorus (S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, Re) oxygen (F), or potassium (Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb) sites. The resulting new materials expand the KTiOPO{sub 4} structure field for partial replacement of one or more ions. The M and Ln ions alter the optical absorption and second harmonic properties of the materials. The ions reduce the second harmonic intensities of the isomorphs and second harmonic radiation to be phase matched at slightly shorter wavelengths than in the undoped host.

  10. Ectopic ureter draining into the uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bastab; Shridhar, Kartik; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 13-year-old female child with a right-sided duplex system with the upper moiety draining into the uterus. Only one such case has been reported in scientific literature in English, of ectopic ureter draining into the uterus has been reported in literature. The patient was managed with laparoscopic end-to-side ureteroureterostomy into the normal ureter of the lower moiety. PMID:26834415

  11. Cesium doping at C{sub 60}/rubrene heterointerfaces for improving the performance of organic light- and current-generating devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping Lu, Meng-Han; Chu, Yu-Ya; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-01-07

    This study examined the effect of adding cesium (Cs) at C{sub 60}/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. A C{sub 60}/rubrene heterostructure is the basis of a novel organic dual device found to facilitate efficient integration of both electroluminescent and photovoltaic functions. With Cs doping, the interfacial dipole potential was considerably enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C{sub 60} and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. However, the energy-level diagram indicated that a high Cs concentration prevents the formation of photoexcitons. By contrast, adding a small amount of Cs can effectively improve the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices. In particular, the deficiency of the dopants at the heterointerface may benefit the survival of photoexcitons.

  12. Investigation of energy transfer and charge trapping in dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes by magneto-electroluminescence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qiming; Gao, Na; Li, Weijun; Chen, Ping; Li, Feng; Ma, Yuguang

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the energy transfer and charge trapping (CT) in dye-doped organic light-emitting devices by using the magneto-electroluminescence as a tool. An intra-molecular charge-transfer fluorescent material N,N-diphenyl-4-(9-phenylnaphtho-[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)aniline was selected as the guest emitter. The tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum and 1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene were selected as the hosts. Our results demonstrate that as the energy difference between the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)/LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the host and the guest (ΔEHOMO/ΔELUMO) increases, the CT becomes more dominant, and the CT cannot be ignored even when the ΔEHOMO/ΔELUMO is small and the emission spectrum of the host overlaps the absorption spectrum of the guest well.

  13. Near-infrared electroluminescence from light-emitting devices based on Nd-doped TiO2/p+-Si heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Li, Si; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2014-05-01

    We report on near-infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) from the light-emitting devices based on Nd-doped TiO2/p+-Si heterostructures. NIR emissions peaking at ˜910, 1090, and 1370 nm, originated from intra-4f transitions in Nd3+ ions, can be activated by a forward bias voltage as low as ˜5 V. Such NIR EL is triggered by the energy transferred from TiO2 host to Nd3+ ions. It is found that the coexistence of anatase and rutile phases in the TiO2 host enables the device to exhibit pronounced Nd-related EL without concurrent emission from the TiO2 host itself, quite other than the case of existing only anatase phase in TiO2 host. We tentatively suggest that the anatase/rutile interface states play important role in the energy transfer from TiO2 host to Nd3+ ions.

  14. Bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals for white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Qian; Zhang, Huichao; Liao, Chen; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhuo, Ningze; Jiang, Qingsong; Shi, Fenghua; Wang, Haibo

    2014-09-07

    We synthesized bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2} (CIS)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), in which Mn{sup 2+} ions and the CIS core were separated with a ZnS layer, and both Mn{sup 2+} ions and CIS cores could emit simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the epitaxial growth of ZnS shell on the CuInS{sub 2} core, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum indicated that Mn{sup 2+} ions were on the lattice points of ZnS shell. By integrating these bicolor NCs with commercial InGaN-based blue-emitting diodes, tricolor white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 83 were obtained.

  15. Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

  16. Light-induced degradation and metastable-state recovery with reaction kinetics modeling in boron-doped Czochralski silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Min; Chun, Seungju; Bae, Suhyun; Park, Seungeun; Lee, Hae-seok Kim, Donghwan; Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-eun; Kang, Yoonmook

    2014-08-25

    Solar cells fabricated from boron-doped p-type Czochralski silicon suffer from light-induced degradation that can lower the conversion efficiency by up to 10% relative. When solar cells are exposed to temperatures between 100 °C and 200 °C under illumination, regeneration, in which the minority carrier lifetime is gradually recovered, occurs after the initial light-induced degradation. We studied the light-induced degradation and regeneration process using carrier injection within a design chamber and observed open-circuit voltage trends at various sample temperatures. We proposed a cyclic reaction kinetics model to more precisely analyze the degradation and recovery phenomenon. Our model incorporated the reaction paths that were not counted in the original model between the three states (annealed, degradation, and regeneration). We calculated a rate constant for each reaction path based on the proposed model, extracted an activation energy for each reaction using these rate constants at various temperatures, and calculated activation energies of redegradation and the stabilization reaction.

  17. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of magnetic samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide at the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongliang; Lai, Hong; Yao, Shuhua

    2012-08-01

    Preparation of samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide (Sm/MTiO2) coated magnetite (Fe3O4) photocatalysts (Sm/MTiO2/Fe3O4) and their activities under visible light were reported. The catalysts with Sm/MTiO2 shell and a Fe3O4 core were prepared by coating photoactive Sm/MTiO2 onto a magnetic Fe3O4 core through the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OBu)4, TBT) with precursors of Sm(NO3)3 and TBT in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The effect of Sm ion content on the photocatalytic activity was studied. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts under visible light were estimated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB, 50 mg/L) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the prepared photocatalyst was activated by visible light and used as effective catalyst in photooxidation reactions. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of the prepared photocatalyst was also confirmed. Moreover, Sm/MTiO2 was tightly bound to Fe3O4 and could be easily recovered from the medium by a simple magnetic process. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  18. Synthesis of Pt doped Bi2O3/RuO2 photocatalysts for hydrogen production from water splitting using visible light.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S H; Lee, G J; Chen, C Y; Chen, J H; Ma, S H; Horng, T L; Chen, K H; Wu, J J

    2012-07-01

    This study was focused on the preparation of modified bismuth oxide photocatalysts, including Ru and Pt doped Bi2O3, using sonochemically assisted method to enhance their photocatalytic activity. The crystalline phase composition and surface structure of Bi2O3 photocatalysts were examined using SEM, XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, and XPS. Optical characterizations have indicated that the Bi2O3 presents the photoabsorption properties shifting from UV light region into visible light which is approaching towards the edge of 470 nm. According to the experimental results, visible-light-driven photocatalysis for water splitting with the addition of 0.3 M Na2SO3 and 0.03 M H2C2O4 as sacrificing agents demonstrates that Pt/Bi2O3-RuO2 catalyst could increase the amount of hydrogen evolution, which is around 11.6 and 14.5 micromol g(-1) h(-1), respectively. Plausible formation mechanisms of modified bismuth oxide and reaction mechanisms of photocatalytic water splitting have been proposed. PMID:22966683

  19. Strong blue and white photoluminescence emission of BaZrO{sub 3} undoped and lanthanide doped phosphor for light emitting diodes application

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.H.; De la Rosa, E.; Salas, P.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.J.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report the obtained strong broadband blue photoluminescence (PL) emission centered at 427 nm for undoped BaZrO{sub 3} observed after 266 nm excitation of submicron crystals prepared by hydrothermal/calcinations method. This emission is enhanced with the introduction of Tm{sup 3+} ions and is stronger than the characteristic PL blue emission of such lanthanide. The proposed mechanism of relaxation for host lattice emission is based on the presence of oxygen vacancies produced during the synthesis process and the charge compensation due to the difference in the electron valence between dopant and substituted ion in the host. Brilliant white light emission with a color coordinate of (x=0.29, y=0.32) was observed by combining the blue PL emission from the host with the green and red PL emission from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The color coordinate can be tuned by changing the ratio between blue, green and red band by changing the concentration of lanthanides. - Graphical abstract: Strong blue emission from undoped BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor and white light emission by doping with Tb{sup 3+} (green) and Eu{sup 3+} (red) after 266 nm excitation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission from BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission enhanced with Tm{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer White light from BaZrO{sup 3+} phosphor.

  20. Fabrication of bidirectionally doped β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs with enhanced photocatalysis under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyi; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Guo, Sujin

    2013-08-15

    Stable β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs photocatalyst with excellent visible-light-activity is successfully prepared by bidirectional doping. Stake structure of the TiO2-NTs provides a larger specific surface area and makes the contact area between the TiO2-NTs and β-Bi2O3 much larger; The stake structure of TiO2-NTs not only leads to a firmer combination of TiO2-NTs and β-Bi2O3, but also makes them dope one another deeply. The modification of Bi species into TiO2-NTs can form Bi-O-Ti chemical absorption bonds, then a localized impurity level is generated within the band gap. Electrons can be excited and transferred from the Bi(3+) impurity level to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, similar to narrowing the band-gap of TiO2-NTs, resulting in a red shift of the absorption edge and an enhancement in visible-light activity. During annealing, Bi atoms are partially replaced by Ti atoms. The lattice of β-Bi2O3 is compressed around the Ti impurity, making the lattice dislocate and distort. This dislocation and distortion leads to an increase in the β-Bi2O3 valance band (VB), from 2.02 to 2.28 eV. Accordingly, the weak oxidability of β-Bi2O3 is improved, and its photocatalytic ability is further enhanced. Moreover, this lattice dislocation and distortion changes the Bi-O distances, thus remarkably improving the stability of the β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs.

  1. Synergy of metal and nonmetal dopants for visible-light photocatalysis: a case-study of Sn and N co-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yingguang; Chu, Zhenwei; Long, Jinlin; An, Xiaohan; Zhang, Hongwen; Lin, Huaxiang; Zhang, Zizhong; Wang, Xuxu

    2016-04-14

    This paper mainly focuses on the synergistic effect of Sn and N dopants to enhance the photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO2 under visible light or simulated solar light irradiation. The Sn and N co-doped TiO2 (SNT-x) photocatalysts were successfully prepared by the facile sol-gel method and the post-nitridation route in the temperature range of 400-550 °C. All the as-prepared samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and electron spin resonance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. The characterization results reveal that the co-incorporation of Sn and N atoms remarkably modifies the electronic structure of TiO2, which gives rise to a prominent separation of photogenerated charge carriers and more efficient interfacial charge-transfer reactions in a photocatalytic process. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the intensified active oxygen species including hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) and superoxide anion radicals (O2˙(-)) for degradation of organic pollutants. And the result of photocatalytic hydrogen production further confirms the existence of the synergistic effect in the SNT-x samples, because they exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than the sum of N/TiO2 and Sn/TiO2. This work provides a paradigm to consolidate the understanding of the synergistic effect of metal and non-metal co-doped TiO2 in domains of photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry.

  2. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-01

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically.

  3. The effects of ultraviolet-ozone-treated ultra-thin MnO-doped ZnO film as anode buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Kao, Po-Ching; Juang, Yung-Der; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was enhanced by depositing an MnO-doped ZnO film as a buffer layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the α-naphthylphenylbiphenyldiamine hole transport layer. The enhancement mechanism was systematically investigated, and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed the formation of the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film. With this film, the work function increased from 4.8 eV (standard ITO electrode (˜ 10 ±5 Ω/◻ )) to 5.27 eV (UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO deposited on the ITO electrode with 1 wt. % for 1 nm), while the surface roughness of the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film was smoother than that of the ITO electrode. The deposited UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film increased the surface energy and polarity of the ITO surface, as determined from contact angle measurements. Further, results from admittance spectroscopy showed that the inserted UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film increased the capacitance and conductance of the OLEDs. It was also found that the carrier injection increased in the space-charge region when the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO buffer layer was inserted. Moreover, the turn-on voltage of the devices decreased from 3.8 V to 3.2 V, the luminance increased from 7588 cd/m2 to 20 350 cd/m2, and the current efficiency increased from 3.2 cd/A to 5.8 cd/A when a 1 nm-thick UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film with 1 wt. % was inserted as a buffer layer in the OLEDs.

  4. Effect of light on the polarization of a banana-shaped achiral compound doped with a photoactive azobenzene material

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Geetha G.; Prasad, S. Krishna; Hiremath, Uma S.; Yelamaggad, C. V.

    2001-07-01

    We report photoinduced effects on a liquid crystal comprising of bent-core molecules, doped with a photoactive azobenzene compound and exhibiting the recently discovered {open_quotes}banana{close_quotes} B{sub 2} mesophase. The photoisomerization of the azobenzene molecules, brought about by the UV radiation, hardly changes the B{sub 2}-isotropic transition temperatures, but has a significant influence on the spontaneous polarization (Ps) as well as the switching time in the B{sub 2} phase. The efficiency of this opto-polarization effect has been observed to be strongly dependent on the temperature at which the irradiation is carried out. A possible mechanism responsible for the observed phenomenon has been suggested. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Effect of asymmetrical double-pockets and gate-drain underlap on Schottky barrier tunneling FET: Ambipolar conduction vs. high frequency performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Ahmed; Ossaimee, Mahmoud; Zekry, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a proposed structure based on asymmetrical double pockets SB-TFET with gate-drain underlap is presented. 2D extensive modeling and simulation, using Silvaco TCAD, were carried out to study the effect of both underlap length and pockets' doping on the transistor performance. It was found that the underlap from the drain side suppresses the ambipolar conduction and doesn't enhance the high-frequency characteristics. The enhancement of the high-frequency characteristics could be realized by increasing the doping of the drain pocket over the doping of the source pocket. An optimum choice was found which gives the conditions of minimum ambipolar conduction, maximum ON current and maximum cut-off frequency. These enhancements render the device more competitive as a nanometer transistor.

  6. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  7. Urban drain layout optimization using PBIL algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shanshan; Hao, Ying; Qiu, Dongwei; Zhao, Xu

    2008-10-01

    Strengthen the environmental protection is one of the basic national policies in China. The optimization of urban drain layout plays an important role to the protection of water ecosystem and urban environment. The paper puts forward a method to properly locate urban drain using population based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm. The main factors such as regional containing sewage capacity, sewage disposal capacity quantity limit of drains within specific area are considered as constraint conditions. Analytic hierarchy process is used to obtain weight of each factor, and spatial analysis of environmental influencing factors is carried on Based on GIS. Penalty function method is put forward to model the problem and object function is to guarantee economy benefit. The algorithm is applied to the drain layout engineering of Nansha District, Guangzhou City, China. The drain layout obtained though PBIL algorithm excels traditional method and it can protect the urban environment more efficiently and ensure the healthy development of water ecosystem more successfully. The result has also proved that PBIL algorithm is a good method in solving this question because of its robust performance and stability which supplied strong technologic support to the sustainable development of environment.

  8. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  11. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  12. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  13. 14 CFR 125.159 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 125.159 Section 125... Requirements § 125.159 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines, and their fittings, that are located in... Administrator finds that the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  14. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  15. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  20. Magnetically separable {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposites: Fabrication and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    He, Minqiang; Li, Di; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2012-08-15

    Novel visible-light-induced {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite photocatalysts capable of magnetic separation have been synthesized by a facile sol-gel and after-annealing process. The as-obtained core-shell nanocomposite is composed of a central {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core with a strong response to external fields, an interlayer of SiO{sub 2}, and an outer layer of Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. UV-vis spectra analysis indicates that Ce doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge, thus offering increased visible light absorption. We show that such a {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite with appreciated Ce doping amount exhibits much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than bare TiO{sub 2} and undoped {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite toward the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). Moreover, the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite photocatalysts could be easily separated and reused from the treated water under application of an external magnetic field. - Graphical abstract: Novel {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposite photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activity and fast magnetic separability were prepared. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} core/shell composite photocatalysts were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting core/shell composite show high visible light photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocomposite photocatalysts can be easily recycled with excellent durability.

  1. The synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a solvent-thermal process followed by the calcination with thiourea at an optimum heat treatment temperature. Under current experimental conditions, the optimum heat treatment temperature was found at 300°C, which successfully introduced nitrogen and sulfur dopants into the anatase lattice to replace a small portion of oxygen atoms while preserving the geometry of these anatase TiO2 nanocrystals to maintain a high percentage of {001} facets. These nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals demonstrated a largely enhanced light absorption in the whole visible-light range and exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance than both P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high percentage of {001} facets under visible-light illumination. PMID:23095371

  2. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of cerium-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet phosphor for white light-emitting diodes applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Han, Tao; Lang, Tianchun; Tu, Mingjing; Peng, Lingling

    2015-11-01

    Cerium-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet phosphors were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. The crystalline phase, morphology, and photoluminescence properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD results indicate that with an increase of the amount of x (Tb3+), all of the samples have a pure garnet crystal structure without secondary phases. The SEM images reveal that the samples are composed of sphere-like crystallites, which exhibit different degrees of agglomeration. The luminescent properties of Ce ions in )Al5O12∶Ce0.1 have been studied, and it was found that the emission band shifted toward a longer wavelength. The redshift is attributed to the lowering of the 5d energy level centroid of Ce, which can be explained by the nephelauxetic effect and compression effect. These phosphors were coated on blue light-emitting diode (LED) chips to fabricate white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs), and their color-rendering indices, color temperatures, and luminous efficiencies were measured. As a consequence of the addition of Tb, the blue LED pumped )Al5O12∶Ce0.1 phosphors WLEDs showed good optical properties.

  3. Facile synthesis of surface N-doped Bi2O2CO3: Origin of visible light photocatalytic activity and in situ DRIFTS studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Fang; Cao, Kun; Doronkin, Dmitry E; Dong, Fan; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2016-04-15

    Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets were prepared by a facile room temperature chemical method. Due to the high oxygen atom density in {001} facets of Bi2O2CO3, the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) does not only influence the growth of crystalline Bi2O2CO3, but also modifies the surface properties of Bi2O2CO3 through the interaction between CTAB and Bi2O2CO3. Nitrogen from CTAB as dopant interstitially incorporates in the Bi2O2CO3 surface evidenced by both experimental and theoretical investigations. Hence, the formation of localized states from NO bond improves the visible light absorption and charge separation efficiency, which leads to an enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity toward to the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and oxidation of NO. In addition, the photocatalytic NO oxidation over Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets was successfully monitored for the first time using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Both bidentate and monodentate nitrates were identified on the surface of catalysts during the photocatalytic reaction process. The application of this strategy to another relevant bismuth based photocatalyst, BiOCl, demonstrated that surface interstitial N doping could also be achieved in this case. Therefore, our current route seems to be a general option to modify the surface properties of bismuth based photocatalysts.

  4. Novel adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation for removal of gaseous toluene by V-doped TiO2/PU under visible light.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-12-30

    In this study, V was used as a dopant to defect into the TiO2 lattice, leading to formation of Ti(3+) and V(4+) in the lattice. The presence of Ti(3+) and V(4+) introduced into the TiO2 lattice increased the electron-hole pair generation capacity and electron-hole pair separation efficiency of the TiO2, leading to enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst. Porous polyurethane (PU) was used to immobilize the V-doped TiO2 by creating chemical bonds. The use of porous substrate contributed to the increased adsorption ability of the enhanced photocatalyst, as well as expanded its application for the removal of toluene from aerosols. Under dark conditions, the V-TiO2/PU only exhibited adsorption ability for toluene treatment in aerosol. Under visible light conditions, the V-TiO2/PU exhibited high photocatalytic oxidation ability for the removal of toluene in aerosol. The photocatalytic oxidation ability was found to depend on the V to TiO2 ratio. The optimal V content in V/TiO2 for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was determined to be 6 wt%. Even under visible light irradiation, the 6% V-TiO2/PU sample could photocatalytically remove 80% of the toluene in 200-ppmV inlet gas, while 89.3% of the removed amount was mineralized into CO2 and H2O.

  5. Porous immobilized C coated N doped TiO2 containing in-situ generated polyenes for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, N. A.; Nawi, M. A.; Nawawi, W. I.

    2015-10-01

    Carbon coated nitrogen-doped Degussa P25TiO2 (or C,N-P25TiO2) was successfully immobilized on a glass plate using epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as the organic binders. Photo-etching of the fabricated system for 10 h oxidized its PVC binder into polyenes as well as forming a highly porous surface. The band gap energy (Eg) of the photo-etched immobilized photocatalyst system (C,N-P25TiO2/ENR/PVC-10 h) was reduced from 2.91 to 2.86 eV. Its photocatalytic activity was studied via photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under a 45 W visible light fluorescent lamp. C,N-P25TiO2/ENR/PVC-10 h with polyenes performed better than its slurry counterpart under visible light irradiation where the conjugated double bonds acted as photo sensitizers. The immobilized C,N-P25TiO2/ENR/PVC-10 h has excellent reusability and sustainable with an average k value of 0.056 ± 0.011 min-1 and average percent removal of 99.18 ± 0.54%.

  6. Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-01-13

    Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365 nm (3.4 eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240 nm (>5.2 eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

  7. Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2011-02-01

    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source. To accomplish this goal, the region must have a precise complex permittivity that depends on its size as well as on the frequency. The perfect point drain is obtained when the diameter of the perfect drain tends to zero. This interpretation of the perfect point drain is connected well with common concepts of electromagnetic theory, opening up both modeling in computer simulations and experimental verification of setups containing a perfect point drain.

  8. Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yezhou; Liu, Xiong; Wei, Xingmin; Chen, Yueling; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel blue-emitting phosphor Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was reported. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} exhibited excellent thermal and irradiation stability. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was found to possess high color purity. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized Tm{sup 3+} doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors and investigated their photoluminescence properties under the excitation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights. The crystal structure analysis and variation of cell parameters confirm that Tm{sup 3+} ions have been successfully doped in the structure of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} host by occupying the sites of Ca{sup 2+} with the coordination number of 6. The luminescence results suggest that Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} is a good blue-emitting phosphor when excited by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet irradiations. In addition, it is observed that there is nearly no degradation for Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} after undergoing thermal and irradiation treatments. Possible mechanisms for the luminescence processes are proposed on the basis of the discussion of excitation and emission spectra. In particular, the emission color of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} by excitation of 147 and 172 nm irradiations is very close to the standard blue color, suggesting that it could be potentially applied in plasma display panels and mercury-free fluorescence lamps.

  9. Isoelectronic co-doping

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  10. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D. E.; Pelesko, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  11. Waves and null congruences in a draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, David; Dolan, Sam R.

    2016-04-01

    We study wave propagation in a draining bathtub: a black hole analogue in fluid mechanics whose perturbations are governed by a Klein-Gordon equation on an effective Lorentzian geometry. Like the Kerr spacetime, the draining bathtub geometry possesses an (effective) horizon, an ergosphere and null circular orbits. We propose here that a ‘pulse’ disturbance may be used to map out the light-cone of the effective geometry. First, we apply the eikonal approximation to elucidate the link between wavefronts, null geodesic congruences and the Raychaudhuri equation. Next, we solve the wave equation numerically in the time domain using the method of lines. Starting with Gaussian initial data, we demonstrate that a pulse will propagate along a null congruence and thus trace out the light-cone of the effective geometry. Our new results reveal features, such as wavefront intersections, frame-dragging, winding and interference effects, that are closely associated with the presence of null circular orbits and the ergosphere.

  12. Optical energy storage and reemission based weak localization of light and accompanying random lasing action in disordered Nd{sup 3+} doped (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Long; Zhao, Hua; Xu, Caixia; Zhang, Siqi; Zhang, Jingwen

    2014-08-14

    Multi-mode random lasing action and weak localization of light were evidenced and studied in normally transparent but disordered Nd{sup 3+} doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics. Noticeable localized zone and multi-photon process were observed under strong pumping power. A tentative phenomenological physical picture was proposed by taking account of diffusive process, photo-induced scattering, and optical energy storage process as dominant factors in elucidating the weak localization of light observed. Both the decreased transmittance (increased reflectivity) of light and the observed long lasting fading-off phenomenon supported the physical picture proposed by us.

  13. Excellent deep-blue emitting materials based on anthracene derivatives for non-doped organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming; Zheng, Caijun; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Two deep-blue emitting materials 2-tert-butyl-9,10-bis(3,5-diphenylphenyl)anthracene (An-1) and 2-tert-butyl-9,10-bis(3,5-diphenylbiphenyl-4‧-yl)anthracene (An-2) were successfully synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. Both of these compounds have high thermal stabilities and show strong deep-blue emission as solid-state film as well as in n-hexane solution. Two non-doped electroluminescent devices employing An-1 and An-2 as emitting layers were fabricated by vacuum vapor deposition. These devices exhibited highly efficient and stable deep-blue emission with high color purity. The CIE coordinate and maximum EQE of An-1 based device are 4.2% and (0.16, 0.06), respectively. Device based on An-2 achieved a maximum EQE of 4.0% and a CIE coordinate of (0.16, 0.10).

  14. Sol-gel microspheres doped with glycerol: a structural insight in light of forthcoming applications in the polyurethane foam industry.

    PubMed

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Fidalgo, Alexandra; Ilharco, Laura M; Pagliaro, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Porous silica-based microspheres encapsulating aqueous glycerol can be potential curing agents for one-component foams (OCFs). Such agents have the advantage of an enhanced sustainability profile on top of being environmentally friendly materials. A synthetically convenient and scalable sol-gel process was used to make silica and organosilica microspheres doped with aqueous glycerol. These methyl-modified silica microspheres, named "GreenCaps", exhibit remarkable physical and chemical stability. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy at reduced pressure, and cryogenic nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The structure of the materials was also analyzed at the molecular level by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. As expected, the degree of methylation affects the degree of encapsulation and pore structure. Microspheres similarly methylated, however, can differ considerably in surface area and pore size due to the templating effect of glycerol on the organosilica structure. The results of the structure analysis reveal that glycerol is efficiently encapsulated, acts as a template, barely leaches over time, but is released by depressurization. A proper application of these microspheres can later on enhance both the environmental and health profile, as well as the technical performance (curing speed, foam quality, and froth thixotropy) of spray polyurethane foams.

  15. Role of paramagnetic defects in light emission processes in Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunska, N.; Baran, M.; Zhuk, A.; Polishchuk, Yu; Stara, T.; Kladko, V.; Bacherikov, Yu; Venger, Ye; Konstantinova, T.; Khomenkova, L.

    2014-12-01

    Luminescence and structural properties of pure and Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders with different Y content synthesized by co-precipitation of Zr and Y salts were investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) methods. It was found that at constant calcination temperature (700 °С), the increase of Y content stimulates the transformation of crystalline phase from monoclinic through the tetragonal to the cubic one. Generally, room temperature PL emission was found to be similar for the samples with different Y content, demonstrating the same overlapped PL components in visible spectral range under extrinsic excitation. The relative contribution of each PL component was found to be affected by calcination time. In EPR spectra of as-prepared samples no signals were observed. The annealing in N2 or H2 flow results in the appearance of the signal from surface Zr3+ defects. In the latter the signal assigned to F-center also arises. The anti-correlation observed between the PL intensity and the value of the Zr3+ EPR signal allows us to conclude that the Zr3+ center is the center of fast non-radiative recombination. At the same time, interrelation between the intensity of the EPR signal assigned to F-centers and observed PL bands was not found.

  16. Significant visible-light photocatalytic enhancement in Rhodamine B degradation of silver orthophosphate via the hybridization of N-doped graphene and poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Xie, Churu; Gu, Feng Long; Wu, Honghai; Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Organic pollutants as typical water contaminants are potentially harmful to human health. In this study, we suggested that the novel Ag3PO4/N-doped graphene (NG)/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) composites can remove the organic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) from water. This Ag3PO4-based photocatalyst was synthesized via a facile method and subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, PL spectroscopy, and UV-vis DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites is significantly higher than that of pristine Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/NG, and Ag3PO4/P3HT for RhB degradation under visible light irradiation, especially the kinetic constant of Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT is more than 6 times of pristine Ag3PO4. The reactive oxygen species trapping experiments indicate that the degradation of RhB over the Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites mainly results from the holes oxidation and superoxide radical reduction. Besides, Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites exhibit better recyclability and stability than pristine Ag3PO4. Furthermore, the photocatalytic mechanism of Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites for RhB degradation under visible light was proposed as the synergistic effect of irradiated Ag3PO4, P3HT and NG sheets on the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and the enhancement of visible light absorbance.

  17. Eu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} co-doped Ba{sub 9}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} phosphors based on near-UV-excitable LED lights

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoejin; Park, Sangmoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New near-ultraviolet (NUV)-excitable materials composed of Ba{sub 9}Eu{sub m}Mn{sub n}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} (m = 0.01–0.5, n = 0–0.7) were prepared. • High energy-transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} and their energy-transfer mechanism were discussed. • The co-doping of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} in the orthosilicate structure resulted in the emission of white light under NUV LED light. - Abstract: New single-phase and near-ultraviolet (NUV)-excitable materials composed of Ba{sub 9}Eu{sub m}Mn{sub n}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} (m = 0.01–0.5, n = 0–0.7) were prepared via a solid-state reaction in reducing atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained phosphors were examined to index the peak positions. After doping the host structure with Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} emitters, the intense green, white, and orange emission lights that were observed in the photoluminescence spectra under NUV excitation were monitored. The dependence of the luminescent intensity of the Mn{sup 2+} co-doped (n = 0.1–0.7) host lattices on the fixed Eu{sup 2+} content (m = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) is also investigated. Co-doping Mn{sup 2+} into the Eu{sup 2+}-doped host structure enabled a high energy-transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} and their energy-transfer mechanism were discussed. Using these phosphors, the desired CIE values including emissions throughout the green to orange regions of the spectra were achieved. Efficient white-light light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} co-doped phosphors based on NUV-excitable LED lights.

  18. Bandgap tailoring of in-situ nitrogen-doped TiO₂ sputtered films intended for electrophotocatalytic applications under solar light

    SciTech Connect

    Delegan, N.; El Khakani, M. A.; Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P.

    2014-10-21

    We report on a reactive RF-sputtering process permitting the in-situ nitrogen doping of TiO₂ films in order to shift their photoactivity from UV to visible range. By carefully controlling the relative nitrogen-to-argon mass flow rate ratio (within the 0%–25% range) in the sputter deposition chamber, TiO₂:N films were grown with nitrogen contents ranging from 0 to 6.2 at. %, as determined by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A systematic investigation of the crystalline structure of the TiO₂:N films, as a function of their N content, revealed that low N contents (0.2–0.3 at. %) induce crystallization in the rutile phase while higher N contents (≥1.4 at. %) were accompanied with the recovery of the anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ~35 nm. By using both UV-Vis absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, we were able to quantitatively determine the bandgap (E{sub g}) variation of the TiO₂:N films as a function of their N content. Thus, we have demonstrated that the E{sub g} of the TiO₂:N films effectively narrows from 3.2 eV down to a value as low as ~2.3 eV for the optimal N doping concentration of 3.4 at. % (higher N incorporation does not translate into further red shifting of the TiO₂:N films' E{sub g}). The photoactivity of the TiO₂:N films under visible light was confirmed through electro-photocatalytic decomposition of chlortetracycline (CTC, an emerging water pollutant) under standard 1.5AM solar radiation. Thus, CTC degradation efficiencies of up to 98% were achieved with 2 hours process cycles under simulated solar light. Moreover, the electro-photocatalytic performance of the TiO₂:N films is shown to be directly correlated to their optoelectronic properties (namely their bandgap narrowing).

  19. Brain Drain--A Great Historical Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punke, Harold H.

    1969-01-01

    The most fruitful place for a creative person to work is where he has the most helpful equipment, most stimulating associates, and most general satisfaction. Hence, brain power mobility must be fostered, not restricted. Mobility and drain into fertile locations are key elements in the development of world brain power. (Author/AP)

  20. China's Response to the Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broaded, C. Montgomery

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the determinants of international migration by college students and scholars from developing nations and the responses of various governments to the "brain drain." Examines how the Chinese government is using mass media to encourage Chinese students and scholars abroad to "complete their studies and return home." (SV)

  1. The Brain Drain: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chathaparampil, Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Examined are some available statistics on the problem of the brain drain from developing nations to the United States, the result of interviews with seven urban educated Indian students at American universities, and some possible steps that could halt the trend. (Author/CJ)

  2. Fast fabrication of a novel transparent PMMA light scattering materials with high haze by doping with ordinary polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xiong, Ying; Shen, Jiabin; Guo, Shaoyun

    2015-07-13

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) light scattering materials are fabricated by a simple, low-cost approach of melt blending and compression molding. We find that the competing effects of particle diameter versus number concentration of the scattering particles is the controlling factor to tailoring the optical properties of the materials, which is analyzed according to Mie scattering theory. The results show that the transmittance kept decreasing in the PET concentration range 0-10 wt% followed by a constant level in the range 10-20 wt%; however, the transmittance experienced a significant increase in the range 20-35 wt% and plateaued again after PET content exceeded 35 wt%. Therefore, the application of ordinary polymer dopant makes preparing light scattering sheets with high haze but not decreasing transmittance possible.

  3. Grey scale memory in an optically addressed spatial light modulator with a Lu(Pc)2 doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéna, M.; Wu, Z. Y.; L'Her, M.; Pondaven, A.; Cadiou, C.

    1998-02-01

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator with electrolyte bisphtalocyanine of lutetium incorporated in the alignment layer is shown to be capable of memorizing a grey scale image. The relationship between the memorized grey scale and the illumination is shown. The temperature, the concentration of Lu(Pc)2 and the spontaneous polarization of liquid crystals are found to have the effect on the memorization rate.

  4. Generation of White Light from Dysprosium-Doped Strontium Aluminate Phosphor by a Solid-State Reaction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Bisen, D. P.; Brahme, N.; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A single-host lattice, white light-emitting SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure of prepared SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was in a monoclinic phase with space group P21. The chemical composition of the sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was confirmed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy technique. Under ultra-violet excitation, the characteristic emissions of Dy3+ are peaking at 475 nm, 573 nm and 660 nm, originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 →&!nbsp; 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 in the 4f9 configuration of Dy3+ ions. Commission International de I'Eclairage color coordinates of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ are suitable for white light-emitting phosphor. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) values were calculated. Values of CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor increased linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. Thus, the present investigation indicates piezo-electricity was responsible for producing ML in sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor. Decay rates of the exponential decaying period of the ML curves do not change significantly with impact velocity. The photoluminescence and ML results suggest that the synthesized SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was useful for the white light-emitting diodes and stress sensor respectively.

  5. Luminescence study of Eu(3+) doped Li6 Y(BO3 )3 phosphor for solid-state lighting.

    PubMed

    Yawalkar, Mrunal M; Zade, G D; Dabre, K V; Dhoble, S J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, Li6 Y1-x Eux (BO3 )3 phosphor was successfully synthesized using a modified solid-state diffusion method. The Eu(3+) ion concentration was varied at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mol%. The phosphor was characterized for phase purity, morphology, luminescent properties and molecular transmission at room temperature. The XRD pattern suggests a result closely matching the standard JCPDS file (#80-0843). The emission and excitation spectra were followed to discover the luminescence traits. The excitation spectra indicate that the current phosphor can be efficiently excited at 395 nm and at 466 nm (blue light) to give emission at 595 and 614 nm due to the (5) D0  → (7) Fj transition of Eu(3+) ions. Concentration quenching was observed at 0.5 mol% Eu(3+) in the Li6 Y1-x Eux (BO3 )3 host lattice. Strong red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates of phosphor is x = 0.63 and y = 0.36 achieved with dominant red emission at 614 nm the (5) D0  → (7)  F2 electric dipole transition of Eu(3+) ions. The novel Li6 Y1-x Eux (BO3 )3 phosphor may be a suitable red-emitting component for solid-state lighting using double-excited wavelengths, i.e. near-UV at 395 nm and blue light at 466 nm. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattices on properties of p-GaN contact layer and performance of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Al tahtamouni, T. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-04-15

    Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattice (Mg-SL) and Mg-doped AlGaN epilayers have been investigated in the 284 nm deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) as electron blocking layers. It was found that the use of Mg-SL improved the material quality of the p-GaN contact layer, as evidenced in the decreased density of surface pits and improved surface morphology and crystalline quality. The performance of the DUV LEDs fabricated using Mg-SL was significantly improved, as manifested by enhanced light intensity and output power, and reduced turn-on voltage. The improved performance is attributed to the enhanced blocking of electron overflow, and enhanced hole injection.

  7. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by magnetically recoverable nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hamzezadeh-Nakhjavani, Sahar; Tavakoli, Omid; Akhlaghi, Seyed Parham; Salehi, Zeinab; Esmailnejad-Ahranjani, Parvaneh; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of novel nanocomposite particles (NCPs) with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and possessing recovery potential after advanced oxidation process (AOP) is much desired. In this study, pure anatase phase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as three types of NCPs including nitrogen-doped titania (TiO2-N), titania-coated magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2 (FST)), and a novel magnetically recoverable TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst containing nitrogen element (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2-N (FST-N)) were successfully synthesized via a sol-gel process. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was further investigated and compared with each other by degradation of phenol, as a model for the organic pollutants, in deionized (DI) water under visible light irradiation. The TiO2-N (55 ± 1.5%) and FST-N (46 ± 1.5%) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity in terms of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation, while undoped samples were almost inactive under same operating conditions. Moreover, the effects of key operational parameters, the optimum sample calcination temperature, and reusability of FST-N NCPs were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (calcination temperature of 400 °C and near-neutral reaction medium), the obtained results revealed efficient degradation of phenol for FST-N NCPs under visible light irradiation (46 ± 1.5%), high yield magnetic separation and efficient reusability of FST-N NCPs (88.88% of its initial value) over 10 times reuse.

  8. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by magnetically recoverable nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hamzezadeh-Nakhjavani, Sahar; Tavakoli, Omid; Akhlaghi, Seyed Parham; Salehi, Zeinab; Esmailnejad-Ahranjani, Parvaneh; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of novel nanocomposite particles (NCPs) with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and possessing recovery potential after advanced oxidation process (AOP) is much desired. In this study, pure anatase phase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as three types of NCPs including nitrogen-doped titania (TiO2-N), titania-coated magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2 (FST)), and a novel magnetically recoverable TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst containing nitrogen element (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2-N (FST-N)) were successfully synthesized via a sol-gel process. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was further investigated and compared with each other by degradation of phenol, as a model for the organic pollutants, in deionized (DI) water under visible light irradiation. The TiO2-N (55 ± 1.5%) and FST-N (46 ± 1.5%) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity in terms of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation, while undoped samples were almost inactive under same operating conditions. Moreover, the effects of key operational parameters, the optimum sample calcination temperature, and reusability of FST-N NCPs were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (calcination temperature of 400 °C and near-neutral reaction medium), the obtained results revealed efficient degradation of phenol for FST-N NCPs under visible light irradiation (46 ± 1.5%), high yield magnetic separation and efficient reusability of FST-N NCPs (88.88% of its initial value) over 10 times reuse. PMID:26206125

  9. A new technique to study transient conductivity under pulsed monochromatic light in Cr-doped GaAs using acoustoelectric voltage measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1991-01-01

    The transient conductivity of high-resistivity Bridgman-grown Cr-doped GaAs under pulsed monochromatic light is monitored using transverse acoustoelectric voltage (TAV) at 83 K. Keeping the photon flux constant, the height and transient time constant at the TAV are used to calculate the energy dependence of the trap density and its cross section, respectively. Two prominent trap profiles with peak trap densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm eV near the valence and the conduction bands are detected. These traps have very small capture cross sections in the range of 10 to the -23 to 10 to the -21st cm sq. A phenomenon similar to the persistent photoconductivity with transient time constants in excess of a few seconds in high-resistivity GaAs at T = 83 K is also detected using this technique. These long relaxation times are readily explained by the spatial separation of the photo-excited electron-hole pairs and the small capture cross section and large density of trap distribution near the conduction band.

  10. Enhanced Self-Cleaning Properties on Polyester Fabric Under Visible Light Through Single-Step Synthesis of Cuprous Oxide Doped Nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gaminian, Hamdam; Montazer, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, introducing self-cleaning properties on various fabrics under daylight irradiation for automotive and upholstery application is in a central point of research. This can be achieved by application of metal-doped TiO2 nano particles on the textile fabrics. Here, alkali hydrolysis of polyester fabric has been carried out along with synthesis of Cu2 O/TiO2 nanoparticles in a single-step process by using sonochemical technique. CuSO4 .5H2 O was used as a source of copper in the presence of glucose as reducing and stabilizing agent. Moreover, central composite design based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the role of variables (CuSO4 .5H2 O, glucose and pH) and their effects on the self-cleaning properties and weight of the fabric. The self-cleaning property was investigated by degradation of Methylene blue on the surface of the treated fabrics under daylight. Further, the tensile properties, colorimetric measurement, and washing fastness of the treated fabric produced in the optimum conditions were investigated. The morphology of Cu2 O/TiO2 nanoparticles was examined using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The new polyester fabric obtained through in situ synthesis of Cu2 O/TiO2 nanoparticles can be used as a desirable stable fabric with high tensile strength and visible-light self-cleaning properties.

  11. Multicolor and near-infrared electroluminescence from the light-emitting devices with rare-earth doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chen; Gao, Zhifei; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren; Lv, Chunyan

    2015-09-28

    We report on multicolor and near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) from the devices using rare-earth doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}:RE) films as light-emitting layers, which are ascribed to the impact excitation of RE{sup 3+} ions, with the EL onset voltages below 10 V. The devices are in the structure of ITO/TiO{sub 2}:RE/SiO{sub 2}/Si, in which the SiO{sub 2} layer is ∼10 nm thick and RE includes Eu, Er, Tm, Nd, and so on. With sufficiently high positive voltage applied on the ITO electrode, the conduction electrons in Si can tunnel into the conduction band of SiO{sub 2} layer via the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism, gaining the potential energy ∼4 eV higher than the conduction band edge of TiO{sub 2}. Therefore, as the electrons in the SiO{sub 2} layer drift into the TiO{sub 2}:RE layer, they become hot electrons. Such hot electrons impact-excite the RE{sup 3+} ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} host, leading to the characteristic emissions.

  12. Gate control of ferromagnetic insulating phase in lightly-doped La0.875Sr0.125MnO3-δ film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, H.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Liu, Y.; Wu, R. R.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    The electric field effect on the lightly doped La0.875Sr0.125MnO3-δ (LSMO) thin film in electric double-layer transistors was investigated by measuring transport properties of the film under various gate voltages. It was found that the positive gate bias leads to an increase of the charge-orbital ordering (COO) transition temperature and a decrease of the Curie temperature TC, indicating the suppression of ferromagnetic metal (FMM) phases and preference of COO/ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) with the hole depletion by gate bias. Such different electric field effects can be ascribed to the weakening of the ferromagnetic interaction and enhancement of Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion caused by the transformation of JT inactive Mn4+-ions to JT active Mn3+-ions. Moreover, a step-like increase in the high temperature region of the ρ-T curve, which is related to the transition of cooperative JT distortion, was found to develop with increasing the positive bias, indicating that the cooperative JT distorted phase is stabilized by the depletion of holes in LSMO film. These results demonstrate that the modulation of holes via electric field strongly affects the balance between energy gains of different interactions and thus produce different effects on the competing FMI, FMM, and cooperative JT distorted phases in LSMO film.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/fly ash cenospheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaomin; Zhu, Jinglin; Yang, Qing; Xu, Pengpeng; Ge, Jianhua; Guo, Xuetao

    2016-03-01

    A cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/fly ash cenosphere composite (denoted Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres) was successfully synthesized via a two-step approach. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiment showed that the rhodamine B degradation rate with Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres was 1.56 and 1.33 times higher than that with AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres and Ag@AgCl, respectively. The degradation ratio of rhodamine B with Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres was nearly 100% within 120 min under visible light. Analysis of active species indicated that radO2- and h+ dominated the reaction, and radOH participated in the photocatalytic reactions as an active species. A mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation by the Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres was also proposed based on the experimental results.

  14. Electrically pumped Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides for on-chip optical routing at 1.54 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, J. M.; Berencén, Y.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Ferrarese Lupi, F.; Anopchenko, A.; Prtljaga, N.; Rivallin, P.; Tengattini, A.; Colonna, J. P.; Fedeli, J. M.; Pavesi, L.; Garrido, B.

    2013-05-01

    Optoelectronic properties of Er3+-doped slot waveguides electrically driven are presented. The active waveguides have been coupled to a Si photonic circuit for the on-chip distribution of the electroluminescence (EL) signal at 1.54 μm. The Si photonic circuit was composed by an adiabatic taper, a bus waveguide and a grating coupler for vertical light extraction. The EL intensity at 1.54 μm was detected and successfully guided throughout the Si photonic circuit. Different waveguide lengths were studied, finding no dependence between the waveguide length and the EL signal due to the high propagation losses measured. In addition, carrier injection losses have been observed and quantified by means of time-resolved measurements, obtaining variable optical attenuation of the probe signal as a function of the applied voltage in the waveguide electrodes. An electro-optical modulator could be envisaged if taking advantage of the carrier recombination time, as it is much faster than the Er emission lifetime.

  15. Three-dimensional spectrum mapping of bright emission centers: Investigating the brightness-limiting process in Eu-doped GaN red light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Masashi; Koizumi, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2015-08-24

    A pulse-driven emission-spectroscopy mapping technique is used to investigate the bright emission centers in Eu-doped GaN (GaN:Eu) red light emitting diodes (LED). The LEDs are operated in pulse-driven mode, and the emission spectra are acquired for a range of pulse frequencies. This ensemble of emission spectral data yields a three-dimensional mapping that allows the origin of emission lines to be identified by visual inspection. The identification was achieved even for a weak {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 3} transition in conventional photoluminescence measurements. A peculiar split is observed in the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 3} transition for the bright emission center referred to as OMVPE 8. Despite the unique transition at this emission center, the emission efficiencies for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions were identical. This finding indicates that the excitation of the emission centers, rather than the radiative transitions, is the limiting process that determines the GaN:Eu red LED brightness.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of C-doped TiO2 thin films for visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Cong, Longchao; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-03-01

    C-TiO2 thin films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting Tween80 (T80) as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The effect of calcination time on the photocatalytic activity of C-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The XRD results showed that C-TiO2 sample calcined at 400 °C for various times exhibited anatase phase and no other crystal phase was identified. C-TiO2 exhibited a shift in an absorption edge of samples in the visible region than that of conventional or reference TiO2. The XPS results showed an existence of C in the TiO2 catalysts and C might be existed as COTi group. Moreover, the C-TiO2 thin film calcined at 400 °C for 30 min showed the lowest PL intensity due to a decrease in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under UV light irradiation. Also the photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalyst was evaluated by decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the optimum preparations of C-TiO2 thin films were found to be under calcination temperature of 400, calcination time of 30 min, and with preparation 9 layers film.

  17. White light emission and energy transfer in Dy{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped BaLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yaomin; Yi, Shuangping Huang, Jun; Xian, Jieqiang; Zhao, Weiren

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • BaLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7}:Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction. • Eu{sup 3+} compensated the red emission component of the BaLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor. • The observed emission lifetimes indicates the energy transfer from Dy{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}. • BaLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7}:Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} are potential phosphors used in n-UV pumped white LEDs. - Abstract: Tunable full color emissive BaLa{sub 1.75−x}WO{sub 7}:0.25Dy{sup 3+}, xEu{sup 3+} phosphors which peaked at 484 nm (blue), 572 nm (yellow), 593 nm (orange), and 617 nm (red) were synthesized by the traditional solid-state reaction method. The as-synthesized phosphors were characterized by X-ray power diffraction, diffused reflectance spectra, photoluminescence decay curves, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. The photoluminescence excitation spectra range from 200 to 500 nm, including an O{sup 2−}⟶W{sup 6+} charge transfer band and several 4f–4f transition peaks of Dy{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. Co-doping with Eu{sup 3+} compensated the red emission component of the BaLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor. Furthermore, the energy transfer from Dy{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} was confirmed based on the luminescence spectra and decay curves. The intense white light emissions are suggestive exploration for the potential phosphor for optical materials applications used in the ultraviolet excited white light emitting diodes.

  18. Relative light yield and temporal response of a stilbene-doped bibenzyl organic scintillator for neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L. Brickner, N. M.; Daub, B. H.; Kaufman, G. S.; Bibber, K. van; Vujic, J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Phillips, T. W.; Zaitseva, N. P.; Wender, S. A.

    2014-05-21

    The neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) diagnostics used to characterize implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has necessitated the development of novel scintillators that exhibit a rapid temporal response and high light yield. One such material, a bibenzyl-stilbene mixed single-crystal organic scintillator grown in a 99.5:0.5 ratio in solution, has become the standard scintillator used for nTOF diagnostics at NIF. The prompt fluorescence lifetime and relative light yield as a function of proton energy were determined to calibrate this material as a neutron detector. The temporal evolution of the intensity of the prompt fluorescent response was modeled using first-order reaction kinetics and the prompt fluorescence decay constant was determined to be 2.46 ± 0.01 (fit) ± 0.13 (systematic) ns. The relative response of the bibenzyl-stilbene mixed crystal generated by recoiling protons was measured, and results were analyzed using Birks' relation to quantify the non-radiative quenching of excitation energy in the scintillator.

  19. One-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowires in HF/AgNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Fan; Li, Meicheng; Song, Dandan; Yu, Hang; Jiang, Bing; Li, Yingfeng

    2012-12-15

    One-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowire arrays was achieved by etching the silicon wafer in HF/AgNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at room temperature. The lightly doped porous silicon nanowires (pNWs) have circular nanopores on the sidewall, which can emit strong green fluorescence. The surface morphologies of these nanowires could be controlled by simply adjusting the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which influences the distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) along the nanowire axis. A mechanism based on Ag NPs-induced lateral etching of nanowires was proposed to explain the formation of pNWs. The controllable and widely applicable synthesis of pNWs will open their potential application to nanoscale photoluminescence devices. - Graphical abstract: The one-step synthesis of porous silicon nanowire arrays is achieved by chemical etching of the lightly doped p-type Si (100) wafer at room temperature. These nanowires exhibit strong green photoluminescence. SEM, TEM, HRTEM and photoluminescence images of pNWs. The scale bars of SEM, TEM HRTEM and photoluminescence are 10 {mu}m, 20 nm, 10 nm, and 1 {mu}m, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple one-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowire arrays is achieved at RT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Etching process and mechanism are illustrated with etching model from a novel standpoint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-prepared porous silicon nanowire emits strong green fluorescence, proving unique property.

  20. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  1. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T−1), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  2. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  3. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  4. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped white light emitting CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    İlhan, Mustafa; Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan

    2015-03-15

    The undoped and CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} (0.2≤x≤2.0 mol%) phosphors were synthesized at 1100 °C for 12 h by the conventional solid state reaction method. The synthesized CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The PL spectra showed the presence of excitation peaks between 310 and 440 nm due to the 4f–4f transitions of Dy{sup 3+}. The emission of Dy{sup 3+} ions at 353.0 nm excitation was observed at 487.1 nm (blue) and 577.8 nm (yellow) due to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} transitions and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, respectively. The PL analysis results also showed that the emissions increase with the increasing Dy{sup 3+} ion content. The emissions increased with the doping concentration of up to 1 mol%, and above this level decreased due to concentration quenching effect. The CIE chromaticity color coordinates (x,y) of the CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were found to be in the white light region of the chromaticity diagram. - Graphical abstract: Emission spectra at λ{sub ex}=353.0 nm and CIE chromaticity coordinate diagram of CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors. - Highlights: • Pure and CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} was produced by solid state reaction method. • CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor exhibited blue and yellow emissions due to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions. • The CCT value for 1.0 mol% CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} was 5133 K which was located in the cool white daylight region. • Dy{sup 3+} doped CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphor has potential in the production of white LEDs.

  5. Electrical characteristics and optimization of extended-drain MOS transistor with dual-workfunction-gate for mixed-signal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Ki-Ju; Na, Kee-Yeol; Kim, Yeong-Seuk

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the electrical characteristics of high-voltage (HV) extended-drain MOS (EDMOS) field-effect transistor with dual-workfunction-gate (DWFG) to enhance the device performance and device optimization for mixed-signal applications. For n-channel DWFG EDMOS device fabrication, the polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) gate on the source and drain side were doped by p+ and n+ ion implantation, respectively. The DWFG device with shorter p+ poly-Si gate length showed lower on-resistance (RON) characteristics compared to the conventional device. Therefore, the DWFG device with shorter p+ poly-Si gate length is suitable for switching applications. On the other hand, the best improvements in the drain conductance (gds) and intrinsic voltage gain (AV), which is important parameters of analog circuits, were shown in the DWFG device with identical n+ and p+ poly-Si gate length.

  6. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  7. 33 CFR 155.770 - Draining into bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Transfer Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.770 Draining into bilges. No person may intentionally drain oil...

  8. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF GATE, DRAIN CHANNEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF GATE, DRAIN CHANNEL AND BUILDING SHELTERING GATE OPERATING MECHANISM - Norwich Water Power Company, Canal Drain Gate, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Twelfth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  9. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  11. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  12. Cake kidney drained by single ureter.

    PubMed

    Calado, Adriano A; Macedo, Antonio; Srougi, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, with a few more than 20 cases described in the literature. It can be diagnosed at any age range. Normally, drainage is achieved by 2 ureters, and there are only 5 reports in the literature of cake kidney drained by a single ureter. The authors describe one more case of this rare malformation of the urinary tract.

  13. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 was found to be significantly improved when compared with a non-magnetic N-doped TiO2 for the aqueous removal of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity may be related to the presence of ferri...

  14. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGES

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  15. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  16. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  17. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively. PMID:26230525

  18. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  19. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by CeO2 and Fe-doped CeO2 films under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Channei, D; Inceesungvorn, B; Wetchakun, N; Ukritnukun, S; Nattestad, A; Chen, J; Phanichphant, S

    2014-01-01

    Undoped CeO2 and 0.50-5.00 mol% Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation combined with homogeneous/impreganation method, and applied as photocatalyst films prepared by a doctor blade technique. The superior photocatalytic performances of the Fe-doped CeO2 films, compared with undoped CeO2 films, was ascribed mainly to a decrease in band gap energy and an increase in specific surface area of the material. The presence of Fe(3+) as found from XPS analysis, may act as electron acceptor and/or hole donor, facilitating longer lived charge carrier separation in Fe-doped CeO2 films as confirmed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The 1.50 mol% Fe-doped CeO2 film was found to be the optimal iron doping concentration for MO degradation in this study.